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SUMMARY Sr. No Particular I Volume I Concession Agreement ,Schedules and SPV Details for NK
SUMMARY
Sr. No
Particular
I
Volume I
Concession Agreement
,Schedules and SPV
Details for NK Toll Road Limited
2
Volume 2
RFP, Response to
NK Toll Road Limited
Queries and Addendum for
-
-
3
Volume 3
DPR for NK Toll Road Limited

I

I Consultancy Services far the Preparation of Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Repat? for four/six
I
Consultancy Services far the Preparation of Feasibility
Study and Detailed Project Repat? for four/six
ing of Salem to Karur (NH-7) in Tamilnadu
lume 11: Design Report
/ -1-.
May 2005
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LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. L?d. ? -'<-
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TABLE OF CONTENTS OF ROAD FEP AND PAVEMENT . CHAPTER I. DESIGN STANDARDS 1-1 1.1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OF ROAD FEP
AND PAVEMENT
.
CHAPTER I. DESIGN STANDARDS
1-1
1.1
Introduction
1-1
1.2
Capacity Standards
l-1
1.3
Highway and Road Appurtenances
1-2
1.4
Pavement Design
17.
CHAPTER 2. TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS
2-1
2.1
Introduction
2-1
2.2
Permanent Bench Marks
2-1
2.3
HorizontalControl
2-1
2.4
Vertical Control Points
2-2
2.5
DTM Surveys
-2-2
2.6
Base Maps
2-3
2.7
River Bed Profilesand CrossSections
,
CHAPTER 3. HIGHWAY IMPROVEMENT OPTlONSAND DESIGN
3-1
3.1
Introduction
3-1
3.2
Rural Cross Sections
3-1
3.3
UrbanCross-Sections
3-2
3.4
Bypass Candidates
3-5
3.5
Bridge Alignments
3-14
3.6
Geometry of CD Structures
3-15
3.7
Flyover I Underpasses
3-17
3.8
Widening Options
3.17
3.9
HorizontalAlignment Design
3-20
3.10
Vertical Profile
3-22
3.1
1
Intersections
3-24
3-28
3.12
Urban Service Roads
3-29
3.1
3
Rural Service Roads
3.14
CattielPedestrian Crossings
3-30
3.15
Pedestrian Path.
3.30
3.16 Bus Bays And Bus Stops
3-30
3.17 Truck Lay-by & Way Side Ameneties
-3-32
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FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
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for
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four/sixlaning of Salem to KBNr (NH-7) in Tamilnadu
CHAPTER 4. PAVEMENT DESIGN
4-1
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
Introduction
Pavement Design Considerations
Strengthening of Existing Pavement
Design of Pavement for New Carriageway (Additional Two Lanes)
Rigid Pavement Design
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
4-1
4-8
4-10
4-1
1
4-15
4-16
IYoHonal Highways Authority of India FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT PrsperafiondFeasrbrlityStrMy end Def~fiedProject
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PrsperafiondFeasrbrlityStrMy end Def~fiedProject Repofl
lor
V0lume 11: Design Report
fourlsix Ianing of Salom to Kam (NK71 ~nTmilrtedu
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3-1:
3-3
Table 3-2:
3-5
Table 3-3:
Locations of Service Road with Sidewalk Locations
Details of Bypass Candidates
Details of Flyovers
Proposed Widening Scheme
Proposed intersection Improvements
3-17
Table 3-4:
3-18
Table 3-5:
3-25
Table 3-6:
Details of
intersections of Primary
3-26
Table 3-7:
Details of
Intersections of
Secondary Importance
3-28
Table 3-8:
3-28
Table 3-9:
3-29
Table 3-10:
3-30
Table 3-11:
3-30
Table 3-12:
3-31
Table 4-1:
4-4
Table 4-2:
4-7
Table 4-3:
4-8
Table 4-4:
4-9
Table 4-5:
4-9
Table 4-6:
4-10
Table 4-7:
4-12
Table 4-8:
Details of Urban Service Roads
Locations of Rural Service Roads
Locations of Underpasses
Details of Sidewalk
Locations of Bus Bays and Bus Stops
Roughness values along the Corridor
Summary of DCP Results
Locations of Pavement Reconstruction
Adopted Vehicle Damage Factors
Design Traffic Loading in MSA
Overlay Thickness for Existing Carriageway
Design Thickness for 50 & I00 MSA traffic
Economic Indicator Summary for Pavement Alternatives
Required Layer Thicknesses for New and old Pavement
Pavement Composition for Service Road
Pavement Composition at minor Intersections
4-13
Table 4-9:
4-14
Table 4-10:
4-14
Table 4-11:
4-15
National Highways Authority of India FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT Prepamtion of Feasibility Study and Detailed
National Highways Authority of India
FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
Prepamtion of
Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report
for
four/six laning of Salem to Kamr (NH-7) in Temilnadu
Volume II: Design Report
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3-1:
Typical Cross Section for Left Hand Side Widening in Rural Area
3-3
Figure 3-2:
Typical Cross Section for
Concentric Widening with 1.5m Median in
Rural Area
Typical Cross Section for Right Hand Side Widening in Rural Area
3-4
Figure 3-3:
34
Figure 3-4:
Typical Cross Section for Urban Concentric Widening with 7rn Service Road
3-4
Figure 3-5:
3-4
Figure 3-6:
on Both Side & 1.5rn Median
Typical Cross Section for Concentric Widening without service roads in
small built-up areas
Typical Cross Section for Embankmentat Cauvery Bridge Approach
Cauvery River Bridge.
Thrumanirnuthar River
Minor Bridges (RCC T-girder type)
Minor Bridges & Culverts in Rural Area
For Minor Bridges & Culverts in Urban
Proposed ROB Structure
Proposed Straight Flyover Structures
Kilometerwise Pavement Condition along the Project Corridor
3-14
Figure 3-7:
3-15
Figure 3-8:
3-15
Figure 3-9:
-3-16
Figure 3-10:
3-16
Figure 3-11:
3-16
Figure 3-12:
3-16
Figure 3-13:
3-17
Figure 4-1:
4-3
Figure4-2:
KilometerwiseAverage Roughness(IRI) values along the Project Corridor 44
Figure4-3:
4-5
Figure4-4:
Characteristic Detections HomogeneousSection
Pavement Composition along the corridor (main carriageway)
Chainage (km)
4-6
National HighwaysAuthority of India FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT Preparetion of Feasibility Study end Defeiled Prvlect
National HighwaysAuthority of India
FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
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fwrm laning of Selern to Kamr (Nu-7) in Tamilnadu
for
Volume II: Design Report
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IGN 01
F STRU
--
-
CHAPTER I. DESIGN STANDARDS
1-1
1.1 Introduction
1-1
1.2 Durability & Maintenance Considerations for New Structures
1-2
1.3 Geotechnical Engineering
1-3
1.4 Drainage
1-6
CHAPTER 2. HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS
2-1
2.1
Introduction
2-1
2.2
Collection of Dab and Design Assumptions
2-1
2.3
Hydrology
and Hydraulicsof the Cross - Drainage Structures
2-2
2.4
Drainage
2-7
CHAPTER 3. GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT
3-1
3.1
Introduction
3-1
3.2 Field and Laboratory Investigations
3-1
3.3 General Geology of Area
3-6
3.4 Ground Water Table
3-7
3.5
Seismicity, of Area
3-7
3.6
Site-Specific Subsurface Conditions
-3-8
3.7
Assessment of Engineering Properties of Soil & Rock
3-10
3.8
EngineeringDesign & Analysis
3-15
3.9 LiquefactionAnalysis
3-24
3.10 Road Pavement Boring
3-24
3.11 Condition of Existing Embankment Slope
3-25
CHAPTER 4- DETAILED DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
4-1
4.1 Introduction
4-1
4.2 Inventory and Condition Suwey of Existing Structures
,
4-l
4.3 General Condition of Existing Structures
4-3
4.4 Proposed Recommendations of Structures
4-6
4.5 Important Recommendationsfor Bridges & Other CD Structures
; 4-7
4.6 Rehabilitation Scheme for Existing CD Structures
4-10
4.7 Material Properties
4 3
4.8 Loads & Load Combinations
4.9 Design of CD Structures
4.10 List of Drawing Submitted in Part II of Volume IX: DrawtBj$'af,CD
Structhi
.
.

-. 1

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National Highways Authority of India
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fourlstx Ianing of Salem to Karur (NH-7) in Tamilnadu
for
Volume II: Design Report
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1:
Values of Runoff Coefficient
2-3
Table 2-2:
Values
of Areal Reduction Factor
2-4
Table 2-3:
Summary of Hydrologicaland Hydraulic Study
2-6
Table 24:
Additional Balancing Culverts Proposed
Sub-Soil Investigation Plan
Boring Termination Criteria
BIS Codes Used in Field Exploration Works
BIS Codes Followed in LaboratoryTests
2-9
Table 3-1:
3-2
Table 3-2:
3-4
Table 3-3:
3-5
Table 34:
3-6
Table 3-5:
Table 3-6:
Table 3-7:
Table 3-8:
Summary of Anticipated Subsoil Conditions for Flyovers1Major &
Minor BridgeslROBlUnderpasses
Typical Rock Mass Rating (RMR) For Rock
Range of Engineering Properties of Sub-soill Rock
Summary of Global Stability and Settlement Analysis
3-9
3-11
3-12
3-17
Table 3-9:
Summary of
Allowable Bearing Capacity of Foundation
3-21
Table 4-1:
4-2
Table 4-2:
4-2
Table 4-3:
4-3
Table 4-4:
4-3
Table 4-5:
4-3
Table 4-6:
4-7
Table 4-7:
Structural type details
Details of Existing Major Bridges
Details of Existing Minor Bridges
Details of Existing Slab Culverts
Details of Existing Culverts
List of existing structures affected due to the bypass
List of new structures proposed in the project corridor:
4-7
Table 4-8:
Recommendation on Major Structures of the project corridor
Recommendation on Minor Structures of the project corridor
Values of "7for Various Thickness of Surfacing (Refer Clause 6.9)
4-10
Table 4-9:
4-tO
Table 4-10:
4-16
VOLUME 11: DESIGN REPORT
VOLUME 11: DESIGN REPORT
% @ To'rl CO'L, - PART I: DESlGAl OF ROAD FEATURES AND PAVEMENT
%
@
To'rl
CO'L,
-
PART I: DESlGAl OF ROAD FEATURES
AND PAVEMENT
Chapter I. Design Standards 1.1 INTRODUCTION Formulation of series of design standards is required for
Chapter I.
Design Standards
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Formulation of series of design standards is required for applying them during highway design in
order to avoid any inconsistency in design from one section to the other and provide desirable
level of service and safety. These standards have been formulated from a review of current
standards given in IRC codes, guidelines and special publications besides MOST circulars as
applicable to National Highways as specified in TOR. Where the said standards are silent the
following standards shall be referred and the one considered the best and relevant adopted:
American Association of State Highway and Transport Officials (AASHTO) standards
British Standards
Any other National or International Standard as considered suitable.
The Design Standards adopted for the project has been presented in tables that follow in this
chapter.
1.2 CAPACITY STANDARDS
Main reference for the determination of standard capacities for roads in India is Indian Road
Congress's code (IRC:64-1990). The following Table summarises the capacity standards and
design service volumes for various categories of roads in plain areas for the peak hour traffic in
the range of 8-10% design service level corresponding to LoS 6 with the curvature of the road
being low (0-50 degrees per Km).
I
Capacity
Type
4-lane (dualcarriageway)
Design Senrice Volume
PCUslday
PCUsIday
1.5m hard shoulders
1.5m earth shoulders
40000
80000
35000
70000
2-lane
1.5m hard shoulders
1.5m earth shoulders
17250
34500
15000
30000
However considering the possibility of different peak hour traffic it is felt prudent to establish road
capacity and design service volume standards for the peak hour flow range of 5% to lo%, as
being summarized through estimation on pro-rata basis in the following Tables.
Four Lane, Dual Carriageway
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-
four/sm lsning of Salem to Karur (NK7)m Tamilnadu
A
-
1.3
HIGHWAY AND ROAD APPURTENANCES
1.3.1
Geometric Design Standards
Geometric Design Standards have been largely extracted from IRC 73-1980 for design speed of
100 Kmph is given in a table at the end. Since IRC standards do not specify standards for
median widths, raised or sunk median, shyness strips etc., these have been recommended as
per MOST circulars.
The normal width of medians will be 4.5m in rural areas while in urban sections it will be reduced
tol.5m or even 0.6 m (single New Jersey type barrier) depending upon land constraints.
IRC Geometric Design Standards for Rural Highways, IRC:73-1980, suggests that the length of
the transition curve should be the larger of the two values arrived at on the basis of the following
criteria:
Rate of
change of centrifugal acceleration and
i)
Rate of change of super elevation (not steeper than 1 in 150)
ii)
The values given in the IRC Geometric Design Standards for Rural Highways are obtained from
the criterion of rate of change of centrifugal acceleration, with a pavement width of 7.00m as the
rate of change in super elevation (1 in 150) is not the governing criterion for the same width.
However, for a pavement width of 8.75m (from the edge of the median edge to the edge of the
paved shoulder) as is the case for the Project Corridor, the transition length computed on the
basis of the rate of change of superelevation of 1 in 150 governs for curves of radii greater than
500m. Accordingly this criterion has been adopted for curves of radii more than 500 m. The
transition lengths so obtained for various radii are presented in table below.
Transition Length for Design speed of I00 kmth
1
Radius
Transition Length
Radius
Transition Length
(m)
!m!
(m)
(ml
360
120
1000
60
1200
1
50
500
95
1500
40
600
90
1800
35
700
85
2000
Not required
800
-
75
-
900
-
65
-
The available standards for vertical profile do not specify the minimum distance between two
F
PVl's. However a distance of minimum 150m shall be followed. This distance may be reduced to
8Om for existing widened cardageway in case the profile correction becomes excessive.
F
1.3.2
At Grade intersections
C1
*
-
Design standards for at-grade intersec!ions
have been fixed
in accordance to IRC Special
F
Publication41 'Guidelines for the Design of Atgrade IntersectkmsJnRural and -reas' and
the MOST Type Designs for lnCsedions on National Highways.'bhhe dd&$
elei~~ntsnd
r
L
" ij-2
A
i
.
.-it
,
,; , . j;", "
,IL-
-- J
\.
m
"
fz
National Highways Authority of India FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT Preparation of Feasibility Study and Detailed
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covered in the said publications the AASHTO's Green Book on Geometric Design has been
followed. The acceleration lane and deceleration lengths at intersections, length of storage lane
for right tuming traffic, minimum and maximum radius for left tuming lane, rate of taper and other
details have been provided in a separate heading in the table provided for design standards.
1.3.3 Grade Separated Intersections
IRC: 92 - 1985, which gives guidelines for the design of interchanges, IRC: 62-1976, Guidelines
for Control of Access on Highways and AASHTO's publication 'A Policy on Geometric Design of
Highways and Streets' shall be followed for the design. The detailed design standards adopted in
this regard is given in the table at the end.
1.3.4 Surface Drainage
An effective drainage system shall be planned for the drainage of roadway including medians, toll
plazas, way side amenities such as rest areas, truck parking areas and bus stops. The following
types of drains shall be provided for surface drainage of roadway and ROW.
I. Longitudinal linedlunlined drains near the ROW boundary with outlets at crossdrainage
structures in rural sections. The drain size and shape shall be adequate to take design
run off, and prevent soil erosion.
ii.
Two closed pucca drains in urban sections
iii.
Cuts in median at 5m intervals in super-elevated sections with rotation about the centre of
the median.
iv.
Combination of longitudinal drains and chute drains in high embankments of 5m and
above.
7.3.5
Bus Bay
The lay out for Bus Bays shall be in accordance with IRC: 80-1981. Minor modifications may be
made in the layout plan for ROW constraints if any.
1.3.6 Truck Lay-Bys
The truck laybys shalt be designed as per the guidelines of MOST Technical Circular No.
RW134032/5/88 - Doll dated 22.8.88. Minor modifications may be made to suit the site
requirements. The minimum length of the truck layby shall be fixed to 1OOm. A rate of taper of
1:5 shall be maintained in layby.
1.3.7 Toll Plazas
The MOST Guidelines for planning, construction and operation of modem toll plazas on National
Highways shall be followed for the planning and design of toll plazas. The design is aimed at
optimising the speed and efficiency of toll collections. An open system of toll collection is to be
followed on the Project Corridor. Initially the toll collection system+ shall be semiautomatic with
provisions for transforming it to an automatic collection system at2-~erdate.-fh&mbr,of
(u4:i
&
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National Highways A uthority of India FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT Preparation of Feasibility Study and
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FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
Preparation of Feasibility Study and Detailed Project
7) in Tamilnadu
Report for
Volume II: Design Report
service lanes shall be enough to ensure an average queue length of 4 vehicles and an average
service time of 15 seconds and an average waiting time during the peak hour of 60 seconds.
The number of service lanes to be provided initially shall cater to traffic for the first 10 years with
provision for further expansion to take care of traffic after 10 years. There shall be a separate
lane for traffic not required to pay fees. A minimum gradient of 0.05% shall be followed at the
approaches and toll plaza location for drainage requirement. The vertical clearance shall be kept
at 5.5m in normal lanes and 8.5m for oversized vehicles.
1.3.8 Safety Barriers, Pedestrian Guard Rails Pedestrian Facilities
The safety barriers shall be provided at the outer edges of roadways wherever the embankment
height is more than 3m and at major bridge approaches. The pedestrian guardrail and pedestrian
facilities shall be provided at urban areas and major intersections.
1.3.9 Slope Protection
Embankments less than 3m shall be turfed and those above this height will be protected by stone
pitching.
1.3.10 Traffic Control Devices
The road markings and road signs are provided as per relevant IRC codes and MORT&H
specifications as per CA. The lane markings and object markings are in accordance with Clause
- 803 of "MORT&Hn(fourth revision) 2001. The road markings are in accordance with IRC: 35 -
1997 and the median kerb and kerb separator painting is in accordance with Clause 803.3 of
'MORTBH" (fourth revision) 2001. The road signs are in accordance with IRC 67-1977, Code
600 of Addendum to Ministry's technical circular, directives on NH and centrally sponsored
bridge projects 1996 and IRC SP 31. The traffic signboards are painted as per IRC 67-1977 and
the text for sign boards are as per IRC 30-1968.
1.3.11 Access Control
Median opening interval and control of access shall be provided as per IRC 62-1976 Viz. Median
opening shall be provided at 2km interval for U tums wherever intersections are far apart for U
tums and the access interval with service roads in urban and semi urban sections shall be not
less than 750m.
National High wa-ysAuthority of India FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT Prepamtion of ~eazility and Detailed Fmject
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FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
Prepamtion of ~eazility
and Detailed Fmject Repod for
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Tour/sIx tanning of Salem to IN^ (NU-7) in Tamilnadu
1
Item
Standards
9 Horizontal curvature
1
i) Desirable requiring nowerelevation
superelevation
uiring 7% superelevation
I 2000m
( 400m
I 360m
i) Minimumdistance between PVI
For Existing Camageway,a
minimum distance of 80m and for
new carriagewaya minimum
A National Highways A uthority of India FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT for +~ Preparation of
A National Highways A uthority of India
FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
for
+~
Preparation of Feasibility Study and Detailed Project Report
four/six laning of Salem to Kemr (NH-7) in Tamilnadu
Volume II: Design Report
I
S.No.
Item
Standards
I
iii)
Paved Shoulder
-
(
a) Inner
b) Outer
1.2m
iv)
'
Minimum radius
,
v) Maximum superelevation
7%
vi) Gradient

National Nighways Authority of India

FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT Prepamtion of Feasibility Study and Detailed Proiecl Report four/six laning of
FINAL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
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four/six laning of Salem to ~ahr(NH-7) in ~amilhadu .
for
Volume II: Design Report
Local, indigenousspecies suitable
1.4 PAVEMENT DESIGN
The design of Flexible pavement for main carriageway shall be in accordance with IRC 37:2001
for design lane traffic estimated from traffic surveys. Stage construction shall be considered in
pavement design and condition related overlays for strengthening should be proposed. The initial
design of overlays on the existing carriageway shall be in accordance with IRC 81-1997 using
the BBD deflections. The performance period shall be considered to be 20 years. For the design
of rigid pavements PCA method shall be followed. The paving for bus bay and truck layby shall
be with flexible pavement. The details of the Design Standards as adopted are given below.
S. No. I
item
Standards
Main carriageway -Flexlble Pavement Design
1
Design Methodology
IRC 37:2001 is recommended for
main carriageway.
2
Performance period
3
Traffic on Design Lane
Effective Roadbed Soil Resilient
20 years
Shall be judiciously selected after estimation for total design period
Corresponding to 44ay soaked laboratory CBR value as obtained
estigations compacted to 97% MDD.
Paved Shoulders
5
Paved Shoulder Composition
Paved shoulder shall have same thickness and composition as main
carriageway.
Rigid Pavement Design
--
7 Roadbed Soil Resilient Modulus, MR
PCA
Use Dry Lean Concrete (DLC) over wet mix macadam, as the sub-
base for the CC Pavement
8 Sub-base Elastic Modulus ESB
1
9 Loss of Support LS
1.O
10
Overall Standard Deviation
0.39
II
Grade for Pavement Quality Concrete
M 45
12 Grade for Dry Lean Concrete
M 15
13 Drainage Layer composition
WMM
14 Joints
Contmetiofl (Dummy) joim and mlructlonjoints miided.
Expansionjoints are not moornme~.
.-
-
WMM 14 Joints Contmetiofl (Dummy) joim and mlructlonjoints miided. Expansionjoints are not moornme~. .- -
- CHAPTER 2: TOPOGRAPHICSURVEYS
- CHAPTER 2: TOPOGRAPHICSURVEYS
2.1 2.2 2.3
2.1
2.2
2.3

Chapter 2.

Topographic Surveys

INTRODUCTION Topographical survey is the backbone of detailed engineering design. Accuracy of the information collected
INTRODUCTION
Topographical survey is the backbone of detailed engineering design. Accuracy of the
information collected during this survey has direct bearing on almost all the design activities
involved in project preparation. The beginning of topographical surveys is made with collection of
preliminary information of latitude and longitude of the region as well as approximate reduced
level above mean sea from Survey of India maps available in the region. For the purpose of
detailed engineering design, topographical surveys were divided into following activities:
Setting up permanent bench marks and control stations to be used during construction
Establishment of horizontal control to have unique coordinate system of northings and
eastings along the project corridor
Establishment of vertical control to have the elevation coordinate hooked to nearest GTS
stations along the project corridor
Collection of Digital Terrain Model data containing the existing highway, rivers, streams and
other topographical features to form the basis for the new designs;
Preparation of base plans containing the entire natural and man made features like buildings,
fences, walls, utilities, temples and other religious structures etc. that would govern the
finalisation of horizontal alignment.
The following paragraphs describe the methodology adopted in carrying out the above said
activities in details.
PERMANENT BENCH MARKS
Permanent benchmarks of prescribed size 150xl50x450mm with 300mm inside the natural
ground were cast in-situ in MI5 concrete at an interval of 250m along the project corridors. A nail
was fixed in the center of the pillar. These pillars were carefully placed at strategic locations,
which will have least disturbance from the local villagers. Pillars were painted yellow and
numbered with chainage in red. Apart from these, similar type of pillars were also cast in-situ on
both side of shoulders of the existing carriageway at 5 Km intervals for the purpose of
establishing horizontal control with GPS. All these pillars were properly referenced and
documented.
HORIZONTALCONTROL

Horizontal control stations were established at every 5 Km along the corridor using GPS Rapid Static Survey. Leica GPS System 500 was used for the purpose. GPS surveying is differential technique with baselines being "observed" and computed from the reference receiver to the rover receiver. Sites for the reference station and rover stations were chosen for their suitability for GPS observation (noobstruction above 15' cut& angle, no reftectlngsurface musing rnultipath, away from traffic and passer-by, no powerful transmitters as high tension,line, a#ttennas in

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vicinity). The data collected in GPS survey was then transferred in Local Co-ordinate system
using SKI- Pro software of Leica.
The traverse line so established with the GPS, was cross- checked with closed loop traversing
using Isecond Total stations. Traverse loops were then processed in SOFTDESK Survey
module and adjusted using method of least squares and length-weighted distribution.
Substantial amount of discrepancy was observed between GPS coordinates and closed loop
traversing in a loop of approximately 5Km length. Repeated observations were made using both
GPS and Total stations for couple of loops and the closing error was found be in the order of 0.5-
Im in a distance of 5 Km. Magnitude of closing error with GPS varies with each set of
observation, where as there was not much variation in Total station observations. Since the
survey was to be carried out in local coordinates and in view of the varying nature of GPS
observations and available time, it has been decided to use closed loop traverse line in place of
GPS coordinates. Control Stations so established with closed loop traversing were used as a
base line for the Digital Terrain Model Survey. The benchmark pillars established along the
project corridor were also connected during the closed loop traversing.
However, since elevation data obtained by Total Station is not accurate enough to be used, this
data was discarded and elevations obtained by auto level survey (discussed in next section)
were used.
2.4 VERTICAL CONTROL POINTS
The vertical control stations (Bench Marks) along the proposed corridor were established by
closed loop leveling with auto levels. All the pillars constructed at 250111 intervals and the control
stations set up for horizontal Control was used to serve as benchmarks. The GTS benchmark at
the starting of corridor was connected while establishing the vertical control. The benchmark was
located at Salem Collectorate. Loop leveling was carried out from one GTS to another and the
closing was within the permissible limits of 6 d~,where K is distance in Km and the error is in
mm. The permissible error was then distributed using length-weighted distribution to get the
exact elevation of a particular benchmark. The Z coordinate so established from closed loop
leveling was then used in DTM survey in picking up the road cross sections.
2.5 DTM SURVEYS
Using the horizontal and vertical control points established, accurate data in the digital format in
terms of Northing (Y), Easting (X) and Elevation (Z) co-ordinates for all breaks in terrain such as
ridges and ditches was collected perpendicular to the center line at 50 m intervals in tangent
sections and 25-50111 in curve sections using Total Stations. The minimum width of band was
30m on either side of the centerline. However this bandwidth was increased to 75180m on the
inside of curves to account for minor adjustments.
1

All natural and man made features such as buildings, irrigation channels, drainage structures, temples, mosques, trees and utility installations etc. werwcaptW during the su~,S~level -

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on the existing carriageway were captured at five points namely at centertine, mid points of both
lanes of traffic movement and pavement edges at both ends to calculate the profile corrective
courses more realistically. Big trees large girths were captured together with areas of plantation.
Boundaries of Agricultural land area were also surveyed together with paddy field areas etc.
Where existing roads cross the alignment, the survey was extended to a minimum of 100m on
either side of the road centerline and was of sufficient width to allow improvements including at-
grade intersections to be designed.
2.5.1 Quality Assurance
Every effort was made to minimise errors during the field survey. A system of checks was
implemented to ensure the accuracy of all survey information to be gathered, particularly
concerning the horizontal and vertical control points. As a part of quality assurance, primary and
secondary responsibilities were established and instruments checked at regular intervals. DTM
data collection was also based on the loop system with loop closures at every 250m. A precision
of 1: 10000 was adopted in DTM collection. Suitable corrections were applied to coordinates
wherever the error is within the permissible limits and suitable adjustments were made. DTM
survey was repeated wherever the requisite precision was not met.
2.5.2 Data Storage
A spatial co-ordinate system was followed for referencing all data points. Each data point was
referenced by x, y and z co-ordinates, the first
two representing the horizontal locations and the
third elevation. The horizontal co-ordinates were with respect to absolute grid system of
northings and eastings established by Closed Loop Traversing. The elevation datum used was
GTS Bench Mark.
The survey information for DTM was as follows:
Point number
Easting (x)
Northing (y)
Elevation (z)
r
Description.
All the data was stored electronically and downloaded to computer and then backed up on CD
drives.
2.6 BASE MAPS
r
1
I

Base Maps showing the alignment of existing roads, ROW and pertinent topographic features such as buildings, trees, rivers, fences, water-mains, underground and overhead telephone and electricity lines and OFC lines were prepared using the DTM data mllect~~-Sddesk programme was then used to process the raw data and ~p.atg.cq-ordinatefim. -b%ta~.mbed

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from various authorities on underground utilities were overlaid on the layout plans. Base plans
were updated with walk over surveys on the corridors and wherever a feature was not captured,
survey was again done at that location to prepare final base plans.
2.7 RIVER BED PROFILES AND CROSSSECTIONS
In accordance with IRC recommendations for the hydraulic design of bridge and major culverts,
bed stream cross-sections and longitudinal sections were taken depending upon the size of
catchment area. The number of cross sections varied from 3 to 5 and length of longitudinal
section from 300m to 1000m on upstream and downstream of the existing cross-drainage
structure. This has been discussed in detail in part-2 of this report in hydrology and hydraulics
chapter.
structure. This has been discussed in detail in part-2 of this report in hydrology and hydraulics
CHAPTER 3: HIGHWAY IMPROVEMENT m OPnONS AND DESIGN
CHAPTER 3: HIGHWAY IMPROVEMENT
m
OPnONS AND DESIGN
Chapter 3. Hlghway lmprovement Options and Design 3.1 INTRODUCTION Formulation of improvement Proposals is a
Chapter 3.
Hlghway lmprovement Options and
Design
3.1
INTRODUCTION
Formulation of improvement Proposals is a pre-requisite for development of any project facility.
Highway lmprovement options ought to be technically sound, environmental friendly, and
economically most feasible. They not only include formulation of typical cross sections separately
for rural and urban areas depending on
requirementsof capacity augmentation, but also include:
Provision of Service roads for traffic segregation at urban areas;
Provision of wide paved shoulders and sidewalks to segregate non-motorised local traffic/
pedestrian movement;
Identification of urban areas that require BypassesJRe-alignments;
Identification of optimal bridge alignments;
Provision of pedestrianhrehicularunderpasses
Provision of
bus bays and bus shelters
Provision of
way side amenities
Provision of toll plaza
The first step that is required to identify improvement options is to collect information on the
project corridor primarily from engineering surveys and secondarily from various agencies
concerned. Information on past and present traffic, availability of land, condition of CD structures,
potential sources of construction material, environmentally sensitive areas and social hot spots
has been collected. lnformation pertaining to existing urban settlements, present configuration of
intersections, importance of cross road, utility lines, locations of bus stops, truck parking has also
be collected. Close observation of all these parameters coupled with frequent site visits lead to
identification and finalization of improvement options for the project corridor.
The project corridor predominantly traverses through rural areas with intermittent settlements at
close intervals. It bypasses major urban areas of Namakkal, Paramatty, Vellore, and Pugaloor.
There are some intermittent ribbon developments and minor settlements along the project
conidor. These settlements generally have an intersection coupled with residential developments
along the corridor. Such developments are generally more observed between Salem-Namakkal
when compared with Namakkal-Karur section. Baring such developments, the project corridor in
general has a land with of 30-35m with barren lands on either side for most of the length except
for few educational institutions, industries and agricultural lands in rural areas. The ROW along
the Pugaloor bypass is 50-60m. The rural sections of project corridor may not pose any major
concern except for acquiring additional land to make a of 60m as ,ROW as per
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NHAl's recent directive, which may call for acquisition of some structures along the corridor in
rural areas.
The choice available for widening in rural areas are I) Symmetrical widening and ii) Widening
eccentrically. The decision of eccentric widening on either side of the existing road is dependent
upon which side merits preference and the distance of the existing centerline from the ROW
boundaries. The factors influencing the preference are:
Availability of land
Geometric improvement
Utility Lines
Ribbon developments and settlements
Environmentaland Social concerns
However it is preferred to widen the corridor eccentrically wherever site conditions permit to
utilize the existing formation completely and to avoid two longitudinal joints on either side. Also
this would ensure uninterrupted traffic movement during construction. Concentric widening in
rural areas is mostly avoided, except for couple of locations where scattered developments exist
on either side of the corridor. It is proposed to provide pedestrian underpasses at locations of
major educational institutions like engineering colleges and schools adjacent to the project
corridor to avoid pedestrians entering main carriageway.
Accordingly, following typical cross sections have been developed for the project corridor in rural
areas as:
Eccentric Widening on left hand side
Eccentric widening on right hand side
Concentric widening with narrow median at toll plaza
3.3 URBAN CROSSSECTIONS
It has been observed that there is substantial amount of local traffic in terms of two wheelers,
three wheelers and cycles moving in the corridor between two adjacent villages. Substantial
amount of commercial activity and movement of pedestrians has also been observed within
some of the urban settlements. In order to segregate the through traffic from local traffic and to
provide safe passage to slow moving non-motorized vehicles, it is proposed to provide service
roads of adequate width in all the major settlements along the corridor.
It is proposed to provide a narrow median of 1.5m between main carriageways and concentric
widening in all urban settlements to reduce the resistance from villagers during implementation
stage. A width of 7.5 m is generally proposed for service roads for urban areas. In addition to
above, minor urban settlements, where only movement of non-motorisedtraffic andmwement of
pedestrians is obsetved extra width of paved shoulders and sldewalkb,on hth-shs~+. the
*.
carriageway have been proposed.
is obsetved extra width of paved shoulders and sldewalkb,on hth-shs~+. the *. carriageway have been proposed.
is obsetved extra width of paved shoulders and sldewalkb,on hth-shs~+. the *. carriageway have been proposed.
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Accordingly, following typical cross sections have been developed for widening of project corridor
in urban areas:
Concentric Widening with 7.5 m service roads on both sides
Concentric widening without service roads at small built-up areas.
Details of service roads with sidewalks are given below
Table 3-1: Locations of Senrice Road wlth Sldewalk Locations
Chalnage
Length
Width (m)
Direction
Name
From
To
(m)
1
207.688
212.267
4579
7.50
Right
I
1
Salem
208.139
212.267
4127
7.50
Left
227.352
--
228.589
1237
Right
Rasipuram
227.459
228.595
1136
7.50
Left
241.321
242.521
1200
7.50
Right
Budan Sandi
241.422
242.365
942
7.50
Left
1
280.956
282.102
1146
7.00
Right
pogulur
280.956
282.122
I
1166
7.00
LeR
3.3.1 Cross-SectionalElements
Cross sectional elements are based on the design standards and specifications set in the earlier
chapters. The lane width shall be 3.5m, paved shoulder width 1.5m, hard shoulder width Im,
median width 4.5m in rural areas and 1.5m in urban areas and shyness strip 0.25m on both sides
of median in rural areas and in urban areas.
3.3.2 Typical Cross-Sections
Based on foregoing considerations typical cross-sections proposed to be adopted for various
situations are given at Figure 3-1 to Figure 3-5. These are:
Eccentric Widening in rural areas on Left hand side
Eccentric widening in rural areas on right hand side
Concentric widening in rural areas
R Concentric Widening with 1.5m median and 7.0m service roads on both sides
Concentric widening without service roads at small built-up areas
m
Sam
1 1
I
I
I
MwAm
-QDEw
Figure3-1: Typical Cross Section for Left Hand
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I
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Flgurtl33: Typlwl Cross Sectlon lor Concentric Wldenlng wtth 1.Sm Medlan In Rural Area
Flgum 3-Z Typlcal Cross Sectlon for RlgM Hand Slde Widenlng In Rural Area
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Flgure 34. Typkal Cross Sectlon for Urban CownWt Wldenlng wlth 7m Servlce Road on Both SWe 6 1.5m Medlan
ama
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Figure 36: Typical Cross Section for Concentric Widening without service roads in small built-up areas
-'.
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3.4 BYPASS CANDIDATES
The project corridor presently bypasses towns of Namakkal, Paramatty and Pugaloor. There are
several other urban areas and ribbon developments along the corridor as already mentioned in
the previous chapters. Amongst them, Mallur at Km 216, Puduchathiram at km 235, Chellappan
Patti at km 243 and Velur at km 276 require realignments because of continuous and thick ribbon
developments and non-availability of ROW.There are proper buildings very close to the existing
carriageway at these locations. It would not be possible to accommodate four lane cross section
with service roads through these urban areas within the available ROW. Acquisition of land
through these settlements appears to be difficult due to social resistance. Initial appreciation of
these urabn areas revealed that there is enough space to take realignments on east for Mallur,
west for Puduchathiram and east for Budan Chandai & Chellappan Patti and on east for Velur,
while moving towards Karur. Details of these realignments are given below in the table.
Elaborate description of bypass alignments has already been presented in the feasibility stage.
However, gist of the same is presented hereunder.
Table 3-2: Details of Bv~assCandidates
S.No
Km From
Km to
Length (km) 1Side
Name
.
-
-
-
-
-
1
215.900
218.050
2.150
1LHS
Mallur
2
234.600
236.100
1.500
1 RHS
Puduchathiram
3
242.350
244.175
1.825
LHS
1Chellappan Patti
4
274.850
278.625
3.775
LHS
I Velur
3.4.1 Mallur bypass
Mallur town is located almost at the edge of Salem city suburbs. Ribbon developments in the
form of commercial and residential activity at this town start at Km 216.300 and continue up to
Km 217.6. Amongst this length, 200-300m section between Km 216.8-217.1 is the most critical
part with very narrow land width of 15-16m only. Remaining length of project corridor has a land
width of 20-25m, which is much lesser than that is required for a four lane, divided carriageway
with service roads. Mallur town has developed to an extent of 800-1000m on west along the
cross road connecting Village Virapandi and then to NH-47.
Geometry of the project corridor has already been improved just before the Mallur town between
km 215-216. This section of project corridor traverses on the circumference of the big water
tank, which is completely dry for years. Minor adjustments to the geometry were made to reduce
degree of curvature of the reverse curve on the banks of water tank and alignment is taken
through the water body. However, still the project corridor has reverse curvature effect and
needs further geometric improvements at this point.
Three alternative alignments one on the west and one on the east of the town were considered
for Mallur Bypass apart from widening along the existing alignment. Start point of the bypass
alignments is taken from the Mallur tank portion to include the geometric improvements.
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Alignment selection was carried out on the basis of evaluation of various alternative alignments
for each bypass. The evaluation has been done both qualitatively and quantitatively for the
various factors influencing the selection process. These factors can be broadly grouped under
main heads such as geometries, cost, and social and environmental impacts. The qualitative
evaluation rates the alternative as less desirable, desirable, and most desirable against each
factor. The factors considered for qualitative comparison are:
Land availability
Affect on residential/commercialbuildings
Ponds affected
Religious structures affected
Environmental Quality
Similarly quantitative evaluation was done for the following factors:
Route length
Length of agricultural land affected
Length of barren land affected
Number of road crossings
Pucca / Kutcha- commercial /
residential structures affected
Telephone/Electric poles to be shifted
Total Cost
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The alignment alternative with the best rating has manually been selected for adoption.
Road Construction Cost (Millions)
Legend :
0 Less
Desirable
fl Desirable
Most Desirable
It can be noted form the above comparative tables that option3 on the eastern side of existing
road has least number of structures/land getting affected. Further, the proposed railway line
between Salem-Karur is being built just on the side of Mallur village developments on the west. It
would be more congested if bypass alignment is taken on the west. Looking at all of these
parameters, it is felt option4 is the best option for bypassing the Mallur village and hence is
recommended for consideration.
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3.4.2
Puduchathiram
bypass
(Change
the
Colour of Algn in picture)
Puduchathiram is one of the blocks in Narnakkal
district with 21 villages. Puduchathirarn village it self
falls on the project corridor between Krn 234.8-Km
236. Series of ribbon developments mostly
residential coupled with commercial land use were
seen along the project corridor in this village. For a
length of 200-300rn very narrow land width of 15-
20m is only available between building lines, rest of
length has a land width of 25-30m. This village has
developed to the east of the existing road to an
extent of 500-750m.
Three alternative alignments including one on the
east, one on the west and widening along existing alignment has been considered for bypass of
Puduchathirarn village. The following tables indicate the details of different parameters along
each of the alternative.
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Pudhuchathlram Bypass
Opt-I: Along Exlsting Road Opt-ll: Western option
Opt-lll: Eastern
Road ConstructionCost (Millions)
EnvironmentalI Social Cost {Millions)
Total Cost (Millions)
81
- --
134
60
82
-- SL. NO.
DESCRIPTION
OPTION- I
OPTION-I1
OPTION 411
---
0
1
Land availability
2
Residential I commercial buildinas affected
0
1
3
1 Pondstwater bodies Affected
IoI*IeI
0
4
Religious Structures Affected
I
0
0
5
EnvironmentalQuality
Legend
0 Less
Desirable
r Desirable
MostDesirable
It can be noted form the above comparative tables that option-2 on the western side of existing
road has maximum advantages for construction of bypass. Hence it is recommended to follow
the Opt-2 for the bypass of Puduchathiram.
3.4.3 Budan sandabchellappan patti bypass
The name "Budan Sandai" indicates that
" Market on Wednesdayn. As the name
suggests, a big old market yard up to
plinth level construction was seen on the
left (east) on the project corridor. It has
been noted from local enquiries that still
market organized on Wednesday at this
place.
Budan Sandai 81 Chellappan Patti
settlements have been formed between
km 241.500 to Km.244 There is gap of
500-600me in-between two villages,
where developments are sparse. Budan
Sandai village has continuous
developments along with three big
temples on the side of the road, which
will need to be relocated if widening is
taken through. Apart from this several
developments have already taken place along the road going to Sendamangalam on left of the
NH-7 at Km 242. In addition to these developments, new railway line is being constructed just
adjacent to these developmentsat approximate distance of 800m from existing NH-7.
Chellappan Patti village has continuous residential structures between Km
side of existing road at a distance of 1-2m from the existin
alignments including one on the east, one on the west and $l!pment %as
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kur/srx laning of Salem to Karur (NH-71 in Tamilnadu
been considered for bypass of Budan Sandai-Chellappan Patti. The following tables indicate the
details of different parameters along each of the alternative.
EnvironmentallSocialCost (Millions)
1SL. NO. I
DESCRIPTION
I OPTION- I I OPTION -I1 1 OPTION-Ill I
-
-
1 Land availability
0
.
- - -
--
0
- 2
Residential/ commercial buildingsaffected
-
3
Ponds/ water bodies Affected
0
im
1 1 Reliaious Structures Affected
4
l0l.l.P
1 1 Environmental Qualitv
Legend
5
1olml.l
0 Less
Desirable
8 Desirable
Most Desirable
It can be noted form the above comparative tables that option3 on the eastern side of existing
road has maximum advantages for construction of bypass. Hence it is recommended to follow
the Opt-3 for the bypass of Budan Sandai-Chellappan Patti.
Community consultation for the bypass with description of above alternatives to local villagers
was held at high school of Chellappan Patti Village in the month of May 2004. Nearly 300-400
people attended the meeting. Project director & GM, NHAl presided over the meeting and local
village panchayat presidents and chairman of panchayats also attended it. There was a
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alignment of bypass has been modified to bypass only the village of Chellappan Patti. The
changed bypass alignment takes off from Km 242.600 and gets joined with selected alignment
immediately. The village of Budan sandai is provided with a vehicular underpass at Km 242 and
service roads on both sides for serving local traffic.
Client Interaction:
During the presentation to NHAl on 6Ih April 2004, the bypass options selected above were
approved and further it was advised to investigate the possibility of bypassing the urban areas of
Velur at km 276 and Salem urban sprawl between km 207.6-21 1 as adjacent properties in these
areas are very high for a 60m-land width acquisition. Accordingly, possibility of taking up a
bypass for these two urban areas have been investigatedand presented below.
3.4.4 Velur Bypass
Velur urban area lies on the bunds of river Cauvery,
which acts as a district boundary between Namakkal
and Karur. Velur town has substantially developed with
multi-storied buildings on the side of existing NH 7.
Presently, the project corridor has a wide undivided
carriageway of 14-18m within this urban area. A land
width of 35-40m is available between building lines,
which is marginally lower than that required to
accommodate 4-lane cross section with service roads.
However, it would be highly difficult to acquire a land
width of 60m through this urban area as it would
involve destruction of several buildings and would lead
to serious social concerns. It is in this context felt
prudent to consider a bypass for this settlement. Apart from widening the existing option,
following two other alternatives, one on the east and other on the west has been studied for
bypassing Velur town. The following tables indicate the details of different parametersalong each
of the alternative.
Velur
Option4 on Eastern slde
Chainage from
275.2
275.2
275.2
Chainage to
278.4
278.4
278.4
I Lef~gth(m)
- 3200
4854
3083
St~cturesAffected
Residential- - - -
--.
Kutcha
49
2
3
Semi-pucca
112
16
3
Pucca
139
5
1
Commercial
0
Kutcha
79
0
- Semipucca
86
0
2
-
Pucca
-- 0
278
0
Compoundwalls
370.5
0
fv m
-
/*;
-
Kutcha
0
/'T,f~ --+.-A
86 0 2 - Pucca -- 0 278 0 Compoundwalls 370.5 0 fv m - /*;

-1*<-

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fouksix laning of ~alem~toKamr (NH-7) in Tamilnedu
Volume II: Design Report
Bus Shelters
0
0
0
Others
0
0
0
Trees
Road Constn~ctionCost (Millions)
Environmental/Social Cost
(Millions)
Total Cost (Millions)
286
360
86
206
151
100
--
236
574
294
I
442
725
394
SL. NO.
DESCRIPTION
OPTION- I
OPTION -11
OPTION-Ill
I
0
1
Land availability
0
2
Residential 1commercial buildings affected
0
3
Ponds/ water bodies Affected
0
m
4
Religious Structures Affected
0
5
EnvironmentalQuality
Legend
0
Less
Desirable
r Desirable
Most Desirable
It can be noted form the above comparative tables that option-3 on the eastern side of existing
road has maximum advantages for construction of bypass. Hence it is recommended to follow
the Opt-3 for the bypass of Velur.
I
3.4.5
Salem Bypass
F-
h
-
Initial sections of project corridor between Km
207.6-Km 211 have continuous ribbon
h
developments with mainly residential buildings.
Couple of minor industrial units also exists along
n
the corridor. There is an intersection at Km 211.7
with a state highway. Couple of religious
A
-
structures exists close to this intersection on the
roadside. Presently, the project corridor has a 7m
carriageway with 1.5m paved shoulders on either
h
side in this stretch. A land width of 30-35m is
*
-
. L
available in this section between building lines.
Four laning with service roads could be
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accommodated with minor acquisition of land. However, a land width of 60m would call for
destruction of good amount of properties along the corridor. Further, land cost along the existing
road is very high in the initial two km and it reduces as it goes further down. However, Salem
being a major urban area land costs away from the present alignment also high and likely to
further increase once alignment is finalized. On the eastern side of project corridor a big hillock
exists at the starting point of the corridor. Further most of the traffic moving on the project
corridor is likely to take a westerly direction on Salem bypass to go towards Bangalore on north.
Hence, bypass options were considered mainly on western side of the project corridor. In
addition, NH 47 takes off from Salem towards Coimbatore on west of present alignment of
project corridor. Widening of NH 47 is also presently underway as a part of National Highway
Development Program. Efforts were also made to meet the NH 47 from the project corridor with
an option.
The following tables indicate the details of different parameters along each of the alternative
Option1:
Option4:Connection
Salem Bypass
Along
Optlon-2: Western
side up to 206.6
Option-3: Connecting
with NH47
Existing
with NH=I at Rotary of
NH 47
I.
Length in m)
StructuresAffected
Residential
Kutcha
Semi-pucca
Pucca
Commercial
1 Kutcha
Semi-pucca
Pucca
Compound walk
30
0
0
0
52
0
0
2 Medium scale industry
138
0
0
1
800
50
50
650
Environmental8 Social
Cost
Total Cost
313
411
v
462
612
665
/
I ' -.%a *-
!.
;
0
-
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It may be noted that the Base case option-l has service roads apart from four laning and all
bypass options do not have service roads with them. It may be prudent to consider service roads
to bypass options also since they are in close proximity to major urban center, which will increase
their cost further.
Legend
0 Less Desirable
H Desirable
r Most Desirable
It can be noted form the above comparative tables that option-1 widening through existing
alignment has maximum advantages for construction of bypass. Hence it is recommended to
follow the existing alignment Opt-I for Salem sub urban area.
3.5
BRIDGEALIGNMENTS
The project corridor crosses Cauvery River at Km 278 with a bridge of nearly 800m in length and
40 spans. Majority of the spans for the bridge have well foundations. Accordingly it is proposed to
construct new bridge at a distance of 25m away from the centerline of the existing bridge on
eastern side (LHSwhile moving towards Karur) to avoid fouling of deep foundations. Accordingly
typical cross section for construction of approach of new Cauvery bridge at 25m distance from
the existing bridge has been prepared in the following manner.
Figure 3-6: Typical Cross Section for Embankment at Cawery Bridge Approach
Apart from River Cauvery, project corridor also crosses Tiruman Mattar River with a major bridge
and several other streams with minor bridges. All of these bridges are having open foundations
and do not pose any problem to follow the widening options adjoining highway sections.
Consequently, all these bridges were proposed to widen on the side of highway widening in
bridges
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Figure 38: Mlnor Bridges (Rcc Tgirder type).
-
.'4!.?'1t
- -
-
FFTr75EC
((
LIS,1-0
-
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F::'c.~
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(CARRIAGE
WAY)
(CARRIAGE
WAY)
FFL
LH:,!
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1 .rF:-iF~l:./
-2.5%
'\oT'T7J
-
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Figure 3-10: Mlnor Bridges 8 Culverts In Rural Area.
Figum 3-t 1: For Mlnor Brldges & Culverts In Urban Area.
3.6.1 Proposed Major structures (ROB/Flyovers/ Underpasses)
3.6.1.1
ROB
It is proposed to provide 4-lanes ROB structures at Ch. 221.00+ km over proposed railway
alignment, which is under construction. The proposed cross-section of ROB structure is as
follows.
I
L
-
*
Figure 3-12: Proposed ROB
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3.7 FLYOVER / UNDERPASSES
It is proposed to provide vehicular underpasseslflyovers at some locations of major intersections
and urban areas in order to provide an uninterrupted flow for through traffic moving on the project
corridor. These flyovers/underpasses were proposed to have 2-lane configuration in each
direction with service roads at ground level for movement of local traffic. Details of flyovers are
mentioned below in the following table.
Table 3-3: Details of Flyovers
S.No
Location
Proposal
1
207+555
Right Turning Flyover
Remarks
Starting point at Salem Urban area
2
211+825
Straight
Flyover
SH
Intersection to
Polytechnic college
6
276+300
Straight Flyover
7
281+600
Straight Flyover
SH Intersectionto Mohanur
Pugaloor-Velayudham Palayam-TiruchengodeRoad Intersection
In addition to above, it is also proposed to provide underpasses in newly proposed bypass
alignments and cattle passes in rural sections where agricultural lands and village are separated
by project corridor.
Figure 3-13: Proposed Straight Flyover Structures
3.8 WIDENING OPTIONS
Looking at the existing physical condition of the project corridor, the following criteria has been
used to identify the side of widening:
Availability of Land
Geometric Improvements
Location of utility lines
Location of major settlements and ribbon developments
./--,,+
-
Vegetation
-
-,,/.
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& J
Environmental1Social hot spots
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--

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Since series of intermittent developments exist along the corridor, serious efforts have been
made to reduce the impact on adjoining properties by changing the side. Presence of high-
tension lines, religious structures, wells, big old trees have been duly considered while finalizing
the widening scheme. Above all, availability of land, geometric improvements have been given
due importance in fixing the widening options.
Based on the above criteria, widening scheme for the project corridor in terms of horizontal
alignment has been finalized on the strip plans through walkover surveys. Field checks were
made to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme and thereafter the alignment was modified
wherever considered essential to safeguard sensitive elements. The following table presents the
final widening scheme adopted for the project.
Table 34: ProposedWldenlng Scheme
SI No
From
To
Length (Km)
Wldenlng Option
Remarks
-
207.591 208.100
0.509 Concentric
208.1
00
208.525
0.425
Concentric Right
2m median with service road and
sidewalk
2m medianwith service road and
sidewalk
2m
median with service road and
208.525
209.200
0.675
Concentric
209.200
209.800
0.600
Concentric-new
209,800
210.000
0.200
Concentric Right
sidewalk
Minor Realignment,Curve
improvement
2m medianwith service road and
sidewalk
210.000
210.200 - 0.200
Concentric
2m median with service road and
sidewalk
2m
7
210.200
210.325
0.125
Concentric Lefl
median with service
sidewalk
road and
2m medianwith service road and
sidewalk
17 215.900
214.400
1.500
18 218.050
215.900
2.150
19 218.550
218.050
0.500
improvement
Mallur Bypass
Pedestrian Underpass
------
20
218.550
219.850
1.300
New Construction-right
New Construction-lefl
New Construction-right
Eccentric Right
21
219.850
220.100
0.250
New Construction-right
Vertical curve improvrment
23
220.350 221.750
1.400
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3.9 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT DESIGN
Design of the horizontal alignment has been carried out in SOFTDESK environment as per the
widening scheme finalized at feasibility stage on base plans. Extensive field checks to verii the
feasibility of the proposed alignment have been carried out and suitable modifications to the
alignment have been done wherever considered essential to safeguard sensitive elements.
Base plan of the existing highway corridor showing all natural and manmade features has been
prepared using the topographical survey data. All the features within a band width of 60m have
been captured with an unique "description code" during the survey along with the details of
existing carriageway centerline, edge of pavement, edge of shoulder, toe line of the embankment
etc. This data has been downloaded into SOFTDESK environment to prepare the base plans.
The following activities elucidate the preparation of base plans in more details:
Format survey data to suit the requirements of SOFTDESK environment
Download the data into software
Define main corridor features by joining the points of centerline, edge of pavement, embankment
toe line
Join the points with same description codes for all physical features like rivers, buildings, religious
structures, shops, telephone poles, electric poles, cross roads etc within the above specified limits
Establish break lines for features such as edge of the road, shoulder, nallahs, top and bottom of
ditches, etc;
Insert the details of existing cross drainage structures such as bridge number, span-arrangement
etc.
-
Insert details of underground utility services collected fm~kh~t&~sovm~~lh,,-
.*
y'i:
I.
.I-
1
Cross check the so prepared base plans by "walkover" sdw&
\ 5.
, r_
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Update and finalise the base plans with additional survey data if necessary.
Geometric design of project corridor has been conceptualized for a design speed of 100 kmph as
specified by the TOR. Horizontal curves along the existing alignment generally fulfill the
requirements IRC standards for a design speed of 100 kmph. There are few sharp curves where
it is required to improve the radius to ease out the curvature effect. Improvements to geometry of
these sharp curves have been effected without causing much of impact to adjoining properties
and land use.
Four laning of the project corridor has been done from rotary junction at the start point (Km
207+600). Unidirectional flyover for traffic moving from Bangalore towards KarurIChennai has
been suggested at this point. Details of this junction improvement are elaborated in subsequent
sections. Four laning continued up to the out skirts of Namakkal town and merged with start point
of Namakkal bypass (Km 248+900), which has been constructed to 4-lane divided camageway
standards. Beyond the Namakkal town, four laning again started from end point of Namakkal
bypass (Km 259+600) and continued up to the outskirts of Karur and merged with existing
bypass (Km 292+600) with 4 lane divided carriageway. Flyovers have been suggested at both
ends of Narnakkal bypass to have a smooth & uninterrupted flow of traffic. Details of these
junction developments are elaborated in next section of this chapter.
Alignment of the existing two-lane camageway has been retained for most of the length except
for the removal of kinks and sharp curves at some locations. Length of road between km 214-216
on the bunds of Mallur tank has been realigned completely to remove the effect of reverse
curvature and straightened before the start of Mallur bypass at Km 216. Removal of sharp curves
and kinks has also been carried out at Km 209, 220, 231,270.
Further, efforts have been made to have change over of side at curves wherever possible. In
case of tangent sections, change over is suggested with very flat cunres. Many crossroads have
been realigned at the junction with main carriageway to reduce the skew angle of the crossing.
Apart from the existing bypass at Namakkal town, the project comdor has been provided with
four bypasses at Mallur, Puduchathiram, Chellappan Patti and Vellur. Horizontal alignment
design of all the bypass alignments has been completed. Smooth geornetrics confirming to
design speed of 100kmph have been provided. These bypass are designed as partially access
controlled highways with grade separations at major crossroads. Local connector roads have
been provided along the bypass alignments wherever two intersecting crossroads are at a close
interval.
Setting out drawings and survey information drawings have been prepared and incorporated in
Volume-IX: Drawings of this report. Details of horizontal alignment design report have been
included as Appendix 3.1 in part I of volume-IIA of this report.
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3.10
VERTICAL PROFILE
The profile of the Project Corridor has been finalized on the basis of DTM data collected during
the topographic survey. For the purpose of creating existing ground profile, only the survey points
pertaining to natural ground and existing pavement have been used and points pertaining to
utility features have been eliminated. Fault lines are drawn along the conidor and a Triangulated
Irregular Network (TIN) has been created in the SOFTDESK to create the existing profile along
the proposed centerline of the project corridor. Care has been particularly taken at culverts and
bridge locations to define the water bodies correctly with fault lines.
Profile of the existing carriage way has also been created using the TIN in the sofhnrare and
imported into the drawing having the existing profile of the proposed centerline. Control points for
drawing the finished road profile have been identified at CD structures and underpass locations
and were marked in the drawing. Limit lines for accommodating the designed overlay thickness
at the center of existing carriageway and minimum possible profile corrective course have also
been drawn on top of the existing road profile in the drawing. Limit Lines at the existing horizontal
curve locations have been carefully drawn by considering the effect of existing super elevation
along the corridor.
In addition to the standards and guidelines set for the project, a number of other considerations
have been made to finalize the vertical profile, which are presented below:
Individual profiles have been drawn for each carriageway of the four lane divided highway.
The edge of the proposed median kerb & channel (excluding the shyness of 0.25m, which is
considered to be horizontal) formed by extending the top surface lines of both carriageways
has been considered as the control point for the finished vertical profile design.
Minimum distance between the two PVI in the case of existing carriageway has been kept as
80m
Minimum distance between the two PVI in the case of New carriageway has been kept as
150m
Minimum longitudinal gradient as 0.05% for longitudinal drainage
Minimum length of vertical curve as 60m
Maximum gradient of 3.3% at bridge and underpass approaches only
Minimum K value as 75 for the summit curve and 45 for valley curve
Top of subgrade as 1m above HFL at the edge of shoulder.
Profile for the Cauvery river bridge with well foundations (25m apart) is drawn individually for
each directional bridge alignment.
Considering all of the above points finished profile of the both the carriageways has been drawn
individually in the software. An endeavor has been made to keep the grade line smooth with mild
aradients consistent with character of the existing road profile and terrain. There-at.e local
depressions of varying depth in the profile of existing pav/emewhese have~~eliiat~dto
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have streamline profile with vertical curves at crests and valleys. Rectification of depressions
involves the provision of profile corrective courses with various materials so as to conform to
designed profile. This correction will be necessary in addition to correction of camber to cross-
fall.
Keeping the MOST specifications in view, the profile correction for both cross and longitudinal
directions is proposed to be accomplished in the following manner:
Composition of the Profile Corrective Course:
If the level difference between the underside of total overlay thickness and existing centre line
level is:
i
Up to 150 mm - PCC is by BM
ii)
More than 150 mm and up to 300 mm - Dismantle the existing bituminous course and
provide 75mm BM+ rest with WMM as PCC
iii)
More than 300 mm and up to 500 mm- Dismantle the existing bituminous course and
Provide 75mm BM+ 250mm WMM + Remaining with GSB (min. 100mm)as PCC
iv) More than 500 mm - Reconstruction with new carriageway pavement thickness with
dismantling of existing pavement to requisite depth
v)
More than 1600mm- Reconstruction with new carriageway pavement thickness
without dismantling the existing bituminous course.
3.10.1
Cross Section
Based on the Typical Cross Sections developed for various types of improvement proposals,
different types of Templates were drawn in Software in order to generate the sampled cross
sections at specified intervals and to estimate the roadwork quantities accurately. These
templates were drawn to suit the site conditions and widening proposals. A unique nomenclature
was assigned to each of templates and cross-referenced to appropriate sections of roadway.
Several alignments have been defined on the plan drawing to show the extent of construction
correctly in the cross section and several profiles were also defined and attached to the
templates in the software to run them and create sampled cross sections for the project corridor.
Special care has been taken at curve locations to provide the designed super elevation.
Sampled cross sections at every 50m interval are also presented in Volume IX of this report. Null
templates were used for major and minor bridges in order to eliminate the roadwork quantities at
these locations. The plan and profile drawings presented in Volume IX for each Km length of
project corridor clearly indicate the type of cross section assigned for a particular length of
corridor.
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3.1 1 INTERSECTIONS
At-grade intersections, unless properly designed can be accident-prone and can reduce the
overall capacity of the road. The basic requirements for the design of intersections is not only to
cater safe movements for drivers, but also to provide them full traffic information by way of signs,
pavement markings and traffic signals. Simplicity and uniformity should be the guiding principles
for intersection design. Based upon these principles the at- grade intersections have been
categorized as:
1)
Minor
2)
Channelised with or without acceleration and deceleration lanes
3)
Staggered
4) Rotaries
5)
Signalized intersections
6)
Grade separated interchange
The criteria used for categorizing the intersectionswere:
Traffic volume and number of lanes on the project road;
Traffic volume and number of lanes on the cross road ;
Turning traffic volumes;
Type and category of cross road;
Site conditions I constraints; and
Any local importance
3.1f.I Warrants
IRC-SP: 41 gives the warrants for the different types of at grade intersections. These warrants
are based upon the traffic volumes on each of the two intersecting roads. The type of intersection
to be provided shall be based on these IRC guidelines. Similarly warrants given in the Type
designs for Intersections on National Highways published by the MORT were taken into
consideration.
IRC: 62 recommends the provision of grade separators if the ADT (fast vehicles only) on a cross
road within the next 5 years exceed 5000 vehicles. However where this traffic figure is reached
within the next 20 years, then provisions should be made to construct grade separation at a later
date.
IRC-92-1985 recommends grade separated interchange when an at-grade intersection fails to
handle the volume of traffic resulting in serious congestion and frequent choking of the
intersection. This situation may arise when the total traffic of all arms of the interscpbpis in
excess of 10000 PCU per hour.
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3.11.2 Sight Distance
Good sight distance enhances safety at intersections. The driver's ability to judge the hazard of
entering intersection is very much enhanced as the visibility is increased by removal of
obstructions in the line of sight. Improvements to sight distance will form a part of the design of at
grade intersections.
3.1f.3 Drainage
Drainage should facilitate the removal of storm water from the junction expeditiously.Accordingly
suitable gradients and cross-slopes shall be provided to ensure proper drainage of junction.
3.11.4 Existing Intersections
There are as many as 140 intersections with various categories of roads all along the corridor. All
of these intersections are at-grade. Amongst these intersections nearly 16 intersections are of
primary importance and nearly another 5 intersections are of secondary importance and
remaining intersections are of tertiary cadre. Apart from these intersections, there going to be 6
intersections at the start and end of proposed bypasses at various urban settlements and two
intersections at Namakkal bypass ends. All these new intersections are considered as important
ones.
Accordingly, total number of intersections are divided into different categories of varying
importance and developments are proposed to each category as mentioned in the following
table:
Table 3-5: Pro~osedIntersection lm~rovements
Proposed Improvement
I
I
1
I
Type-I: Intersections of prime
Importance
AtgradelGrade separated intersectionwith Acceleration
/Deceleration lane /service road and median opening
I
2
Type-2:lntersections of secondary
importance
At- Grade channelised intersections with median opening . No
AcctDec lanes
3
Type-3: Intersections of tertiary
importance
At-grade with only central divider on the crossroad. Median
opening is optional
--
4
Typed: Minor intersections:with
black top roads
earthen and access roads
a) Primary Intersection:
These are intersections with major category of roads like NH, SH and MDR carrying good
amount of cross road traffic. These are designated as type-l & II. Details of these intersections is
given below:
---
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Table 3-6: Details of Intersections of Primary
Intersection at Km 207+6000
This is a rotary intersection at the starting point of the project corridor between two National
Highways of NH 7 & NH 68. Bypass for Salem city on NH-7 with four lane divided carriageway
has recently been constructed from this point onwards towards north-Bangalore. NH 68 towards
Chennai from Salem takes off from the same intersection with two-lane carriageway. However, at
this junction the Project corridor takes a right turn towards Karur and basic movement of traffic on
NHDP would be right turning while approaching from Bangalore. It is also observed from the
traffic movement that good amount of traffic also moves straight onto NH 68 towards Chennai at
this junction. Further, vacant land is available along the corridor for provision of right turning
flyover at this junction. Accordingly, it is proposed to provide a Y-flyover at this junction for free
right turning and straight movement of traffic, keeping rotary below intact for other movements.
This arrangement will reduce basic conflict of right turning traffic for proposed NHDP. Schematic
representation of junction is presented below:
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Interseidons at both ends of Namakkal Bypass
Namakkal is a major town and district head quarters along the corridor. In addition it is a major
hub for truck operators in the southern parts of the country. Namakkal town attracts substantial
traffic inside the town and junctions at both ends of the newly constructed bypass requires
special attention due to high potential for turning traffic. During the feasibility stage of project
preparation, the bypass was not open to traffic and potential for turning traffic was estimated from
OD survey analysis. However, bypass is now complete and open to traffic. Turning movement
surveys have been conducted at both ends of bypass and it has been found that grade
separation is required immediately at both ends of bypass. Accordingly, flyovers have been
suggested at both ends of bypass along with
improvements to at-grade movements with rotaries.
Schematic representationof junctions at both ends is presented below:
1
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Intersectionat The end of Namakkal Bypass (Km 259+400)
Detailed designs and drawings for each of the above primary intersections have been prepared and
included in Volume-IX:
Drawings of this report.
b) Secondary Intersection:
This type of improvement is proposed at junctions with crossroads carrying moderate to low
traffic. Three typical designs (Type Ill, Type IV and Type V) have been developed to cater for
moderate, low and very low volume of trafftc on cross roads. Details of intersections with
secondary importance are designated as type-Ill and are presented below:
Table 3-7: Detalls of Intersections of Secondary Importance
Typical designs and drawings for secondary intersections have been prepared and included in
Volume-IX: Drawings of this report.
3.12 URBAN SERVICE ROADS
Most of the urban areas along the project corridor have already been bypassed or recommended
to be bypassed as already mentioned above. Salem urban area in initial sections, intersection at
Rasipuram, Budan Sandai village and at Pogalur it is proposed to provide service roads of 7.5 m
width on both sides. Locations of service roads are mentioned below:
Table 3-8: Detalls of Urban Servlm Roads
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3.13 RURAL SERVICE ROADS
It is proposed to provide rural service road wherever the crossroads are at closer interval, to
reduce access point on the main corridor. In such cases, the crossroads are connected to the
service road, which, in turn connect to the Main Road at suitable points.
Rural service roads in the form of slip roads at location of pedestrian underpasses near schools
and engineering colleges and ROB have been proposed to provide access to adjacent
properties. In addition rural service roads have also been proposed on new bypass alignments to
connect two nearby cross roads. Locations of rural serviceislip roads have been presented
below:
Table 3-9: Locatlons of Rural Service Roads
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3.14 CATTLEIPEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS
Cattle crossings have been proposed wherever the project corridor is dividing a village and
agricultural fields into two. At all such locations cattle are expected to cross the corridor. There
are couple of major educational institutions in the form of engineering colleges and schools. It is
proposed to provide pedestrian crossings at such locations. In total six numbers of Box culverts
of 3.75x3.0 rn size are provided for cattlelpedestrian crossing.
Table 3-10: Locations of Underpasses
1 l~attleCrossina
237.800
I
240.465
Cattle \Pedestrian crossing
241.900
BudanSandi- Vehicular Underpass
243.355
ichella~~anatt ti-Vehicular Under~ass
1 bedestrian Undemass
260.400
I
3.15 PEDESTRIAN PATH
Traffic count surveys conducted at all the urban areas indicate the presence of substantial
pedestrian movement. Accordingly, sidewalks of 2m widths have been proposed at all
urbanlsemi-urban areas in both the project corridors. The following table gives the location and
length of sidewalks proposed on the project corridors.
Table 3-11: Detalls of Sldewalk
3.16 BUS BAYS AND BUS STOPS
There are several bus stops along the project corridor, where buses are presently stopping.
Generally these stops are associated with a settlement area or an intersection with 8 &ikmad.
Efforts were made to collect information from Tamilnadu SbtpTranspart Corporatiap (TST~)on
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the official bus stops. It has been observed at some locations the buses were stopping for longer
durations to pick up the passengers. It is proposed to provide bus bays at such locations and bus
stops at remaining all locations. Details of bus stops and bus bays are given below in the
following table.
Table 3-12: Locations of Bus Bays and Bus Stops
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Drawings showing the typical details of Bus bay and bus shelter have been prepared and
included in Volume-IX: Drawings of this report.
3.17 TRUCK LAY-BY & WAY SIDE AMENETIES
Several truck service stations were observed between km 246-249 at the end of the section
before Nammakkal urban area. This may be mainly because of the reason that Namakkal acts a
major truck hub with enormous number of truck operators. Good amount of truck parking has
been observed at this location. Apart from this location, good amount of truck parking is also
seen at Raasi Puram intersection (km 228.2). Service roads have been proposed at this
intersection, which will cater for parking also. Accordingly, one truck parking layby has been
proposed at km 247.850 where substantial truck parking, Dhabas, Petrol Pumps presently exists.
Drawing showing the typical details of truck Lay-by has been prepared and included in Volume-
IX: Drawings of this report.
3.18 TOLL PLAZA
The Toll plaza locations should be such that they allow minimum leakage of traffic so that
maximum toll-revenue can be collected, to achieve this objective; various alternatives have been
worked out for Toll plaza locations and subsequent estimation of tollable traffic, the details of the
same have been presented in chapter 10 of volume-l of this report. Based on these analysis two
mainline Toll Plazas have been proposed, one at Krn 213.0 (from Km 212.950 to 213.525) and
other one at Km 266.000 (Km 265.775 to Km 266.200) Drawing showing the typical details of toll
plaza has been prepared and included in IX: Drawings of this report.
CHAPTER 4: PAVEMENT DESIGN
CHAPTER 4: PAVEMENT DESIGN
Chapter 4. Pavement Design 4.1 INTRODUCTION Pavement design forms an integral part of detailed engineering
Chapter 4.
Pavement Design
4.1
INTRODUCTION
Pavement design forms an integral part of detailed engineering study for a highway project.
Pavement performance under prevailing and projected traffic and environmental conditions is
considered to be crucial as it has a direct bearing on the economic returns from the project
developments. Present section of the report deals with the design methodology adopted for
pavement design and also evaluates the present condition of the existing pavement crust. An
effort to rationalize the pavement design by associating the initial design of pavement crust with
subsequent maintenance required in the entire deign period has been made. This rationalization
is undertaken by life cycle cost analysis of various design alternatives using HDM4. This effort is
also presented in this section of the report. This section also outlines the pavement option study
undertaken to identify pavement type to be followed based on the life cycle cost analysis.
4 1.1 PavementDesign Methodology
Pavement design has two components; design of strengthening overlay for existing pavement
and design of new crust for the additional two lanes. The type of pavement to be adopted for the
additional two lanes shall also be decided based on the life cycle cost analysis as a part of
pavement design methodology. Accordingly, the following methodology has been adopted to
comply with the requirements of TOR.
Step 1: Various Pavement investigations have been carried out on the project corridor to assess
the adequacy of the existing pavement crust. These investigations include:
Visual Pavement Condition surveys
Pavement Roughness Surveys
BBD measurements
Pavement Composition surveys
DCP investigations
Subgrade Investigations
lnvestigations for quarry and Borrow areas
Details of these investigations have been presented below. Based on these investigations,
locations for rehabilitationand reconstruction of existing pavement have been identified.
Step 2: Axle load surveys have been conducted on the corridor and VDF for different categories
of vehicle established. Design traffic loading for pavement design has been estimated from VDF
and projected traftic figures. Axle load spectrum for the rigid pavement design has also been
established.
n
f
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*. ', , .:- 4-1 , ' :

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Step 3: Detailed material investigations have been conducted in the projected influence area and
strength characteristics and availability of construction material has been determined. Details of
material investigations have been presented in volume-Ill of this report.
Step 4: For the purpose of designing the overlay, the project corridor has been divided into
homogeneous sections based on deflection measurements using Cumulative differences
(AASHTO) approach. Design thickness of overlay has been estimated from IRC-81-1997 using
estimated traffic level and characteristic deflection of the homogeneous sections. Estimated BM
thickness is then adjusted to equivalent thickness of AC & DBM using conversion factors given in
IRC 81-1997.
Step 5: Homogeneous sections for pavement design have been established based on the
homogeneous traffic links as mentioned in earlier chapters and design traffic loadings for each of
them identified. Design of flexible pavement for additional two lanes has been carried out in
accordance with guidelines of IRC-37-2001. Since designing the pavement crust for total design
traffic level would not ensure the satisfactory performance of pavement throughout the service
life, it is felt prudent to consider various design altematives for life cycle cost analysis with
varying initial design traffic levels.
Step 6: Various pavement design alternatives for varying initial traffic
loadings (50msa, 100 msa)
and subsequent maintenance in the from of overlays (scheduled or responsive) have been
formulated using the design thickness estimated from step 3 & 4. These alternatives have been
compared with 'do minimummalternative in which only routine maintenance (every year) and
periodic maintenance in the form of overlay for every 5 years has been considered. No widening
has been envisaged in do minimum case. Life cycle cost analysis of various alternatives has
been done using HDMd. The best alternative giving maximum returns to the user has been
selected for adoption.
Step 7: Design of rigid pavement has been carried out in accordance with the PCA method.
Step 8: Life cycle cost analysis has been carried out to decide the pavement type (Felxible or
Rigid) for additional two lanes.
Step 9: Design of flexible pavement for paved shoulders, service roads, interchange ramps has
been carried out in accordance with IRC 37-2001 guidelines.
4. f.2
Pavement Condition Surveys
Pavement condition surveys have already been elaborated in chapter-3: Project conidor of
Volume-l of this report. A summary of the pavement condition is presented in the form a bar
chart in Figure 4-1. Individual distresses are plotted along the length for each Km length of the
conidor. It can be easily observed from the figure that Km217-218, Km 224-225, Km 230-237,
Km 240-245, Km 248-248.9, Km 260-263, Km 276-278, Km 280&281.35, Km 0-1 (281-282) and
Km 4-5 (285-286) of Pugaloor bypass are in poor rnnd~onkh'w*~&distress is araeter than
40°h. It may be noticed from the following bar chart the mmWntibuting iqdttalbi-tohtal
/-
,
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distress is cracking. Extensive cracking has been noticed along the length of corridor especially
at areas on the side of ponds and beyond river Cauvery crossing. However, interestingly, this
cracking is not contributing to the increase of roughness of the pavement, as riding quality along
the corridor is generally good as elaborated in the next section.
-
80
-- 70
m
5 60
5%
f
40
C
4 30
u
3 20
: 10
0
OrbbOC'3QUbNLmQr
SKKS#MMA~NNmmrfS13w~nn~g--~q
WQ)NV100r~~~N
G&&$$ig$$*$$$*+d$&e*kg
~SKNNNNNNNNWNN~WNNNNNNa5
8
Chainage lh
FI
/
1
.Total
Cnclng (% h)
Patching (X h)
II Ravelling (?& Am)
-
--
-
-- - -
-
Flgure 4-1: Kilometer wise Pavement Condition along the Project Corridor
4.1.3
Embankment Condition
The existing pavement was laid on a very low embankment height. At very few places where new
bypass have been constructed and at approach of Cauvery river embankments were built. It is
generally seen that these embankments are in sound condition without any slope failures. The
geotechnical exploration details have been discussed in part-2 of this volume in Geotechnical
Assessment chapter and the properties of the soils below the pavement layers have been
discussed in greater depth in volume-Ill: materials report.
4.1.4
Pavement Roughness Survey
Pavement roughness surveys were done by using ROMDAS (Road Measurement and Data
Acquisition System). Roughness is represented in units of International Roughness Index (IRI)
and has the units of slope usually mlkm. Roughness survey was conducted in the mid of
February2004.
The ROMDAS vehicle was calibrated, at selected sites and trend lines were established for each
set of the data from the regression analysis and the calibration coefficients were estimated.
Details of calibration are presented in Appendix 4.1 in Part-l of Volume IIA of this report.
Two runs of ROMDAS vehicle have been undertaken on ea&~~Ionalong the project
corridor. The raw counts of bumps have been measured for evelyfoqm ibnsth Mein;.,,, .each.
run. These raw counts along with regression coefficients developedd~rkg~cdr'~6nMfed
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into the ROMDAS software to get the average IRI of each kilometer. Average of both runs has
been considered as the representative roughness on the corridor.
The roughness values in terms of IRI are presented in Appendix 4.2 in Part-l of Volume IIA of this
report. Average. IRI values along the corridor were grouped in to four categories as 2-3, 3-4 and
4-5, and 5-6 IRI and tabulated in Table 4-1 below.
Table 4-1: Roughnessvalues along the Corridor
Roughness (IRI) Range
2 -3 IRI
Length In Kilometer
46.0
I
3 -4
IRI
I
21-6
I
-
t
I
I
4 -5 IRI
5 8 IRI
5.35
1.OO
.
Total Length
73.95
Figure4-2: KilometemlseAverage Roughness (IRI) values along the ProJectCorrldor
Bar diagram showing the Kilometer wise roughness along the corridor has been presented in
Figure 4-2.
It can be seen from, the above results that the project corridor has a good pavement riding
quality with only 6.3km of its length has IRI more than 4, which is less than 10% of the total
length of project corridor Except for newly constructed Pugaloor Bypass, where roughness is in
the range of 4 IRI, remaining sections have an average roughness of 3 IRI. Even though some
sections of the corridor are exhibiting substantial cracking, riding quality is not affected due to this
distress indicating peripheral nature of distress.
4.1.5
Pavement DeflectionSurvey (BBD)
A pavement deflection survey was carried out in the month of February 2004 on project corridor
using a Benkelman Beam in accordance with testing approach of IRC-81-1997. Even though it is
mentioned to take deflection reading at an offset distance of 0.9m from the edge of pavement in
IRC 81, the location of wheel path (offset distances from pavement edge) has been ascertained
from the axle load distribution surveys conducted on the co-verify the actual lateral
placement of axles. R has been obsetved that this offset is 0.g m6~&ibthe edg
for two-lane pavement without paved shoulder and 2.2 m meter iAs&-hoh the
outer edge. The deflection measurements were made at 50m in18&Isl(~:h stagdeed manner 0h
I
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the adjacent lanes of project road giving a total of 21 points in a kilometer length. At each point 4
sets of measurements were taken, namely at D-200,DO,D2700,D90o,-, at regular interval along outer
wheel path. In addition, two extra measurements (DeO0and DgW)i.e. total six were taken at every
500m interval along the outer wheel path and inner wheel path.
Pavement temperature and subgrade moisture data has also been collected during the course of
survey for applying temperature and seasonal corrections. The BBD data collected in the field is
presented in Appendix 4.3 in Part-l of Volume IIA of this report.
Temperature Correction
Pavement temperatures at the time of BBD measurements were varying between 36 and 57' C.
Since the bituminous wearing course of the pavement of project corridor is in a satisfactory
condition and the thickness is more than 75mm on the average, appropriate temperature
corrections were made based on the recommendations in IRC- 81-1997.
Correction for Seasonal Variation
Characteristics of existing subgrade were collected from test pit surveys and material
investigations. Rainfall characteristics of the project area were collected from local
meteorological department. The correction for the seasonal variation has been done in
accordance with provisions of IRC 81-1997 by using respective charts for rainfall and soil type.
Characteristic Deflection
For the set of deflection readings on a km length the average and standard deviation have been
calculated and the characteristic deflection for that km length has been taken as the mean plus 2
standard deviations. This data is presented in Appendix 4.3 in Part-l of Volume IIA of this report.
Adjacent sections of BBD have been combined to form homogeneous sections using cumulative
differences approach. A total of 24 homogeneous sections were identified along the length of
corridor. Characteristic deflection for each homogeneous section is calculated as mean plus 2
standard deviations for that section. Homogeneous section wise characteristic deflections have
been presented in Figure 4-3 in the form of bar charts.
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4.1.6 Pavement Composition Survey
The composition of the existing pavement crust has been noted from test pit surveys. Test pits
are taken at interval of 2 to 3 km in a staggered manner for both lanes of carriageway. In addition
to these, wherever the pavement condition was found to be poor; an extra pit was made. In total
34 pits were taken for entire length of corridor, out which nearly 29 pits are made at the edge of
pavement and 5 pits are made at the junction of main carriageway and paved shoulder.
Results of the test pit survey indicate appreciably varying thickness of pavement layers for the
main carriageway as well as paved shoulders. Total thickness of the pavement for main
carriageway varies between 1050 mm and 250 mm. The thickness of bituminous layer varies
between 45-340mm. Pavement is mainly composed of a BT layer, WBM base over subgrade; at
few places sub base is present in the form of granular material or boulder soling. Overall
thickness of paved shoulders varies from 520 mm to 430 mm. Pavement composition data
collected is presented in Appendix 4.4 in Part-l of Volume IIA of this report. The observed
variations of thickness of different pavement layers has been shown graphically below.
In
Qffffi;zfifiAg#gR33gj
700
-
900-
m82
I3 BUSG
D WBM
.GSB
BOULDER
SOLING
Figure 44: Pavement ComposRion along the conidor (main carriageway)Chalnage (km)
Apart from noting the composition, field density measurements were made on the existing
subgrade and representative samples of subgrade material were collected for laboratory testing
of engineering properties Results of the subgrade investigation have been presented in volume-
Ill of this report.
4.1.7 DCP Surveys and analysis
TRRL dynamic cone penetration tests (DCP) were conducted on the exposed subgrade in the
test pits to estimate the CBR strength of the subgrade at the field density and field moisture
conditions at the time of testing.
Tests were carried in accordance with the TRRL Overseas Road Note No. 8 and the estimated
CBR of the subgrade layers calculated from the TRRL = 2.48 - 1.057
log,.
(mmiblow)
The thickness of the various layers
from changes in the slope of the plot of penetration versus numbef o?6lawd.
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Table 4-2 presents the field CBR obtained from DCP tests. Analysis of DCP test data is
presented in Appendix 4.5 in Part-l of Volume IIA of this report.
Table 4.2: Summary of DCP Results
4.1.8
Observations on Pavement Condition:

Foregoing discussions of various surveys lead to the identification of sections that require more than a simple strengthening overlay. A parametric matrix consisting of various,~rsfor

flectian .arfd subgbde

il

1--

4-7

of various,~rs for flectian .arfd subgbde il 1- - 4-7 pavement condition such as total distress,

pavement condition such as total distress, roughness, rut

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characteristics in terms of degree of compaction and CBR has been formulated and lengths of
pavement that require reconstruction have been identified.
Table 4-3:Locations of Pavement Reconstruction
Remarks
240.000
241.OOO
1.000
241.000
242.000
0.400
----
260.000
263.000
3.000
279.000
280.000
0.400
1
280.000
281.OOO
1.OOO
Distress is too high
Distress is too high
Distress
CBR and compaction is very low, Kaveri Bridge
!Distressis too high, CBR and compaction is less
1
281.000
281.350
0.350
]Distressis too high, CBR and compaction is less
-
0.000
1.OOO
1.OW
;Distressis too high, CBR is less and IRI is more
4.2 PAVEMENT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Pavement design considerations would basically involve at evolving input parameters required
for design of pavement. The following sections elaborate the design considerations made in the
pavement design.
4.2.I
Design Period
Pavement design life is the period for which the initial design of pavement crust layers shall be
designed. Design life should not be referred as terminal stage of crust beyond which crust
becomes unusable. A design life of 20 years for flexible pavement and 30 years for rigid
pavement has been considered for the design purposes.
4.2.2 Vehicle Damage Factors:

VDF factors for commercial vehicles have been established from axle load surveys, which were conducted at two locations, one between Salem-Namakkal at Km 223.8 and the other between Namakkal-Karur at Km 267. Direction wise VDF for each mode of commercial traffic has been estimated at each location. Results of axle load surveys have been presented in Table 3-4 below. The raw data and analysis of axle load survey data is 4.6 in Part-l of Volume IIA of this report. Looking at the marginal both locations, it is felt prudent to use average values of VDF for ead3,&de;! \ . -

-

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fwrf'srx toning 01 Salem to Kamr (NH-7) in TamllnRdu
h
Table 4-4: Adopted Vehicle Damage Factors
r
Location-1 (Km223*600)
Vehlcle
Code
Dlrectlon
Direction
]
1
LCV
0.57
0.34
0.44
0.53
0.46
0.50
0.47
- 2
12-Axle Truck
4.29
5.06
1 4.62
3.13
5.31
4.22
4.42
(
-
0.79
0.93
0.85
0.57
1.24
10.91
0.88
5.24
4.69
4.92
2.44
4.27
3.36
4.14
I
I
-
3
3-Axle Truck
-----
3.65
5.80
4.73
4.73
Tandem 4-
9.49
0.44
4.96
3.08
2.87
2.98
3.97
4T IAxleTruck
-
-
-
4
4-Axle Truck
1.08
4.84
2.96
2.96
4.2.3 Design TraiWc Considerations:
The base year traffic, traffic growth rates and the projected traffic for the design period for each
category of vehicles have been extracted from Chapter 4 of Volume I of this report. As already
mentioned in the Volume I, entire length of the corridor has been divided into four homogeneous
traffic sections. Design traffic loading in million standard axle (msa) has been estimated using the
traffic data and estimated VDF. The design traffic loading for each of the sections has been given
in the Table below. The details of msa calculations are presented in Appendix 4.7 in Part-I of
Volume IIA of this report.
Table 46: Design Traffic Loading in MSA
Chalnage
lomyear(2M4)
lb~ear(2019)
I 20"Year (2024)
. Length
Name
Exlstlng
Pmpan(
Existing bmpw&itlng
Proposed
From
To
(K,,,)
cm
cm CMI
I
cm
I CM
cm
4.2.4 Subgrade Strength
Subgrade strength of soil to be considered in the pavement design has been derived form
material investigations. The results of borrow soils identified along the corridor have been
presented in greater details in Volume-Ill of this report.
A total of thirty-three samples of subgrade borrow material were collected and tested. From the
test results it has been found that most of the samples have soaked CBR more than 10% at 97%
of MDD. These borrow areas are spread through out the length of corridor. Hence a CBR of 10%
has been considered for the purpose of pavement design. For the addition paved shoulders, it is
recommended to loosen and re-compact the existing subgradwe side of existing
carriageway to achieve 10% CBR. Wherever, the desired level of CBR sf6ngkr is no(3EFtWed.
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h
borrow soil can be used for subgrade. For new carriageway, it is recommended that borrow soil
shall be utilized for construction of subgrade.
n
-
n
I 4.3
STRENGTHENING OF EXISTING PAVEMENT
The strengthening requirements (Overlay designs) of existing pavement (except reconstruction
h
stretches) have been estimated from the deflection measurements taken on the project conidor
using IRC: 81-1997 for the estimated traffic loadings.
h
~
It is not practical to have different overlay thickness from kilometer to kilometer. Adjacent lengths
have been combined for treatment. In order to achieve this, homogeneous sections have been
h
delineated in relation to the BBD deflections by applying the method of cumulative differences.
h
The demarcated sections, the characteristic deflection for each section, the projected traffic it is
A expected to carry and the overlay thickness in millimeters of Bituminous Macadam (BM)
rn designed using IRC: 81-1997 are tabulated in Table 4-6 below. This thickness is converted to BC
.-c- and DBM by taking a conversion equivalency of 1.0 BM is 0.75 ACiDBM as suggested in IRC:
n 37-2001. A uniform thickness of 75mm DBM and 50mm BC has been adopted for entire length of
A corridor looking at the overlay requirements.
Table 4-6: Overlay Thickness for Existing Carrlageway
Required
Chlanage
After Ellmlnatingout layers
Consider
Adopted
char
Length
Dnign Thickness (BCIDBM)
bdectkns
(Km)
MSA
(mm) for
thickness
for Overlay
Std.
Char.
Deslgn
Design
(mm)
DeviationDeflectforts
MSA
2
212.950 213.525 0.575
0.88
0.37
1.61
Proposed toll plaza location
8
1230.0001233.700 13.700 1 0.85
1
0.39
]
1.63
1
Tentatively consideredfor
reconstruction
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
9
1233.700 1234.600 10.900
1 0.88
0.33
]
1.54
1 Tentatively consideredfor reconstruction
10
234.600
236.100
1.500
0.76
0.29
1.34
PuduchatramBpass
11
236.100
237.000
0.900
0.78
0.4
1.58 Tentatively consideredfor remnstnrction
12
237.000
240.000
3.000
0.61
0.28 1.16
1.2 100
166
125
50
75
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4.4 DESIGN OF PAVEMENT FOR NEW CARRIAGEWAY (ADDITIONAL TWO LANES)
4.4.1 Design of Flexible Pavement
Flexible pavement design has been carried out using the IRC guidelines (IRC-37-2001). The
revised guidelines are a modification to the IRC-37-84 incorporating a mechanistic approach. In
this revision, pavement designs have been extended to cover up to 150 msa and CBR strengths
up to 10%.
4.4.2 Flexible Pavement Design Approach
As per the TOR, the flexible pavement has to be designed for a period of 20 years. It can be
noted from above Table 3-5 above that design traffic levels vary from 70-100 MSA for new
caniageway for different traffic sections for a design life of 20 years.
In accordance with IRC-37-2001 guidelines, for a CBR of lo%, an increase of only 20mm in
DBM layer and 10 mm in BC layer is suggested for an increase of 50msa (from 50 msa to 100
msa) design traffic loading. This provision appears to be unrealistic and satisfactory performance
of pavement throughout the design life becomes uncertain. Since variation in traffic loading for
different sections is only 30 msa, the resulting variation in thickness would differ by 10mm of
DBM layer in accordance with IRC practice. Hence, from the practical point of view and ease in
construction, it is felt prudent to consider a traffic loading of 100 msa for all sections for the
purpose of pavement design, if the pavement design is to be done for the entire design traffic.
However, the in-service performance of pavements desired
more for long design periods of 20 years has seldom been
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service period of 20 years. The pavement condition often deteriorated to very poor state if the
pavements are allowed to function for the entire design period without intervention by laying
suitable overlays.
It is under such circumstances, in order to achieve a more balanced, performance oriented
design, it is felt necessary to undertake life cycle cost analysis of various pavement alternatives
designed for different initial traffic levels and coupled with subsequent overlays triggered by
pavement condition or specified at fixed interval. Accordingly, two traffic levels of 50 8 100 Msa
have been considered to form pavement alternatives to perform life cycle cost analysis in
HDM-4.
The pavement composition obtained for a 10% CBR and traffic levels of 50 8 100 rnsa from IRC
37-2001 are as below:
Table 4-R Deslgn Thickness for 50 8 100 MSA traffic
Thickness for 50
Thlckness for 100
Layer
Msa (mm)
Msa (mm)
BC
40
50
DBM
110
i
130
WMM
250
250
GSB
200
200
Pavement deign alternatives considered for life cycle cost analysis include the following:
Design the pavement for an initial traffic level of 100 msa and trigger overlay of 50 mm
Bituminous Concrete whenever the pavement roughness reached 4 IRI.
Design the pavement for an initial traffic level of 100 msa and trigger overlay of 100 mm
Bituminous Concrete whenever the pavement roughness reached 4 IRI.
Design the pavement for an initial traffic level of 100msa and scheduled overlay of 50mm at
every 5 years as per standard practice.
Design the pavement for an initial traffic level of 50 msa and trigger overlay of 50 mm
Bituminous Concrete whenever the pavement roughness reached 4 IRI.
Design the pavement for an initial traffic level of 50 msa and trigger overlay of 100 mm
Bituminous Concrete whenever the pavement roughness reached 4 IRI.
Design the pavement for an initial traffic level of 50msa and add overlays for each increase of
50msa traffic. designing the overlays by IRC-81-1997 for an assumed characteristic
deflection of 1.5mm as per normal practice.
The economic comparison for all the alternatives is done against the 'do-minimum' alternative,
which involves routine maintenance in the form of pothole patching and periodic renewals in the
form of Bituminous concrete of 50 mm thickness every 5 years as per the standard practice,
without going for capacity augmentation.
Life cycle cost analysis of the above-mentioned alternatives vis-A-visdo nothing case has been
done using HDM-4. It is found that all of the above altemativ~~~orniea~~viabl;
with
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marginal difference in retums, the option with initial design for 50msa and 50mm overlay at 4 IRI
having maximum benefits. Results of the HDM-4 analysis is presented in following table:
Table 4-8:Economlc lndltator Summary for PavementAlternatives
1
PresentValue of
IncreaseIn
Net Present
Det rearre
NPVlCast Ratio
Alternative
Agency Capital
Meney
Value
UMr
(NPVICAP)
costs (CAP)
,
Costs
Internal Rate of
Return
(IRR)
BaseAlternative
48.W
0.00
OPT1: 100 MSA+50
620.48
612.87
mmOL@4IRI
-
OPT2: 100 MSA+ to0
632.78
625.17
mm
OL @4 IRI
---
OPT3 1OOMSA
+50mm OL @5years -
638.491
630.846
-
-
OPT4: 50 MSA+50
605.47
592.34
rnmOL@4IRI
OPT5: 50 MSA+lOO
632.65
619.51
mm
ol@4 IRI
OPT6: 50MSA+ 125
rnm
OL @ 50MSA (1.5
583.59
570.74
rnmdeflection\
However, during the presentation on feasibility report preparation on 6IhApril 2004, it has been
decided that pavement design shall be carried out for the entire design period as per standard
norms of MORTH. Moreover it is to be noted here that life cycle cost analysis indicated only a
marginally lower retums for 100-msa designs when compared with 50-msa designs. Hence it is
proposed to adopt the pavement composition resulting for 100-msa traffic as per option 3 above.
IRC
design does not include Bituminous Macadam as one of the pavement layers. It is felt
prudent to introduce BM layer between WMM and DBM layers of pavement for improved rutting
resistance. BM layer has increased aggregate inter-locking strength because of bigger particle
sizes in the grading. It may be noted that, under prevailing hot climatic conditions, like that of the
project corridor, the stability of bituminous layers is mainly due to the aggregate interlock in the
mix
rather than bituminous bond, since bitumen tends to flow at higher temperatures. Further,
experience gained in the field else where in India indicates that the performance of Flexible
pavement with BM layer in between DBM and WMM layers is better than that without the BM
layer, Hence it is recommended to have a BM layer in the pavement crust between DBM and
WMM layers.
Accordingly, the resulting thickness of crust composition from IRC 37-2001 for 100 msa traffic at
10% CBR has been modified and adjusted to introduce the BM layer. A conversion factor of I
BM=0.75 DBM in accordance with IRC 37-2001 has been adopted. Further, the pavement
composition is adjusted to suit the overlay composition to have a monolithic construction of DBM
and
BC layer on existing pavement and new paved shoulders. In addition, the thickness of GSB
layer has been increased from 200mm to 250mm for ease of construction in two distinct layers to
accommodate the drainage layer in accordance with table 400-2 of MORTH specifications.
Required Design thickness including overlay designs is given below:
f
.-- -
I
*
Yd.-I
w+:<i1 &l3
*k~ol!.\~yy'-5-
\

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Table 4-9: Required Layer Thicknessesfor New and old Pavement
I
I
I
1
Pavement Composition
I DBM
1
75
1
75
1
WMM
250
GSB
250
I Subgrade (10% CBR)
500
4.4.3 Periodic Maintenance Requirements
Even though overlay on the existing carriageway and the pavement for the new lanes have been
designed for a period of 20 years, it is required to examine the functional and structural
adequacies of the in-service pavements at close intervals of every year to ensure satisfactory
performance. It is suggested that pavement roughness and BBD measurements should be
undertaken periodically and whenever the roughness value exceeds an IRI of 4.0 roughness
corrective course shall be laid and whenever the BBD deflection exceed a value of 1.5mm,
requisite strengthening overlay shall be laid designed for a 5 years traffic starting from that year.
It is recommended to provide a overlay of 50mm bituminous concrete at
every 5 years as per the
normal practice in case the above conditions does not warrant a overlay in 5 years.
4.4.4 Paved Shoulder composition
As per TOR the paved shoulder shall be designed as an integral part of the pavement for the
main carriageway. Therefore the total pavement thickness in the paved shoulder would be the
same as in the carriageway
4.4.5 Pavement Design for the Service Road
Table 4-10 presents the pavement composition for service roads along the project corridor.
Table 4-10: Pavement Compositionfor Service Road
Layer
Layer Thickness in mm
SDBC
25
BM
50
WMM
250
GSB
200
Total
525
4.4.6 Pavement Design for Cross Road
During the Road inventory survey ten major intersectionswere identified Pavement thickness for
the improvement of cross roads at these major intersections shall be same as that of main
carriageway thickness up to ROW limits. For all other minor intersections Table 4-11 presents
the pavement composition.
-
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Table 4-11: Pavement ComposHlon at minor lnterse~tlons
Layer
Layer Thickness In mm
SDBC
25
1
WMM
I
250
I
GSB
200
Total
525
4.5 RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN
The axle load spectrum as obtained in the axle load surveys for different directions have been
used in conjunction with the traffic data projections to arrive at the numbers and weights of axle
loads during design life. Cars and mini buses have been omitted from the analysis since the
stresses and deflections caused by the corresponding axle load groups are small enough to
withstand for unlimited applications. Thus the contribution of 2 axle rigid chassis trucks and the 3
or more axle trucks (MAVs) to the fatigue and erosion analysis only governs the design.
4.5.f
Joinfsand Shoulders
Contraction joints with dowel bars are provided. Analysis was carried out assuming no monolithic
shoulders.
4.5.2 Design thickness of Rigid Pavement
The Portland Cement Association (PCA) method has been adopted for design. The effective
modulus of subgrade reaction has been estimated from the subgrade CBR and the thickness of
dry lean concrete course.
The design is carried out by assuming slab thickness and checking for fatigue life and erosion
damage due to the repetitions of axle loads of different magnitude.
4.5.3 Design Life
Design thickness of rigid pavement is predominantly influenced by the magnitude and proportion
of heavy axles occurring on the highway and it is relatively economical to design for longer lives,
that
is, in the range of 30 to 40 years. Since the facility once built would continue to serve beyond
the
normal pavement design period of 20 years and since strengthening overlays on a rigid
pavement are difficult to execute, a 30 years design life has been selected.
4.5.4 Subgrade and Subbase Support
Dry
lean concrete (DLC) subbase is suggested for use. For the expected traffic situation a 150
mm
thick subbase layer is deemed appropriate. The DLC should have a characteristic 7-day
compressive strength not less than IOMpa, which corresponds to a flexural strength of
approximately, 2Mpa. WMM layer of 150mm thick will be provided
*I/*'
*
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as a stable working platform on which to operate the construction equipment as well as a
drainage layer.
The combined subgrade and subbase support is taken in terms of Westergaards subgrade
modulus K, the value of which is estimated from plate bearing tests. The Austroads design
procedure utilizes the corresponding CBR strength derived from the CBR of subgrade and the
thickness of the subbase to estimate the K-value. This procedure has been used to estimate
combined K-value. The IRC uses a similar procedure.
After estimating the K-value, the axle load spectrum as obtained from the Axle load survey was
taken and the percentage category of commercial vehicles in each load category has been
calculated. The projected traffic for the design period of 30years has been used to estimate
number of repetitions of individual category of load. The resulting rigid pavement composition is
given below:
Without Monolithic shoulders, with dowelledjoints
Pavement quality concrete (PQC)
320mm thick
Dry lean concrete (DLC)
150mmthick
WMM
150mm thick
Results of rigid pavement design have been presented in Appendix 4.8 in Part-l of Volume IIA of
this report.
4.6 LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
The objective here is to identify the best economical option for pavement type to be considered
for pavement design. In this regard, following options were considered:
Flexible pavement
Rigid pavement
The option selected is based on the principle of maximizing the net present value of net benefds,
estimated by adopting life cycle cost analysis method. Hence the procedure involves estimating
the benefits, costs and net benefit.
4.6.1
Methodology
The benefit of the project accrues in the form of savings in VOC. As the objective is to select the
best economically feasible option, only distance related components of the VOC are considered.
In order to estimate the savings in VOC, analysis has been carried out to compute VOC for
'without"
and "with" project situations.
Similarly, the life cycle cost of the project is also estimated considering only the costs that vary
due to pavement type. In other words, costs of all works have not beemw.sidered,to acw%for
the total construction costs. While estimating the economic aosdm-tk-phject under wih and
rll
,L.l
,
I
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without project conditions, routine maintenance and periodical maintenance costs have been
included in the analysis.
Having estimated the economic life cycle costs, the annual net economic benefit of the options
has been estimated by setting the savings in VOC against the economic costs including variable
construction costs, annual and periodical maintenance costs. Finally, NPV and ElRR have been
estimated for VOC savings.
The above exercise has been carried out for both flexible and rigid pavement option separately
for a kilometer length of construction. This study has been done only for the additional new 2-
lane construction, as the existing pavement is proposed to be strengthened by flexible overlays.
The life cycle cost analysis has been carried out using HDM-4.
4.6.2
Results of the Study
Based on the above considerations, the estimated NPV at 12% interest rate for the life cycle of
the project is as given in the following Table below:
PAVEMENT TYPE
NPVICOS? (30 YRS)
ElRR
FLEXIBLE
21.788
100.4
RIGID
14.077 1
72.2
Hence it is recommended to adopt flexible pavement type for new carriageway.
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
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Volume II: Design Report
S. No.
Item
Standards
1 Design Return Period
a) Unlineddrains (rural sections)
2 years (Note: IRC guidelines are not clear for this
provision)
Covered pucca drain underneath side walk and
median
camageway 81
road'
b) chute drains, median drains at super elevated
sections and at toll plaza locations and other
5 years (Note: IRC guidelines are not clear for Ris
provision)
important locations
2 Unlined drains in rural sections
a) Berm
Shall be beyond 4H:lV line drawn from edge of shoulder
(as per IRC SP-42) or at ROW but not less than 1.Om from
--
b)
Side slopes
2H: 1V
c)
Base width
0.6-1 .Om (basedon hydraulic calculations)
-
3
Chute drain
a)
Height of embankment
3m and above
b)
Spacing
10-1Sm, depending upon hydraulic calculations
4 Balancingculverts
Additional balancing culverts shall be provided if it is
required either for planning adequate drainage system or in
the overtopping stretches after raising the profile. to pass
the water across.
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SI.
Item
Standards
No.
Followingstandards and criteria will be adoptedl used:
a)
Vertical Compression, Vertical tension and Lateral load capacity -
as per IS: 291l(part-llsec-11)-1979,IS: 14593-1998, IRC: 78- 2000, Standard
Reference Books
d)
Design procedure
F.0.S - For soils: 2.5 - 3.0. For socketed piles: End bearing : 5.0 - 6.0. Skin friction=
10
Settlement - as per IS: 8009 (Part II), Standard Reference Books etc.
Spacing - As per IS: 291l(part-llsec-llbl979, IRC: 78-2000.
Negative drag - IRC: 7B-2000, Standard ReferenceBooks
e) Depth of Pile
Based on sub-surface profile, structural load requirement, scour level etc. in
accordance with above codal provisions. For socket length in rock. IS: 14593 and
IRC: 782000 shall
be followed.
-
As per provision of IRC: 78 - 2000 and MORT&H Specification.
f) Pile load tests
Pile Integrity tests if number of piles is substantial.
Initialpile load test preferably by cyclic method
iii) Well Foundation
a) Well Shape
Generally circular.
b) Well Diameter
Based on sub-soil profile, scour level, structural load etc.
Following standards and criteria will be adoptedl used:
a)
Safe Bearing Capacity:
For soil and completely disintegrated rock according to procedure given in 1s:
I
6403(1981), IS: 1904(1986).
For rock as per IS: 12070(1995), Standard Reference Books.
I
c) Design procedure
F.0.S: Minimum 2.5 for soil, 6 or as recommended in above references for rock.
b)
For Total & DifferentialSettlement:
According to IS: 8009(parl-11)-1976,lS:
1904-1986, Schmertmann method. Standard
Reference Book
a) For granular soils
i)Minimum 7580%
Relative Density otherwise, 95% of MDD as per MORTgH
specification
ii)
Minimum 95% of MDD as per MORTCLH specifications
Minimum 97% of MDD as per MORTBH specifications
1.4
DRAINAGE
The surface and sub surface drainage system shall be planned as per IRC SP: 42-1994. A
camber of 2.5% shall be provided in main carriageway, service road as well as in truck lay-by
and bus bay locations. A minimum longitudinal gradient of 0.05% in rural areas and 0.2% in
urban shall be provided for smooth surface runoff.
Longitudinal linedlunlined drain shall be
provided near ROW in rural sections with outlets to cross drainage structures. Sump and
Junction boxes shall be provided at the interface of urban and rural areas as well as in flyover
locations to ensure proper drainage. 200mm wide cuts at 5rn centre to centre have been
provided in medians at super elevated sections.
Chute drains at a distance of 15mwith stone
pitching shall be provided in stretches with high embankment. The details of design standards
followed in this regard are given as below.
,:-/
*
,:*1 I - #
'a(!
I'
A,,
{,I-6.j7s1
-6'.
1.

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Standards
Followingstandards and criteria will be adopted1used;
a)
MORTBH approved HED soflware package
b)
One dimensional consolidation settlement for cohesive and partly
viii) SenlementAnalysis
cohesive depositionas per IRC: 75
PermissibleTotal Sefflernent Limits as per IRC: 75: 400 - 600mm for Running
Embankment, 100-125mm for open1well foundation and 30 to 45mm for pile
foundation.
For bearing capacity, the method recommended by IRC: 75, Pilot, Silvestri and
ix) Bearing CepacrtyAnalysis
x) Sand Drainage Blanket
Based on sub-soil type, position of ground water table and embankment fill material,
the requirement, if any, will be decided.
For 23m high embankment, stone pitching1geomeshed geonetd geogridsljute or
xi) Slopeprotection
wir geotextrle
For <3m high embankment, natural plantation1artificial vegetative tuning.
xii) Ground Treatment
I Based on analysis, suitable ground improvement technique, if any, shall be proposed.
Based on suggested ground improvement method, suitable mstrumentation, if
xiii) Inshmentatbn
I
I
Followingcriteria shall be adopted:
Geogridl metallic reinforcement
Discreteconcrete panel
xiv) MechanicallyStabilized Walls
Designfor static condition- BS 8006
Design for seismic condition- French Standard NF 94-220,
Material and construction- MORTCLH Specification
FHWA publication No. 43
xv) Ground treatment for pond,
water logged and marshy areas
Treatment will be indicated on the basis of extent, depth of water,
the neighborhood.
location, land use in
4
Foundation
i) Open Foundation
a) Foundation shape
Based on
site condition and structural requirement
b) Foundation size
Based on sub-soil profile and properties. site condition, structural requirement etc.
c) Foundationdepth
Based on sub-soil profile and properties, structural requirement. ground water table,
scour level etc as per IRC: 78, IS: 1904.
a) Safe Bearing Capacity:
For soil and completely disintegratedrock according to procedure given in IS:
6403(1981), IS: 1904(1986).
For rock as per IS: 12070(1995),Standard ReferenceBooks.
d) Design procedure
F.0.S: Minimum 2.5 for soil. 6 or as recornmended in above references for rock.
b) For Total 8 Differential Settlement:
According to IS: 8009(part-I)-1976,lS: 1904-1986, Schmertmann method, Standard
Reference Books
ii)Pile Foundation
a) Type of pile
b) Pile Shape
Generally circular.
c) Pile
Diameter
As per IRC: 78 - 2000.
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Tour/si'x Faning of Salem fa KEI~(NH-7) In Temilnadu
adequacy of foundations of the existing structures, allowable bearing capacity for the foundations
in the widening areas and new structures, ground improvement, if any, for increasing the shear
strength of foundation soils & limiting post-construction settlements of structures and roadway
pavements, compaction control of fill used in the embankments & foundation/utility trenches,
erosion control of embankment side slopes, stability of open excavations and hillside cuts, rock
excavations and corrosion potential of foundation soils & groundwater. The proposed design
methodology is itemized in the table below:
-
I
--
The field and laboratory tests shall be conducted for structure locations in compliance
with Contract Agreement. The procedure for testing shall be in accordance with
relevant 61s codes.
Zone and Peak ground acceleration (PGA) shall be decided based on IS: 1893 (Part
I 1): 2002. However, cross-reference shall be made for Peak ground acceleration
I (PGA) on report of National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI). Hyderabad,
I
under The Global Seismic HazardAssessment Program (GSHAP).
1 1
3.
1Embankment
i) Fill Mafeff8l
Property shall be determined based on laboratory test data on approved fill material.
a)
Embankment material pr~perties
(C.
44 Y)
Fill material in Ule vicinity of embankment stretches will be considered for
construction. Guidelines from MORT&H, IRC: 36-1970, IRC: 58 - 2001 shall be
followed.
b)
Pavement material properties (c,
I Based on grain size and
index properties, strength
parameters will be estimated.
(
1Generally following stretches considered based on the height of the embankment
I
I
I
Approach Embankment
i) 75 - lOOm on either side of
Pile supported structure
I
ii) 25 - 50m on either side of open/ well foundation supported structure
b) RvnnlngEmbankment
Other than approach embankment
iii) Embankment Geometry
I
Depending upon proposed highway cis either a) Width of widened part or, b) Total
1a) Design Road Top Wrdth
I
~MUQSXIro~dMth
I Average of heights measured from ground level to finished road level along the cis
b)
Design Height
and then maximum of all those average heights along the stretch based on proposed
highway ds and 11s.
iv)
TtMk Lwd
Generally 1.50 - 2.00tlmzdependingupon traffic volume
For analysis, generally the ground water will be assumed at ground level. However,
v)
Ground Water Table
GW shall be confirmedfrom Geotechnical Investigation Report as well as from
existingwell in the vicinrty with judgment- of seasonal variation
vi)
Sub-soil Profileand Properties
Based on Geotechnical InvestigationReport and engineeringjudgment and
internretation.
t
Fallowing standards and criteria will be adopted1
used:
I
I
MORTBH approved HED soflware package for static
1
I
For dynamic analysis, "XSTABL" (version 5) software package (developed by
InteractiveSoftware Designs, Inc, USA)
I
( I Simplified Bishop's method as per IRC 75
I
I
vii)
Stsbility Analysis
I
Undrainedunconsolidated condition analysis
1
I Slope, toe and deep seated base failure analysis
1
I
I Min F.0.S - 1.25 (for short tern). 1.5 (for long term) & 1.0 (for seismic)
I
I
Slope- Generally 1(v): 2(H) whm~FWb mitdble
- 1.25 (for short tern). 1.5 (for long term) & 1.0 (for seismic) I I Slope-
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1.3 GEOTECHNlCAL ENGINEERING
The geotechnical engineering of the project includes carrying out a comprehensive exploration
program at selected locations of the project corridor. The subsoil data obtained during
exploration will be used for analyzing the stability of existing and proposed structures and
roadway embankments.
The geotechnical design will, in general, conform to the
practice. In addition, some international design manuals and
referenced. The design will be based on the serviceability
IS codes of
adopted on the ultimate design value. The geotechnical
= -_
-.
-
\
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'
Design
1.1.1.2 Environmental Sensitivity
The evolution of the structural and aesthetic statement should be compatible with the existing
environmental characteristics, nature of the terrain, including morphological and geo-technical
characteristics. The basic architectural design should afford neat, clean and consistent
proportions and ensure compatibility of the structures with the surrounding landscape. The
structure shall also be designed from durability and maintenance considerations.
I.1.1.3
Clarity of Expression
The structure should read as a forceful and singular structural design statement. The
appreciation of the structural concept should be apparent when viewing the structure from the
road top as well as from a far.
1.2 DURABILITY & MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS FOR NEW STRUCTURES
In order to keep maintenance to a minimum during the operation and in order to facilitate
operations, the following is recommended:
r Utilize materials, which are resistant to aggressive conditions.
Facilitate access to the various critical points of the structure (connecting zones, inside of the
box girders, water drainage devices, bearings etc.).
Utilize waterproofing devise at the expansion joints.
Keep provision for replacement of bearings and expansion joint parts with reduced design
life.
Keep adequate camber in the deck and ensure quick collection and disposal of rainwater
from above the deck.
1.2,
Safety Measures
Suitably designed crash barriers will be provided to hold the out-of-control vehicles on the
carriageway from falling off.
Approaches to major bridges would be protected for a distance not less than 30m by suitable
safety fences
All carriageways and footpath surfaces will have anti-skid characteristics to prevent skidding of
vehicles.
The carriageways will be provided with suitable cross camber along with suitably designed cross
drainage arrangement for collection and disposal of rainwater to prevent any accumulation of
water on the bridge during rains.
-
6 \
The Design Standards in this regard is given below:
-t
I*'

'IY

\,

if-25' Ib.,b

$

-,

:

.

Chapter I. Design Standards 1.1 INTRODUCTION The Design Standards and loading that shall been considered
Chapter I.
Design Standards
1.1
INTRODUCTION
The Design Standards and loading that shall been considered are generally based on the
requirements laid down in the latest editions of lRCl IS codes of practices & standard
specifications, and guidelines of Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Additional technical
references shall also be used wherever the provisions of IRCIIS codes are found to be silent or
inadequate.
Following IRC/IS codes were used in the design:
IRC: 5-1998: Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section I -
General Features of Design (Seventh Revision)
IRC: 6-2000: Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section 1I - Loads
and Stresses (Third Revision)
IRC: 21-2000: Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section Ill -
Cement Concrete (Plain and Reinforced (Second Revision)
IRC: 78-2000: Standard Specifications and code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section VII-
Foundations& Substructure (First Revision)
IRC: 40-2002: Standard Specifications and code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section IV-
(brick stone and cement concrete block masonry)
IRC: 83 (Part 11)-1987:
Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,
Section IX - Bearings, Part II: Electrometric Bearings.
IRC: 89-1997
Guidelines for Design & Construction of River training and Control works
for Road Bridges. (First Revision)
IRC: SP 13- 1973 Guidelines for design of small bridges 8 culverts.
IRC: SP 40-1993 Guidelines on Techniques for strengthening and rehabilitationsof bridges.
1 1 I
Design Standardisation
The evolution of an engineering solution, responsive to the functional and economic design
criteria and in keeping with the basic functional, economic and environmental requirements in
mind will have to satisfy the following basic considerations:
1.I.I.I Standardisation
There has to be a similarity in the detailing of all elements and components of the structures
along the project corridor, including appurtenances, standards for signs, lighting, railing and
retaining walls. This is considered e
rn
CHAPTER I: DESIGN STANDARDS
CHAPTER I: DESIGN STANDARDS
CHAPTER 2: HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS I-'
CHAPTER 2: HYDROLOGY AND
HYDRAULICS
I-'
CHAPTER 2: HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS I-'
Chapter 2. Hydrology And Hydruulfcs 2.1 INTRODUCTION The general terrain condition along the project corridors
Chapter 2.
Hydrology And Hydruulfcs
2.1
INTRODUCTION
The general terrain condition along the project corridors of NH-7 is rolling. This Project Corridor
passes through three districts namely Salem, Namakkal and Karur. The monthly average
rainfalls of these three districts are approximately 84, 82.5 and 73.8 mm respectively. Entire
length of this corridor runs through Cauvery and Veller Basin, which is having a terrain slope
from North to South where as the corridor is also running in the same direction. Good number of
cross drainage structures presently exists to pass the water from one side to the other side of the
road.
2.2
COLLECTION OF DATA AND DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS
2.2.1
Field Survey
Initially, the hydraulic condition of each structure on the project road has been assessed by visual
inspection and extensive local inquiry.
From the field it is found that there are 2 Major Bridges
and 18 Minor Bridges. Out of two major bridges in the corridor, one is over river Kaveri and other
is over river Thirumani Muthar. Out of 18 minor bridges one is over irrigation Canal, 6 are of
balancing and others are over natural streams.
From the local enquiry it has been obtained that, the only stretch that has been overtopped is
from 223+000 to 224+000 and it is mostly due to the presence of hill and habitations nearby. The
road profile should be raised near by hill location to avoid overtopping.
At all the other CD structures, it has been ascertained from the local enquiry that the overtopping
has not occurred.
Detailed topographical survey, which is crucial for the determination of the magnitude of flow, has
been completed before commencingthe hydraulic analysis for the structures.
2.2.2
Hydrological Data
There are Two Major bridges on this alignment. One is over river Cauvery and other over river
Thirumani Muthar. The hydrological data have been collected for both of them from the Salem
NH Division and have been utilized in the Hydrologicalcalculations.
For the existing minor bridges the Topographic maps, obtained from Survey of India has been
utilizedfor the Hydrological Calculations.
2.2.3
Return Period and Rainfall
As per IRC: 5 - 1998 (Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section -
1, General Features of Design) the bridge is to be design7&r
a period of not le'hthan 50
years. A flood of this specified return period should pass edd;$w
the diruttgre, &ile
an
1
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extraordinary and rare flood may pass without doing excessive damage to the structure or the
road.
The 50-year, 24-hour rainfall for the zone under consideration varies from 140 to 160mm. (Ref
"F/oodEstimation Report For Cauvery Basin, sub-zone - 3 ( i), published by the CWC).
Topographic maps, obtained from Survey of India, on 1:50,000 and 1:2,50,000 scale, have be
utilized for the hydrological study in the corridor.
2.2.4
Cross-Sections and Longitudinal Section at Bridges
For the calculation of discharge of the stream by the Area-Velocity method, topographical survey
including leveling surveys have been carried out across and along the water courses to
determine the cross-section and the slope. A number of cross-sections have been taken at
regular intervals on both upstream and downstream side of the structure, including one at the
proposed location of the structure in accordance with IRC specifications.
The following assumptions have been made during peak discharge calculation:
For locations where water spreads over the banks, the cross-sections were extended up to
the HFL, in order to calculate the effective cross-section of flow.
The longitudinal section to determine the bed slope have been taken at an approximate
regular interval of 100 m following the channel course extending on both the upstream and
the downstream sides of the structure. Caution is taken by following the curved flow line for
longitudinalgradient, rather than a straight line.
2.3
HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS OF THE CROSS - DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
2.3.I
Assessment of Peak Discharge
The peak discharge and the HFL have been calculated by the following methods
Area velocity methods
Rational method
SUH method
at the bridge site, the upstream and the downstream sections.
Area - Velocity Method (Manning's Formula)
Q=AxV
= A x [(lln) x (R)'~x (S)112]
Where,
Q = the discharge in cumecs ;
A = Area of the cross section in sq. m.;
-?,
V
= Velocity in mlsec;
.-.2 ~
#,U,
'.--'-/
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R
= Hydraulic mean depth in m. = A l P;
P
= Wetted perimeter of the stream in m.;
S
= Bed slope of the stream; and
n
= Rugosity Co-efficient.
The Design Discharge have been taken as the maximum of peak discharges at different cross
sections.
By Rational Formula
This method is applicable for the area of catchments less than 25 sq km. As per "Bridges and
Flood Wing Report No. RBF-16" ("Flood Estimation Methods For Catchments Less Than 25 sq
km in Area"), published by Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO), Ministry of
Railways, Government of India, in March 1990; the Rational Formula has been improved and
given as follows:
Where,
QT = design flood discharge for design return period, T-yrs, in cumecs,
C = runoff coefficient,
I = rainfall intensity lasting for tc hour duration in mmlhr,
tc= time of concentration,
A = area of catchment in sq km.
The runoff coefficient,
C, depends on the nature of soil, soil cover and location of the catchment,
and is given in the following table:
Table 2-1:Values of Runoff Coefficient
Descriptionof the Catchment
Runoffcoefficient
1. Sandy Soill Sandy Loam/ Arid Areas
C = 0.249 (R x F)
-
2. Alluvium/
Silty Loaml Coastal Areas
C = 0.332(R x
F) 0.2
3. Red Soill Clayey Loaml Grey or Brown Alluvium/ Cultivated Plains1
Tall CropslWooded Areas
C
= 0.415 (R x F) "'
4. Black Cotton1Clayey Soil1Lightly Coveredl lightly Wooded1Plain C = 0.456 (R x
and Barren1Submontaneand Plateau
F)
5. Hilly Soils1Plateauand Barren
C = 0.498 (R x F) "'
Where,
R = 24-hour point rainfall for T-years, in cm,
T = Design return period of rainfall in years,
F = Areal reduction factor depending upon catchments area and duration of rainfall as
given in the following table:
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Table 2-2: Values of Areal Reduction Factor
Catchments Area
(sq km)
< 30 min
Duration of Rainfall
30 to 60 min
60 to I00 mln
~2.5sq krn
0.72
0.81
0.88
-
>=2.5, c= 5.0 sq km
0.71
0.80
0.87
>5.0,c= 13.0 sq km
0.70
0.79
0.86
-
213.0, ~25.0sq km
0.68
0.78
0.84
The time of concentration, tc (in hours), is calculated by using Brasnsby Williams" formula, as in
most of the places the catchments area is elongated, which is given by:
Where,
L = Length of longest stream in miles,
M = Cathment area in sq miles
S = Average grade from source to site in percent
The following steps obtain rainfall intensity (I) of return period T-years, lasting for tc-hours:
Get the T-year, 24-hour rainfall (RT(24))from the report "Flood Estimation Report For Kaveri Basin,
(Sub zone - 3 ( 1) "for return period, T;
Get thel-hr and tc-hr ratio from Fig. 4 of "Bridgesand Flood Wing Report No. RBF-767
Calculate K = (tc-hr ratio) I(1-hr ratio);
Calculate T-year,
1-hr rainfall, i.e. RT(,)= RT(24)~(l-hr ratio);
Calculate T-year, tc-hr rainfall, i.e. RT(tc)= K x RTfl)
Calculate rainfall intensity of T-year return period, lasting for tc-hours, i.e. I=RT(,cl/tc
The catchment area "A" for the major and minor bridge structures have been determined from
the topographic sheets of 1:50,000 or 1:10,00,000.
By Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Method
This method is based on unit hydrograph principle, used when catchment area is greater than 25
sq km. CWC has published Flood Estimation Report for different zone for India. The project
alignment from Salem to Karur falls in the Zone-3 (i). A detailed approach and equations of unit
hydrograph has been given in the report "Flood Estimation Report For Cauven' Basin (Sub Zone
-3 ( 1)'; published in January 1986. In this method the design flood discharge will be calculated
as per guidelines given in the report.
2.3.2 Hydraulic Analysis for Design HFL
In hydraulic analysis, the Design HFL have been calculated corresponding to the Design
Discharge by Manning's Equation at the bridge site, as described above.
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2.3.3
Amux Calculation
When the waterway area of the opening of a bridge is less than the unobstructed natural
watetway area of the stream, i.e. when bridge contracts the stream, afflux occurs. The afflux is
calculated using
Molesworth formula as given below: -
Where, h = afflux in meters
V = average velocity of water in the river prior to construction in mlsec
A = Unobstructedsectional area of the river at proposed site in sq.m.
a = Constricted area of the river at the bridge in sq.m.
2.3.4
Scour Depth Calculation
To provide an adequate margin of safety for design of foundation, a further increase by 30%
have been made over the design discharge as per IRC: 78-2000, thus obtaining the final design
discharge for the design of foundation.
2.3.4.1
By IRC: 5-1998 iIRC: 78-2000
As per IRC: 5-1998 or IRC: 78-2000, the mean depth of scour below the highest flood level,
Dsm, will be given by the following equation:
Where, Db= the discharge in cumecs per meter width and Ksf = Silt Factor.
The value of IDb' shall be the total design discharge divided by the effective linear waterway
between abutments.
For most of the bridges, the silt factor, Ksf,has been calculated as per guidelines given in IRC-78:
2000 (Clause 703.2) othewise it has been assumed as 1.5 due to absence of soil distribution
curve.
2.3.5
Maximum Depth of Scour for Design of Foundation
The maximum depth of scour below the Highest Flood Level (HFL) for the design of piers (dsmp)
and abutments (dsma), having individual foundations without any floor protection are as follows:
In the
vicinity
of
pier:
In the
vicinity
of
abutment:
dsmp = 2 x Dsm
dsma = 1.27 x DSm
For the design of floor protection works for rafts or open foundawn$* fol4-ues of
maximum scour depth may be adopted:
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In a straight reach:
1.27 x
Dsm
In a
bend:
1.50 x Ds,
2
For the RCC Box type structures proper scour protection is given in the form of floor apron and
flexible apron both on the up-stream and downstream sides. No scour will be allowed to occur in
the RCC Box type structures.
2.3.6
Recommendations
The detailed hydrological & hydraulic calculations of major and minor bridges have been
presented in Appendix A1 to A2 and Appendix B1 to 817 respectively in Volume IIA of this
report. The summary of these calculations has been presented in Table 2-3.
Table 2-3: Summary of Hydrological and Hydraulic Study
Scour Depth
's
E
NaIW of
hclmn
g
-
sown
Str No.
,-klnrgs
Daslgn
No.
Stream
DIseharge
HFL
Level
-
3
gu
a
Major Bridges
I
(cume=)
set)
C)
(ml
(m)
(m)
(m)
(ml
("
-
Thirurnani
1
27211
271+100
133.101
134.882
129.622
127.621
1.781
0.900
Adequate
----
----
Cauvery
2
27912
278+630
120.087
122.580
107.622
100.457
2.493
1.500
Adequate
River
-
Minor Bridaes
----
3
210D
209+200.328
N
S
--------
28.301
2.797
279.993
280.237
278.358
277.419
0.244
0.600
Adequate '
4 21013
209+561.715
N
S
13.231
3.433
281.183
281.875
279.689
278.830
0.692
0.600
Adequate
5 21111
210+406.920
N S
15.026
4.125
277.675
278.376
276.245
275.457
0.761
0.600
Adequate
----------
6
21211
211+223.726
N
S
8.891
1.831
275.142
275.368
273.912
273.204
0.226
0.600
Adequate
------
8
21711
215+995.871
Balancing
9.958
2.016
271.483
272.158
269.537
268.418
9
21712
216+099.910
Balancing
11.857
2.518
10
22012
219+449.699
N
S
15.947
2.487
268.613
269.213
267.010
266.089
0.600
1 0.600
Adequate
11
22414
223+821.419
Balancing
4.747
2.338
243.500
244.030
241.985
241.1 15
0.530
1 0.600
Adequate '
---
12
22512
224+487.725
N S
13.429
--------
1.859
241.049
241.649
239.790
239.066
0.600
0.600
Adequate
13
22612
225+426.892
3.686
241.886
242.590
240.586
239.840
0.704
0.600
Adequate
14
23012
229+762.868
N S
10.092
2.400
208.081
209.390
206.560
205.686
1.310
0.600
Adeauate
1
1
15
(
1 23311
1 23?+854.672
N
S
6.382
1 1.381
[ 200.031
1 200.499 1199.053 1198.491
1 0.468
0.600
1 Adequate'
16
23711
236+317.512
N S
20.643
1 3.138
191.425
193.719
189.723
188.745
2.294
0.600
Adequate
17
24912
248+762.214
N
S
5.634
2.685
194.162
194.510
193.176
192.609
0.348
0.600
Adequate'
- - - . - - - - - -
18
28114
280+659.667
Balancino
25.492
2.968
123.400
124.140
q18.003
114.900
0.740
0.600
Adequate
19
1
1
1
1
3/4
1 283+946.736
Odar
15.465
2.485
1 127.500
1 128.529 1126.079 1125.263 1 1.029
1 0.600
1 Adeauate
-
Note:
Refer Recommendation of Bridge
NS-
Natural Stream
The major bridges at 271+100 (27211) and 278+630 (27912) a~radraulica~l~
.- \
I
.
h\
>,r
4
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The minor bridges at 209+561.715 (21013), 210+406.920 (21111), 214+502.721 (215/2),
215+995.871 (21711), 216+099.910
(21712),
219+449.699
(220/2),
224+487.725 (22512),
225+426.892 (22612), 229+762.868 (23012), 236+317.512 (23711), 280.659.667 (28114) and
283+946.736 (314) are also found hydraulically adequate.
The minor bridges at 209+200.328 (21012), 211+223.726 (212/7), 248+762.214 (24912), are
found to be hydraulically inadequate theoretically. However, site conditions on either side of this
structure revealed that, there is substantial siltation and closing of openings due to developments
along the road. Further, from the local enquiry it is ascertained that in the past, this structures
have not got submerged. Since they have never over-flooded in the past, it is felt that dredging
may be done at floor level to increase the vent size to avoid raising or reconstruction.
For the bridges at 223+821.419 (22414) and 231+854.672 (23311), the available vertical
clearance is 0.530 and 0.468m respectively while the required vertical clearance is 0.600m, but it
is not recommended to raise the bridge as minimum vertical clearance required for discharge of
0.3-3 cumecs and 3-30 cumecs is 0.450m and 0.600m respectively (as per IRC: 5- 1998). The
calculated design discharges for these bridges are 4.747 and 6.382 cumecs, which is very close
to 3 cumecs. Therefore available clearance can be considered to be safe. And also from the local
enquiry it is ascertained that in the past, these structure have not got submerged. Therefore
these are recommended as hydraulically adequate.
The minor bridge at 279+440 (28012) on existing alignment is a canal. Presently new bypass has
been proposed at this location and this canal is crossing the proposed bypass at chainage
276+750. Hydraulic calculation has not been done as it has a controlled flow regulated by
irrigation department.
In addition to these it has been found that in most of the places at bridge location there is a
substantial siltation and closing of opening on both side. Proper dredging is required to clean the
opening of all the bridges to pass the maximum flow.
2.4
DRAINAGE
Presence of a good drainage system is essential. It is therefore necessary to perform a detailed
survey of the existing drainage system, the adjoining terrain and its slope, and recommendations
for new drainage system or modification to existing drainage system. A detailed field survey for
the existing drainage system has therefore been carried out.
Some basic principles have been adopted in order to meet IRC standards.
The surface water from the carriageway, the paved shoulders, the embankment slopes and
the adjoining land must be effectively drained off without allowing it to percolate into the sub-
grade.
The drains must have sufficient capacity and adequate longitudinal slope to drain away the
entire collected surface water to the nearest natural surface stds"mL~ornallah-
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No longitudinal side drains are proposed where the road runs over the canal bank. The
rainwater will directly go to the canal.
No roadside drains are proposed where the longitudinal water bodies are present parallel to
the road.
In the project alignment, the following types of drains have been proposed:
i)
Median Openings / Drain
ii)
Covered Drain below Footpath in Urban Areas
iii)
Road-side Drain in Rural Areas
iv)
Chute Drains at High Embankments
The hydraulic adequacy of the drains shall be checked as per IRC SP-42 "Guidelines on Road
Drainage". The design return period for the drains shall be taken as 5 years for median drains,
chute drains, urban drains and other important drainage systems while the 2 years shall be taken
as rural drainage system.
2.4.1 Median Opening/ Drain
Median openings in the form of open lined cuts are provided at the location of super-elevation to
pass the surface runoff of one carriageway to other carriageway. Wherever edge of the outer
carriageway on the horizontal curves is lower than that of the inner camageway, median drains
have been proposed.
2.4.2 Covered Drain below Footpath in UrbanAreas
These drains are provided in urban areas, wherever there is service road. A covered rectangular
RCC drain, having width of 0.6m, has been proposed below footpath on both sides, to drain of
water from main carriage way and service road.
2.4.3 Road-side Drain
In rural areas, open unlined trapezoidal drains with 0.6m widths and 1V: 2H side slope have
been proposed near ROW on both sides of the road as per guidelines given IRC SP-42
2.4.4 Chute Drains
When the height of the embankment is more than 3.0m, the possibility of erosion of embankment
slopes and shoulders increases. In such cases longitudinal kerbed drains at edge of roadway are
provided to channelise the flow and is led down by lined chute drains. And these chute drains are
ultimately discharged into roadside drains.
For the drainage layout along the conidor please refer drainage plan and profile.
National Highways Authority of India FlANL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT Preperation of feedbility study and Detailed
National Highways Authority
of India
FlANL DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
Preperation of feedbility study and Detailed ~~&tRepori for
Volume II: Design Report
fourlsix laning of Selem to Karur (NH-7) in Tamiinadu
2.4.5
Recommendations
Some additional balancing culverts have been proposed at suitable locations for betterment of
the drainage system. These have been given in Table 2-4.
Table 24: Addltlonal Balancing Cuhrta Proposed
In addition to these culverts 78 no's (40 no's in Section-l and 38 no's in section-ll) of 0.9m dia
Hupe Pipe culverts have been proposed at the location of cross road, i.e. at intersections I
service road, to allow the drain water flow.
CHAPTER 3:GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT
CHAPTER 3:GEOTECHNICAL
ASSESSMENT
Geotechnicd Assessment 3.1 INTRODUCTION A geotechnical exploration program was carried out at the project site
Geotechnicd Assessment
3.1
INTRODUCTION
A geotechnical exploration program was carried out at the project site to characterize and assess
the subsurface conditions at the locations of various proposed new flyoverst grade separators
and ROBs, major and minor bridges and also, at specified locations of underpasses,
embankments, pavements and culverts etc. The overall objectives of the exploration were to
study and evaluate the stratigraphy of the said project corridor and to obtain geotechnicalt
geological parameters of the subsurface formations for design and construction of various
foundations, embankments, mechanically stabilized earth walls etc., The scope was extended to
include studies regarding specific features pertaining to scour, liquefaction and determination of
the state of compaction characteristics of engineered-fill and pavement.
The programme was executed by MIS Nagadi Consultants Pvt. Ltd., Chennai, a MORT&H
approved geotechnical agency, under the supervision of Lea Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd.
(LASA). The field geotechnical exploration was commenced on June 2004 and was completed
on August 2004.
3.2 FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS
The geotechnical exploration consisted of field and laboratory-testing programs. The field-testing
program consisted of soil boringst rock drillings, performing in-situ tests, obtaining soil, rock and
water samples and field observations of the subsurface conditions and ground water table. The
laboratory-testingprogram comprised of testing samples (soil, rock, water) as collected from site
to characterize the geotechnicalt geological properties.
Around 160 boreholes were drilled at about 54 important sites of flyovers, bridges, ROBS,
culverts etc. and at 38 pavement and embankment locations along the project corridor having a
stretch of around 85 km. The soil investigation works were undertaken at pier, abutment and/ or
approach embankment locations for almost all proposed new flyoversl grade separators, ROBs
and major bridges. Borings were also undertaken at minor bridges, underpasses and culverts
where reconstruction1widening was proposed. Few boreholes were located where widening of
the embankment is envisaged and pavement is in distressed condition. Depth, spacing and
number of borehole at each structure location were so planned based on span length, anticipated
structural load, sensitivity of the structure, geological formation etc. that the sub-surface profile
and properties could clearly be ascertained and established. For all proposed new structures,
where possible, boreholes were earmarked along the centerline of the new structures; barring
places where space constraint or heavy traffic flow or obstructions did not allow this exercise to
be taken up. Table 3-1 summarizes the locations and chainage of the boreholes and depth;