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4/2/2013

Rehabilitation of the Grey Nuns Building Complex


CAPSTONE CIVIL ENGINEERING DESIGN PROJECT 2012-2013

TEAM 8
PRESENTED TO: DR. A. M. HANNA

Contents 1.0 TEAM MEMBERS AND TASK DISTRIBUTION................................................................. 4 2.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Site Visits and Plan Obtainment............................................................................................ 6 2.2 Building Condition Prior To Modernization ......................................................................... 6 2.3 Concordia Universitys Contribution .................................................................................... 8 3.0 REMODELING & FEATURES OF THE GN BUILDING ..................................................... 9 3.1 Structural Features................................................................................................................. 9 3.1.1 Columns .......................................................................................................................... 9 3.1.2 Floor slab ...................................................................................................................... 11 3.1.3 Steel Deck ..................................................................................................................... 11 3.2 Architectural Features ......................................................................................................... 14 3.2.1 Interior walls ................................................................................................................. 14 3.2.2 Parking .......................................................................................................................... 15 3.2.3 Features ......................................................................................................................... 15 4.0 GLASS DOME ....................................................................................................................... 16 4.1 Steel Framework & Glazing Design ................................................................................... 19 4.2 Improvements ...................................................................................................................... 21 4.3 Load Calculations ................................................................................................................ 22 4.4 Foundation Design .............................................................................................................. 23 4.5 Structural Analysis of the Dome ......................................................................................... 23 4.5.1 Structural components ............................................................................................ 24

4.6 Slab & Column Design ....................................................................................................... 26 4.7 Stairs Design ....................................................................................................................... 27 1|Page

4.8 Environmentally Sustainable Design .................................................................................. 28 4.8.1 Solar Energy ................................................................................................................. 28 4.8.2 Rainwater Collection & Recycling System ................................................................... 29 5.0 TUNNEL................................................................................................................................. 45 5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 45 5.2 Geotechnical Report ............................................................................................................ 46 5.3 Load Calculations ................................................................................................................ 46 5.4 Tunnel Properties and Assumptions.................................................................................... 47 5.5 Alternative Tunnel Design .................................................................................................. 48 6.0 COMPREHENSIVE COST ANALYSIS ............................................................................... 49 6.1 WinEstimator Software ....................................................................................................... 49 6.2 Subcontractor Price Quotations ........................................................................................... 51 6.3 Total Estimated Cost Analysis ............................................................................................ 51 7.0 CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES: TUNNEL......................................................................... 53 7.1 Excavation ........................................................................................................................... 53 7.2 Precast Concrete Placement ................................................................................................ 54 7.3 Paving & Finishing ............................................................................................................. 54 8.0 CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES: GN BUILDING .............................................................. 56 8.1 Demolition of the Kitchen Building .................................................................................... 56 8.2 Demolition and Replacement of Structural Components .................................................... 56 8.3 Interior Finishing & Landscaping ....................................................................................... 57 9.0 CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES: DOME ............................................................................. 58 9.1 Destruction of Existing Building......................................................................................... 58 9.2 Handling of debris ............................................................................................................... 58 9.3 Erection of the Dome Structure ........................................................................................... 58 2|Page

10.0 GANTT CHART FOR WORK SCHEDULE....................................................................... 59 Appendix ......................................................................................................................................... 0 1.0 STEEL DECK DIAPHRAGM DESIGN .................................................................................. 1 1.1 Earthquake Load ................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Design of steel deck ........................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Check deflection of the selected roof steel deck ............................................................... 3 2.0 TUNNEL SAP2000 ANALYSIS ........................................................................................ 5

2.1 Concrete Frame ..................................................................................................................... 5 2.2 2.3 Bending Moment Diagram of Concrete Tunnel Frame ................................................... 5 Shear Force Diagram of Concrete Tunnel Frame ............................................................ 6

3.0 DOME SLAB ETABS ANALYSIS FOR REINFORCEMENT .............................................. 7 4.0 DOME: COLUMN REINFORCEMENT ............................................................................... 11 5.0 DOME STAIRS DESIGN ...................................................................................................... 13 Design procedure for flight of stairs ...................................................................................... 13 5.1 Design of Stair Slab ......................................................................................................... 14 6.0 RAINWATER COLLECTION SYSTEM .............................................................................. 18 7.0 COMPLETE QUANTITY TAKE-OFF ................................................................................... 0

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1.0 TEAM MEMBERS AND TASK DISTRIBUTION

Table 1
NAME I.D. SPECIALIZATION TASK DESCRIPTION AutoCAD Surveying Base Plate Design Tunnel Design Surveying Project Management & Scheduling Cost Estimation Dome Structural Design GN Remodelling Design Surveying Dome SAP2000 Modeling Steel & Concrete Structural Design AutoCAD Drafting Dome Layout/Design AutoCAD Environmentally Safe Design Standards (LEED) Rainwater Recycling System Surveying Material Quantity & Cost Estimation Subcontractor Contact & Co-ordination Construction & Project Management Surveying AutoCAD Surveying GN Column Design SAP 2000 Tunnel Modeling Tunnel Design AutoCAD Drafting Structural Analysis & Design ETABS Modelling GN Surveying

Kethayini Kanthasamy

9607285

Infrastructure CEM

Maryia Koneva

9575340

(Construction Management)

Karl Lai

9579303

Infrastructure

Basma Salame

9652620

Environmental

CEM Jordano Serio 9580484 (Construction Management)

Sara Syed

9279822

Infrastructure

Smail Taghzout

6013511

Infrastructure

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2.0 INTRODUCTION
The project entails the renovation and redesign of a section of the Grey Nuns Building (GN building) in order to progress and develop its use for both Faculty members and students of Concordia University. The remodeling aspect consists primarily of structurally and architecturally modernizing a section of the F-wing inside the GN Building for Concordia headquarters, which includes the office of the President, Vice-Presidents, Administrative Staff, Facilities Management, and accompanying staff for the above-mentioned members. In addition, a solar geodesic dome designed entirely by the team is proposed as a replacement of the cafeteria building located at the heart of the Grey Nuns domicile. The dome is constructed mainly of steel and glass, and serves as a green area for Concordia University as well as a cafeteria and sitting quarter. Concordia University headquarters are currently situated inside rented duplexes by the Finance Department along the downtown campus, and therefore having a general unit specifically intended for the universitys headquarters is proposed as a solution. The GN Building has not been inaugurated with a specific function for the university as of yet; the buildings aesthetically pleasing structure as well as its historical and religious design detailing is a pride for Concordia University, and therefore using this building will provide a practical, elegant, yet modern headquarter complex for the university. Since the central cafeteria building is excluded as a historical component, the complete demolition and rebuilding can be easily accomplished for the dome structure. A supplementary structural element for the proposed design is a connecting tunnel from the GN building to the Toronto Dominion Bank Building of Concordia University. As a result, all students, faculty, and staff will have easy access from Guy-Concordia Metro, and a main floor parking lot will provide access to the GN building. .

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2.1 Site Visits and Plan Obtainment


Prior to designing, an important task was to coordinate with the facilities management department of the university in order to obtain the official layouts and plans of the GN building. Comprehensive measures from the entire team were taken to regularly meet with the Capstone lead professor, Dr. Hanna, as well as with Mr. Jacques Lachance, Mrs. Martine Lehoux, and Mrs. Dorice Desbiens. Some difficulties arose throughout the plan obtainment, since the team was dealing with official documents and AutoCAD plans that belong to the university. A three-week delay resulted from the initial approval to have access to the plans. An agreement was signed by all team members and authorized by Dr. Hanna for confidentiality requirements, and was sent to the security department of the Hall Building.

2.2 Building Condition Prior To Modernization


A site investigation was conducted at the GN building on Guy Street to evaluate the current state of the structure. Only the basement and the ground floor were visited, due to privacy and security, access were not permitted to the upper floors where the nuns currently reside. First, the ground floor was surveyed visually to make an educated assessment of the overall condition of the building. The visible materials of the existing structure on the ground and basement level were a mix of concrete and wood. The existing slabs at the ground floor level are made of wood dating back to the 1870s as shown in Figure 1 Overview of the wooden slab Figure 1. They are in a good condition but are not

suitable for the change in load that a modernization will bring to the GN building. The state of some structural components such as columns, shear walls and bracing were not observed because they were not visible. Also, the restricted accessibility to most the rooms prevented a thorough investigation of the components mentioned above. Next, the basement was visited where a low ceiling of 55 exposed the current concrete walls, columns and beams as shown in Figure 2. The basement was unoccupied except for the use mechanical rooms.

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Figure 2 Overview of the basement showing concrete components Due to the historical value of the building, exterior changes to the faade are not permissible. This applies to windows and the roof as well. Thanks to the assistance of Concordia Universitys architectural technician, Stephanie Bradley, images of the upper floors and of the roof have been provided for further insight of the structural integrity. The upper floors appears to be built of concrete and wood components and are well preserved. On the other hand, the roof is completely made of wood as shown in Figure 3. It is in a deteriorating state Figure 3 Roof structure of the GN building probably due to temperature change throughout the seasons.

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The overall state of the building is in an acceptable condition. However, since the building was constructed in 1870s, it does not conform to the updated national building code of Canada. In order to modernize the building, a retrofit of the structural components of the GN building would be necessary. Furthermore, the occupancy will change from residential to office areas, which will require a change of the structural components to withstand the new loads.

2.3 Concordia Universitys Contribution


The universitys Engineering and Computer Science faculty members and staff greatly contributed to the accomplishment of this project. Several supervisors alongside our Capstone Instructor, Dr. Hanna, guidance into the right ways of designing and gave us useful ideas and modifications to simplify the structural design process. Dr. Galal, our supervisor, along with Dr. El-Sokkary, Dr. Tirca, Dr. Willis, Dr.Han, and Dr. Mulligan assisted with practical and constructive guidelines for the design and project completion. Furthermore, it was fortunate for the team to have access to the universitys surveying equipment, through a written request to Mr. Lachance, who helped the team obtain all necessary equipment in order to survey both the indoor and outdoor domicile of the GN Building. The surveying of the basement, first, and second floor of the F-Wing of the GN were accomplished, as well as the garage, outdoor circumference, parking lot, and building elevation. In addition, the team attended a guided tour by the Grey Nuns recreational administration, where a thorough visit to the buildings historical landmarks and rooms was done.

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3.0 REMODELING & FEATURES OF THE GN BUILDING


The east wing of the Grey nuns residence will be undertaking some major renovations, it is important to note that the outside layer of the structure is not to be touched or damaged because of its historical importance. Therefore, the indoor structures of the building will all be remodeled and updated with some of the latest features in the

construction industry. The demolition process Figure 4 Existing condition of the structure of the structure will require planning and will need to be conducted in several steps. a lot of

3.1 Structural Features


3.1.1 Columns The columns of the building are currently in Concrete. Although they seem to still be in a fair condition, an analysis will be required in order to determine fully their current condition. The edge and corner columns will not be replaced, since they are part of the external structure of the building. A reinforcement of these columns might be necessary, but a coring sample would be necessary so that the concrete column will be subjected to the necessary test. As for the interior columns, they will be replaced by steel columns of different sizes. A detailed calculation of column design can be found in the annexe of this report. Every column will be seated on a base plate for its respective dimension. The base plate will help on increasing the torsional resistance of the column as well as its resistance toward buckling.

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The calculation to determine the dimension for each base plate can be found in the annexe. Also the respective dimension to each floor is also shown in the plans.

All column dimensions can be found in the plans. [1] The below table will be able to summarize the required columns per floor:
W200x27 W150x30 W200x42 W200x52 W150x37 W200x31 W200x36 W200x59

GNSS1 GN0 GN1 GN2 GN3 GN4 GN5

1 1 3 6 11 11 11

1 1 3 2

3 3 3

6 6 2

1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1

When replacing columns, it is very important to follow these steps: Install a temporary column to support the slab Remove column by hydraulic hammer Clean from all debris Install the steel base plate Install the new structural steel column Figure 5 Temporary column

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3.1.2 Floor slab The existing floor system is mainly consisting of a series of wood beams which are supported by concrete secondary composed columns. beams of are wood. The also Its

condition seems to continue holding the structure firmly but some deterioration is occurring on the secondary beams. It can be caused by moisture, humidity or simply by aging. To be able to accommodate the new weight on the structure, the slab will Figure 6 Initial column and slab condition need to be fully replaced. Before undertaking any

demolition, it will be important to install a temporary structure before removing any pieces pertaining to the floors, this will help in supporting any temporary live weight but also facilitate the demolition process. 3.1.3 Steel Deck The wood slab in this structure will be replaced by a steel deck. Selecting a proper steel deck is dependant not only of gravitational loads, but also lateral loads. For the location of our structure, the dominating lateral load is the Earthquake load, which was found to be 297.31 kN at its highest value, which is the top floor of the structure. Following the CANAM standards, the proper steel deck to use would be the P-3606. [2]Once installed, the horizontal brace is used as a diaphragm. The design requirement for a steel deck are as follow: The deck profile and thickness; The spacing and the type of connectors at support; The spacing and the type of connectors at side-lap; The span of the deck.

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Figure 7 Steel Deck Design

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The specifications of the steel deck can be seen in the table below or also from the CANAM standards book.

Figure 8 Composite deck specification as per CANAM

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3.2 Architectural Features


3.2.1 Interior walls The initial condition of the indoor wall is mainly composed of gypsum sheets. And contain no structural value. The walls serve only as a separation wall. These interior walls will be replaced by a modern interior glass curtain wall. These interior wall will still serve no structural values to the building and will only add some dead weight to the structure. The purpose of using these type of walls are not only for a better esthetic but also they Figure 9 Interior of the grey nuns residence permit better light transmittance and better natural heat distribution. The thickness of the glass and its thermal property is what determine the heat loss property of the wall. Other interior wall will follow standard construction. A rigid frame withholding gypsum sheets. The location of every wall is well details in the layout plans of the structure.

Figure 10 Interior curtain wall sample 14 | P a g e

3.2.2 Parking The parking is located on the North West side of the F-wing of the structure. It is a 2 story structure where the upper floor is used as storage. To optimize the spacing for parking, only a new parking markings will be needed. On the upper floor, it will be used as a resting area for the maintenance staff. Therefore there is no particular demolition to be followed. Only aesthetic adjustment will be required. The layout of this new structure can be seen in the plan. Figure 11 Initial parking condition

3.2.3 Features The remodeling of the GN building will permit the installation of many new features, many will be explained in details further in the report. Some of the features include, a recycling water system, an acoustics amphitheatre and high ceilings. The floor finish will be a mixture of carpentry and acrylic. Standard industrial and office lightning will be used. As per doors, office doors will be standard wood doors with frost tempered glass. Revolving glass doors will also be used in the main entrance lobby. The windows will not be touched since it may damage the exterior structure. Window cocking will be replaced to reduce any heat dissipation.

Figure 12 Sample office layout rendering 15 | P a g e

4.0 GLASS DOME


An important addition to the design and renovation of the Grey Nuns building is the construction of a glass dome. This 653 m2, 10 m high glass structure is composed of a steel framework and glazing surface. The function of this structural component serves several purposes: Provides the Concordia University downtown campus with an open green area for leisure, eating, and meeting purposes for Faculty, staff members, and visitors Presents an energy-efficient headquarter for Concordia University, satisfying numerous LEED requirements Demonstrates a unique and aesthetically-pleasing steel structural design in the center of downtown for officials and university heads to benefit Exhibits a semi-circular and cylindrical shape, which altogether provide strength, durability, and flexibility

Figure 13 Dome Architectural Layout (AutoCAD) 16 | P a g e

As shown in the figure, the layout includes a one story open hall divided into two different compartments. The main lobby at the entrance includes a reception desk for guests and visitors where the office of the receptionist and administrators will be situated. The semi-dome will originate at 28 m of the rectangular layout and extend towards a 9.25 diameter. This semi-circular location will serve as an indoor garden, with a large seating area. As shown in the figure, the architectural layout illustrates the green area with interior-grown grass and trees.

Figure 14: Indoor Garden Design for Dome [3]

The heavily constructed concrete buildings occupying the downtown area of Montreal are reducing the amount of green space available. Being a central area for key economic, political, and social vicinities, the lack of natural green landmarks are understandable. A proposed solution is to allow Concordia Universitys downtown campus to encompass a green space for professional services contributing to the Concordia community. While the GN buildings renovation will comprise of designing new offices for the university officials, the glass dome will be a central leisure location, with a kitchen in the basement, serving all those individuals who reside in the surrounding Grey Nuns area during work hours.

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There is an existing building and basement at the location where the dome will be built. The basement currently serves as a kitchen to supply food to the GN buildings cafeteria. It is furnished with kitchen equipment as shown in the picture below. It is intended that the kitchen is to be renovated and re-used for preparing and providing food at the buffet in the main lobby area. Doing so will reduce the cost for refurnishing the new kitchen.

Figure 15 Picture of existing kitchen provided by Concordia University

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4.1 Steel Framework & Glazing Design

The final design for the domes structural composition was based on several alternative steel truss combinations. Using SAP2000 as the main load and design analysis, two alternative designs were made.

For this specific design, the truss system chosen is composed of trapezoids of differing base lengths and heights. This design, although less structurally stable than the triangular orientation, since it is not exclusively rectangular-shaped, it still contains side slopes which strengthen the truss system. Due to the side slopes, the truss is stronger and is able to withstand wind and seismic loads. The trapezoidal structure also exhibits more glass surface area, allowing window like glazing all across the dome.
Figure 16: Alternative Design 1 Trapezoidal Truss System [4]

The most structurally stable shape is that of the triangle. The three-sided sloped figure is able to withstand loads more effectively than all other shapes. This type of dome is referred to as geodesic domes, where the steel structure encompasses triangles throughout the entire surface area. The structurally rigid shape distributes the point load very effectively, since as the loads reach the vertex and sides, the forces are evenly distributed. The tension and

Figure 17 Alternative Design 2 Triangular Truss compression forces balance efficiently compared System [24] to rectangular, spherical, and trapezoidal crosssectional areas.

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Spherical dome shapes in general perform well structurally, especially when the construction material is composed of steel. Bracing increases structural stability, regardless of the shape used. For the dome, the first design alternative was chosen, with the trapezoidal truss crosssection. Although less stable compared to the triangular trusses, the trapezoidal shape allows larger surface area for glazing, and conveniently fits with the domes cylindrical shape. Using triangles will also conflict with the longitudinal steel framework needed to connect the rectangular section of the dome. If the entire building was designed as a full sphere, the triangular shape would have been suitable; however, the rectangular extension requires immediate connections from the semisphere which become flat on the other side of the dome. Having triangular sections will complicate the steel framework, since the cylindrical shape becomes flat at the other end of the building.

Figure 18 Alternative Edge Design of Dome [24]

Referring to Figure 18, the dome shown displays two semi-spherical domes connected between a portions of a cylinder of the same radius. The dome designed at the center of the Grey Nuns building will have a flat edge instead of a semi-spherical shape at the end; this reasoning is merely aesthetic, since the purpose of this edifice is professional rather than sport or recreational. As shown in Figure 19, the dome model was designed using the software SAP2000. The steel framework is illustrated with 5 strut layers, of respective angle measurements.

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Figure 19 Preliminary Design

Figure 20 Final Design with Braces

As a result, the final design for the dome structure is a combination of a cylindrical vault and a half sphere made of HSS steel tube members as shown in the following figures taken from SAP2000. The main changes added to the preliminary design have been the addition of bracing members to achieve the geodesics triangular shape connections to provide a higher stability to the structure. By doing so, the domes shell increased from a two way grid to a four way grid design which provides a better structural rigidity.

4.2 Improvements
There are spaces for improvements in the current dome design. The whole shell consists a single layer grid and could have been greatly reinforced if it was a double layer grid. A double layer grid would resist to lateral loads in all direction and would be more rigid. This alternative would require more HSS member which is undesirable. Considering that the dome will be covered in all three interior faces of the GN building, it is assumed that the dome will be exposed to less lateral load and therefore does not require a double layer grid design.

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4.3 Load Calculations


The loads taken into account for the design of the dome are the snow, dead, wind and seismic loads. They are calculated based on NBCC 2010 which provides values and guidelines in determining the estimated load that would be applied on the dome for analysis. All load calculations are attached to the design brief at the end of the report. The snow loads have been calculated considering the slope on the sides of the dome. Taking into account the slope angles, it is assumed that snow or rain will slide off the roof through gravity pull and melt on contact with the glass. Due to the change in angles, the snow load on each member will decrease gradually from the top to the bottom member as instructed in the NBCC 2010. A thickness of 5mm of ice has been considered for the case of extreme cold weathers which would add an approximated value of 0.045 kPa to the snow load. The dead loads considered in the design of the dome are the self-weight of the hollow steel members and the self-weight of the glass. The choice of steel hollow members is for aesthetical purposes and also contributes to an overall light weight of the structure. Also, hollow steel members are more flexible and can be bent more easily than W section members. The wind lateral load applied on the dome is calculated based on the NBCC 2010 static method for building of less than 20 m in height. The lateral force applied on the dome is projected so that the force is perpendicular at the domes glass or HSS member which resulted into different lateral wind pressures at each level. The seismic load is calculated using the NBCC 2010 assuming that the soil is class C in reference to the geotechnical report used for the design of the tunnel. The values for Rd and Ro taken in the code are 3.0 and 1.0 respectively assuming that the domes structure is moderately ductile concentrically braced frame. Since the height of the dome is only 10m and it is surrounded by the interior faces of the GN building, we also assumed that seismic load governs over wind load which was later confirmed by the hand calculations of the lateral loads.

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4.4 Foundation Design


There is an existing foundation under the building where the dome will be built. Considering that the dome is composed of steel hollow members, it is assumed that the weight of the new dome would be a very light weighted structure which can possibly be lighter than the existing building. Without knowing the current foundation layout, type and design information, it was suggested by Dr. A. Hanna, Foundation professor at Concordia University, that the existing foundation can be reused for the new dome. The current basement is used as a kitchen for providing food to the Grey Nuns building. As the new dome will mainly serve as a sitting and eating area, it is proposed to use the basement as a kitchen as well to provide food to the ground floor which will be mainly a buffet area. However, the column layout will be changed and redesigned to support the weight of the slab at the ground floor level.

4.5 Structural Analysis of the Dome


The analysis of the dome with respect to the gravity (see Figure 21) and lateral loads (see Figure 22) has been done using SAP 2000. The model was assembled using the existing cylindrical vault and sphere templates for which we determined the common height and the total length which were then merged together. Thereafter, the gravity loads and seismic lateral were assigned and the analysis was done on the model made up of HSS members. The results shows that the dome is structurally sound when using HSS 219X10 for the horizontal members and HSS 60X3 for the vertical and bracing members.

Figure 21 Dome analysis under gravity loads 23 | P a g e

Figure 22 Dome analysis under seismic load

4.5.1

Structural components

4.5.1.1 Steel members The dome structure will be entirely made up of HSS steel members for aesthetical reasons and also because the self-weight of the member is lighter than other steel members. Due to its light weight, the HSS members are an advantageous choice of material because they are more economical. Other advantages of HSS steel members include their strength to weight ratio, their ease of fabrication, they are easily bent compared to W-section members and they can be recycled for other purposes. 4.5.1.2 Bracing Bracings have been added to the preliminary design of the dome in order to achieve triangular shapes knowing that triangles are the most stable shapes due to their fixed angles which will increase the durability and stability of dome. 4.5.1.3 Connections The HSS tube members need to be connected at each joint and they can be done through bolting or welding. However, it is not always convenient due to the angle created by the sloped members of the dome. As a result, extruded aluminum nodes along with triodetic connections have been chosen to connect the HSS members because they are specifically designed for this type of 24 | P a g e

connections. There is no calculation design required for this type of nodes because they are manufactured and are chosen based on the axial forces exerted on them by the steel members.

Figure 23 Triodetic Node and Connection [5]

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4.6 Slab & Column Design


The slab has a thickness of 245 mm and is made of reinforced concrete. The slab design has been separated into two parts due to the different loads that are being applied on the slab. The ground floor has been separated into two categories: the assembly area and the sitting area. The assembly area has a live load of 4.8 kPa which has been determined from the NBCC 2010. Whereas the sitting area will include grass, trees and soil which explains the need of considering a 10 kPa live load. In order to support the weight of the new slab with variable live loads, new columns have been designed in respect to the new loading. However, the dimensions of the new columns supporting the slab at the basement level will not be uniform for the interior, edge and corner columns. The new dimensions are listed in the table below: Interior Assembly area Sitting area 400x400 mm 800x800 mm Corner 200x200 mm 300x300 mm Edge 450x450 mm 850x850 mm

Table 2 New Columns Dimensions

Figure 24 Assembly area NS (Bottom reinforcement)

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4.7 Stairs Design


The stairs have been designed in concrete inside the dome, since the entire slab and columns of the dome, leading to the basement, are in concrete. The design procedure involves calculating dead and live loads and separating these into stairs slab and flight section of stairs. According to the National Building Code of Canada, for stair design regulations, a rise of 200 mm following a run of 250 mm was chosen as a suitable combination for the service type stairs of height of 3.60 m, with a railing of 0.8 m or 800 mm. The slab design length was determined to be 1.495 m, 0.245 m thick (245 mm slab thickness). The dome staircase will originate in the basement and lead to the ground floor upstairs, in a simple two-way staircase design. The width of each staircase is 1.25 m, with a total 2.50 m for both sides longitudinally. The stairs will be supported by the foundation columns and beams, designed in concrete. The slab thickness, as mentioned previously, has a thickness of 245 mm and this is also the thickness of the stairs slab, from both levels. In terms of the structural analysis, the stairs were designed based on concrete stairs design. The reactions were calculated and the maximum moment was determined to be 43 kN.m. The design was also analyzed using the ETABS software and maximum reactions and bending moment were determined. The reinforcement detailing is provided in the Appendix, along with the calculations.

Figure 25 Concrete Stairs, Dome (AutoCAD)

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4.8 Environmentally Sustainable Design


One of the objectives of designing an energy-efficient glass dome is to provide Concordia Universitys campus with a sustainable building, able to positively contribute to the environment and preserve the natural resources, such as sunlight and water. Although ecological buildings are costly and require more maintenance than regularly-constructed buildings, the long-term effects are outnumbered and significantly proficient. The goal of this project is to construct a building that may eventually become LEED certified. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design has become increasingly renowned throughout Canada, and several buildings in Montreal have become accredited. Having a certified building as part of Concordia Universitys central campus buildings will encourage positive conservation action and benefit the communitys health and overall quality of the environment. 4.8.1 Solar Energy An approximate 1600 m2 surface area of glazing will cover the steel framework for the dome. This glass area is considered in design as glazing; it replaces exterior walls and provides a distinguished architectural detailing. The glass dome is an overall green building, using natural light as the main energy source. The heat penetrating the glass structure allows a constant supply of heat and light during daylight hours, which significantly reduces electricity usage throughout the building. Furthermore, the glass dome has a curvilinear roof which allows water and snow to easily flow down since minimal friction is present on glass rooftops. Research indicates that glass roofs also facilitate drainage and water collection when the building has an existing heating system. During the winter season, the region of Montreal experiences numerous snowfalls, and this increases the dead load on the roof. However, since the glass dome is a heated building, most of the snow will melt and slide into the collecting gutters on the sides of the building.

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4.8.2 Rainwater Collection & Recycling System An additional environmental aspect designed in the glass dome is the rainwater recycling and collection system. Glass is a type of material that has minimal frictional losses when fluids come into contact with it. Since Montreals climatic conditions include several rain and snow falls, it is reasonable to find ways to use this water for indoor building usages. 1. Design Brief The overall design includes two aspects: the pipe network for water collection, and the pumping system for running indoor water usages. The rainwater will initially be filtered from dirt and debris before entering the vertical pipes. The water will be recycled from a series of collecting pipes, which will connect to an underground pipe network. This network will then merge into a water tank of 24 m3, where all the rainwater will sit. A pumping system able to bring the water from the basement level to the ground floor, will pump water used for drinking or sanitary purposes. 2. Rational Method for Estimating Peak Flow Rate The rational method was used for estimating peak flow rate in this design. In order to ensure a both safe and economical design, the maximum flow rate is used as the main flow rate, that is Q= Qp. In this procedure, three components are needed: the rational method coefficient, C, the surface area, and the rainfall intensity. The peak flow rate is the product of CiA. For most rooftops having a slope, C is estimated as 0.9. The area of the glass roof for the dome is 653 m2. For calculating rainfall intensity, a design equation for the Montreal region was used.
t (min) Duration of Rainfall 30 45 60 75 100 120 52.01 38.32 30.34 25.11 19.50 16.55 62.35 46.49 37.07 30.82 24.06 20.47 Rainfall Intensity (mm/h) 2184.4 / (t + 12) Rainfall Intensity (mm/h) 2743.2 / (t + 14)

Table 3 Alternative Estimation, Montreal Rainfall Intensity

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Alternative Method 1: Determining Rainfall Intensity from Return Period and Duration The above mentioned formula provides an estimate of the rainfall intensity in mm/h in the Montreal region. For a 10 year return period of a 60 min rainfall duration, the intensity is calculated as 37.07 mm/h. This results in a peak flow rate of 0.00604 m3/s. In Quebec, most rainfall intensities are studied based on a 10-year return period. This corresponds to the frequency of having a similar storm repeated with the same intensity. A return period of 5-10 years is applicable for urban drainage applications, such as this design. Alternative Method 2: Determining Rainfall Intensity Using Historical/Statistical Data
Month Rainfall (mm) January February March April May June July August Rainfall (inches) Snowfall (mm) Snowfall (inches) Wet Snow (inches) Total Precipitation (inches)

28.40 22.70 42.20 65.20 86.10 87.50 106.20 100.60

1.12 0.89 1.66 2.57 3.39 3.44 4.18 3.96 3.97 3.23 2.71 1.75

45.90 46.60 36.80 11.80 0.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.20 24.90

1.81 1.83 1.45 0.46 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.98 Sum Wet Snow, inches/year

0.18 0.18 0.14 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.10 0.66

1.30 1.08 1.81 2.61 3.39 3.44 4.18 3.96 3.97 3.23 2.72 1.85 2.80

September 100.80 October

82.10

November 68.90 December

44.40

Table 4 Historical Data from Weather Statistics

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Another method was used to estimate rainfall intensity which incorporated statistical and historical rainfall and snowfall data, as shown above. The total rainfall and snowfall for a one year time span was calculated and divided into a monthly period. The snowfall depths were converted into water depths, and this amount was added to the rainfall depth. A total average monthly rainfall calculation was obtained as 70.86 mm/month; this calculation included both rain and snowfall depths. This method has proved to be inaccurate since the return period and the average duration of the rainfall were both neglected in the calculation. For this reason, the first method is deemed more accurate and is used as the main procedure for determining Montreals average rainfall intensity. An important design aspect to consider for the peak flow rate is the area of the dome surface. In other design situations, the area is much larger, and the resulting peak flow rate is consequently higher. However, the surface area being used in this design is where the water will be collected, which is from the rooftop of the dome. 1. HARDY-CROSS METHOD FOR FLOW DISTRIBUTION

The Hardy-Cross method is a flow rate assumption procedure for estimating the way in which flows will separate within a pipe network. The pipe system will originate on the sides of the dome structure. Vertical steel pipes extending into the ground will be placed along the two longitudinal edges of the dome. 10 pipes, five on each side, of a specific design diameter will run vertically down, and reach the basement of the dome. An underground piping network will connect the 10 pipes into 6 pipes, which will then have two sets of 3 pipes merging into one pipe, connected to a water tank. The design layout is shown as follows:

Water Tank

Figure 26 Pipe Network Design

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The initial estimation is done using the Hardy-Cross method. The peak flow rate calculated of 0.00604 m3/s is divided into 10 separate flow rates entering the vertical pipes. Therefore, the individual flow rates entering are each 0.000604 m3/s. The assumption for estimating flow distribution is that the entire flow rate will separate into 50% when it reaches the underground piping system (shown as white arrows). In other words, 50% of 0.000604 m3/s will go to the left pipe and the remaining 50% will enter the right pipe. This assumption is valid for all the outside pipes, except for those pipes overlapping. In this case, all 0.000604 m3/s is assumed to enter the second pipe, as well as the 50-50 left/right distribution. As a result, the flow rate is distributed evenly and assumed to be balanced under the Hardy-Cross estimation method. This method for estimating flow rate distribution is based on a 50% division of flow; this means that the flow separates according to an assumption that every pipe opening intakes 50% of the incoming flow. The initial flow rate, estimated as 0.000604 m3/s for each vertical pipe, eventually accumulates to a flow rate of 0.00604 m3/s. The flow rate was assumed to divide into a 50% division because this allows for maximum flow rate analysis. It is also much easier in terms of analyzing the flow rate sequence, and since the total flow rate is the same, it is safe for one to assume a 50% distribution within the pipes. 2. OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW The initial phase of designing a pipe network is the type of flow occurring throughout the channel. In this case, since rainwater will be collected and passed through a series of pipes, openchannel flow design is chosen. The free flow is also estimated to fill the pipe at 2/3 the total crosssectional area. The design is therefore approximated as a partially-filled open channel pipe system.

Figure 27 Partially-filled Pipe [6] 32 | P a g e

The ration d/D of 2/3 is seen as the most reasonable approximation for open-channel pipes. The rainfall intensity and duration are both unpredictable quantities which may differ from period to period. The channel cannot be approximated as closed-channel because this limits the design to one direction of analysis. Therefore, after several consultations with the hydraulics department of the university, the estimation of 2/3 filled channel was chosen, since is provides a relatively even assessment of open-channel flow with a pipe 2/3 fully filled. 3. PIPE DESIGN & MATERIAL The pipe material was chosen based on reliability, strength, and economy. Although aluminum and iron pipes were suitable for the design, corrugated commercial steel was chosen because it is inexpensive, performs well under pressure, and fits reasonably with the overall dome steel framework. Since the pipes on the outside will be connected to the steel framework, this will also provide an aesthetic balance of material for the steel structure. The design procedure was accomplished using the Mannings equation for open-channel flow. Mannings equation related the roughness of the material, the hydraulic radius of the pipe, as well as the slope of the pipe to obtain the velocity or flow rate required. In this case, the flow rate (peak flow rate) is known; the only missing parameter is the diameter which is indirectly obtained from the hydraulic radius. For partially-filled pipes, the hydraulic radius is calculated using the following equation: Rh (partially filled pipe) = 0.25 * (a - sina)/a * D Where a is the internal angle illustrated between the arrows in figure 2, and D is the total pipe diameter The Mannings equation is used to determine the design diameter, using 2/3 of the total area:

1/n *(0.25 * (1 - sin a)/a * D) 2/3 * (So) 0.5= Q / (2/3 * A) Based on these two mentioned equations, a design formula was determined to design for the required design diameter of the pipes. Referring to the Appendix, the outside pipe diameter for the vertical pipes collecting the rainwater was designed to be 6 inches (168 mm diameter). This 33 | P a g e

design was based on combining the slope requirements and flow rate mergence from the rainfall. In the underground pipe network, where all pipes of diameter 6 inches merge into one flow, as shown in the figure, a larger diameter is required. Combining three flow rates Q1 + Q2 + Q3 will result in a maximum flow of 0.00302 m3/s. From this design flow rate, a new equation is formulated based on the design slope and Mannings equation to find a suitable diameter. Referring to the appendix, the design diameter is calculated to be 10 inches. The ratio of d/D is that of the distance between the bottom of the pipe to the surface of the water, with the total height or diameter of the pipe. The assumption used for this design is that d/D is 2/3 or 67% full. This assumption is valid for partially-filled pipes. In order to determine the pipe diameter, Mannings equation is used, with a Mannings friction coefficient of 0.024 for design n in steel pipes. The slope is determined according to the design layout of the domes interior area. The height of the dome is 10 m, and the basement extends 4 m underground. Several trial and error procedures have been made to obtain an optimal slope that will result in a large enough diameter without great frictional losses. Horizontal pipes are found all around the pipe network, right below the vertical connecting pipes. These horizontal pipes connect to 6 sloped pipes, two pairs of 2 on the longer side of the dome, and one pair on each side on the short section of the dome, as shown in the following figure. The first slope is measured as 1.5/7 (0.214) whereas the second slope is 0.85/9 (0.0944). Including sloped pipelines will increase the velocity and will provide kinetic energy from the energy potential. However, to ensure a balanced increase in velocity that will not damage the steel pipe, an expansion is designed between the two connecting sections to control the velocity increase. In addition, the merging pipes will then connect horizontally (slope = 0) and lead to the collecting water tank on both sides.

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Nominal Size Inches 2 and 1/2 3.00 5.00 6.00 10.00 12.00 16.00

Outside Diameter Inches 2.88 3.50 5.56 6.63 10.75 12.75 16.75 mm 73.72 89.74 142.64 169.87 275.64 326.92 429.49

Thick-ness inches 0.20 0.22 0.26 0.28 0.37 0.38 0.38 mm 5.21 5.54 6.62 6.35 10.39 12.38 16.38 Actual Diameter (mm) 68.51 84.21 136.03 163.53 265.26 314.55 413.11 Design Check (d >= to d min) no no no yes yes yes yes

Table 4.1: Design Diameter Checks

Figure 28 Dome Pipe System Layout (AutoCAD)

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4. PIPE FITTINGS & GUTTERS

According to the pipe network layout as well as the design diameters, pipe fittings are drawn based on the required measurements. It is important to note that each pipe has an internal and external diameter, due to the thickness of the pipe. Referring to the appendix, specific pipe thicknesses have been used based on the desired design diameter. The 6-inch pipe has an external diameter of 6.75 inches, and a thickness of 0.28 inches. The corner pipe fittings of 90 degree angles will have three openings of 6 inch diameters: one at the top from the vertical pipe, and two on the sides, connected to the left and right pipes respectively. The second type of pipe fitting is the connection between left and right pipes to the central pipe, as shown as A-A in the layout. This fitting has the same dimensions as the corner pipe, except the third opening will be a horizontal central opening, rather than on the top. The third pipe fitting is the most complex, containing four connections from the top, the two sides, and the center, of 6 inch diameters. Lastly, the system will be connected to two individual pipes of 10 inch diameters, where the back side, front side, and left and right sides will include openings. The only difference is that the front side will lead to the water tank, and therefore will have the diameter of 10inches, whereas all the others will have a diameter of 8 inches to merge into one large pipe of 10 inches. The gutters for this specific pipe network layout depend on size, material, and gutter type. The stainless steel U-shaped gutter is the most suitable type of gutter for the dome, since the rounded nature of the gutter allows water to easily flow into the vertical pipe, which has a circular cross-section and fits properly with the steel framework of the dome. The following image depicts the type of connection designed for the gutter system around the dome.

Figure 29 U-Shaped Steel Gutter [7] 36 | P a g e

As shown above, the gutters will have a circular cross-section, of diameter 250 mm, based on the calculated diameter for the vertical pipes. A gutter size of 250 mm is chosen to accommodate the 6 inch (15 cm) diameter vertical pipes running vertically down the gutter system. The gutter system will be supported by a series of half-round gutter brackets, also of 25 cm diameter. These supports will run along the perimeter of the dome in order to sustain the steel gutter system. A detailed drawing for the U-shaped gutter ad bracket has been provided in the appendix.

Figure 30 Longitude U-Shaped Gutter System Component [22] 5. WATER RECYCLING & USAGE

The purpose of providing a rainwater harvesting system inside the dome building is to recycle the water and benefit from its collection. Several uses can be made simply by filtering and recycling the water, however due to limited water supply and design knowledge, the recycled water may be used for supplying a central water fountain at the center of the dome, or for kitchen and bathrooms situated inside the dome. The water tank collecting all the water from the runoff is located in the basement. After a heavy rainfall, the water will flow into the two pipes connected to the water tank, which will have sand filters along the cross-section between the water tank and the pipes. Rather than using water supply provided from water storage tanks, the proposed design allows the dome to obtain its own water recycling system, where original rain water can be filtered and used to supply small quantities where needed. Figure 3 describes the main procedure of

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rainwater harvesting systems. Initially, the water is collected via pipes or ducts that lead to a collection system into a water tank. Inside the tank, several filtration methods may be used. The exterior pipes will have nets to remove dirt and debris before entering the pipe network. The tank will include a filtration system. A pump will then be placed in the top-center of the tank and will pump the water into several pipes for water use, in the kitchen and the bathroom. Once the water has been consumed, a drain pipe will be connected to each location using the rainwater, and will exit into a duct for sewage. To prevent overflow or flooding, the water tank will include an overflow trap of 6 inch diameter that will flow underground into the soil.

Figure 31 Rainwater Harvesting System [8]

Rainwater recycling has been deemed highly effective in terms of economic, social, and environmental aspects. The benefits are numerous, and include: Reduction of Water Main Dependence: Throughout the years, caution has been made for reducing the use of household and commercial water supplies from the water main. The outnumbered water quantities wasted and used has been increasing periodically, and this has reduced the amount of water available. In 38 | P a g e

order to promote sustainability, recycling rainwater will preserve the water supply and benefit the environment by saving water supplies. Economic and Sustainable: Collecting and recycling rainwater is beneficial for reducing costs and wastage. The overall electricity bill is reduced when water is recycled, since the water collected is free of charge. Although installation and pump operating costs are required, these costs are minute in comparison to the total energy savings for the dome. Health Benefits to Society: Harvesting rainwater is said to be healthier for individuals than the treated water supplies, of which undergo several filtration and chemical treatment processes, such as purifying with chlorine and other hazardous chemicals. Rainwater is more beneficial and provides a safe water and natural water supply.

6. PUMP REQUIREMENTS

Laboratory experiments have been used to determine the power required to lift water in horsepower. Since the two pipes carrying flow rates of 0.00302 m3/s will merge into one flow rate, the total flow inside the tank will be 0.00604 m3/s. According to the calculated flow rate of 0.00604 m3/s, the conversion to gallons per minute becomes 95.8 gpm. This flow rate is high because the rainwater flow rates from each of the ten exterior pipes will merge into one flow rate. Referring to the Appendix, the table provided includes the flow rate and pumping height as variables to determine the pumping power required. From double interpolation, with a pumping height of 4 meters (13 ft), the approximate horsepower required for the pump is 0.3416 hp. For safety and economic measures, a hp commercial submersible pump will be placed at the center of the tank to pump the water into ducts, which will eventually flow water to supply the kitchen and bathrooms. 7. LOSSES IN PIPES

The two important aspects when determining losses in the pipe network designed are the major and minor losses. Major losses, calculated using the Darcy-Weisbach Equation, are frictional losses due to the length of the pipe. The minor losses are present from the bends, curves, 39 | P a g e

sudden expansions or contractions along a pipe. In this design, energy conservation and minimization of energy losses must be taken into consideration. For pipe flow, the optimal design is one which has the least major and minor losses. Material of pipe, length, flow rate, and diameter are all important parameters influencing the losses in the pipe. For the pipe network, individual minor and major losses were calculated based on the known flow rate and design diameters. Major Head Loss = HL = (f) X (L/D) (V2/2g), where f is the Darcy friction factor Minor Head Loss = HL = (k) (V2)/2g, where k is the minor loss coefficient According to the appendix, the losses for both lengths of the pipes and the bends and curves are insignificantly low. This is because large losses come from long lengths of the pipes, over 100 m long, and the ones designed for this pipe system are altogether less than 100 m, which therefore significantly reduces the frictional losses. In addition, the flow rate for each pipe is low compared to average flow rates, since it was determined based on the rational method and intensity, and then divided into 10 different flow rates. The total flow then reduces from 0.00604 to 0.000604 m^3/s, or 0.64 L/s.

8. DESIGN LIMITATIONS AND DIFFICULTIES

The rainwater collection and harvesting system requires several design procedures and considerations. The main difficulty arose when formulating a method to determine the design diameter. Initial considerations were made regarding the type of channel flow for analysis. After several consultations with the Hydraulics Department of Concordia University, the type of channel most suitable for this pipe network was chosen as open-channel flow, with a d/D ratio of 2/3 (67%). The approximation was considered to be most accurate since 67% is larger than a half-filled pipe but smaller than a closed-channel flow analysis. From this chosen analysis, the Mannings equation was the acceptable method to determine the design diameter from the calculated flow rate. Furthermore, since the basis of all analysis and design calculations originates from the flow rate, Q, the method to determine the most accurate flow rate was another limitation for the pipe 40 | P a g e

network design. Although numerous methods and research formalities exist to estimate peak flow rates and rainfall intensities, the design was limited to the procedures learnt in the Water Resources Engineering course. The rational method for estimating peak flow rate was used, however the rainfall intensity was difficult to calculate. Three different techniques were used to estimate rainfall intensity, all of which resulted in different measurements. In addition, snowfall was also taken into consideration in some procedures, but neglected in others. Overall, the most accurate method for rainfall intensity calculation was chosen based on the Montreal region, return period, and rainfall duration. These variables were tabulated and the rainfall intensity was calculated for a 10-year return period of 60-min storm duration, which was most reasonable. An additional calculation concern resulted in the analysis of the pipe network. The water velocities inside pipes, according to laboratory research, ranges between 1-3 m/s. When the velocities were calculated according to the diameter cross-sectional areas and flow rates, the velocity was very low in comparison to the usual range. This problem was due to the flow rate distributions along the pipe, as well as from the overdesign of the pipe diameters to prevent overflow and corrosion. A design buffer time is included to slow down the velocity as the water is collected along the steel gutters. This buffer time allows the rainwater to reach the vertical pipes at a reasonable velocity, within the acceptable range. Converting the potential energy to the kinetic energy also allows one to determine the speed of the water flowing down. Due to the buffer time, the velocity is stabilized and the results become reasonable. In addition, the pressure drop between the pipes is very low; roughly 0.05 Pa along one pipe connection. With a small Darcy friction factor, and a low flow rate, the total pressure difference between the 7 m pipe of Q = 0.001208 m3/s is almost negligible.

9. RESOURCES USED FOR DESIGN The pipe network design has been designed according to the nominal pipe diameters, Mannings equation for open-channel flow, the Hardy-Cross method for estimating flow rate distribution, the rational method for estimating peak flow, and the Hazen-Williams equation for calculating frictional losses. With the aid of research, scholarly articles and texts, as well as individual consultations with professors from Concordia University, the network has been designed. Dr. Samuel Li, Dr. Han, as well as Dr. Catherine Mulligan are the faculty members that 41 | P a g e

guided the design process and answered any questions or concerns regarding the design considerations. Several useful handbooks and text material served as an aid to the design process, including the Water Resources Engineering textbook by Wurbs and James, as well as nominal pipe ASTM standards. In addition, online research regarding pipe network design and analysis was done for ensuring that correct procedures were followed. Rainwater recycling was another key research item for designing the rainwater collection system.

10. LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN (LEED)

The objective for designing and constructing the glass dome in the center of Concordia Universitys future headquarters is principally to have an environmentally sustainable, aesthetically pleasing, LEED building for faculty, staff, students, and visitors. With the increasing concern for the environment becoming a central design consideration for architects and engineers, it is with no doubt that the new innovative buildings being designed nowadays must incorporate LEED standards. Several aspects have been taken into consideration to gain LEED certification. The glass domes environmentally sustainable characteristics have been outlined in the following section. The main points were adapted from the Construction Week Article as well as the U.S Green Building Council on Leed Certification [9]. 1. Site selection: The Grey Nuns site location, along Rene-Levesque and St. Mathieu, with a proximity to the main St. Catherines street, is a grey area, since it is far from sensitive areas like farmland, flood zone, endangered species habitat, and wetlands This site selection is therefore safe for humans and protects the habitat by not conflicting with natural areas [10]

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2. Density and community connectivity: For the site to be deemed community-connected, it must be within 0.8 km radius of at least 10 basic services and 3 residential zones. The Grey Nuns building is located less than 0.5 km away from basic services offered on St. Catherine Street, as well 1 km away from residential duplexes on St. Mathieu Street. As displayed in Figure 32, the proximity to both basic services along St. Catherine Street and Rene-

Levesque provide nearby access from the Grey Nuns building. In addition, several located residential around the duplexes Grey are Nuns

building, along St. Mathieu and St. Marc. Figure 32 Grey Nuns Building Map

3. Alternative transportation, public transportation access, parking capacity: This site is located in the central downtown area of Montreal, with a minimum of 3 bus lines, and 2 metro stations (Peel and Guy-Concordia), as well as Lucien-LAllier metro station slightly further on Rene-Levesque street. 4. Rainwater management: A rainwater recycling and collection system has been designed using ASTM pipe measurements, which allows rainwater to enter the building and reach an underground piping system for filtration. The collected water will then be pumped up to the ground floor of the building for water usage. 5. Building Daylight Maximization: The entire surface area of the dome is composed of glass material for glazing. This allows constant supply of daylight into the building as well as heat. The solar energy provided by the sun entering the dome will account for maximal energy savings on electricity and heat.

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6. Storage and collection of recyclables: Storage bins for three individual materials (plastics, paper, and garbage) will be placed in 5 locations around the dome to encourage compost and recycling. 7. Building reuse: The demolished kitchen building will contain several materials (concrete, steel, brick, wood, pipes) that may be reused for the construction of the dome or the renovation of the GN Building. Roughly 15% of the demolished material will be inputted into the new construction inside the concrete mix for columns and slabs. 8. Construction waste management: The waste generated from the excavation, demolition, and construction processes will be redirected to manufacturing industries to recover the resources rather than placed into landfills and incinerators. 9. Regional materials: Building materials such as concrete, steel, stainless steel pipes, storage tanks, pumps, glass, and steel staircase models are all from regional companies (around the Montreal region) to encourage local industrial development. 10. Parking and Open Space: Extra parking spaces as well as green area were included in the design to allow easy access to and from the GN and dome buildings; bike racks are to be installed near the park behind the GN building, where the dome is placed to encourage alternative green transportation modes.

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5.0 TUNNEL
5.1 Introduction
The Montreal region experiences extreme temperatures in both summer and winter conditions. Exterior passageways have an increased amount of traffic during the academic year, and this decreases travel convenience for students and staff. A solution to both the traffic and climate concerns is the construction of an underground tunnel, initiating from the basement extremity of the GN F-wing building and merging onto the Toronto Dominion Bank Building (TD), along the Ste. Catherine and Guy Street intersection. A similar tunnel, connecting the TD Bank building with the previously constructed MB Building tunnel, is a proposed design from another coordinating civil engineering team. This team project coordination facilitates both designs since the tunnel connection will serve as a comfortable passageway from the GN building to across the MB building, which already has an easy access to GuyMetro and the rest of Concordia University. The proposed 200-meter-long underground tunnel runs parallel to Guy St. and intersects St. Catherine Street and connects to the TD Bank building as shown in Figure 33Error! Reference source not found.. The purpose of the tunnel is to provide residents and faculty of Concordia

University a safe and easy access to the GuyConcordia Metro and to the rest of Concordia Figure 33 Map of Tunnel University. Furthermore, it will decrease the pedestrian traffic on the main roads especially during rain and winter seasons. With the Administration & Governance office and a Cafeteria in the Grey Nuns building its also necessary that Chartwells, Concordias on -campus food services, and Concordias courier service have a passage for them to make their necessary deliveries.

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5.2 Geotechnical Report


Since a thorough site investigation was not performed due to limited resources and time, the previous geotechnical report of the Hall building tunnel was used as a reference. According to the geotechnical report, the site condition consist of a fill layer, glacial till layer, and the bedrock layer. The fill layer consists of loose to compact brown silts and sand. Furthermore, three to four inches of asphalt pavement and 6 to 12 inches thick reinforced concrete slab layer was found resting on top of the fill layer. Compacted to very dense glacial till, which is composition of sand silt and some gravel, was found at 2.3ft to 4ft, and as the depth increases glacial till becomes coarser. The bedrock is clayey limestone approximately at 18 to 27ft elevation and according to the report it is of good quality. Moreover there is also groundwater at about 18 to 22ft depth.

5.3 Load Calculations


The loads on the tunnel are the self-weight of the tunnel, soil pressure, and the truck load. There are two types of load that were accounted for: live and dead load. For simplification of the design and analysis purpose, all loads were based on a meter strip. The live load was considered as the maximum truck load that a tunnel will have to withstand. It was assumed that the heaviest truck on Rue Guy and Rue St. Catherine would be a triaxial truck. According to the Vehicle Load and Size Limits Guide of Quebec, a trixial truck has a weight of 15500kg [11]. Any moving load was not accounted for since the depth of the tunnel is 3.0m (10ft) and has minimal effect on the tunnel. Additionally, all live loads were increased with a factor of 1.7 and all dead loads Figure 34 Load Summary were increased with a factor of

1.25 as prescribed as by the Canadian Highway Bridge Code Design Code [12]. The analysis of the tunnel was done on SAP2000, where it was design as a frame and all loads were inputted in kilo-newton per meter. To consider the uplift force on the tunnel from the soil below in the

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SAP2000 model, springs, with a subgrade reaction of 20MN, were assigned to the bottom frame [13]. Furthermore, according to the geotechnical report, it was advised that for load analysis purposes, earth pressure coefficient at rest (Ko) for fill material should be considered instead of active earth pressure coefficient (Ka).

5.4 Tunnel Properties and Assumptions


The tunnel dimensions were based on the current hall building-Guy Concordia Metro. The cross sectional dimension of the tunnel are 4.55m width with a height of 3.4m. The clear span of the tunnel is 2.6m and the height is 3.0m. The thickness of the slabs and wall are 0.4m which were approximated. The tunnel was designed as a concrete box frame and analyzed as slabs and basement walls, with concrete strength to be 30MPa and steel strength to be 400MPa. It was also assumed that the geotechnical properties were similar to the properties of the Hall building tunnel because of the close proximity. Through collaboration with team four member, Julien, and the geotechnical report it was decided that since the water table is close to the bedrock, it will be drained out using a simple piping system. This decision was taken to eliminate design and analysis complication due to water, since the water table above the bedrock is about two to three feet, knowing that the tunnel is one to two feet above the bedrock. Refer to the appendix for the final design of the tunnel.

Figure 35 Tunnel Cross Section 47 | P a g e

5.5 Alternative Tunnel Design


Initially the design of tunnel was assumed as a beam column structure. The preliminary calculations for the structure were done based on the final load calculations. The beam column connections were pinned on the top therefore the axial load on the column was determined by calculating the reactions of the simply supported beam. The fixed end moments were determined by the Moment Distribution Method. Please refer to the appendix for sample calculations of the beam column design. For the analysis of the tunnel, the structure was modeled on ETABS as a frame with both top ends with pin connections and fixed supports at the bottom ends of the frame. According to the bending moment diagram from ETABS results (Figure 36) there is no moment at section A and B due to the pin connections thus no moment transfer in the column. Therefore, the moment at the mid span is increased compared to the actual moment on the top slab of the tunnel. Hence, the beam column analysis for the tunnel was not appropriate. The tunnel was redesigned as a combination of slabs and basement walls as recommended by Dr. Galal, professor at Concordia University.

Figure 36: Bending Moment Diagram Generated by ETABS for Alternative Design

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6.0 COMPREHENSIVE COST ANALYSIS


For a project of this complexity, a detailed cost estimate is required for each of the 3 main components of the project. Each component of the construction process had to be measured out and recorded into a thorough quantity take-off. Unit costs then required applying final costs to the quantities measured in the take-off. These costs were combined in order to achieve a final construction cost for each of the sections of the project in order to determine the feasibility of the project, as well as aid in the production of a comprehensive and realistic project schedule.

6.1 WinEstimator Software


The majority of the estimate was completed using a high quality estimating software; WinEstimator. This software uses a virtual quantity take-off which allows the user to import AutoCAD drawings of the construction documents, scale the drawings based on the proper dimensions and measure lengths or areas of the construction components required for the project. For example, the renovation of the GN building required the installation of a new steel deck for each floor of the building. Using WinEst, the thickness of the slab was entered, the materials needed, such as 30 MPa concrete with aggregate, structural steel decking, sprayed fireproofing, welded wire mesh and finishing were chosen, and the area of the slab was digitized as seen in Figure 377. The program combines this data and outputs quantities for each of the selected materials under a specific assembly name Slab on Deck, which can then be detailed further by noting the location as GN2 and the work breakdown structure as Structural Components as seen in Figure 388. These details allow for the final quantities to be shown either in their entirety in a typical CSI Hierarchy, or organized based on specific sections of the work such as the total cost of the structural components of the GN building reconstruction.

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Figure 37 WinEst Virtual Take-Off Slab Area Example Many sections of the estimate were completed using WinEst; demolition, interior finishing, structural steel, slabs, precast concrete, millwork, interior glazing, excavation and generalized pricing for mechanical and electrical components. These items were priced based on typical unit costs from similar historical construction projects. The majority of these construction materials are used in almost every construction project and average prices were readily available. Though constructing an underground tunnel in an occupied urban atmosphere is a complicated procedure, the materials and work needed to be done are fairly typical and require commonly used processes such as; excavation, precast concrete sections, cement finishing, waterproofing and paving. The complete 20 page quantity take-off was transferred to Excel format and can be found in the appendix.

Figure 38 Slab on Deck Assembly Example on WinEst

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6.2 Subcontractor Price Quotations


Other components of this construction were more complex and could not be priced based on historical projects due to the uniqueness of this project. These prices had to be obtained through quotations from subcontracted specialty companies that could supply a more realistic price for work of this scale. The first company that provided a quotation was Vergo Construction for the supply and installation of the 260 m2, 224-seat auditorium; which was designed including the necessary structure, seating and speakers podium. Due to the work needed to put the building to code and construct the auditorium in a structure this old, the price was more than a typical auditorium would cost. The final price was entered at $1.4M for the entirety of the work which spans over 2 stories. The second specialty contractor that was planned to provide a quotation for this project was Seele, a company at the forefront of the specialty structural steel and glazing industry having completed a number of glass dome projects of similar nature and far bigger size. The slab beneath the dome was priced using WinEst. As for the quantities, the dome was calculated to have over 1,370 m2 of steel and glass. Unfortunately, Seele was unable to provide a proper quotation in time for the final estimate, but an estimated cost of $600,000 was provided by a Concordia University Professor. Along with the remainder of the work, the total cost of the dome was entered at slightly under $1.1M.

6.3 Total Estimated Cost Analysis


The cost estimate was completed once the unit prices and quoted prices were entered into WinEstimator and the final cost breakdown was completed. All labor and materials were taken into account for the completion of the cost analysis, though certain components such as contingencies, general conditions, permits and precise mechanical, electrical and plumbing prices were not included which would increase the total cost of the project considerably. The final cost of the GN building renovation is $9,130,285 which includes demolition, as well as structural and interior renovation. The total cost of the Dome was found to be $1,078,586 which includes the addition of a kitchen to the basement, the slab, the structure, glazing and interior finishing. The total cost of materials and labor of the tunnel was found to be $2,795,205 which includes the excavation, concrete, interior finishing and hard landscaping. This brings the total project cost to $13,010,601 for which a general cost breakdown for each section

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of the project can be found in Table 5.


CSI Dome 2000 3000 5000 6000 8000 9000 10000 12000 15000 Sitework Concrete Steel Wood and Plastics Doors and Windows Finishes Specialties Furnishings Mechanical, Sprinklers Main Structure 2000 2050 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 12000 14000 15000 Sitework Demolition Concrete Masonry Steel Wood and Plastics Thermal and Moisture Protection Doors and Windows Finishes Specialties Furnishings Conveying Systems Mechanical, Sprinklers Tunnel 2000 3000 7000 9000 15000 Sitework Concrete Thermal and Moisture Protection Finishes Mechanical, Sprinklers Grand Total Electrical, 2,705.73 Electrical, 147,500.00 8,100.00 390 54,649.43 22,236.78 550.63 107,828.98 Electrical, 4,239.92 10,590.29 25,253.89 Division Labor Total 4,239.92 Mat Total 35,844.18 Subs Total 436,767.13 53,965.22 9,307.41 90,219.50 11,850.00 1,920.00 51,825.00 14,230.00 14,200.00 189,250.00 Equip Total 1,734.78 1,734.78 Other Total Grand Total 1,078,586.01 55,700.00 34,561.30 690,219.50 26,680.21 1,920.00 51,825.00 14,230.00 14,200.00 189,250.00

63,690.07

444,807.00 167,241.24

7,122,528.99 126,342.25 1,027,584.76 112,267.49 142,745.00 1,752,007.72 101,486.73 452,942.21 586,057.30 1,571,295.54 136,200.00 274,000.00 155,000.00 684,600.00

5,237.60 5,237.60

1,500,545.87

9,136,809.53 298,821.09

71,658.33

1,099,243.09 220,647.11 142,745.00 1,752,397.72 178,372.94 452,942.21 594,157.30 1,571,295.54

1,400,000.08 28,887.46

1,536,200.08 450,387.46 155,000.00 684,600.00

2,705.73

982,507.70 95,812.32 886,695.38

881,991.89 510,045.69

928,000.00 928,000.00

2,795,205.32 1,533,858.01 889,401.10

65,551.20 87,895.00 218,500.00

65,551.20 87,895.00 218,500.00

70,635.72

1,463,158.88

8,441,288.01

6,972.38

2,428,545.87

13,010,600.86

Table 5 Complete Cost Estimate Summary

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7.0 CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES: TUNNEL


The construction of the precast tunnel from the GN building to the TD Bank building will require several important steps in the construction process in order to minimize the necessary road closures to downtown Montreal roads. In order to decrease road closures on the most trafficked street that the tunnel will encounter, Ste. Catherine street, the excavation work will begin at the South-most point of the tunnel, at the entrance to the Grey Nuns facility.

7.1 Excavation
The first step in the excavation process is the pulverization of the existing asphalt pavement. This will be done using a Caterpillar RM500 Rotary Mixer. This material is then loaded into a Freight Liner dump truck to be hauled off-site. Once the pavement has been removed, a Caterpillar 390 DL Hydraulic Excavator will be used to dig a trench of approximately 6.3m x 6.3m. The width of this trench is to accommodate the 4.5m width of the precast tunnel sections as well as extra working space for the crew who will work around Figure 39 Caterpillar RM500 Asphalt
Pulverization Process. [15]

these precast sections once they have been placed. The depth is to include the 3.5m height of the precast, as well as extra depth for the stone placed below the tunnel, along with a layer of backfill, crushed stone and a new layer of heavy duty asphalt pavement. The majority of this material will be hauled off-site, though a part of it will be left in-place to be used as backfill on either side of the tunnel. The trench will Figure 40 Caterpillar 30 DL Hydraulic Excavator. [15] have vertical walls due to the fact that 53 | P a g e

the number of lanes to be closed on Guy street must be minimized. In order to accommodate this, trench sheets with large horizontal hydraulic braces will be used to shore the trench and hold back the earth from the remainder of the road during construction. This shoring technique allows for a wide span to allow space for insertion of the precast sections.

7.2 Precast Concrete Placement


Figure 40 Liebherr LTR 1060 Telescopic Once a section of excavation is completed, a Crawler Crane [17] second crew will enter the trench to place a 12 layer of clean net stone throughout the trench in order to prepare the ground to receive the weight of the tunnel sections without any risk of future settlement. As the excavation crews progress, precast sections of dimension 4.5m x 3.5m x 3.0m will arrive on trucks where each truck has a capacity of 3 sections per haul. A Liebherr LTR 1060 crawler crane will be used to lower each 80 ton section into place. The crane will move along the trench placing sections as a hydraulic excavator is used to push the section together into place. The joints are then sealed with waterproofing and shotcrete on both the interior and exterior of the tunnel.

7.3 Paving & Finishing


The crews continue the cycle of excavation, precast sections and waterproofing as the tunnel progresses until the entire length of the tunnel is complete. At this point the shoring is removed and the sides of the trench are backfilled with the remaining excavated material. The tunnel will also receive 1m of this material on top of the entire trench. Enough space is left above the tunnel to lay down an 0.5m thick sub base layer of 0-56mm crushed aggregate, followed by a 0.15m thick base layer of 0-20mm crushed aggregate. These layers are to prepare the ground for the application of heavy duty asphalt pavement, which will be placed using a Caterpillar AP500E Asphalt Paver.

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Once the roads have been paved, the public will regain access to the roads above the tunnel. At this point interior finishing and electrical work can be completed in the tunnel as these are the least vital phases of the work in terms of road closures. The concrete will be sealed; lighting, ceramic tile flooring, doors & wall coverings will be installed and the tunnel will be completed in its entirety. The tunnel will connect at one end to the TD Bank building basement which will have already been renovated. The other end will attach to the basement lobby elevators which will access the main ground floor lobby. Figure 41: Caterpillar Ap500e Asphalt Paver [18]

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8.0 CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES: GN BUILDING


8.1 Demolition of the Kitchen Building
The kitchen building is the two-story plus basement structure that was built as an addition to the main GN building in the 1940s. The main GN building is protected by the Ministry of Culture as a historical landmark and cannot be touched, but the protection does not extend to the kitchen building, which was built much later and presents no historical value. Therefore, it will be demolished to make way for the renovations. However, the demolition will be partial, because the basement of the structure will be reused in the dome. To tear down the walls, it is suitable to use a method that would not endanger the basement from cave-ins, as well as provide a green alternative to the traditional method. Therefore the selective demolition method is the most suitable for this project. Since the kitchen building is attached to the main compound by a ground floor tunnel, before beginning construction of the dome, the opening left from the demolition of the tunnel will be used for any work related to demolition and structural reconstruction. This will be the ideal solution considering that the main building facade cannot be touched, and therefore the largest opening available to work with will be the tunnel wall.

8.2 Demolition and Replacement of Structural Components


The entire project is considered a green initiative project. Therefore, it would be suitable to employ selective demolition and attempt to recycle/repurpose the salvaged materials. This would be an environmentally friendly solution for a green space such as the new GN building. The demolished materials will have one location to enter and exit the building - the tunnel opening connecting the GN building to the kitchen building. This opening will be extended upward throughout all 5 floors of work in order to allow access to the equipment required for the demolition and installation of a new structure. The stones that are removed from this exterior wall will be recuperated and replaced once the work is completed, these walls can be removed because they are in the inner courtyard of the building. The perimeter structural steel columns in the existing building cannot be removed due to the preservation of the exterior walls. The column design was done based on a completely new structure, but in practice the columns will be reinforced by welding additional steel plates onto the 56 | P a g e

existing steel members in order for the structure to achieve and equivalent strength to the new design. The interior columns that can be removed and replaced will be demolished and replaced by temporary columns to support the slab until the new structural steel members are in place. The new steel slab on deck cannot be installed using a crane due to the existing roof to be preserved, therefore the crew will construct a temporary access ramp using steel and lumber in order to be able to install the sheets of steel deck individually. These sheets are placed in an interlocking pattern and a layer of reinforced concrete is poured on top of the steel in order to achieve the necessary strength from the new slab. As one section of the existing slab is demolished and removed from the building, the columns beneath it are being reinforced or replaced based on their location. The new slab is then installed and filled with concrete for that particular section. The four floors of slabs will have a staggered pattern of slab sections that will alternate being demolished and replaced in an order than will ensure constant structural integrity of the building. This will be the most efficient way of installing such a large amount of structural steel into a building in this condition. Structural steel reinforcement will be the longest and most tedious step in the reconstruction of the GN building as the careful removal and replacement of the structure must be done slowly in a confined space.

8.3 Interior Finishing & Landscaping


Once the complex structural renovation is complete, sprayed fireproofing will be applied to the structure where necessary throughout the empty building. Interior finishing is the next step is the process of renovating the GN building; the drywall will be the first item to be installed. The exterior walls will be cladded with exterior sheathing, batt insulation, vapour barrier, steel studs and painted interior drywall. The interior walls will be constructed according to building standards with fire resistant walls around corridors and stairs, as well as sound insulated walls between offices for a quiet working environment. Once the drywall is installed, many of the remaining interior finishes will be installed simultaneously by several subcontractors. First the lighting will be installed, followed by the ceilings, floors finishes, miscellaneous metals, elevators, interior glazing, doors, painting and finally the millwork and furniture will be installed.

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While

the

interior

renovation is reaching its final stages, the exterior landscape of the land will be renovated to create access to the site as it was designed. New access roads will be constructed to connect the exterior parking to Guy Street, new cast in place concrete curbs Figure 42 Power Curber 5700C Cast In Place Concrete Curb

will be installed using a Power Fabricator. [19] Curber 5700C, concrete sidewalks will be installed and trees/shrubs will be planted along the perimeter of the property.

9.0 CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES: DOME


9.1 Destruction of Existing Building
The existing building on site of future glass dome is the kitchen building, whose demolition process has been discussed in section 8.1.

9.2 Handling of debris


In the selective demolition approach, the structure is disassembled carefully, to facilitate recycling and refurbishing of the construction materials. So the debris will be carefully sorted and hauled away for their respective purpose. This will be done for the entire 2 story, 1000 m2 building until only the ground floor slab remains. The basement kitchen equipment will be stored and reused while the slab is being demolished using a hydraulic excavator with a breaking attachment. The concrete slab material will be collected and hauled off site while trying to minimize damage to the basement below.

9.3 Erection of the Dome Structure


Once demolition is complete, jacks will be placed in the kitchen basement in order to support formwork for the pouring of a new concrete floor slab. The formwork will be installed and 30 MPA concrete will be poured into a semi-rectangular, semi-ovular shape. 58 | P a g e

Once the work on the slab is finished, the work on the structure of the dome can start. First it will be necessary to secure the base plates around the ring beam. The ring beam is the structure along the bottom perimeter of the dome that will serve as anchor for the steel frame and will support the dome. Then, a crane will be used to erect the steel components. Multiple crews will anchor the first level of steel into the concrete deck. The following sections will be raised, fitted and fastened into place as done with a typical steel structure. In order to ensure the stability of the structure, the long cylindrical portion of the structure will be built followed by the rounded end-section. The crane will be kept in place and will be used by another set of construction crews who will install the exterior glazing. After the steel framing is complete, it will be necessary to put in place the space framing structure which will be the one directly supporting the glass. The space framing is a structure that is essentially supported at the nodes of the main steel structure and is elevated from the main steel structure. Its purpose is solely to support the glass panels, which it holds with fasteners and gasket lining. Then, the rectangular and triangular glass sections will be hooked to the crane by one crew, raised into place by a second crew, and fitted into place by a third and final set of workers. The last step of the construction process is to apply sealant to the top of the glass structure to ensure its water tightness and protection. Once the structural steel and glazing have been erected, interior finishing is the final step in the construction of the dome. The basement will be repaired depending on the extent of the damage caused by the construction process. The existing kitchen equipment will be placed back into the newly renovated kitchen. The interior of the dome will have floor finishes, fountain systems, washrooms and furnishings put in place in order to finalize the construction of the dome building.

10.0 GANTT CHART FOR WORK SCHEDULE


A project with three distinct sections required a schedule for the simultaneous construction of each component of the project. A start date of June 3rd, 2013 was decided for all parts of the project in order to minimize work to be done in winter conditions. The tunnel was scheduled to be installed fairly rapidly due to the speed of precast section placement in comparison to the cast in place tunnel option. Excavation and shoring durations were determined based on the length and area of work to be completed. It was assumed that three sections of the precast tunnel could be 59 | P a g e

placed per day. This was used in order to determine the time required to install the tunnel in its entirety. The remainder of the work for the tunnel was scheduled based on typical construction production rates due to the commonality of the work left to be done. The resulting duration of the tunnel construction was 6.5 months, which was comprised of 130 work days and 6 months of road closures for which the completed schedule can be found on Figure 44. The construction of the dome and the renovation of the GN building were scheduled to be done simultaneously and in close proximity, the Gantt charts are therefore represented together in order to follow the progress of both works. The demolition and structural reinforcement of the GN building are the most lucrative and time-consuming processes in the schedule. The installation of new slabs and reinforcement of existing columns require much more time than what is required for a new construction. The dome construction can only begin several months after the GN reconstruction has begun in order to allow access through an opening in the building for demolition and structural work. Once these tasks are nearing completion, the large-scale interior finishing work can begin in order to complete the GN building as per the designs. The structural steel and glazing of the dome are the only activities that did not have typical durations based on historical projects. The complexity of the structural work lead to the assumption of added time to the schedule for this unique construction. The interior finishing of the dome was designed to be very simple and the work will, in turn, be done very quickly once the structure has been mounted. The schedule that was produced based on the combination of these activities resulted in a total project duration of 11 months. The GN building will require the entire 11 months to renovate, including 240 days of labor. The dome will only require 7 months to construct but will be completed at the same time as the GN building due to the delayed construction start date. The combined schedule for both of these project components can be found on Figure 45.

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Figure 43 Gantt Chart for Tunnel Construction

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Figure 44 Gantt Chart for Dome & GN Renovation

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11.0 REFERENCES
[1] [2] CISC, Steel Handbook Of Steel Construction, CISC, 2008. CANAM, "Steel Deck," 02 2006. [Online]. Available: http://www.canamsteeljoist.ws/www/v4/epublica.nsf/va_doc/722FD94ACC3827798525796B004D90E2/$File/et abliercan.pdf. [Accessed 10 02 2013]. Nazmiya Antiques, "Indoor Garden Spaces Interior Design," [Online]. Available: http://nazmiyalantiquerugs.com/blog/2011/11/indoor-garden-spaces-interior-design/. GrabCAD, "Steel Frame Structure," [Online]. Available: http://grabcad.com/library/dome--2. "Triodectic Node and Connection," TATA Steel, [Online]. Available: http://www.tatasteelconstruction.com/file_source/Images/Construction/Reference/architectural %20studio/design/3.9.12.jpg. [Accessed 21st March 2013]. H. Bengtson, "Spreadsheet Use for Partially Filled Pipe Calculations," [Online]. Available: http://www.cedengineering.com/upload/Partially%20Full%20Pipe%20Flow%20Calculations.p df. KME, "Architecture and Building: Gutter," 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.kme.com/en/rainwatersystem-gutters. Docstoc, "Rainwater Harvesting System," [Online]. Available: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/22304257/A-typical-domestic-rainwater-harvesting-systembased-on-an-underground-GRP-storage-tank-WISY-vortex-type-filter-and-a-submersiblepump-giving-a-pressurised-supply-THE-PNUEMATIC-TANK-LEVEL-GAUGE-I. U. G. B. Council, "LEED," 2013. [Online]. Available: http://new.usgbc.org/leed/applying-leed.

[3] [4] [5]

[6]

[7] [8]

[9]

[10] "Construction Weekly.," February 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.constructionweekonline.com/article-7606-28-ways-to-make-a-leed-platinumbuilding/2/#.UVHBsFfLuSQ. [11] M. d. T. d. Qubec, "Vehicle Load and Size Limits Guide," 2005. [Online]. Available: http://www.mtq.gouv.qc.ca/portal/page/portal/Librairie/Publications/en/camionnage/charges_di mensions/guide_en.pdf. [Accessed January 2012]. [12] C. S. Association, Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code, Mississauga: Canadian Standards Association, 2006. [13] B. M. Das, Geotechnical Engineering Handbook, Ft. Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Pub., 210. [14] C. A. o. Canda, Concrete Design Handbook, CSA A23.3-04, 2005.

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[15] "Caterpillar RM500 Rotary Mixer Specifications. Caterpillar," 2007. [Online]. Available: http://www.wagnerasia.com/pics/paving/rm300l-3.jpg. [Accessed 15 March 2013]. [16] "Caterpillar 390D L Hydraulic Excavator Specifications," [Online]. Available: http://xml.catmms.com/servlet/ImageServlet?imageId=C756279&imageType=2. [Accessed 23rd March 2013]. [17] "Liebherr LTR Crane Product Guide. Liebherr,," [Online]. Available: http://www.liebherr.com/catXmedia/cr/Thumbnails/LTR_1060%20%281%29_89980_W300.jpg. [Accessed 23rd March 2013]. [18] "Caterpillar AP500e Asphalt Paver Product Brochure. Caterpillar," [Online]. Available: http://www.wagnerasia.com/pics/paving/ap555l-1.jpg. [Accessed 15 March 2013]. [19] "Power Curber 5700C Specifications. Salisbury, NC," Power Curbers Inc, 2012. [Online]. [Accessed 15th March 2013]. [20] L. D. Gray, "DOMES," [Online]. Available: http://larrydgray.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/dome1.png. [Accessed 23rd Feburary 2013]. [21] "Domes," GrabCAD, [Online]. Available: http://grabcad.com/library/dome--2. [Accessed 23rd Feburary 2013]. [22] KFC, "U-Shaped and Round Shaped Gutters," 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.kfcroofing.com.au/catalog/index.php?main_page=index&cPath=3_36. [23] Google, "Map of Grey Nuns Building," 2013. [Online]. Available: https://plus.google.com/109818459329026541253/about?hl=en. [24] L. D. Gray, "Metal Buildings, Outdoors and Green Living," [Online]. Available: http://blog.larrydgray.net/tag/domes/. [25] Drish Infotech Ltd., "Punjab Pollution Control Board," 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.ppcb.gov.in/rwhs.php. [26] NBCC, "NBCC Guidelines for Stair Design," [Online]. Available: http://www.amezz.com/cnbcstairref.html. [27] E. Tool, "Nominal Pipe Sizes," [Online]. Available: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/nominal-wall-thickness-pipe-d_1337.html. [28] Zambelli, "Stainless Steel Gutters," [Online]. Available: http://www.zrainwaterproducts.com.au/zambelli_rainwater_products_pty.htm.

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Appendix

1.0 STEEL DECK DIAPHRAGM DESIGN


1.1 Earthquake Load The calculations for earthquake load, demonstrated in Appendix A, yielded a final resulting force applied for each floor of the building. These values are shown in terms of W which represents the overall dead load applied on the corresponding floor. The following steps were used (in accordance with the NBCC) to determine the lateral load on the structure: This equations will determine the lateral earthquake force on the structure: = ( ) /( ) For Braced frames condition i. of the NBCC states that the following should be considered in a design: = 0.025( ) = 28.5 = 0.7125 Since site class A and by interpolation: = 0.764 = 0.5 Determine the design ground motion values: (0.2) = 0.69

(0.5) = 0.34 (1.0) = 0.14 (2.0) = 0.048 Which yields (Assume soil class C), (0.2) 14.375 & (2.0) For braced frame: = 3 1.3 = 3.9 For importance category Normal: = 1.0 Determine S(Ta): ( ) = (1.0) = 1.0 ) (1.0)(0.14) ( = = 0.14

= 0.5 2 = 1.0

= 1.0

Input the results in the original equation: = 0.035

(2.0) 0.048 1.0 1.0 = = 0.012 3 1.3 2 ((0.2) ) =3 = 0.11

Next determine the Total weight per floor of the structure


Area (m2) Floor DL (kN) Cladding (kN) Beams (kN) Columns (kN) Total (kN)

5th 4th 3th 2th 1st

845 845 845 845 845

3500 3500 3500 3500 3500

1690 1690 1690 1690 1690

338.78 338.78 338.78 256.88 256.88

35 35 35 27 27

5481.88 5481.88 5481.88 5473.88 5473.88 27393.40

Total Building Weight

1. Calculate Base Shear = 0.035 27393.40 = 958.77 = 0.012 27393.40 = 328.72 958.77 2. Base shear distribution over building height > 0.7 = 0.07 = 0.07 1.0 958.77 = 67.11 = 958.77 67.11 = 891.66 = 5 = ( ) ( )

5481.88 21 891.66 = 297.31 345257.64 16.8 891.66 = 237.85 345257.64 12.6 891.66 = 178.38 345257.64 8.4 891.66 = 118.75 345257.64

4 = 5481.88 3 = 5481.88 2 = 5473.88

1 = 5473.88

4.2 891.66 = 59.37 345257.64

= 891.66 1.2 Design of steel deck The shear length is 16m The lateral load is 891.66 kN The linear Shear force is
891.66 16

= 55.73

The total linear shear force is then 55.73(Earthquake) + 1.525(Wind) = 57.25 kN/m Since the shear load is high, the P-3606 profile will be used. Joist Spacing = 1.5m Deck Profile = P-3606 Thickness = 1.21 mm Side-lip spacing = 150 mm Pattern = 36/9 From catalogue of CANAM, 19mm puddle weld and side-lap fastening #10 screw. Therefore, Q = 27.1 and G = 24.1 1.3 Check deflection of the selected roof steel deck Consider the same steel deck of 1.21 mm everywhere in this case. Calculate deflection = + 2 = 2 ( ) ( = 8140 2 ) 2 100800 2 = 2 8140 ( ) = 41.35 1012 4 2 = 54 5 57.25 160004 = = 0.059 384 384 200000 41.35 1012

2 57.25 103 160002 = = 0.754 8 8 24.1 100800

Therefore, = 0.059 + 0.754 = 0.813 = 5 = = 10 500 500

2.0 TUNNEL SAP2000 ANALYSIS

2.1 Concrete Frame


Frame thickness: 400mm Frame width: 1000mm

2.2 Bending Moment Diagram of Concrete Tunnel Frame

2.3 Shear Force Diagram of Concrete Tunnel Frame

3.0 DOME SLAB ETABS ANALYSIS FOR REINFORCEMENT


The following figures show the moment analysis from Etabs which were used to design the reinforcement for the slab of the dome
Assembly area EW (Bottom reinforcement)

Assembly area NS (Bottom reinforcement)

Assembly area EW (Top reinforcement)

Assembly area NS (Top reinforcement)

Sitting area EW (Bottom reinforcement)

Sitting area NS (Bottom reinforcement)

Sitting area EW (Top reinforcement)

Sitting area NS (Top reinforcement)

4.0 DOME: COLUMN REINFORCEMENT


Reinforcement of Dome Columns (Occupancy: Assembly) [14] 450X450 400X400 COLUMN SIZE Column Location e/h Reinforcement distribution Mf, kNm Pf, kN e H Pf/Ag Mf/Ag*h t K As, mm2 db Ab, mm2 Number of rebars Smin =max} Edge 0.721 2 side 139.43 429.54 324.603 365 0.811 2.121 1.530 0.010 593 2025 25 500 6 35 42 30 Smin, mm 42 Interior 0.046 4 sides 18.66 1010.97 18.458 325 0.813 6.319 0.292 0.010 610 1600 15 200 8 21 42 30 42 200X200 Edge 0.543 2 sides 16.79 154.68 108.547 125 0.625 3.867 2.099 0.010 528 400 15 200 4 21 42 30 42 450X450 Interior 0.068 4 sides 13.02 423.34 30.755 370 0.822 2.091 0.143 0.010 661 2025 20 500 6 28 42 30 42

Reinforcement of Dome Columns (Occupancy: Sitting area) [14] 300X300 850X850 850X850 COLUMN SIZE Column Location e/h Reinforcement distribution Mf, kNm Pf, kN e H Pf/Ag Mf/Ag*h t K As, mm2 db Ab, mm2 Number of rebars Smin =max} Corner 0.725 2 sides 44.09 202.72 0.22 220 0.733 2.252 1.633 0.010 610 900 20 300 3.000 28 42 30 Smin, mm 42 Interior 0.030 4 sides 15.04 592.07 25.40 760 0.894 0.819 0.024 0.010 661 7225 30 700 10.321 42 42 30 42 Edge 0.394 2 sides 203.07 605.81 335.20 760 0.894 0.838 0.331 0.010 593 7225 30 700 10.321 42 42 30 42

800X800 Interior 0.030 4 sides 32.23 1364.88 23.61 710 0.888 2.133 0.063 0.010 661 6400 30 700 9.143 42 42 30 42

5.0 DOME STAIRS DESIGN

Total span L= 4.74-0.5 = ts = L/20 rise = run= tan= = Design procedure for flight of stairs

4.74 4.24 0.21 0.20 0.25 0.80 38.66

m m (clear span) m m m

//sum of 2*1.450 + 1.750 = 4.74 m

Average ts = ts + ((0.5*rise*run)/((rise2+ run2)0.5)) 0.29 = m wlive= wdf landing = wdf stairs = RB= RA= point of zero shear: X= 7.20 11.14 8.15 42.57 39.13 V(x)= 2.26 42.48 kN/m kN/m kN/m kN/m width of the slab kN/m width of the slab 0 m kN.m/m width of the slab

//1.25* 0.29* 24/ cos(38.66)

Mf max =

Mf max = (7.20 + 8.15)*(4.74^2)/8 = 43 kN.m

5.1 Design of Stair Slab d = ts - cover - db/2 = Mr=Mf max = b= Kr = Mr/(bd^2)= Based on Kr and Area Ratio Table, check for satisfaction of min As ratio Kr1= Kr2= Kr3= 177.00 mm 42.48 kN.m 1000.00 mm 1.36

0.90 1.36 1.30

Check if row > row-min Assume b = 1000 mm

//Using table 2.1 of CAA Concrete Design Handbook, obtain ratios of with 1= 0.0027 Kr 2= 0.00418147 // Interpolate between 0.9 and 1.3: (D42+((D44-D42)*((B43-B42)/(B44-B42)))) 3= 0.004

= As min= bd = Try 20M @200 mm c/c: 20 M = 300 mm^2 As =

0.00418147 > min=0.002 740.12 200.00 mm^2

OK

mm 1256 mm^2 > As min OK Therefore, A = (20^2)*3.14/4 * 4 = 1256 mm^2 > 740.12, place 4-20M at a spacing of 200 mm

Figure 1.A: ETABS Stair Model, Dead Load

*Figure 1.B: Stairs Bending Moment Diagram, Dead and Live Loads

*Figure 1.C: Stairs Analysis and Deformation


*ETABS Stairs Model was analyzed through the help and collaboration of Julien Egron, member of Team 4.

Flexure Design try section L550x250 mm: Beam width Height of Beam Height of Wall Span Length (ln) Weight of Wall = 2.0*(hwall-hb)= beam weight= bw*(hb-ts)*24= wf = Ra + beam weight +wwall = V = (wf ln)/2 = Mf max= (wf ln^2)/8 = d = hb-40 hf= ts = L1 b' (mm) = 2.00 6.10 2.03 47.26 106.57 120.16 510.00 212 4740 ln/12 = 6hf = (L1-bw)/2 = Units in mm 250.00 550.00 3.60 5 kPa kN/m kN/m kN/m kN kN.m mm mm mm 0.375833333 1272 2245 mm mm m m

beff. = b'+bw = Kr = (Mr *10^6)/(beff.d^2) = Kr1= Kr2= Kr3=

250.38 1.8451 0.99 1.85 1.32

mm

// calculate the effective beam width // calculate Kr ratio 1= 2= 3= 0.003 0.005655151 0.004 // A (0.0047)(250.38)(510.00) 610.89 mm^2 = =

722.12 As min= bd = mm^2

Try 2-30M: 706.5 mm^2 As = 2*700 = 1400.00 mm^2 > Asmin // Satisfies Area requirement

Check if As will fit in one layer: Smin 1.4 db = 1.4*20 = 1.4 *(Concrete Unit Weight, 25MPa) 30.00 use 10M bars for stirrups

28 35 30

Bmin = 2(cover) 2(dbs)+ 2(db)+ 1(Smin) spacing = Clear for stirrups =

175.00 140.00 60 mm

< bw=300 OK mm

// Bmin = 2*30 + 2*10 + 2*30 +35 = 175 mm

6.0 RAINWATER COLLECTION SYSTEM

a) Rain Intensity Method 1 (by average rainfall depth) Rainfall Intensity Calculation

Month

Rainfall Rainfall Snowfall (mm) (mm) (inches) 28.4 1.118108 January 22.7 0.893699 February 42.2 1.661414 March 65.2 2.566924 April 86.1 3.389757 May 87.5 3.444875 June 106.2 4.181094 July 100.6 3.960622 August 100.8 3.968496 September 82.1 3.232277 October 68.9 2.712593 November 44.4 1.748028 December Wet Snow (inches) 0.1807083 0.1834642 0.1448816 0.0464566 0.0015748 0 0 0 0 0 0.0086614 0.0980313 0.6637782 Total Precipitation (inches) 1.2988163 1.0771632 1.8062956 2.6133806 3.3913318 3.444875 4.181094 3.960622 3.968496 3.232277 2.7212544 1.8460593 2.795138767

Snowfall (inches) 45.9 46.6 36.8 11.8 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 2.2 24.9 1.807083 1.834642 1.448816 0.464566 0.015748 0 0 0 0 0 0.086614 0.980313

Average Monthly Intensity (in/month)

Table 1: Estimated Monthly Precipitation converted to RAINFALL

Notes a. b. c. d. Data from Weather Network Statistics Wet Snow = Snow depth (inches) / 10 , ratio of 1000 kg/m^3 / 160 kg/m^3 Average Monthly = sum ( Total Precipitation) / 12 = 2.795 in/month Hourly Intensity = 2.795 in / month * 1 month/ 30 days * 1 day/ 24 hours = 0.00388 in/hour Rainfall (mm) 47 32 32 0 0 67 64 74 82 81 94 51 Rainfall (inches) 1.85039 1.25984 1.25984 0 0 2.63779 2.51968 2.91338 3.22834 3.18897 3.70078 2.00787

Month January February March April May June July August September October November December

Snowfall (mm) 36 39 43 34 22 0 0 0 6 21 31 41

Table 2: Maximum Montly Precipation converted to RAINFALL (Recorded) Total Precipitation Snowfall (inches) Wet Snow (inches) (inches) 1.41732 0.141732 1.992122 1.53543 0.153543 1.413383 1.69291 0.169291 1.429131 1.33858 0.133858 0.133858 0.86614 0.086614 0.086614 0 0 2.63779 0 0 2.51968 0 0 2.91338 0.23622 0.023622 3.251962 0.82677 0.082677 3.271647 1.22047 0.122047 3.822827 1.61417 0.161417 2.169287 Total Precipitation (inches/year) 25.641681 Total Precipitation (mm/year) 651.256 Table 2: Maximum Montly Precipation converted to RAINFALL (contd)

Sample Calculation 651.256 * year/12months * 1month/30 days *1day/24 hours = 0.075 mm/hour *this does NOT take into account return period, or duration, and is not accurate for design purposes involving rain intensity. Rainfall Intensity Calculation: Method 2 This calculation is more accurate and is based on formulas obtained from Sewage, Distribution, Rainfall Analysis by Francois Briere. It includes the return period, rainfall duration, and specific equations related to rainfall intensities in Montreal. Return Period t (min) Duration of Rainfall 30 45 60 75 100 120 Return Period t (min) Duration of Rainfall 30 45 60 75 100 120

Montreal Region

5 years Rainfall Intensity (mm/h) 2184.4 / (t + 12) 52.00952381 38.32280702 30.33888889 25.10804598 19.50357143 16.54848485 5 years Rainfall Intensity (mm/h) 1121.542 /(t + 7.507)^0.856 50.3936005 37.78414629 30.47143884 25.66252706 20.46000285 17.67984341

10 years Rainfall Intensity (mm/h) 2743.2 / (t + 14) 62.34545455 46.49491525 37.07027027 30.82247191 24.06315789 20.47164179 10 years Rainfall Intensity (mm/h) 1562.794 / (t + 9.094)^0.892 59.39358202 44.45624129 35.73723564 29.99240872 23.77844021 20.46319919

Montreal (Dorval Airport)

Table 1B: Estimating Rainfall Intensity (Dorval) For a 10 year, average duration of 60 min storm, the average rainfall intensity is 35.73 - 37.07 mm/h This does not take into account SNOW Using this intensity, use Rational Method: Qp = CiA to determine PEAK FLOW RATE.

b) Rational Method for Estimating Peak Flow Rate: According to Wurbs and James, Water Resources Engineering, the following formula is applicable to estimating the peak flow rate of drainage and runoff areas, such as roofs, parkings, roads, and grasslands: Qp = CiA C = 0.9 (based on rational constant table for roofs) I = intensity, the maximum intensity is used in this case = 37.07 mm/h --> 37.07*0.1/2.54 = 1.46 in/hour A = Area of drainage = Surface area of Dome: 653 m^2 Qp = 0.9*0.03707 m/hour * 653 * 1hour/3600 s = 0.00604 m^3/s PEAK FLOW RATE (Qp) = 0.00604 m^3/s Based on this estimation, the pipes must be able to provide a diameter large enough to accommodate a flow rate of 0.00604 m^3/s. *Approved by Dr. Han, BCEE Concordia University c) Mannings Equation for Open-Channel Flow

Design Assumptions 1 Open-Channel Flow 2 Pipe filled at 2/3 (d/D = 0.67) 3 Material Used: Corrugated STEEL, n design = 0.024 4 A = 2/3 Actual

Formulas Applicable: 1. Manning Equation: Q = 1/n * Rh^2/3 * So^1/2 2. Rh (partially filled pipe) = 0.25 * (a - sina)/a * D, where a = internal angle 3. internal angle (a) = 0.5* ( 1 - cos a/2) = d/D, a =219.753 degrees

A) Hardy-Cross Method to Determine Flow Rate Distribution Assume: Flow rate of Qp = 0.0064 m^3/s flows onto area of 653 m^2, into 10 vertical pipes Qi = Qp/10 = 0.0064 m^3/s / 10 = 0.00064 m^3/s Assume: every flow rate entering from the exterior pipes divides into 50% left, 50% right directions, therefore the MAXIMUM flow rate obtained is 2*0.000604 = 1.208*10^-3 m^3/s

Figure 1 : Partially Filled Pipe d) Hardy-Cross Method The assumption involves dividing the pipe flow into 50% running from each side, therefore the total flow in each vertical pipe is estimated as Q = 0.000604 m3/s, this flow rate will move down the vertical pipe and divide into 2 directions. The important factor to consider in this case, is that a buffer time is included from the time the flow reaches the dome to when it enters the pipe and flows down. This buffer time therefore acts as a control or "lag", which considerable slows the velocity inside the pipe. Preliminary design is drawn as follows:

Figure 2.1 : Sketch of Pipe System

Based on the mentioned design, 2 different pipe sizes will be needed: one for the vertical pipe entrance, as well as the bends entering the underground system, and another at points A and B of a larger size, entering the water tank at the intersection of the 3 pipes.

Design Equation by Trial & Error The slopes in this case were designed by trial and error, based on best fit according to lengths of pipes and heights of the dome and basement foundation. For partially-filled pipes, the hydraulic radius is calculated using the following equation: Rh (partially filled pipe) = 0.25 * (a - sina)/a * D Where a is the internal angle illustrated between the arrows in figure 2, and D is the total pipe diameter The Mannings equation is used to determine the design diameter, using 2/3 of the total area: 1/n *(0.25 * (1 - sin a)/a * D )2/3 * (So)0.5= Q / (2/3 * A) Based on the steel piping alignment, and the overall dome structure, various slopes were tested by trial and error for design. So1 was chosen as 3/7 and So2 was chosen as 1.5/7. These slopes were determined according the height of the dome, the height of the vertical pipes, as well as the height of the basement. So1 = 3/7 So2 = 1.5/7 1/0.024 *(0.25 * (1 - sin 219.75)/219.75 * D )^2/3 * (3/7)^0.5 = 2 * Q / (2/3 * pi D^2/4), where Q = 0.001208 m^3/s , 2*0.000604 m^3/s 1/0.024 *(0.25 * (1 - sin 219.75)/219.75 * D )^2/3 * (1.5/7)^0.5 = 2 * Q / (2/3 * pi D^2/4), where Q = 0.001208 m^3/s , 2*0.000604 m^3/s

D1 D2

0.143 m = 143.2 mm 0.16346 m = 163.46 mm

Convert to inches: 163.46/10 *1/2.54 cm = 6.43 inches, use minimum required as 6 inches. The minimum diameter needed is 8 inches. According to the Nominal Pipe Sizes of Table, use either 8 in (8.625 outside diameter, or 6 in (6.75 outside diameter) for optimal design. To be safe and economical, use a diameter of 6 inches , or 150 (15.32 cm) mm. A and B Convergence Points A and B have 3 individual pipes merging into one large pipe, which will then transport the rainwater into a water tank. In order to accommodate for the flow rates entering the pipes, another pipe design calculation is required. The maximum Q possible according to the Hardy-Cross method is 2* 0.001208 + 0.000604 m^3/s = 3.02*10^-3 m^3/s. This is based on the assumption that half the flow rates will enter each pipe, where as the entire flow rate will pass through the pipes that are vertically connected to the dome.

New Design Equation by Trial & Error (for large merging pipe at intersection) 1/0.024 *(0.25 * (1 - sin 219.75)/219.75 * D )^2/3 * (0.5/9)^0.5 = Q / (2/3 * pi D^2/4), where Q = 0.00302 m^3/s, D = 296.12mm 1/0.024 *(0.25 * (1 - sin 219.75)/219.75 * D )^2/3 * (0.0001)^0.5 = Q / (2/3 * pi D^2/4), where Q = 0.00302 m^3/s, D = 123.8 mm 1/0.024 *(0.25 * (1 - sin 219.75)/219.75 * D )^2/3 * (0.85/9)^0.5 = Q / (2/3 * pi D^2/4), where where Q = 0.00302 m^3/s, D = 268.07 mm

So1 = 0.5/9

D1 =

So2 = 0.0001(~ 0)

D2 =

So3 = 0.85/9

D3 =

*Design Equation developed by the help of Dr. Li For optimal slope and design, use D = 255 mm, for a horizontal slope leading to tank. Conversion to inches: 26.8/2.54 = 10.55 inches According to the nominal pipe sizes, a safe and economical design diameter is chosen as 10 (10.75 outer diameter) inches.

As displayed in figure 2.2, the flow rate will increase three times the initial flow rate, since 3 pipes will merge into one larger pipe. This connection illustrates the A and B convergence system. As a result, a larger diameter will be needed for the pipe. According to the above calculations, a pipe diameter of 10 inches has been used for optimal design.

Figure 2.2: Pipe Convergence

Figure 2.3: Pipe Cross-Section Comparisons

Table 3 : Nominal Pipe Sizes, Steel

Nominal Size Inches 2 and 1/2 3 5 6 10

Outside Diameter Inches 2.875 3.5 5.563 6.625 10.75

mm 73.7179 487 89.7435 897 142.641 026 169.871 795 275.641 026

Thick ness inches 0.203 0.216 0.258 0.28 0.365

mm 5.205128205 5.538461538 6.615384615 6.345 10.385

12 16

12.75 16.75

326.923 077 429.487 179

0.375 0.375

12.375 16.375

Table 4: Trial Design Diameters for Pipe Network http://hastingsirrigation.com/node/7

Actual Diameter (mm) 68.51282051 84.20512821 136.025641 163.5267949 265.2560256 314.5480769 413.1121795

Minimum Design Flow Rate Design Check (d Acceptable (m^3/s) >= to d min) 0.001208 no 0.001208 no 0.001208 yes 0.001208 no 0.00302 yes (too small) 0.00302 yes (intermediate) 0.00302 yes (too large)

Table 5 : Design Checks for Pipe Diameters

Diamete r of S.No. Pipe (Mm) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 50 65 75 100 125 150

Avg

Rainfall Mm/ Hour 100 6.6 12 20. 4 42. 7 80. 5 --

50 13.4 24.1 40.8 85.4 ---

75 8.9 16 27 57 ---

125 5.3 9.6 16.3 34.2 64.3 --

150 4.4 8.0 13.6 28.5 53.5 83.6

200 3.3 6.0 10.2 21.3 40.0 62.7

Table 6 : Recommended Size of Rain Water Pipe

Figure 4.1 : Steel Pipes

Figure 4.2 : Steel Gutter and Bracket (drawn using AutoCAD) According to figure 4.2, the steel brackets and gutters have been designed according to nominal gutter and bracket sizes. The following AutoCAD drawing displays the diameter of 250 mm, which is the optimal measurement able to connect a pipe diameter of 200 mm, which is the size of the vertical pipes connected to the gutter system.

Figure 5 : Steel Gutter System

Figure 6: Pipe Fittings Examples

Half-round gutter bracket, NFH, load rating: H N. parts produced Nominal size Length Material

10

200x25x4

230

TECU Classic galvanized steel

250x25x4

280

TECU Classic galvanized steel

280x30x4

290

TECU Classic galvanized steel

7 6

280x30x5 333x30x5

290 300

TECU Classic TECU Classic galvanized steel

6 5

333x40x5 400x30x5

300 340

TECU Classic TECU Classic

Table 6.1: Bracket Design Sizes

Figure 7: Welded Pipe Fittings

Volume of Water Tank Maximum Q = 2*0.00302 = 0.00604 m^3/s * 3600s/1h = 21.7 m^3 (This is the volume of water collected after a 60 min storm) 21 m^3 * 1gal/3.78 L * 1 L / 10^-3 L = 5752.4 gph = 95.8 gpm Choose a suitable tank size from construction industry: Since the minimum volume needed is 22 m^3, choose a design of 4m width, 2 m height, and 3 m wide rectangular water tank (iron plates), Volume Capacity = 4*2*3 = 24 m^3

Water Tank Material: Galvanized Steel, volume of 24 m^3 Tant considerations (adapted from the National Environmental Health Forum, Guidance on the use of Water Tanks) Inlet to tank will have a mesh covering to prevent mosquitos/insects/debris/leaves from entering Since tank is underground, it will ensure that no light will penetrate the water tank, to prevent growth of algae (which affects health, odour, colour, and taste of water) Both 10-inch pipe entrances will include a water filter

Figure 3: Galvanized Steel Water Tank

Prevention of Overflow In order to ensure a safe design, ways to prevent overflow must be implemented. A 150 mm diameter drainage pipe will be situated inside the tank, connected to the drainage system leading to the sewage system of the downtown Montreal area. Design Alternatives for Water Use: 1. Recycled water will be pumped up using a 0.5 hp submersible pump, where it will reach the ground floor and provide water for the central water fountain. Sand filters will be placed inside the tank, and all sediments will be removed from gravity filters and exit via a drainage pipe, into the city sewage system. The water fountain will also have a cleaning/antibacterial solution inside to prevent growth of algae or other organisms. 2. Recycled water will be pumped up using a 0.5 hp submersible pump, and will be connected to several pipes that link to the bathroom and kitchen, for water usage. This water will only be used for sanitary or cooking purposes, And not for drinking, since a more complex filtration system will be required.
The two following figures

describe the overflow drainage procedure inside the water tank. An overflow pipe of diamater 150 mm will be placed on the side of the water tank. A pipe of 200 mm will connected the tank to the groundfloor, with a pump, in order to bring the water onto the

Figure 3.1: Overflow Channel

main floor for water usage. The overflow pipe will drain any excess water (rain) and connect to the cite sewage system to prevent flooding.

Figure 3.2: Overflow Pipe inside Water Tank

Energy Losses in Pipes * All friction values and formulas were obtained from Water Resources Engineering, Wurbs and James, in the section Hydraulic Pipes. Major Losses: hL = f*L/D* Q^2 / A^2 * 1/ 2g Minor Losses: hL = K* (Q/A)^2 * 1/2g

Material Concrete Cast Iron Galvanized Iron Asphalted Cast Iron Commercial or Welded Steel PVC, Glass, Other Drawn Tubing

e (mm) 0.3 - 3.0 0.26 0.15 0.12 0.045 0.0015

e (inches) 0.012 - 0.12 0.010 0.006 0.0048 0.0018 0.00006

Table 7: Relative Roughness for Pipes of Different Material

Figure 3.3: Friction Factor for Energy Losses in Pipes

According to figure 3.3, a relative roughness of 2.25*10^-4 and a Reynolds number of 1.08*10^6 will result in a friction factor of roughly 0.015. Between sections 1 and 2, convert potential energy to kinetic energy: mgh = 0.5 mv2, v = (2*gh) 0.5

With a height of 1.5 m,(1.5*9.81*2)^0.5 = 5.4 m/s The velocity according to complete conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy, neglecting the buffer time, is 5.4 m/s. Since this velocity does not take into account the buffer time, or energy loss, it can be assumed to fit the range of 1-3.5 m/s after subtraction of time and losses. To calculate the energy loss, the pipe is a 90 degree curved pipe, having a K value of 0.1, length of 7 m Minor Head Loss = k.v^2/2g = 0.1*5.4^2/2g = 0.148 m f is obtained from the Moody diagram, knowing the roughness of the pipe and the Reynold's number, Re.

Reynold's Number: Re = VD/v = 5.4*0.2/(1*10^-6 m^2/s) at 20 degrees Celsius Re = 1.08 * 10^6 ---> TURBULENT FLOW Relative Roughness (e/D) = 0.045/200 m = 0.000225 f according to table = 0.015

Major Head Loss = f*(L/D)(V^2/2g) = 0.015*(7/0.2)*(5.4^2)/(2*9.81) = 0.78 m

For the pipes located on the opposite corner, parallel to the circular dome, the energy conversion becomes: Slope is 0.85/9m V = (2*0.85*9.81)^0.5 = 4 m/s Again, the velocity does not include buffer time or frictional losses, and therefore the velocity is much lower than calculated.

Minor Head Loss = 0.1*4^2/2g = 0.0815 m Major Head Loss = 0.015*(4^2/2g)*(9/0.2) = 0.55 m Note: In terms of design, since the flow rate is very low based on the Rational Method, the frictional and energy losses will be minimized. As a result, the losses were calculated with the velocities obtained from energy conservation. Although this is an approximate method to estimate the losses, the conclusion is that the velocity is low enough to not cause high frictional losses, since the diameter of the pipes is fairly large.

Pump Requirements

Table 7: Theoretical Pumping Power Required for Head (ft.)

7.0 COMPLETE QUANTITY TAKE-OFF

CSI

Item Code Dome

Item Description

Takeoff Qty

Unit

Labor $/Unit

Mat $/Unit

Mat Quantity

Mat Conversion

Mat Price

Mat Unit

Subs Unit Price

Total $/Unit

Grand Total 1,078,586.01

2000 Site work 2800 Site Improvements** 2820 - Fountains 10 Central 7m x 7m Fountain System Fountains Total Site Improvements** Total 2900 - Landscaping ** 2950 - Trees Plants and Ground Covers 180 Indoor Trees - 20' Trees Plants and Ground Covers Total Landscaping ** Total Site work Total 3000 - Concrete 3200 Concrete Reinforcement 3201 - WireMesh ** 50 100 Wire Mesh 4x4 4/4 Installation of Wire Mesh WireMesh ** Total Concrete Reinforcement Total 3300 - Cast In Place Concrete 3301 - BCI Concrete Supply ** 1 Environmental Cost 240.6 cy 2.49 184.03 0.765 3.25 M3 2.49 598.08 8,323.70 7,567.00 sqft sqft 9,156.07 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 2,497.11 756.7 3,253.81 3,253.81 6 each each 660.87 950 5,700.00 5,700.00 1 lsum 50,000.00 50,000.00 50,000.00 50,000.00 50,000.00

5,700.00 55,700.00

60

30 MPA 20 mm Aggregate STD BCI Concrete Supply ** Total Cast In Place Concrete Total

233.5

cy

105.57

178.67

0.765

138

M3

105.57

24,655.81 25,253.89 25,253.89

3350 Finishing 3350 Finishes **

Concrete Concrete 540 617 Pour & Finish Slab on Deck ( min 5000 sf) Wet Cure Slab on Grade > film Concrete Finishes ** Total Concrete Finishing Total Concrete Total 7,567.00 7,567.00 sqft sqft 0.7 0.1 0.7 0.1 5,296.90 756.7 6,053.60 6,053.60 34,561.30

5000 - Steel 5000 - Structural Steel** 5000 - Structural Steel** 20 26 Structural Steel for slab on deck Steel Structure & Glazing for Dome Structural Steel** Total Structural Steel** Total 5500 - Miscellaneous Metals** 5500 - Miscellaneous Metals** 30 530 Bollard 8" dia. 3/16" * 6' long Double Wide Steel Staircase w/ Railings - 14' Miscellaneous Metals** Total Miscellaneous Metals** Total 6 1 each each 150 25,000.00 150 25,000.00 900 25,000.00 25,900.00 25,900.00 7,567.00 14,700.00 sqft sqft 8.5 40.82 8.5 40.82 64,319.50 600,000.00 664,319.50 664,319.50

Steel Total 6000 - Wood and Plastics 6140 Rough Carpentry Labor ** 6140 - Rough Carp Labor ** 125 150 Carpenter Blocking Toilet Access 2 Carpenters to Install Plywood (4x8) Rough Carp Labor ** Total 26 578 each sqft 32.5 2.5 32.5 2.5

90,219.50

845 1,445.00 2,290.00

6145 Installation **

Misc 100 Install Toilet Accessories Misc Installation ** Total Rough Carpentry Labor ** Total 26 each 75 75 1,949.92 1,949.92 4,239.92

6150 Rough Carpentry Material ** 6153 - Plywood 130 3/4" Standard Ply 4'x8' Plywood Total Rough Carpentry Material ** Total 6200 Finish Carpentry** 6219 - Millwork** 20 240 270 Reception Desk Allowance Melamine Counter & Cupboards Standard Commercial Vanity Millwork** Total Finish Carpentry** Total Wood and Plastics Total 2 55 24 each lnft lnft 5,000.00 2 5,000.00 each 150 150 5,000.00 150 150 10,000.00 8,250.00 3,600.00 21,850.00 21,850.00 26,680.21 636 sqft 0.93 21.86 0.031 27 ea 0.93 590.29 590.29 590.29

8000 - Doors and Windows 8800 - Glazing ** 8800 - Glazing ** 130 Mirror Glazing ** Total Glazing ** Total Doors and Windows Total 9000 - Finishes 9300 - Tile 9310 - Ceramic Tile 160 210 250 400 Ceramic Tile - Standard Grade Ceramic Tile Base 4" Thin Set Ceramic Tile Base Installation Ceramic Floor Tile Installation Ceramic Tile Total Tile Total Finishes Total 10000 - Specialties 10150 - Compartments and Cubicles 10150 Toilet Partitions/Urinal Screens ** 220 310 Toilet Partitions - Plam - Floor Mount Urinal Screens Plastic laminate Wall Hung Toilet Partitions/Urinal Screens ** Total Compartments and Cubicles Total 6 2 each each 690 450 690 450 4,140.00 900 5,040.00 5,575.00 300 300 5,575.00 sqft lnft lnft sqft 5 1.5 4 4 5 1.5 4 4 27,875.00 450 1,200.00 22,300.00 51,825.00 51,825.00 51,825.00 96 sqft 20 20 1,920.00 1,920.00 1,920.00 1,920.00

5,040.00

10800 - Toilet and Bath Accessories ** 10800 accessories ** Toilet 3000 3010 3020 3030 3040 3050 3070 Toilet Paper Dispensers Multi Roll Soap Dispenser Liquid Surface Mntd Towel Dispensers w/Waste Receptacle Pair Grab Bars Handicap Feminine Napkin Disposal Baby Change Table Mirrors - Stainless Steel Frame 24" x 36" Toilet accessories ** Total Toilet and Bath Accessories ** Total 10900 - Miscellaneous Specialties 10900 - Miscellaneous Specialties 220 Interior Benches Miscellaneous Specialties Total Miscellaneous Specialties Total Specialties Total 12000 - Furnishings 12800 Office Furnishings 12800 Office Furnishings 50 50 50 50 Waiting Area Chair Waiting Area Couch Dining Table -12 People Renovation of Kitchen Equipment Office Furnishings Total 6 3 3 1 each each each each each each each each 250 600 300 10,000.00 250 600 300 10,000.00 1,500.00 1,800.00 900 10,000.00 14,200.00 6 each 700 700 4,200.00 4,200.00 4,200.00 14,230.00 6 5 2 2 4 2 5 each each each each each each each 35 130 500 90 150 500 270 35 130 500 90 150 500 270 210 650 1,000.00 180 600 1,000.00 1,350.00 4,990.00 4,990.00

Office Furnishings Total Furnishings Total 15000 - Mechanical 15000 - Mechanical 5051 Basic Mechanical Materials 9010 Mechanical, Electrical, Sprinklers & Pumbing Allowance for Dome Mechanical Total 10 Dome Main Structure 2000 - Sitework 2221 - Pavement Sitework ** 02221 - Pavement Sitework ** 120 130 170 350 380 430 Pavement Infra 0-20 mm Pavement Backfill 0-56 mm Regrade, Recompact & + Min 105mm Asphalt (MTL, 3-River, Que) Final Grade Stone - Asphalt HD Geotextile membrane Pavement Sitework ** Total Pavement Sitework ** Total 2222 Hard Landscaping ** 02222 Hard Landscaping ** 30 120 140 Cast in Place Concrete Curbs Infrastructure for Hard Landscaping Concrete sidewalk Hard Landscaping ** Total 1,191.30 36.5 1,972.00 lnft cuyd sf 65.73 1.8 mton 16 22.5 7.5 16 22.5 7.5 623.4 1,246.90 3,740.60 3,740.60 3,740.60 3,740.60 cy cy sy sy sy sy 40.5 38.88 25 1,122.17 2,244.35 1,103.89 1.8 1.8 0.295 22.5 21.6 84.71 mton mton mton 1.5 1.25 22.5 21.6 1.5 63 60.48 1.5 25 1.5 1.25 7,570.00 sqft 25 25

14,200.00 14,200.00

189,250.00 189,250.00 1,078,586.01 9,130,284.53

39,276.07 75,410.05 5,610.87 93,514.45 5,610.87 4,675.72 224,098.03 224,098.03

19,061.12 821.65 14,789.77 34,672.55

Hard Landscaping ** Total 2900 - Landscaping ** 2900 - Landscaping 130 Sodded Areas w/ Topsoil Landscaping Total 2,083.40 sy 6 6

34,672.55

12,500.52 12,500.52

2950 - Trees Plants and Ground Covers 180 180 180 Interior Decorative Planter Outdoor Trees - 20' Outdoor Shrubs 2' Trees Plants and Ground Covers Total Landscaping ** Total Sitework Total 2050 - Demolition 2050 - Demolition ** 02050 - Demolition 30 45 45 45 45 45 45 55 200 200 200 200 200 200 Demolish Existing Elevator - 5 Stops Demolition of Slab on Grade Demolition of Steel Structure 30' & Roofing Demolition of Existing Slab Demolition of Concrete Slab Demolition of Existing Wood Slab Demolition of Steel Deck Sawcutting Concrete Slab Demolish Interior Block Wall Demolish Interior Partition Demolish Exterior Brick Wall & Backup 30' Demolish Interior Partition Demolish Furring Partition Demolish Interior Partition 1 10,907.50 10,907.50 each sqft sqft sqft sqft sqft sqft lnft sf sf sf sf sf sf 5 2.5 1.5 5 1.5 1 2 2 2 3,000.00 5 2.5 1.5 5 1.5 1 2 2 2 5 2 1.5 2 3,000.00 54,537.40 27,268.70 12 10 40 each each each each each each 500 660.87 92.59 543.75 950 125 6,525.00 9,500.00 5,000.00 21,025.00

33,525.52 292,296.09

8,876.00 97,000.00 10,907.50 133.7 4,389.10 22,855.80 13,731.70 59,039.70 43,800.80 7,215.70

44,379.95 145,500.00 10,907.48 267.44 8,778.11 45,711.70 68,658.33 118,079.47 65,701.24 14,431.31

2 1.5 2

200 200 225 350 375 530 600

Demolish Furring Partition Remove and Recuperate Exterior Stone Remove Single Door/Frame Remove Existing Ceilings Remove Existing Floor Finishes Remove counters/millwork Demolish Wood Stairs, 5 Floors, 65' h Remove RTU Demolition - BCI Total Demolition ** Total Demolition Total

3,243.10 2,000.00 381 119,781.50 120,976.20 1,764.00 1 6

sf sf each sf sf lf each each

1.5 5 40 2 1.75 1.5 2,000.00 1,000.00

1.5 5 40 2 1.75 1.5 2,000.00 1,000.00

4,864.64 10,000.00 15,240.00 239,563.04 211,708.26 2,646.02 2,000.00 6,000.00 1,099,243.09 1,099,243.09 1,099,243.09

3000 - Concrete 3200 Concrete Reinforcement 3201 - WireMesh ** 50 100 Wire Mesh 4x4 4/4 Installation of Wire Mesh WireMesh ** Total Concrete Reinforcement Total 3300 - Cast In Place Concrete 3301 - BCI Concrete Supply ** 1 60 Environmental Cost 30 MPA 20 mm Aggregate STD BCI Concrete Supply ** Total Cast In Place Concrete Total 3350 Finishing 3350 Finishes ** Concrete Concrete 1,015.60 986 cy cy 2.49 105.57 776.91 754.28 0.765 0.765 3.25 138 M3 M3 2.49 105.57 2,524.96 104,090.83 106,615.79 106,615.79 100,401.80 91,274.40 sqft sqft 110,442 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 30,120.55 9,127.44 39,247.98 39,247.98

540 617

Pour & Finish Slab on Deck ( min 5000 sf) Wet Cure Slab on Grade > film Concrete Finishes ** Total

91,274.40 91,274.40

sqft sqft

0.7 0.1

0.7 0.1

63,892.07 9,127.44 73,019.51

3355 Curing

Concrete 900 Concrete Sealer Concrete Curing Total Concrete Finishing Total Concrete Total 4,409.60 sqft 0.12 0.28 33.07 0.007 36.68 gal 0.4 1,763.83 1,763.83 74,783.34 220,647.11

4000 - Masonry 4100 Masonry Accessories ** 4165 - Reinforcement & Ties ** 260 Masonry Reinforcing @ 24" Reinforcement & Ties ** Total 6,736.60 sqft 1.8 1.8 12,125.90 12,125.90

4170 Sealants **

Masonry 100 Fire rated Sealant Masonry Sealants ** Total Masonry Accessories ** Total 419.2 lnft 1 1 419.17 419.17 12,545.06

4200 - Unit Masonry ** 4202 - Standard Block ** 110 190 Standard Block 6" Fire-rated Block 8" - 1 hrs Fire Rating Standard Block ** Total Unit Masonry ** Total 1,601.00 6,736.60 sf sf 1,857.18 7,814.47 1.16 1.16 ea ea 14 16 14 16 22,414.18 107,785.75 130,199.93 130,199.93

Masonry Total 5000 - Steel 5000 - Structural Steel** 5000 - Structural Steel** 20 10 Structural Steel for slab on deck Steel Column Reinforcement Structural Steel** Total Structural Steel** Total 5500 - Miscellaneous Metals** 5500 - Miscellaneous Metals** 30 30 30 530 530 560 665 675 705 Bollard 8" dia. 3/16" * 6' long Elevator Pit Ladder Painting & Repair of 4 Storey Exterior Glav. Emergency Stairs Steel Ext. Fire Escape - 5 Stories, 53' w/ Railings Steel Staircase - 5 Stories, 53' w/ Railings Interior Guard Rail Elevator hoist beam Elevator divider beam Loose Lintel Single x 4' Miscellaneous Metals** Total Miscellaneous Metals** Total Steel Total 6000 - Wood and Plastics 6140 Rough Carpentry Labor ** 14 3 2 1 2 175.9 10 4 22 each each each each each lnft each each each 130 150 300 4,000.00 4,000.00 20,000.00 80 300 200 150 150 430 4,000.00 4,000.00 20,000.00 80 300 200 150 91,274.40 450 sqft each 8.5 2,000.00 8.5 2,000.00

142,745.00

775,832.26 900,000.00 1,675,832.26 1,675,832.26

2,100.00 1,290.00 8,000.00 4,000.00 40,000.00 14,075.46 3,000.00 800 3,300.00 76,565.46 76,565.46 1,752,397.72

6140 - Rough Carp Labor ** 10 125 140 150 Carp-Blueskin Application 2/Hr Carpenter Blocking Toilet Access 2 Carpenters to install 2x4/2x6 2 Carpenters to Install Plywood (4x8) Rough Carp Labor ** Total 22 344 440 6,342.20 each each lnft sqft 32.5 32.5 2.5 2.5 32.5 32.5 2.5 2.5 715 11,180.00 1,100.00 15,855.47 28,850.47

6145 Installation **

Misc 100 Install Toilet Accessories Misc Installation ** Total Rough Carpentry Labor ** Total 344 each 75 75 25,798.97 25,798.97 54,649.43

6150 Rough Carpentry Material ** 6151 - Lumber 2x 215 2 x 6 x 12' STD Lumber 2x Total 440 lnft 0.49 0.48 0.001 445 mbft 0.49 215.38 215.38

6153 - Plywood 130 6155 - Insulation & Membranes 400 410 Primer for Blueskin Membrane Blueskin Membrane Roll 12" Insulation & Membranes Total Rough Carpentry Material ** Total 6200 Finish Carpentry** 6219 - Millwork** 20 240 270 Upgrade Reception Desk Allowance Melamine Counter & Cupboards Standard Commercial Vanity 1 498.5 178.1 each lnft lnft 15,000 1 15,000.00 each 150 150 15,000.00 150 150 15,000.00 74,770.27 26,716.46 440 440 lnft lnft 0.1 0.88 0.57 6.44 0.001 0.013 80 60 ea ea 0.1 0.88 45.3 386.23 431.53 7,236.78 3/4" Standard Ply 4'x8' Plywood Total 7,100.20 sqft 0.93 244.07 0.031 27 ea 0.93 6,589.86 6,589.86

Millwork** Total Finish Carpentry** Total Wood and Plastics Total 7000 - Thermal and Moisture Protection 7200 - Insulation 7200 - Insulation 580 3" Sprayed Urethane Insulation Total Insulation Total 7250 - Fireproofing 7250 - Fireproofing 9000 Fireproof Structural Framing/Deck Fireproofing Total Fireproofing Total Thermal and Moisture Protection Total 8000 - Doors and Windows 8100 - Metal Doors 8110 - Hollow Metal Doors ** 10 15 180 280 Install Insulated Metal Doors Install FR Metal Doors Insulated Metal Door - 3-0 x 7-0 FR Metal Door - 3-0 x 7-0 Hollow Metal Doors ** Total 22 32 22 32 each each each each 175 150 275 275 175 150 275 275 Steel 91,274.40 sqft 2.5 2.5 74,918.70 sqft 3 3

116,486.73 116,486.73 178,372.94

224,756.25 224,756.25 224,756.25

228,185.96 228,185.96 228,185.96 452,942.21

3,850.00 4,800.00 6,050.00 8,800.00 23,500.00

8120 - Hollow Metal Frames **

25 140 180 240 340

Install Metal Frames in Block Hollow Metal Frame - 3-0 x 7-0 Hollow Metal Frame - 6-0 x 7-0 FR Metal Frame - 3-0 x 7-0 Insulated Metal Frame - 3-0 x 7-0 Hollow Metal Frames ** Total Metal Doors Total

22 44 5 32 22

each each each each each

175 120 200 150 200

175 120 200 150 200

3,850.00 5,280.00 1,000.00 4,800.00 4,400.00 19,330.00 42,830.00

8200 - Wood Doors 8201 - Wood Doors ** 50 260 Install Wood Door Pre-Machined Hollow Core Masonite - 3-0 x 7-0 Wood Doors ** Total Wood Doors Total 8400 - Entrances and Storefronts 8400 - Entrances and Storefronts 100 120 310 350 400 420 All Glass Entrance Doors Revolving Doors Aluminum Entrance Door Handicap Door Operators Interior Vestibule Aluminum Entrance Door Entrances and Storefronts Total Entrances and Storefronts Total 8700 - Hardware 8710 Hanging Hardware 20 Butt Hinge set - Steel - Std Duty Hanging Hardware Total 108 each 40 40 4,320.00 4,320.00 99 2 4 2 572.6 2 each each ea each sqft each 1,000.00 30,000.00 1,000.00 2,500.00 35 1,000.00 1,000.00 30,000.00 1,000.00 2,500.00 35 1,000.00 99,000.00 60,000.00 4,000.00 5,000.00 20,041.20 2,000.00 190,041.20 190,041.20 54 54 each each 150 125 150 125 8,100.00 6,750.00 14,850.00 14,850.00

8720 Hardware

Latching

140

Lockset - Entrance Lock - Medium Duty Latching Hardware Total

108

each

Each

80

80

8,640.00 8,640.00

8730 - Controlling Hardware 210 Door Closer - Reg Parallel Arm Medium Duty Controlling Hardware Total 108 each each 210 210 22,680.00 22,680.00

8740 Weatherstripping and Seals 115 Threshold - 3' x 6" Wide Ext Alum Thermal Break Weatherstripping and Seals Total Hardware Total 8800 - Glazing ** 8800 - Glazing ** 100 100 100 200 220 Single Glazing Tempered Glass for Guard Rail in Lobby Single Glazing Tempered Int Glazed Wall w/ Silicone joints Privacy film for glazed wall Glazing ** Total Glazing ** Total Doors and Windows Total 9000 - Finishes 9250 - Drywall 9251 Drywall Framing 90 95 110 Bulkhead Bracing Bulkhead Framing Metal Studs Galv - 25 ga 1-5/8" 1,039.50 18,392.50 59,461.90 each sqft sqft 5 2 1.5 5 2 1.5 5,197.69 36,784.92 89,192.82 6.9 616 12.5 11,885.40 7,436.70 sqft sqft sqft sqft sqft 9 20 9 20 8 9 20 9 20 8 62.5 12,320.00 112.5 237,707.66 59,493.44 309,696.10 309,696.10 594,157.30 22 each 50 50 1,100.00 1,100.00 36,740.00

115 155

Metal Studs Galv - 25 ga 2-1/2" Metal Studs Galv - 25 ga 3-5/8" Drywall Framing Total

15,865.30 46,998.30

sqft sqft

1.6 1.75

1.6 1.75

25,384.40 82,247.00 238,806.83

9252 Wallboard

Gypsum 80 90 125 170 230 400 420 600 Drywall - Standard 1/2" on Walls Drywall - Standard 1/2" on Ceilings Drywall - Std 5/8" on bulkhead Drywall - Fire Resist. 5/8" on Walls Drywall - Moisture Resistant 5/8" on Walls Install Bulkhead Gypse Install Interior Gypse to walls Drywall Tape Gypsum Wallboard Total 93,968.80 15,150.00 5,108.70 53,521.30 10,555.60 5,108.70 166,989.60 15,420.30 sqft sqft sqft sqft sqft sqft sqft sqft 0.32 0.3 0.32 0.32 0.35 1 0.75 0.75 0.32 0.3 0.32 0.32 0.35 1 0.75 0.75 30,070.01 4,545.01 1,634.77 17,126.83 3,694.45 5,108.66 125,242.17 11,565.21 198,987.11

9260 - Drywall Finish 55 60 360 365 Joints/Finish Drywall Joints/Finish @ Bulkhead Fire rated Sealant Acoustic Sealant Caulking Drywall Finish Total 154,343.70 4,899.60 4,626.40 4,430.10 sqft sqft lnft lnft 0.7 1 1 1 0.7 1 1 1 108,040.62 4,899.64 4,626.37 4,430.13 121,996.77

9270 - Insulation in Drywall Systems 210 Acoustic Insulation - 3 5/8" Insulation in Drywall Systems Total Drywall Total 9300 - Tile 9310 - Ceramic Tile 160 210 250 320 Ceramic Tile - Standard Grade Ceramic Tile Base 4" Thin Set Ceramic Tile Base Installation Ceramic Wall Tile - Standard Grade 4,290.60 923.7 923.7 4,654.80 sqft lnft lnft sqft 5 1.5 4 5 5 1.5 4 5 21,453.03 1,385.55 3,694.81 23,273.85 46,998.30 sqft 2.5 2.5 117,495.72 117,495.72

677,286.43

400 410

Ceramic Floor Tile Installation Ceramic Wall Tile Installation Ceramic Tile Total Tile Total

4,290.60 4,654.80

sqft sqft

4 4

4 4

17,162.42 18,619.08 85,588.75 85,588.75

9500 - Acoustical Treatment 9506 - Acoustical Ceiling Tiles 20 Ceiling Tiles - 2x2 - Standard Acoustical Ceiling Tiles Total Acoustical Treatment Total 9550 - Wood Flooring 9550 - Wood Flooring 430 510 Maple Hardwood Flooring Maple Hardwood Base Wood Flooring Total Wood Flooring Total 9600 - Stone Flooring 9600 - Stone Flooring 210 Granite Tile Base 6" Stone Flooring Total 256.2 lnft 10 10 2,562.33 2,562.33 4,309.40 913.1 sqft lnft 10 6 10 6 43,094.29 5,478.58 48,572.87 48,572.87 98,964.90 sqft 2.5 2.5 247,412.29 247,412.29 247,412.29

9620 Flooring

Granite 20 Granite Flooring in Lobby Granite Flooring Total Stone Flooring Total 2,445.60 sqft 20 20 48,912.97 48,912.97 51,475.30

9650 Resilient Flooring 9650 Resilient Flooring

430 510

Vinyl Composition Tile - 1/8" - Std Rubber Base - 4" Resilient Flooring Total Resilient Flooring Total

15,489.70 2,025.60

sqft lnft

2 1.5

2 1.5

30,979.44 3,038.39 34,017.83 34,017.83

9680 - Carpet 9680 - Carpet 20 160 300 Roll Carpet Extra Cost for Pattern in Carpet Carpet Base Standard Carpet Total Carpet Total 9900 - Painting 9900 - Painting 600 620 710 Paint Drywall Paint Block Wall Paint Door & Frame Painting Total Painting Total Finishes Total 10000 - Specialties 10050 - Footgrills ** 10050 - Footgrills ** 110 Footgrill - 4 x 6' Footgrills ** Total Footgrills ** Total 10150 - Compartments and Cubicles 12 each 1,000.00 1,000.00 12,000.00 12,000.00 12,000.00 154,588.60 3,202.00 108 sqft sqft each 0.6 0.6 100 0.6 0.6 100 92,753.17 1,921.22 10,800.00 105,474.39 105,474.39 1,571,295.54 9,578.60 9,578.60 9,968.20 sqyd sqyd lnft 30 2 1.5 30 2 1.5 287,358.21 19,157.20 14,952.28 321,467.69 321,467.69

10150 Toilet Partitions/Urinal Screens ** 220 220 310 Toilet Partitions - Floor Mounted Plastic Laminate Toilet Partitions - Plam - Floor Mount Urinal Screens Plastic laminate Wall Hung Toilet Partitions/Urinal Screens ** Total Compartments and Cubicles Total 10800 - Toilet and Bath Accessories ** 10800 accessories ** Toilet 3000 3010 3020 3020 3030 3040 3050 3070 Toilet Paper Dispensers Multi Roll Soap Dispenser Liquid Surface Mntd Hand Dryer Towel Dispensers w/Waste Receptacle Pair Grab Bars Handicap Feminine Napkin Disposal Baby Change Table Mirrors - Stainless Steel Frame 24" x 36" Toilet accessories ** Total Toilet and Bath Accessories ** Total 10900 - Miscellaneous Specialties 10900 - Miscellaneous Specialties 10 10 220 Auditorium Structure, Chairs & Finishes Speaker Podium Structure Exterior Benches 2,795.40 1 6 sqft each each 500.82 1,400,000.08 70 76 4 26 20 50 18 80 each each each each each each each each 35 130 500 500 90 150 500 270 35 130 500 500 90 150 500 270 2,450.00 9,880.00 2,000.00 13,000.00 1,800.00 7,500.00 9,000.00 21,600.00 67,230.00 67,230.00 14 49 22 each each each 690 690 450 690 690 450 9,660.00 33,810.00 9,900.00 53,370.00

53,370.00

600

600

3,600.00

Miscellaneous Specialties Total Miscellaneous Specialties Total Specialties Total 12000 - Furnishings 12600 - Furniture and Accessories 12600 - Furniture and Accessories 10 Storage Shelving Units 8' High Furniture and Accessories Total Furniture and Accessories Total 12800 Furnishings 12800 Furnishings Office Office 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Furniture Delivery Equipment Delivery Furniture Delivery Equipment Delivery Furniture Delivery Equipment Delivery Furniture Delivery Standard Office Desk - w/ Chairs & Furniture VP Office Desk - w/ Chairs & Furniture Large Cubicle, 8 employees w/ Desk & Accessories Medium Cubicle, 6 employees w/ Desk & Accessories Printing Room Equipment Medium Cubicle, 6 employees w/ Desk & Accessories Large Cubicle, 8 employees w/ Desk & Accessories 54 6 60 8 95 4 24 36 3 13 2 6 4 8 each each each each each each each each each each each each each each 1,500.00 1,500.00 2,000.00 6 4 8 1,500.00 1,500.00 2,000.00 400 400 400 400 134.74 400 50 2,000.00 4,500.00 6,500.00 5,000.00 400 400 400 400 134.74 400 50 2,000.00 4,500.00 6,500.00 5,000.00 1,500.00 1,500.00 2,000.00 361.1 lnft 80

1,403,600.08 1,403,600.08 1,536,200.08

28,887.46 28,887.46 28,887.46

each each each each each each each

21,600.00 2,400.00 24,000.00 3,200.00 12,800.00 1,600.00 1,200.00 72,000.00 13,500.00 84,500.00 10,000.00 9,000.00 6,000.00 16,000.00

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

VP Office Desk - w/ Chairs & Furniture Standard Office Desk - w/ Chairs & Furniture Printing Room Equipment Presidential Office Desk - w/ Chairs & Furniture Meeting Room Desk - 10 Members Meeting Room Desk - 20 Members Waiting Area Chair Medium Cubicle, 6 employees w/ Desk & Accessories VP Office Desk - w/ Chairs & Furniture Printing Room Equipment Waiting Area Chair Waiting Area Couch Small Meeting Desk Small Office Desk Office Furnishings Total Office Furnishings Total Furnishings Total

6 42 8 2 6 2 72 12 1 4 24 2 1 3

each each each each each each each each each each each each each each

2,500.00 1,000.00 1,500.00 5,000.00 1,000.00 2,500.00 1,500.00 2,500.00 1,500.00

6 42 8 2 6 2 12 1 4

2,500.00 1,000.00 1,500.00 5,000.00 1,000.00 2,500.00 1,500.00 2,500.00 1,500.00

each each each each each each each each each each each each each each

2,500.00 1,000.00 1,500.00 5,000.00 1,000.00 2,500.00 250 1,500.00 2,500.00 1,500.00 250 600 500 500

15,000.00 42,000.00 12,000.00 10,000.00 6,000.00 5,000.00 18,000.00 18,000.00 2,500.00 6,000.00 6,000.00 1,200.00 500 1,500.00 421,500.00 421,500.00 450,387.46

250

250 600 500 500

14000 - Conveying Systems 14200 - Elevators 14200 - Elevators 160 160 160 Elevators - Modernization Existing 6-Stop Elevator of 1 2 1 each each each 30,000.00 50,000.00 25,000.00 30,000.00 50,000.00 25,000.00 30,000.00 100,000.00 25,000.00 155,000.00 155,000.00 155,000.00

Elevators - Hydraulic Passenger 5-Stop Elevators - Modernization of Existing 5-Stop Elevator Elevators Total Elevators Total Conveying Systems Total

15000 - Mechanical 15000 - Mechanical 5051 Basic Mechanical Materials 9010 Mechanical, Electrical, Sprinklers & Plumbing Allowance for GN Building Basic Mechanical Materials Total Mechanical Total Main Structure Tunnel 2000 - Site work 2100 - Site Preparation ** 2101 - Clearing & Preparation ** 190 Removal of Existing 3" Asphalt Clearing & Preparation ** Total 1,871.70 sy 30 30 56,151.00 56,151.00 22,820.00 sqft 30 30 684,600.00

684,600.00 684,600.00 9,130,284.53 2,795,205.32

2102 - Site Preparation ** 110 Site Prep Mass Excavation on Site Site Preparation ** Total 9,105.30 cy 22 22 200,316.68 200,316.68

2150 - Shoring and Tiebacks ** 100 Standard Shoring Shoring and Tiebacks ** Total Site Preparation ** Total 2220 - Excavation ** 2220 - Excavation ** 200 300 390 Trench Excavation Out of Site Gravel Under Precast Sections Trench Backfill Recuperated Excavation ** Total 8,384.70 459.4 2,427.80 cy cy cy 827.01 1.8 mton 22 21 10 22 21 10 184,463.40 9,648.45 24,278.20 218,390.05 23,200.00 sqft 40 928,000.00 928,000.00 1,184,467.68

Excavation ** Total 2221 - Pavement Site work ** 02221 - Pavement Site work ** 120 130 170 350 380 430 Pavement Infra 0-20 mm Pavement Backfill 0-56 mm Regrade, Recompact & + Min 105mm Asphalt (MTL, 3-River, Que) Final Grade Stone - Asphalt HD Geotextile membrane Pavement Site work ** Total Pavement Site work ** Total Site work Total 3000 - Concrete 3200 Concrete Reinforcement 3200 - Rebar ** 60 70 Reinforcing Steel 20M Reinforcing Steel 20M + overlap Rebar ** Total Concrete Reinforcement Total 3300 - Cast In Place Concrete 3301 - BCI Concrete Supply ** 1 Environmental Cost BCI Concrete Supply ** Total Cast In Place Concrete Total 1,672.00 cy 2.49 1,279.04 0.765 3.25 M3 2.49 44,400.00 81,400.00 lf lf 1.29 1.42 31879.2 64289.72 0.718 0.718 1.8 1.8 kg kg 1.29 1.42 311.9 935.9 1,871.70 1,871.70 1,871.70 1,871.70 cy cy sy sy sy sy 40.5 38.88 25 561.51 1,684.53 552.36 1.8 1.8 0.295 22.5 21.6 84.71 mton mton mton 1.5 1.25 22.5 21.6 1.5 63 60.48 1.5 25 1.5 1.25

218,390.05

19,652.85 56,600.21 2,807.55 46,792.50 2,807.55 2,339.63 131,000.28 131,000.28 1,533,858.01

57,382.56 115,721.50 173,104.06 173,104.06

4,156.89 4,156.89 4,156.89

3350 Finishing 3355 Curing

Concrete Concrete 900 Concrete Sealer in Tunnel Concrete Curing Total Concrete Finishing Total 21,668.00 sqft 0.12 0.28 162.51 0.007 36.68 gal 0.4 8,667.20 8,667.20 8,667.20

3400 Pre-Cast Concrete 3432 - Site Post Tension 65 30 MPA Precast Concrete Tunnel - 20 mm with air Site Post Tension Total Pre-Cast Concrete Total Concrete Total 7000 - Thermal and Moisture Protection 7100 - Waterproofing 7100 - Waterproofing 100 Waterproofing Precast Structure Waterproofing Total Waterproofing Total Thermal and Moisture Protection Total 9000 - Finishes 9300 - Tile 9310 - Ceramic Tile 160 210 250 400 Ceramic Tile in Tunnel Ceramic Tile Base 4" in Tunnel Ceramic Tile Base Installation Ceramic Floor Tile Installation 8,880.00 1,450.00 1,450.00 8,880.00 sqft lnft lnft sqft 5 1.5 4 4 5 1.5 4 4 44,400.00 2,175.00 5,800.00 35,520.00 32,775.60 sqft 2 2 65,551.20 65,551.20 65,551.20 65,551.20 1,672.00 cy 420.75 1,279.04 0.765 550 M3 420.75 703,472.96 703,472.96 703,472.96 889,401.10

Ceramic Tile Total Tile Total Finishes Total 15000 - Mechanical 15000 - Mechanical 5051 Basic Mechanical Materials 9010 Mechanical, Electrical, Sprinklers & Plumbing Allowance for Tunnel Basic Mechanical Materials Total Mechanical Total Tunnel Grand Total 10,925.00 sqft 20 20

87,895.00 87,895.00 87,895.00

218,500.00 218,500.00 218,500.00 2,795,205.32 13,010,600.86