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CONSIDERATII PRIVIND INTRODUCEREA UNUI SISTEM DE STINGERE A INCENDIULUI IN STATIILE ELECTRICE DE TRANSFORMARE CONSIDERATION ON FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM IN SUBSTATIONS

Vasile TABACARU Cezar CRISTIAN


SC FDFEE ELECTRICA MUNTENIA NORD SA SDFEE Galati 35 A, N. Balcescu Street, Galati Tel. 0236 461759, tehnic@electricitate.galati.ro Rezumat: In staiile electrice de transforrmare din sistemul de distribuie nu exist instalaii individuale sau sisteme integrate cu rol de detectare automat, semnalizare/alarmare i stingere a incendiilor, ci doar materiale tehnice i produse iniiale (conform PE 009). Incidente minore, produse n staii fr personal, conduc la avarii cu pierderi materiale incomparabile cu valoarea unui sistem de detectare i stingere a incendiului. Dat fiind valoarea mare a investiiilor n cazul staiilor noi sau a celor modernizate, n special prin echipamentul de comutaie i protecie de ultim generaie utilizat, subliniem c trebuie (re)considerat dotarea unei sli de conexiuni din cadrul unei staii electrice de transformare n privina proteciei la incendiu. Promovm ideea introducerii unuia din cele mai simple sisteme de detectare automat i stingere a incendiului: pe baz de detectoare de fum prin aspiraie i amestec de gaz ecologic inhibitor FM 200. Abstrat: In the electric transformer stations of the power distribution system, there are no individual or integrated systems for automatic fire detection, signalling/alarm and extinguishing. There are only technical materials and initial products (according to PE 009). Minor incidents that occur in unmanned stations cause material losses far higher than the cost of a fire detection and extinguishing system. Because of the high investments involved in new or modernized stations, in particular last generation switching and protection equipment, we emphasize the necessity of fire protection within a connection room of the transformer station. We recommend the use of one of the simplest automatic fire detection and extinguishing systems: based on aspiration and FM 200 inhibitive ecologic gas smoke detectors.

1. Merit cu adevrat instalarea unui sistem de securitate ? La o analiz atent a rolului pe care l are sistemul de securitate, se poate concluziona c acesta este unul ingrat: pe de o parte, apreciat pentru starea de veghe permanent n vederea declanrii unei alarme n cazul pericolelor poteniale (incendiu, efracii, sabotaj etc.) i, pe de alt parte, este neapreciat pentru beneficiile prevenirii sau limitrii distrugerilor. Un simplu incident sau o explozie nsoit de incendiu nu produce doar distrugeri directe (asupra instalaiei, resurselor etc.) ci i mari pierderi indirecte (ntreruperea funcionrii instalaiei, penalizri contractuale). n plus, nu toate riscurile sunt asigurabile sau, dac sunt, primele de asigurare sunt prohibitive. Analiznd toate aceste motive, rezult c o companie ar trebui s fac eforturi n a gsi soluii pentru protecia instalaiilor, a produciei i, nu n ultimul rnd, a angajailor. La ora actual, practic nici o afacere nu-i poate permite, n perspectiva dezvoltrii ei, s ignore latura managerial a riscului. Ca o consecin, pe piaa mondial sunt multe firme profesioniste care ofer proiecte n acest domeniu, bazate pe experien i know-how i care, la cerinele clientului, indentific coordonatele profilului hazardului, determin obiectivele de protejat i proiecteaz un concept efectiv de securitate. Dac riscurile principale sunt prevenite i reduse utiliznd msuri structurale, tehnice i organizatorice, riscurile reziduale sunt asigurate i asumate de companie. Astfel, costurile directe i indirecte ale oricror evenimente nsoite de pierderi pot s fie puse n eviden i ncorporate n planificarea financiar pe termen lung. Un sistem de securitate poate avea ca obiectiv: detecia/ protecia la incendiu, alarm n caz de spargeri, controlul accesului, monitorizare video, protecia persoanei. In cele ce

1. Is the installation of a security system really worth ? At a closer look, it can be concluded that the role of the security system is quite unrewarded: on one hand it is appreciated because they are constantly on the lookout for potential dangers (fire, intrusion, sabotage etc), and on the other they are disregarded for the benefits of damage prevention or limitation. A simple incident or an explosion followed by a fire not only cause direct damage (to the plant, premises and operatin resources) but also high indirect losses (interruption of operations, contract penalities etc). Further not all risks are insurable or, if they are, the premiums are prohibitive. For all these reasons a company has to find other solutions to safeguard the systems, production and not last, the employees lives. Nowadays no bussiness can afford to ignore forwardlooking risk management. Therefore there are many professional companies that offer projects based on their experience and know-how and together with the client, map out a hazard profile, determine the security objectives and draw up an effective security concept. While high risks are prevented and reduced using structural, technical and organisational measures, residual risks are insured or borne by the company. Thus, the direct and indirect costs of any loss events are clearly emphasized and can be incorporated in the long term financial planning. The objective of a security system can be: fire detection/ protection, burglary and hold-up alarm, access control, video monitoring, person protection. In this paper we try to emphasize and promote the necessity of a security system

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urmeaz, ncercm s promovm ideea necesitii realizrii unui sistem de securitate care s aib ca obiectiv detectarea automat i stingerea incendiului n sala de conexiuni din staiile electrice de transformare din sistemul de distribuie. 2. Situaie existent n staiile de distribuie In staiile electrice din sistemul de distribuie nu exist instalaii individuale de detectare automat, semnalizare, alarmare i stingere a incendiilor, nicidecum sisteme integrate care s ndeplineasc toate aceste funcii, ci doar materiale tehnice i produse iniiale. Not: In sensul unui sistem integrat de detectare automat i stingere a incendiului, trebuie subliniat singurul pas care s-a fcut n staiile exterioare pentru protecia celui mai important i mai scump echipament, transformatorul de putere. Conform unei decizii RENEL (65/02.02. 1998), prin care s-a modificat i completat normativul PE 009, articolul 8.22b referitor la stingerea cu ap pulverizat a transformatoarelor de putere s-a abrogat, iar articolul 8.63 s-a modificat n sensul precizrii c transformatoarele i bobinele cu ulei (cu puteri pn la 100 MVA, n staii exterioare) s fie prevzute cu instalaii de azot pentru prevenirea exploziei i stingerea incendiului. Trebuie precizat ns c acest sistem funcioneaz doar n cazul unui defect intern n transformator ! In domeniul reelelor electrice de distribuie, conform normativului PE 009/93 [1]- cap. 8.B, se prevd instalaii de semnalizare automat a incendiului prin detectoare de temperatur doar pentru transformatoarele de putere (pct.8.7a) i detectoare combinate de fum i temperatur n gospodrii de cablu i n staii de conexiuni i transformare din reele electrice care au construcii nchise speciale de cabluri de energie electric (pct. 8.7c). Evident, se prevd instalaii de semnalizare manual (pct.8.7e) i sisteme de alarmare n caz de incendiu (n fapt, legturi telefonice). Conform aceluiai normativ, n instalaiile electrice sunt utilizate materiale tehnice i produse iniiale pentru combaterea incendiilor incipiente, iar n Anexa 1 din vol. II sunt detaliate aceste materiale tehnice i produse pentru tuneluri de cablu, poduri i subsoluri de cablu, sli de conexiuni, i ele constau n stingtoare portative i carosabile (cu spum chimic, praf i CO2) i lzi cu nisip. In privina transformatoarelor i bobinelor cu ulei, a se vedea nota de mai sus. La ora actual, n staiile electrice de transformare din reeaua SDFEE Galai nu exist instalaii de detectare automat i semnalizare a incendiilor, instalaii de semnalizare manual sau instalaii de stingere a incendiului, ci doar materiale tehnice i produse iniiale. Sursa de caldur care poate duce la declanarea unui incendiu ntr-o celul electric este arcul electric, ca rezultat al unui defect de izolaie, al funcionrii defectuoase a aparatajului de comutaie (ntreruptoare cu ulei) sau a dispozitivelor de protecie (sigurane fuzibile, descrctoare cu rezisten variabil cu spaii de amorsare), al depirii capabilitilor lor de ntrerupere a circuitului sau al executrii unei manevre greite; aceast surs de cldur intens dispare ca rezultat al acionrii proteciilor electrice aferente celulei sau/i sistemului de bare de MT al staiei. In cazul n care incendiul s-a declanat, acesta poate fi detectat doar de personalul de exploatare (permanent sau din tura de deranjamente) i, ca urmare, nu se poate vorbi de detectarea focului din faz incipient ci, din contra, n faz dezvoltat de flacr deschis.

for automatic fire detection and supression in the connection room of the distribution substations.

2. Present status of the distribution substations In the electric transformer stations of the power distribution system, there are no individual or integrated systems for automatic fire detection, signalling/alarm and extinguishing, but only technical materials and initial products. Note: Regarding an integrated automatic fire detection and extinguishing system, the only applied measure in the outside substations was related to the protection of the most important and expensive component, i.e. the power transformer. According to a RENEL Decision (no. 65/02.02.1998) that modified and completed PE 009 regulation, para. 8.22b regarding the sprayed water fire extinguishing for power transformers was canceled and para. 8.63 was modified requiring that nitrogen system should be provided for oil transformers and coils (up to 100 MVA, in outside substations) in order to prevent explosions and assist in extinguishing the fire. We have to mention however that this system works only for an inside transformer fault. For the distribution networks, according to PE 009/93[1] section 8 B, automatic fire signalling systems with temperature detectors are provided only for the power transformers (para 8.7c) and combined smoketemperature detectors have to be installed in cable rooms and connection and transformer substations that have closed cable facilities (para 8.7 c). Obviously, manual signalling (para 8.7 e) and fire alarm systems (in fact phone lines) are specified. According to the same regulation, technical materials and initial products are used for incipient fire suppression: vol II Annex 1 presents details of these technical materials and products for Electric systems galleries, cable bridges and underground chambers, connection rooms; they comprise portable and road extinguishers (with chemical foam, CO2 powder and CO2) and sand boxes. Regarding the oil transformers and coils, see the above note. Nowadays the transformer substations of Galatz Power Distribution Subsidiary have no automatic fire detection and signalling, manual signalling or fire extinguishing systems but only technical materials and initial products. The source of heat that causes a fire is the electric arc caused by an insulation fault, the inadequate operation of the switchgear (oil circuit breaker circuits) and switchgear, measurement and protection equipment can emit enough noxa to prevent the staff from entering for fire limitation; visible separation of the bay from the voltage supply and fire extinguishing with the existent means are more difficult. Further, by opening the protection devices (fuses, variable resistance surge arresters with striking distance), exceeding their circuit breaking capacities or incorrect handling; this intense source of heat is removed when the electric protections of the bay and/or m.v busbar are tripped. After the outbreak, the fire can be detected only by the operational staff (permanent or fault removal shift) so that the fire cannot be detected in its incipient stage but in the open flame stage.

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In lipsa unor mijloace individuale de protecie contra acestor noxe, ncercarea de a stinge focul cu mijloacele din dotare comport riscuri pentru sntatea i chiar viaa personalului. Nu este de neglijat aici nici factorul psihologic, prin inducerea unei stri de oc asupra personalului. In cazul fericit al localizrii i stingerii incendiului fr afectarea personalului, consecinele asupra instalaiei sunt ntotdeauna grave i concretizate prin deteriorarea echipamentelor i a cablajului, ceea ce se reflect att n cheltuielile (neplanificate) cu lucrri ulterioare de nlocuire echipamente, reparaii etc. ct i n energie electric nelivrat. Din pcate, SDFEE Galai poate exemplifica un asemenea scenariu, ca urmare a unui incendiu produs n sala de conexiuni de 6 kV a unei staii electrice de transformare supus unor ample lucrri de modernizare i dotat cu celule de comutaie de generaie nou. Filmul evenimentului, pe scurt: - ca urmare a unei simple puneri la pmnt (prin defect de izolaie LES) a barei de 6 kV, supravoltarea celorlalte faze a condus (inexplicabil!) la strpungerea izolaiei reductoarelor de tensiune din celula de masur, cu manifestare exploziv; - fisurarea izolaiei de rin a fost nsoit de apariia arcului electric, arc care a fost eliminat prin funcionarea corect a proteciilor (PMT ~ 2,4 s); - arcul electric a condus la aprinderea rinii de turnare (din motive neexplicate de furnizor), incendiul declanat dezvoltndu-se i dup dispariia arcului; - cldura puternic degajat de foc a topit paravenele de policarbonat din celul i placa de baz a celulei (sub reductoare), ceea ce a permis crearea unui canal de tiraj natural pe traseul canal cabluri - compartiment aparate de comutaie - compartiment joas tensiune i care a ntreinut i amplificat incendiul; - din momentul acionrii proteciei i pn la ptrunderea personalului de tur n sala de conexiuni s-au scurs cca. 12 min., iar pn la stingerea definitiv a incendiului s-au scurs cca. 120 min; - pagubele materiale sunt imense, nu intrm n detalierea acestora n acest context; - staia este fr personal permanent i, prin funcionarea sistemului de telealarmare, a fost necesar deplasarea turei de deranjamente 110 kV ctre staie; - ncercarea de ptrundere a personalului n camera de conexiuni a fost impiedicat de atmosfera dens de noxe; - dupa deschiderea uilor de acces n camera de conexiuni i eliminarea unei pri din noxe, s-a acionat cu mijloacele tehnice din dotare pentru stingerea focului (barele staiei erau demult fr tensiune !), n mai multe reprize datorit reizbucnirii flcrii, i cu riscul inhalrii de noxe. Ar fi interesant de fcut un calcul economic comparativ: echipament deteriorat vs. sistem automat de detectare i stingere incendiu, dar suntem convini c un astfel de sistem i-ar fi dovedit din plin eficiena, prin detectarea din faz incipient a incendiului i limitarea n proporie covritoare a pagubelor, fr periclitarea a personalului de exploatare. 3. Sistem automat de detectare i stingere a incendiului prin utilizare de detector de fum prin aspiraie i amestec de gaz ecologic inhibitor Aa cum precizam la nceput, pe piaa mondial sunt multe firme profesioniste care ofer proiecte i produse n

If individual noxa protections are missing, the attempt to extinguish the fire with the existent means is highly health risky and even life-threatening. The psychological factor should not be neglected having in view the shock of the staff. If the fire was limited and extinguished without injuries to the staff, the consequences on the system are always very serious due to the damages of the equipment and cables. Both unexpected costs related to equipment replacements and repairs as well as unsupplied power occur. Unfortunately Galati Power Distribution Subsidiary was faced with such a situation following a fire in a 6 kV connection room within a 110/6 kV transformer substation (which has undergone extensive repairs and modernizations being endowned with last generation bays SF6 circuit breakers, digital protections. The steps of this event are briefly described below: - due to a simple earth fault (fault of the underground power line insulation) of the 6 kV busbar, the overvoltage on the other phases lead (unaccountably) to the breakdown of the voltage transformer insulation in the measurement bay, with explosive behaviour; - the cracking of the resin insulation was accompagned by the electric arc, which was further removed by the correct operation of the protections (PMT 2.4 s); - the electric arc caused the ignition of the cast resin (the reasons were unaccountable by the manufacturer), the fire continuing even after the arc was removed; - the strong heat of the fire melted the polycarbonate covers of the bay and the base plate (under the transformers) so that a natural air draft occurred between the cable trough switchgear room low voltage room, maintaining and enhancing the fire; - about 12 min passed from the tripping of the protection until the shift staff entered in the connection room and about 120 min were necessary for the complete fire extinguishing; - the material losses were huge but we will not detail this issue now; - the substation is un-manned and by the operation of the remote alarm system, the 110 kV emergency shift was sent to the substation; - the attempt of the staff to enter the connection room was prevented by the high noxa level; - after the access doors of the connection room were opened and some of the noxa were removed, the existent means were used several times to extinguish the fire (the busbars had no voltage for a long time) because of the flames reignition and noxa breathing danger. It would be interesting to make a comparative calculation: damaged equipment versus automatic fire detection and extinguishing system but we are sure that such a system would have proven its efficiency by the early fire detection and limitation of the most damages without putting in danger the operational staff. 3. Automatic fire detection and extinguishing system with aspiration smoke detector and ecologic inhibiting agent As we mentioned at the beginning, there are many worldwide professional companies that offer projects and

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acest domeniu, bazate pe experien i know-how i care, la cerinele clientului, indentific coordonatele profilului hazardului, determin obiectivele de protejat i proiecteaz un concept efectiv de securitate, n cazul nostru referitor la incendii. Un sistem integrat modular de stingere incediu este format, n principiu, din trei (sub)sisteme i accesorii: - sistem de detectare automat a focului (kit de detectoare, tubulatur etc.); - unitatea central (centrala); - sistem de stingere a incendiului (containere cu gaz, tubulatur, duze etc.); - accesorii pentru: alarme, controlul ventilaie, nchidere ui etc. Din materialele bibliografice pe care le-am putut consulta [2], noi am ajuns la concluzia c un sistem cu raport avantajos eficien/cost destinat detectrii automate, semnalizrii i stingerii incendiului n sala de conexiuni a unei staii electrice de transformare este sistemul bazat pe detector de fum cu aspiraie i amestec de gaz ecologic inhibitor. 3.1. Detectarea focului. Sistem de alarm la foc Sunt trei principii eseniale de detectare implicate n detectarea focului [2]: a) detectarea fumului: prin determinarea numrului de particule de fum din aer, cu detectoare fotoelectrice. b) detectarea flcrii: prin msurarea creterii radiaiei luminoase de la foc (n infrarou, vizibil, ultraviolet). c) detectarea cldurii: prin msurarea creterii de temperatur pe un interval de timp dat i a temperaturilor maxime; acest grup include detectoare de rat de cretere a temperaturii i detectoare de temperatur fixat (limit). Cnd se aleg detectoarele de foc, trebuie s se ia n considerare urmtoarele probleme pentru a se asigura cea mai fiabil soluie de detecie: la ce tip de foc te atepi sau care este cel mai probabil, cum se manifest fenomenul focului n faza de natere, care sunt factorii neltori posibili, nlimea camerei, care sunt condiiile ambientale (hrtie, plastic, cherestea, vopsele i lacuri, combustibili, echipament electric, sisteme informatice). Un sistem automat de detectare i alarm la foc este un sistem fiabil n condiiile n care detecteaz focul nc din faza sa incipient, fr a fi necesar detectarea sa de ctre om; el nu supune riscului nici o persoan i mobilizeaz forele de stingere a focului. Sistemul ar consta din: detectoare de foc, panou de control pentru alarm n caz de foc, surs de alimentare, unitate de alarm i linii de conectare. Sistemul trebuie s dispun de dou surse independente de alimentare cu energie electric, una din surse este ntotdeauna sursa principal iar cealalt fiind o baterie ca surs de rezerv. Iat o configuraie posibil de sistem integrat: - detectoare de fum prin aspiraie; - unitate principal (centrala) de detectare i stingere; - gospodrie de gaz (n butelii controlate de presostat); - sistem de control i eliberare a amestecului de gaz; - tubulatura de aspiraie a fumului n detector, cu duze de captare; - tubulatura de evacuare a amestecului de gaz, cu duzele de dispersie. Funcia componentelor individuale este urmtoarea: - n zona monitorizat, detectoarele automate de foc detecteaz permanent fenomenul de foc respectiv i-l convertesc ntr-un semnal electric;

products based on their experience and know-how. On the client request, they map out a hazard profile, determine the security objectives and draw up an effective security concept in our situation, for the fire hazard. An integrated fire suppression system is mainly made of three subsystems and accessories: - automatic fire detection system (detector kit, piping) - central unit (station); - fire extinguishing system (gas bottles, piping, nozzles etc); - accessories for: alarms, ventilation control, door closing etc; According to the bibliography [2], we concluded that the system with aspiration smoke detector and ecologic inhibiting agent represents an automatic fire detection and extinguishing system with a good efficiency/cost ratio, for the connection room of a transformer substation.

3.1. Fire detection. Fire alarm system There are three main detection principles for the fire detection [2]: a) smoke detection: the number of smoke particles in the air is determined by photoelectric detectors; b) flame detection: measurement of the luminescent radiation increase; c) heat detection: measurement of the heat increase within a period of time and the maximum temperatures; this category includes rate-of-rise temperature detectors and fixed (limit) temperature heat detectors; When chosing fire detectors, following problems have to be taken into consideration in order to provide the most reliable detection: what kind of fire is expected or most likely, what is the fire behaviour in the outbreak stage, what are the possible deceptive factors, room height, ambient conditions (paper, plastic, timber, paints and varnishes, fuels, electrical equipment, computer installations etc. An automatic fire detection and alarm system is reliable if it detects the outbreak of the fire, with no need for human detection; it warns any persons at risk and mobilises the fire-fighting forces. The system consists of: fire detectors, fire alarm control panel, power supply and the connecting lines. The system should have two independent power supply sources, one of them being always the mains while the other a backup battery. A possible configuration of an integrated system is described below: - aspiration smoke detectors; - main detection and extinguishing unit (station); - gas bottles (controlled by pressostat); - gas control and release system; - smoke aspiration piping, with nozzles; - gas mixture release piping, with release nozzles; The function of the individual components is the following: - Within the monitored area, automatic fire detectors permanently detect the respective fire phenomena and convert them into an electrical signal. - The signal from the detectors is recorded by the fire alarm control panel and, where appropiate, displayed both visually and accoustically as a fire alarm; the fire

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- semnalul detectoarelor este nregistrat prin panoul de control al alarmei la foc, evaluat i afiat att vizual ct i acustic ca alarm de foc; panoul de control al alarmei la foc este conceput astfel nct s permit declanarea diverselor sisteme de control automat al focului: sisteme de stingere staionare, sisteme de ventilaie i condiionare a aerului, ui de foc, instalaii de ridicare; - puncte de apel de urgen (butoane de avarie) sunt utilizate pentru declanarea alarmelor manuale care permit o avertizare timpurie a persoanelor; - sistemul de control i eliberare a amestecului de gaz (sistem staionar) declaneaz procesul de stingere prin eliberarea agentului de stingere; - utiliznd o unitate de transmitere, alarma la foc este transmis la distan ctre un centru de monitorizare i msurile de stins incendiu sunt atunci iniiate prin centrul de control (brigada de pompieri); - sistemul de control i eliberare a amestecului de gaz (sistem staionar) declaneaz procesul de stingere prin eliberarea agentului de stingere; - utiliznd o unitate de transmitere, alarma la foc este transmis la distan ctre un centru de monitorizare; msurile de stins incendiu sunt atunci iniiate prin centrul de control (brigada de pompieri). In continuare, prezentm pe scurt principalele caracteristici ale elementului de detectare a fumului, respectiv ale sistemului staionar de stingere a incendiului. 3.2. Detector de fum prin aspiraie O aplicaie speciala pentru medii dificile, detectorul de fum prin aspiraie de nalt sensibilitate (aspiration smoke detector [2]) este utilizat oriunde este necesar s se detecteze chiar i cantitatea minim, abia perceptibil de aerosoli de fum. Detectorul combin ideal avantajele sistemului liniar cu cele ale sistemului punctual de detectare a fumului i reprezint soluia ideal n cazurile cnd se impune o intervenie rapid n caz de incendiu, chiar nainte de anunarea departamentului de pompieri. Este utilizat pentru monitorizarea cldirilor i obiectelor, precum: centre de calculatoare i IT, instalaii de transmitere radio i TV, centre de telecomunicaii, centre i laboratoare de cercetare, centre de distribuie i depozitete supraetajate, laboratoare, aeroporturi, muzee, teatre i cinematografe, celule de distribuie a energiei electrice de IT i MT. Un detector de fum const, n principiu, din dou pri eseniale: un sistem liniar de evi conectabile pentru circulaia aerului aspirat, i prevzute cu mici duze individuale de aspiraie, i camera de detecie. Camera de detecie conine unul sau dou detectoare sensibile la fum (cu celul fotoelectric), un ventilator i un circuit electronic de evaluare. Ventilatorul de nalt performan, creaz depresiunea necesar pentru aspiraia aerului ambiant din ncperea supravegheat n camera de detecie a detectorului prin duzele de aspiraie i tubulatura liniar i alimenteaz detectorii de fum. Supravegherea sofisticat a debitului de aer garanteaz c ntotdeauna va fi aspirat o cantitate suficient de aer i c obstruciunile sau rupturile tubulaturii sunt rapid semnalizate. Cofretul detectorului este mprit ntr-o camer a detectoarelor i o camer de evaluare/comand, cele dou camere posednd propriul lor capac, accesul la partea electronic

alarm control panel is designed so that to enable the tripping of various fire automatic control systems: stationary fire extinguishing systems, ventilation and air conditioning systems, fire doors, lifting equipment. - Emergency call points (emergency buttons) used to trigger the manual alarms enabling an early warning to the people present; - The gas control and release system (stationary system) triggers the extinguishing process by agent release; - Using a transmission unit, the fire alarm is remotely sent to a monitoring centre: the fire fighting measures are then initiated by the control centre (fire brigade); Below we briefly present the main characteristics of the smoke detecton component, respectively the stationary fire extinguishing system.

3.2. Aspiration fire detector As a special application for difficult environments, the highly sensitive smoke detector [2] is used whenever it is necessary to detect even minimal, barely perceivable smoke aerosols. The detectors ideally combines the advantages of a linear detection system with those of the punctual smoke detection system and they are the ideal solution for a quick fire intervention even before calling the fire brigade. This detector is used for monitoring buildings and premises such as: IT and computer centres, radio and TV broadcast installations, telecommunication centres, laboratory and research centres, high-bay warehouses and distribution centres, laboratoris, airports, museums, theatres and cinemas, high and medium voltage power distribution bays. A smoke detector mainly consists of two parts: a linear connectable pipe system for the circulation of the aspired air which has small individual aspiration nozzles, and the detection chamber. The chamber contains one or two smoke detectors (with photoelectric cell), a fan and an electronic evaluation circuit. The high performance fan ensures the ambient air aspiration from the monitored spac into the detection chamber of the detector, using the aspiration nozzles and linear piping, and feeds it to the smoke detectors. The sophisticated air flow monitoring ensures that a sufficient air quantity will be always aspired and the cloggings or cracks of the piping will be quickly signalled. The detector casing is divided in a detector chamber and an evaluation/control chamber, the two rooms having their own cover so that the access to the electronics doesnt affect the air admission in the smoke detector room. The control and display panel is located on the cover of the evaluation/control chamber.

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fiind permis fr perturbarea admisiei aerului n camera detectoarelor de fum. Panoul de comand i afiaj este dispus pe capacul camerei de evaluare/comand. Avantaje: Particulele de fum sunt imediat detectate. Dac este depit valoarea maxim, este activat imediat o alarm la panoul de control al sistemului de detectare. Pentru aplicaii mai sensibile, detectorul de fum poate fi realizat pe principiul numrtorului de particule cu raz laser. Detectorul de fum nu ateapt ca fumul s se nale, raspunzand mult mai repede i este mult mai sensibil la apariia focului dect orice soluie convenional Tubulatura de asipraie poate fi invizibil montat n mici guri din podea i tavane coborte fr afectarea esteticii zonei Conducta de aspiraie poate fi realizat, funcie de aplicaie, din evi de material plastic sau din evi metalice, cu condiia unei seciuni minime; orificiile de aspiraie sunt astfel dimensionate nct s permit absorbia aceleai cantiti de aer. La monitorizarea camerelor, se poate utiliza o reea de evi dispuse simetric cu cte un orificiu de aspiraie pe punct de aspiraie. Sunt posibile combinaii ale detectorului de fum prin aspiraie cu alte tipuri de detectoare de fum: prin lumin difuz (transparen) prin ionizare combinaie fum i temperatur. 3.3 Sistem staionar de stingere In principiu, un (sub)sistem staionar de stingere a incendiului ar trebui s includ urmtoarele componente principale: - containere (cilindri de oel) de stocare a agentului de stingere, cu valva de presiune diferenial; - agent de stingere; - reea de tubulatur i duze de descrcare; - dispozitiv de declanare acionat de solenoid (nu dispozitive explozive sau pirotehnice); - dispozitive de alarm sonor; - staii/puncte locale de declanare manual, precum i de anulare a comenzii de declanare. Se utilizeaz diverse amestecuri de gaze inerte i ecologice, ca ageni de stingere. Agentul de stingere trebuie sa aib o rat mare de expansiune, facilitnd descrcarea i penetrarea tridimensional rapid n zona protejat, s rceasc atmosfera i s reduc coninutul de oxigen din zona protejat sub punctul la care se ntreine combustia. Sub-liniem n mod special o proprietate a amestecului: s permit unei persoane s respire n atmosfera cu oxigen redus. Not: Atmosfera normal ntr-o ncpere conine cca. 21% oxigen, sub 1% dioxid de carbon i restul azot. Dac coninutul de oxigen este redus sub 15%, materialele combustibile cele mai ordinare vor nceta s ard; datorit abilitii corpului uman de a absorbi oxigenul, reducerea sub 12%, concomitent cu creterea coninutului de dioxid de carbon la cca. 3%, va stimula respiraia (mai adnc i mai rapid) pentru compensarea coninutului redus de oxigen dar nu va pune via n pericol. Unul din cele mai utilizate gaze este FM 200 heptafluorupropan, care are urmtoarele proprieti: - inund rapid inima focului i flacra este stins imediat; - are punct de fierbere relativ ridicat, ceea ce permite - protejarea echipamentului electronic mpotriva ocului

Advantages: The smoke particles are detected right away. If the maximum value is exceeded, an alarm is activated on the control panel of the detection system; For high sensitive applications, the particle counting principle using a laser beam is used; The smoke detector doesnt wait for the smoke to rise so that the reaction is a lot faster and the detector is more sensitive to the fire start than any conventional solution; The aspiration piping can be invisibly mounted in small hollow floors and dropped ceilings without affecting the aesthetics of the premises; Depending on the application, the aspiration piping can be made of plastic or metal pipes observing a minimum diameter: the aspiration holes are sized so that to allow the aspiration of the same air quantity. For room monitoring, a symmetrical pipe network each with an aspiration hole for each aspiration point, can be used. Combinations of the aspiration smoke detector with other types of smoke detectors are allowed: scattered light smoke detector ionization smoke and temperature combination

3.3. Stationary fire suppression system In principle, a fire suppression (sub)system should include following main components: - containers (steel bottles) for fire extinguishing agent storage, with differential pressure valve; - fire extinguishing agent; - pipe network and release nozzles; - solenoid tripping device (no explosive or pyrotechnical devices); - acoustic alarm devices; - local stations for manual release and release cancelling; Various inert and ecologic gas combinations are used as extinguishing agents. The extinguishing agent should have a higher expansion rate, in order to facilitate the fast three-dimentional release and penetration in the entire protected area below the inflammable temperature. Note: The normal air in a room contains abt 21% oxygen, less than 1% CO2 and the remaining nitrogen. If the oxygen content is less than 15%, the most common stage and a temperature sensor that detects the fast inflammable materials will cease to burn; due to the human body capacity to suck in oxygen, the decrease below 12% and the increase of CO2 content to abt. 3% will stimulate the breathing (deeper and quicker) in order to compensate the low oxygen but life will not be put at danger. One of the most used gas is FM 200 heptafluoridepropane, with following characteristics: - fast flooding of the fire core so that the flame is quickly extinguished; - relatively high boiling temperature in order to protect - the electronic equipment from the thermal shock; - electrically non-conductive (dielectric stability about 2.6 higher than the air) and non-corrosive;

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termic; - este ne-conductiv electric (rigiditate dielectric cca. 2,6 ori mai mare fa de cea a aerului) i ne-corosiv; - nu pune n pericol viaa omului, este ecologic - inundarea camerei ntr-un interval foarte scurt de la iniierea incendiului, cca. 10 sec., face ca echipamentul suspus incendiului s nu fie afectat de foc, ci doar de arcul electric dar care este eliminat rapid de protecii. Se poate lesne concluziona c stingerea incendiului cu acest gaz poate fi realizat n staii de transformare fr ntreruperea tensiunii n sala de conexiuni a staiei. Agentul de stingere este stocat n containere ca un lichid, la parametri prevzui de standarde n domeniu; pentru a ajuta descrcarea i distribuirea sa rapid, containerele se suprapresurizez cu nitrogen uscat. Containerele vor fi prevzute cu presostate de presiune minim i maxim i indicator de nivel lichid, racordate la panoul de comand. Descrcarea gazului va fi iniiat fie electric, prin activarea automat a solenoidului dispozitivului de descrcare de pe container de ctre un semnal de ieire direct din panoul de control sau activarea manual local, fie prin aciune mecanic direct. Not: Un astfel de sistem modern integrat de stingere a incendiului, destinat proteciei unei sli cu servere, este instalat la SDFEE Galai. Sistemul este format din detectoare de fum, unitate centrala automat, sistem staionar de stingere (butelie cu FM 200, tubulatura i duze de descrcare), accesorii (alarme sonore i vizuale, controlul ventilaiei, nchiderea uilor, deconectarea surselor de energie etc.) 4. Concluzii In staiile electrice din sistemul de distribuie nu exist instalaii individuale sau sisteme integrate cu rol de detectare automat, semnalizare i stingere a incendiului, ci doar materiale tehnice i produse iniiale (PE 009). Inceputul de incendiu n sala de conexiuni din staiile de transformare trebuie localizat i stins din faza cea mai timpurie. Extinderea focului impune, n ultim instan, intervenia specializat a formaiilor de pompieri cu tehnic din dotare, aciune ce presupune aducerea staiei la tensiune zero i duce la distrugerea n totalitate a izolaiei solide prin contracie termic, compromiterea componentelor de circuite secundare (cablaj, relee), a contactelor electrice, a dispozitivelor de acionare etc. Incidente minore, produse n staii fr personal, conduc la avarii cu pierderi materiale incomparabile cu valoarea unui sistem de detectare i stingere a incendiului. Dat fiind valoarea mare a investiiilor n cazul staiilor noi de transformare sau a celor modernizate, n special prin echipamentul de comutaie i protecie de ultim generaie, considerm c ar trebui (re)considerat dotarea unei sli de conexiuni din cadrul unei staii de transformare n privina proteciei la incendiu. Promovm ideea introducerii unuia din cele mai simple sisteme de detectare automat i stingere a incendiului: un sistem modular, bazat pe detectoare de fum prin aspiraie, unitate central i instalaie fix de stingere cu gaz ecologic inhibitor FM 200.

- not dangerous for human lives, ecologic; - room flooding in a very short time from the fire start - about 10 sec so that the equipment is not affected by the fire but only by the electric arc as generating source; however the arc is quickly removed by the electric protections; It can be easily concluded that the fire within substations can be extinguished using this agent without removing the voltage in the connection room. The extinguishing agent is stored in bottles like a liquid, at standard parameters; in order to facilitate the quick release and distribution, the bottles are overpressurized with dry nitrogen. The bottles have minimum and maximum pressostats and liquid level indicator, connected to the control panel. The gas release will be initiated either electrically by automatic action of the release device valve on the bottle using an output signal dirrectly from the control panel, or locally by direct manual action. Note: Such a modern integrated fire suppression system is used by Galati Power Subsidiary for the protection of the server room. The system is composed of smoke detectors, automatic central unit, stationary extinguishing system (FM 200 bottles, release piping and nozzles), accessories (acoustic and visual alarms, ventilation control, door closing, power disconnecting). 4. Conclusions Nowadays no business can afford to ignore professional forward-looking risk management. Hence any company should try to find the best solutions to protect its systems, the production and not last, the employees. The role of the automatic fire detection and signalling systems became vital for the fire expansion speed and fire extinguishing speed. In the electric transformer substations of the power distribution system, there are no individual or integrated systems for automatic fire detection, signalling/alarm and extinguishing, but only technical materials and initial products (according to PE 009). The fire outbreak in the connection room of the substations has to be located and extinguished as early as possible. The attempt to extinguish the fire after 20-30 min from the start is very unlikely to suceed with the existent technical means (only portable foam and CO2 bottles and sand boxes). As a last resort, the fire expansion requires calling the fire brigade. Therefore the voltage should be removed from the substation and the solid insulation will be completely destroyed as a result of the thermal shrinkage. Minor incidents in the unmanned substations lead to costs far higher than the cost of a fire detection and suppression system. Because of the high investments involved in new or modernized stations, in particular last generation switching and protection equipment, we emphasize the necessity of fire protection within a connection room of the transformer substation. We recommend the use of one of the simplest automatic fire detection and extinguishing systems: based on aspiration and FM 200 inhibitive ecologic gas smoke detectors.

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References (Bibliografie)
1. PE 009/93: Norme de prevenire, stingere i dotare mpotriva incendiilor pentru producerea, transportul i distribuia energiei electrice i termice (Fire prevention and fighting instructions for thermal and electric power generation, transmission and distribution) vol. II, ICEMENERG, Bucharest, 1994 2. *** - Materiale extrase de pe site-ul Internet al firmelor (specifications from website of the): SECURITON AG, FIKE Corporationa, DU PONT Fire Extinguishants, WORMALD ANSUL