Sunteți pe pagina 1din 60

INSTITUIA: ACADEMIA NAVAL MIRCEA CEL BTRN TITLUL CRII: CURS DE LIMB ENGLEZ.

ANUL I EXPLOATRI PORTUARE, FORMA FRECVEN REDUS AUTOR: LECT. UNIV. DRD. CAMELIA ALIBEC CONSTANA, 2004 PREFA Cursul de limb englez pentru exploatri portuare contribuie la nsuirea cunotinelor generale de limb englez precum i a termenilor de specialitate, fiind structurat n opt uniti. Cursul este destinat studenilor de anul I de la specialitatea exploatri portuare, forma frecven redus i este un mijloc eficient de formare i instruire a viitorilor specialiti. Cursul i propune consolidarea cunotinelor de baz n domeniul gramaticii limbii engleze precum i dezvoltarea capacitilor de nelegere i exprimare oral, citire i scriere n limba englez, extinderea vocabularului, nsuirea i aplicarea normelor gramaticale n exprimarea situativ conform tematicii prevzute n unitile de studiu din program. Extinderea vocabularului se face prin abordarea textelor care conin temeni de specialitate referitori la nomenclatura navei, operaiuni portuare precum i expresii recomandate pentru traficul maritim i portuar Limbajul de specialitate este dublat de cel lingvistic care are ca scop folosirea corect a diverselor structuri gramaticale n scris sau n conversaie. Cursul poate fi considerat i un punct de plecare pentru aprofundarea studiului de specialitate, de cunoatere mai detaliat a structurilor limbii engleze i folosirea lor n ndeplinirea atribuiunilor profesionale. Cursul este structurat in 8 uniti, fecare unitate fiind compus dintr-un text de specialitate, urmat de traducerea vocabularului si expresiilor aferente textului. Partea de vocabular este urmat de problema de gramatica, care este introdus de elemente de teorie urmate de un grup de exercitii pe tema de gramatic respectiv. Exercitiile sunt completate cu cheia de raspuns. Dup parcurgerea celor 8 uniti, cursul se incheie cu 2 teste de autoevaluare cu cheie de rspuns, o list de verbe neregulate si n final bibliografia. Nu uitati c acest curs este un instrument de autoinstruire i chiar dac problemele de gramatic nu sunt tratate n mod exhaustiv, putei s v completai cunotinele alegnd orice alt culegere de gramatic de limb englez. Good luck and keep up your English! INTRODUCTION TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE GENERAL REMARKS Why do you learn a foreign language? Because it is a necessity, an act of culture, it is something you like, it is fun, it is challenging! Speaking about English, learning it, it is more than a necessity, it is an emergency! English is a global language. It is the language of world diplomacy, business, finance, science, and technology. # 350 million people speak and write English as their native language. # An additional 350 million people speak and write English as their second language. # Half of the worlds books are published in English.

# 80 % of the worlds computer text is in English. Last but not least, the international language for airline pilots is English. No matter where you fly, that is what is spoken. You are able to say that you know a language well if you know how to communicate in that language. Good writing and speaking meets five basic standards: it is clear, complete, correct, efficient, and effective. In order to write and speak well you have to know the grammar rules that seem to be scary, more frightening than a sail on the Titanic or a night with Michael Jackson! English rules are scary, yes- but difficult, no. What is grammar? Grammar is a branch of linguistics that deals with the form and structure of words. Grammar is one of the oldest fields of study, as well as one of the most durable. Even Plato can be labeled an early grammarian, because he was responsible for dividing the sentence into subject and verb. Apart from grammar we also deal with usage. Usage is the customary way we use the language in speech and writing. Because we use language for different purposes, there exists various levels of language: formal usage (They have done nothing) informal usage ( Theyve done nothing) Nonstandard usage ( They aint done nothing) Standard English is composed of formal and informal usage. It is the language of education, legal, professional, and governmental documents. Good or bad it indicates social class. It is the right stuff of speech and writing. Standard English is used in business letters, resumes, cover letters, serious speeches, newspaper articles, scholarship. Informal English is used in most books, newspapers, magazines, informal letters, many textbooks, political speeches. Substandard English is used in conversation, movies, television, radio, regional expressions. The correct level of usage is the one that is appropriate for the occasion. The last element related to language is style. Personal style is the way you dress, walk and talk to make an impression on those you meet. Writing style is the words you choose for your writing, how you connect them, and the impression they make on your audience. A writers style is his or her distinctive way of writing. They say that English has far more lives than a cat. People have been murdering English for years, and it refuses to die. If anything, it just keeps going stronger. Believe it or not, grammar comes from the same word that glamour comes from. In the 1700s, grammar meant enchantment, magic. To most of us, actors like Tom Cruise have glamour, but not grammar. But you are wrong! Grammar can have glamour. It can even be sexy! Sentences are made up of words. Any number of words can be used in a sentence: He left us/ Until tomorrow then/ Yes. We can combine words with each other in many ways to make new sentences: I can help you/ Can I help you? Grammar describes how this is done. Each word in a sentence belongs to a particular set or class, depending on how it is used. These classes are called parts of speech.

All sentences begin with a capital letter and end in either a full stop, a question mark, or an exclamation mark. When we describe the use of these marks (commas, semicolons, full stops, brackets, and so on, we are talking about punctuation. The term clause is used to describe a group of words that contain a verb, the subject of that verb, and an object: I live in London/ They were writing a letter. A sentence can contain one or more clauses: I can help you if you will let me. A clause always contains a verb (run, walk, believe). A sentence does not always have to be a clause: Certainly not/ Why/ Yes. A phrase is just a group of words: the other day/ in spite of/ over the hill/ my friend Henry. The term phrase is usually kept for words which go together naturally. Many words can refer to one thing only or to more than one. We use the term singular and plural for this. A more general term is number. When we want to identify the speaker or the person spoken about in grammar, we use first person to mean the speaker, second person to mean the person who is spoken to, and third person to mean the person who is spoken about (I, you, he, she, we, they). A verb informs us about an action or a state of being. Ordinary verbs are called main verbs (come, want, go, believe). A main verb is sometimes called a doing word. A special group of verbs are called auxiliary verbs (am thinking, has seen, can help). These combine with main verbs to form different tenses. A noun is a word that labels a thing or an idea (table, time, ship); they are also called naming words. If we do not want to repeat the same noun in a sentence we can replace it with a pronoun. A pronoun is a substitute for a noun phrase or a noun. An adjective gives further information about a noun; they are also called describing words(a tall person, a big ship, a rusty hull). A determiner is used to point more precisely to the person, thing, or idea to which reference is being made. Among the determiners are definite and indefinite articles and possessives (a ship, the captain, my company, their voyage). An adverb gives information about the way that an action is performed or when and where it takes place: She ran quickly down the path/ He lifted the box slowly. A preposition is one of a small group of words that can be used with nouns and verbs. They give information about position or movement (on the deck, to the harbour, at the gates, over the bridge). A conjunction joints two or more nouns or clauses to each other; they are sometimes called joining words (He picked it up and ran over to her). CONTENTS UNIT 1. SEA TRANSPORT. VOCABULARY. THE NOUN. GRAMMAR PRACTICE. GRAMMAR PRACTIC.ANSWER KEY. UNIT II. PORT DESCRIPTION. VOCABULARY. THE ARTICLE AND OTHER DETERMINERS. GRAMMAR PRACTICE. GRAMMAR PRACTICE. ANSWER KEY. UNIT III. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF A SHIP. VOCABULARY. THE PRONOUN AND THE NUMERAL. GRAMMAR PRACTICE. GRAMMAR PRACTICE ANSWER KEY. UNIT IV. EXAMINING THE SHIP BY THE CUSTOM. VOCABUKARY. THE

ADJECTIVE AND THE ADVERB. GRAMMAR PRACTICE. GRAMMAR PRACTICE ANSWER KEY. UNIT V. RECEPTION OF CARGO. VOCABULARY. THE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS. . GRAMMAR PRACTICE. GRAMMAR PRACTICE ANSWER KEY. UNIT VI. DELIVERY OF CARGO. VOCABULARY. THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS. GRAMMAR PRACTICE. GRAMMAR PRACTICE ANSWER KEY. UNIT VII. DRY-DOCKING AND REPAIRS. VOCABULARY. THE PAST TENSE SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS. GRAMMAR PRACTICE. GRAMMAR PRACTICE ANSWER KEY. UNIT VIII. WEATHER AND SEASONS. VOCABULARY. THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS. GRAMMAR PRACTICE. GRAMMAR PRACTICE ANSWER KEY. SELF-TEST I. ANSWER KEY. SELF-TEST II. ANSWER KEY. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS. BIBLIOGRAPHY UNIT 1 SEA TRANSPORT THE NOUN Objectives: after studying the course and the seminar the students will be able to recognize the nouns and use them properly in sentences; interpret easy maritime texts and translate few maritime words and expressions. Historical perspective: The first boats Nobody knows exactly when people first started using craft to travel on water, but it must have been tens of thousands of years ago. The first craft were probably extremely simplejust a log, an inflated animal skin, or a bundle of reeds tied together. People discovered that craft like these could help them to cross a stretch of water more easily. These craft probably developed into early simple boats, such as dug-out canoes and skin-covered boats, in which a person could sit while fishing or travelling along a river. The basic designs are still in use in many areas of the world today and have many advantages over modern boats. Facts: A dug-out canoe is made by hollowing out a thick tree trunk to leave a thin wooden hull. The hull is smoothed and shaped so that it moves easily through the water. In 1970, Norwegian Thor Heyerdahl built a large Egyptian-style reed boat called Ra II. He sailed it from Africa to the Caribbean. This proved the Egyptians would have been able to reach America more than 4,000 years ago. The age of sail Sails capture the wind and use it to push ships and boats along. Sails first appeared on ships on the river Nile in about 3500BC. These ships had one simple square sail on a single mast. They were only useful when the wind was blowing in the same direction that the crew of the ship wanted to go. Viking boats in the AD600s used square sails to sail

the coasts of Scandinavia. In the Middle Ages, the lateen (triangular) sail allowed ships to be sailed with the wind from the side. This type of sail was invented by the Chinese and Arabs. From the 1100s, European sailors began building fully rigged ships with a combination of square and lateen sails. This allowed them to make the maximum use of the wind. Steam power The first steam engines were developed in the early 1700s for pumping water out of the mines. By the end of the century they had become small and engineers began to use them in trains and ships. Steam power meant that a ship could keep going even if the wind was in the wrong direction. Early steamships used paddles, but propellers gradually proved to be more efficient. After the 1850s, shipbuilders began to use iron instead of wood. The superior strength of iron meant that much larger ships could be built, which could also be fitted with more powerful steam engines. Facts: The first craft to use steam power was a small river boat called the Charlotte Dundas, launched in 1802. Ship Power There are many different ways of propelling boats and ships through the water. The most basic, such as rowing and paddling, are human- powered. Today they are only used in small vessels. Sails harness the natural power of the wind to propel a boat or a ship. Engines convert the energy stored in fuel into the movement of a propeller. As the propeller spins, its blades force water to rush backwards, which thrusts the boat or ship forwards. Most engines used in boats and ships are diesel engines. Other types of marine engine are petrol engines, gas turbine engines and steam turbine engines. Other craft, such as hovercraft, have aircraft-like propellers. Facts: In 1845, two ships, one with a propeller and one with paddlewheels, fought a war. The battle was to find the most efficient. The propeller easily won. VOCABULARY Craft = ambarcatiune Bundle of reeds = snop de stuf Stretch of water = intindere de apa Hollow out = a scobi Hull = corpul, coca navei Dug-out canoe = piroga, luntre din trunchi scobit Sail = panza de corabie, vela Mast = catarg Rigged ships = nava cu velatura Steam = abur Steamship = vapor cu abur Paddle = zbat, padela Propeller = elice Harness = a intensifica Spin = a se roti

Blade = pala de elice,paleta de turbina Thrust = a impinge Hovercraft = ambarcatiune pe perna de aer THE NOUN What is a noun? A noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing. The word noun comes from the Latin word nomen, which means name. Nouns are of different kinds: common nouns, proper nouns, abstract nouns, compound nouns and collective nouns. Proper nouns name a specific person, place, or thing. They are written with capital letters Bob, Bucharest, Britain, Monday, April, Mars, the War of the Roses, etc. The days of the week and the months of the year are always written with capital letters (unlike in the Romanian language) and also the names of nationalities and languages, no matter the position in the sentence. Some proper nouns have become common nouns, therefore they are not written with capital letters anymore. Here there are examples of: objects named after their place of origin (china, holland, oxfords) or objects named after those who invented, discovered, inspired them (a hovercraft, a mackintosh, an Oscar, a tommy-private in the army, a volt, a watt). Common nouns name any one of a class of person, place, or thing: boy, city, dog, family, food, water, happiness. They are divided into the following groups, according to their meaning: Abstract nouns name actions, states, sensations, senses, relations, considered to be notions. They refer to intangible items. Examples: joy, love, friendship, greatness, labour, rest, force, etc. Concrete nouns name objects, plants, things, phenomena and events, which we are aware of using our senses. They refer to tangible items. Examples: moon, lion, tree, John, rain. Collective nouns name groups of people or things: audience, family, team, crowd, council, association, government, crew, congress, the public, etc. Compound nouns are two or more nouns that function as a single unit. A compound noun can be two individual words (time capsule), hyphenated words (great-uncle), combined words (basketball). Another important criterion in selecting nouns is their countability. According to this, we can divide nouns into: countable and uncountable nouns. Count nouns refer to things that we can count; they have singular and plural forms and can be preceded by the definite article a, an. Examples: one (a) cat, two cats, flowers, children families, days, birds, crowds, etc. Uncountable nouns name objects that cannot be counted, they do not have plural form and do not get the definite article. In this category we have: names of sports (football, tennis, rugby), material or concrete mass nouns (steam, smoke, meat, silver), natural products (fat, marmalade, milk, oil), fruit, vegetables and cereals (corn, maize, rice, rye, celery, spinach, cabbage), abstract mass nouns (admiration, applause, age, homework, peace, youth). ! Note that nouns that are uncountable in English may be count nouns in other languages (information, advice), or there are nouns used only in the plural form even when we are

talking about one item (trousers, clothes, jeans). We have to use a partitive noun with of when referring to a single item (a pair of trousers, an item of clothes, a pair of jeans). Gender of nouns Gender is the grammatical category specific to nouns and it represents the form of nouns to show sex difference, when speaking about animates, and the absence of gender when speaking about inanimates. English grammar has 3 types of gender: Gender of personal nouns: - masculine gender: man, actor, landlord, hero, bull, brother - feminine gender: woman, actress, landlady, heroine, cow, sister. This type of gender can be expressed in 3 ways: a) lexically - with the help of different words: brother/ sister, king/ queen, man/ woman, uncle/ aunt. b) morphologically by adding a suffix to the masculine form (actress, hostess, princess, goddess, waitress, heroine). - by adding a suffix to the feminine form (widow- widower, bridebridegroom) c) common gender one form for both masculine and feminine: artist, cook, doctor, friend, musician, cousin, parent, person, student, teacher, writer. Gender of animate nouns animate nouns are classified into: a) names of big animals, which are generally of male gender (horse). There can be a distinction male-female: horse (stallion-mare); deer (stag-hind); sheep (ram-ewe), or adding suffixes (lion-lioness, tiger-tigress). b) names of small animals, which are neuter, being replaced by it. In some cases there are lexical differences: cock-hen, gander-goose, dog-bitch. There are also special gender words: he goat-she goat, Tom cat-she cat, male frog-female frog. Gender of inanimate nouns these nouns are neuter: Where is my umbrella? It is in my bag/ The truth will emerge; it always does. Case of nouns Case is the way in which a noun can be given a change of spelling (an inflection), which indicates that the noun has a particular function in a clause, Case is used to denote the syntactical functions of nouns. The nominative case for the nouns which are subjects in a sentence (My boy is waiting for his friend), or predicates (He is a teacher). The accusative case is the case of the direct object (I ate an ice-cream an hour ago). If there is only one object in the sentence, this is a direct object in the accusative ( Shut the window, please); if there are two objects, both could be direct objects in the accusative ( I asked him a question), or one indirect object in the dative and one direct object in the accusative (I lent her my umbrella). The following verbs are followed by two accusatives: ask, envy, excuse, give, forgive, offer, save, strike, etc. The dative case is the case of the indirect object. It is marked by the prepositions to and for (She gave some sweets to the children/ I bought a present for my mother). The genitive case expresses possession and the syntactical function of attribute. There are several types of genitive:

a) The s genitive (synthetic genitive) operates as follows: for singular nouns (girls dress, Anns bag, teachers book), for irregular plural nouns (mens car, childrens toys), for plural nouns (boys cars, Dickens life). b) The of genitive is used as an equivalent of the s genitive (the plays of Shakespeare). It is used with nouns, names of things (the title of the book), with geographical places (the city of London), for emphasizing (the arrival of his grandfather), with names of small animals (the tail of the mouse). c) The implicit genitive no s: audience participation, student hostel, afternoon tea (this type of genitive is used in contemporary English, especially in journalism). d) The double genitive s genitive + of genitive with names of people (this joke of Peters). The vocative case Bob, hurry up! / Have you got a minute, Mr. Brown? Number in nouns Singular number is used when the noun refers to one item. Plural number is used when the noun refers to more than one item. Count nouns have both singular and plural forms. Uncountable nouns and mass nouns do not normally have a plural form. The regular plural ending of an English noun is s (cat-cats, ship-ships, sailor-sailors). These are the exceptions to the normal pattern: Singular noun ending Plural noun ending -s, -ss, -ch, -x, -zz -es` examples: focus-focuses, princess-princesses, church-churches, box-boxes, buzz-buzzes -o -s or es examples: hero-heroes, piano-pianos, potato-potatoes consonant + y -ies examples: baby-babies, hobby-hobbies, spy-spies vowel + y -s examples: boy-boys, key-keys, ray-rays, play-plays -f -s or ves examples: thief-thieves, wolf-wolves, leaf-leaves, roof-roofs, dwarf-dwarfs/ dwarves -fe -ves examples: life-lives, knife-knives Irregular plurals Some nouns have two plural forms (fish-fish/ fishes). Some of them have the same form in the singular and plural (a sheep-ten sheep, a deer-ten deer). A few change a vowel to form the plural (man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, tooth-teeth, mousemice, louse-lice). Some nouns form the plural in en (child-children, ox-oxen). Compound nouns normally form the plural by adding s to the last word of the compound (a girl friend-two girl friends, a bookcase-two bookcases). A compound noun formed from a verb and an adverb adds s to the last word (a take-away/ two take-aways), but a compound noun formed from a noun and an adverb makes the first word plural (a passerby/ two passers-by). Compound nouns with man or woman as the first word make both words plural (a manservant-two menservants, a woman doctor- two woman doctors). Some nouns referring to clothes and tools where two equal parts are joined together (trousers, binoculars, scissors) are treated as being plural and are followed by a verb in

the plural (My trousers are torn/ The scissors are on the table). To talk about one of these items we use the expression a pair of(John bought a pair of jeans). To talk about more than one we talk about however many pairs of(Martina bought five pairs of tights). When used as ordinary numbers, words such as dozen, thousands, million have no plural form (nine million stars/ two dozen glasses). When used to mean an indefinitely large number, they do have a plural form, which can be used as a partitive (There are thousands of people here/ I saw dozens of children in the playground). Foreign plurals Nouns that have come into English from foreign languages can: - keep the plural form of the language they come from (an axis-two axes, a crisis-two crises, a thesis-two theses, datum-data) - have plural formed according to the rules for plural in English in preference to the foreign plurals (a memorandum-two memorandums/ memoranda, a stadium-two stadiums/ stadia) - have two plurals: one from the foreign language and the other formed according to the rules for plural in English (an index-indexes/ indices, a formula-formulas/ formulae) The foreign plural is usually kept for scientific or specialized use. Agreement Singular and plural verbs Generally if we want to talk about one thing we use a singular noun/pronoun and a singular verb-form: This is the new engine. The engine/It works very well. If we talk about more than one thing we use a plural noun/pronoun and a plural verbform: Have you seen the new engines? The new engines/They work very well. Subject-verb agreement means choosing the correct singular or plural verb after the subject for present. An uncountable noun takes a singular verb-form: Seawater is getting colder and colder in winter. Singular and plural subjects Two or more phrases linked by and take a plural verb: Jamie and Emma go sailing at the weekends. Wheat and maze are exported. When the two words express something that we see as a whole we use a singular verb: Bread and butter was all we had. When two phrases are linked by or the verb usually agrees with the nearest: Either my sister or my neighbours are looking after the dog when Im at sea. A phrase of measurement takes a singular verb: Ten miles is too far to walk. Thirty pounds seems a reasonable price. Titles and names also take a singular verb when they refer to one thing: Star Wars was a very successful film. A phrase with as well as, with, and, in brackets or between commas takes a singular verb: George, together with some of his friends, is buying a yacht.

After not only...but also, the verb agrees with the nearest phrase: Not only George but also his friends are buying the yacht. If a phrase comes after a noun, the verb agrees with the first noun: The ship between the two ferries is damaged. After a subject with one of the verb is singular: One of these messages is for you. When a plural noun is preceded by: a number of, majority of, a lot of the verb is in the plural: A large number of letters were received. We use a singular verb after a subject with every and each, and compounds with every, some, any, no: Every student has to take a test. Nothing ever happens in this place. All and some with a plural noun take a plural verb: Some passengers were sitting on the deck. We use a singular verb after who or what: Who knows the answer? After what/which + noun, the verb agrees with the noun: Which day is convenient? After none of/ either of/ neither of/ any of + plural noun phrase we can use either a singular or a plural verb. The plural is more informal. I dont know if either (of the batteries) is/are good. After there, the verb agrees with its complement: There was an accident. There were some accidents. Nouns with a plural form: a plural noun takes a plural form Some nouns are always plural: belongings, clothes, congratulations, earnings, goods, odds, outskirts, particulars, premises, remains, riches, surroundings, thanks, troops, tropics etc. : The goods were found to be defective. Some nouns have a plural form but a singular meaning: news; subjects (of study); sports; games: billiards, darts; illness: measles, mumps etc. therefore the agreement is made with the singular verb: Billiards is a game. Pair nouns: binoculars, glasses, jeans, pants, pincers, pliers, pyjamas, scales, scissors, shorts, spectacles, tights, trousers, tweezers etc. A plural noun takes a plural verb: Where are the pliers? Group nouns, also called collective nouns, can take a verb in the singular or plural, depending whether we see the noun as a whole or as a number of individuals: The crew was/were in a cheerful mood. Some group nouns are: army, association, audience, board, choir, class, club, college, committee, community, company, council, crew, crowd, enemy, family, firm, gang, government, group, jury, majority, navy, orchestra, party, population, press, public, school, staff, team, union, university etc. The names of institutions, companies and teams are also group nouns: Brazil is/are expected to win.

Grammar Practice. Noun Exercise 1. Use a collective noun for the following: 1. father, mother, sons and daughters; 2. the eleven players in a game of football; 3. a multitude of persons; 4. the group of sailors working on a ship or boat; 5. scores of sheep together. Exercise 2. Use a compound noun to illustrate: 1. a desk for writing at; 2. an engine driven by steam; 3. a wall made of stone; 4. a man who makes a wall by laying bricks one on top of the other; 5. a machine for washing clothes; 6. a box for holding matches; 7. a room in which you sleep; 8. a room in which you wash; 9. a pen containing ink in it; 10.a railway carriage in which people can take their meals. Exercise 3. Give the plural of the following nouns .Use them in sentences. a) bus, town, woman, box, fly, key, bee, Englishman. tooth, wish, goose, city, potato, book, child, leaf, life, foot, apple, toy, ball, wolf, safe, ox. b) brush, thief, Chinese, German, donkey, shelf, fish, cliff, Swiss, inch, sheep, louse, bamboo, handkerchief, axe, proof, phenomenon, dynamo, means, piano. c) echo, loaf, niece, half, chief, volcano, Japanese, deer, mouse, knife, birth, daughter, buffalo, atlas. Exercise 4. Give the plural of the following nouns; explain the differences between the two forms and use them in sentences: fruit, fish, damage, air, compass, pain, color. Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable noun: Model: a . . . of cards; a pack of cards: 1. a ... of boots; 2. a of sheep; 3. a of cattle; 4. a of hounds; 5. a of birds; 6. a of mosquitoes; 7. a of fish; 8. a of trousers; 9. aof swine; 10. a of robbers; 11. a of stockings; 12. a of whales; 13. a of footballers; 14. a of wolves; 15. an at a concert; 16. a of flowers; 17. a of lies; Exercise 6. Give the feminine correspondents of the following masculine nouns: a) man, father, brother, milkman, Englishman, son-in-law,. sportsman, nephew, boy, Mr., husband, uncle, chairman. b) widower, wizard, waiter, bachelor, lord, king, bridegroom, hero, dog, bull, horse, gander, ram, peacock ,drone. c) duke, prince, actor, god, host, waiter, manager, tzar, sultan, poet, nephew, vixen. Exercise 7. Form nouns by adding the appropriate noun-forming suffixes to the following adjectives: SUFFIX 1 2 3 -ness short existential mean -ism cruel foolish childish

-th sane social anxious -dom gay short long -(i)ty/iety free wide strong Exercise 8. Give the corresponding nouns for the following verbs and adjectives: o To bleed, to bath, to sing, to believe, to breethe, to feed, to lose, to live, to prove, to choose; o Broad, deep, long, strong, wide, new. Exercise 9. Use the Saxon genitive (s) in the following sentences: 1. He knows nothing about the climate of this country. 2. Do you know the name of the typist of the manager? 3. The new car of the friend of his cousin is a Dacia 1300. 4. Jane doesnt know the time table of her daughter. 5. She does not doubt the good intentions of the parents of her husband. 6. You can easily notice die first signs of spring. 7. The dresses of the shop-girls are the best advertisement. 8. They all welcomed the protection of the police. 9. These are the best plays of 0.8. Shaw. 10. He has been studying the folklore of Scotland for several years. 11. The parents of all the children are present at the meeting. 12. She wont say a word about the purpose of her life. 13. The industry of Romania is in full swing. 14. The high note of the nightingale can be easily heard. Exercise 10. Translate into Romanian: 1. Weve run out of orange juice; youd better go to the grocers and buy some. 2. My husbands new suit is not ready yet; it is still at the tailors. 3. When you go to UK dont miss the chance to go to Madame Tussauds. 4. They usually buy fresh fruits at the greengrocers every Monday morning. 5. Have you ever seen St. Jamess? 6. They decided to go to the lawyers tomorrow at noon. 7. On your way home you might stop at the tobacconists and buy some cigarettes for me. 8. I have been an employee at Fords for twenty years. 9. Ill go to the hairdressers later. I0. Before my coming back home, I dropped into the bakers where I bought a loaf of soft bread and these delicious rolls. Exercise 11. Translate into English paying attention to the genitive case: 1. Strzile acestui ora sunt foarte largi. 2. Cstoria copiilor prietenilor mei a avut loc acum dou sptmni. 3. Acesta este noul profesor de matematic al fiului meu. 4. nainte de a ncepe orele, am fcut o plimbare de douz eci de minute. 5. Personalul acestei companii este format din treizeci de oameni. 6. In intervalul de o lun care urmeaz, terminm toate examenele. 7. La vrsta lui, o cltorie de zece ore cu trenul trebuie s fie foarte obositoare. 8. Nu trebuie s uitm niciodat de drepturile celor sraci. 9. 0 ateptare de cinci minute nu mai conteaz. 10. Ziarul de ieri a publicat multe tiri interesante. Exercise 12. Form derivative nouns from the following Verbs: 1. to decide 2.to approve 3. to discuss 4. to refer 5. to discover 6. to teach

7. to weigh 8.to grow 9. to pay 10. to perform 11.to limit 12. to betray. Adjectives: 1.national 2.wise 3. likely 4. free 5. great 6. weak 7. kind 8. happy 9. true 10. deep 11.high 12.warm Nouns: 1.dictator 2. friend 3. scholar 4. leader 5. child 6. piano 7. music 8. mathematics 9.science 10. host 11. widow 12. waiter. Exercise 13. Rewrite in the plural: 1.This is a box. 2. Thats a lorry. 3. Wheres the knife? 4. Is it your watch? 5. This is a new house.6. Thats an old chimney. 7. That isnt my dress. 8. Thats a shoe. 9. Whos this man? 10. Hes a farmer and this is his wife. 11. Thats a row of people. 12. Is it a new bridge? 13.There is a match in the box. 14. Theres no child in their family.1 5. Is there a dictionary on his desk? 16. Is there a desk in that room? 17. The face of that woman is attractive. 18.The house isnt large but its comfortable. 19. Whos that person? 20. Which book is yours? Exercise 14. Put into the singular: 1. Balls are round. 2. Houses have roofs. 3. These are phonemes. 4. Foxes are animals.5. Roses are beautiful flowers. 6. Watches are small clocks. 7. Dogs have tails. 8. Those boys are good friends. 9. These are simple sentences. 10. These arent boxes. 11. The children are at school. 12. These are my notebooks. 13. My friends want to study German. 14.His brothers work hard all day. 15. Housewives have to work very hard. 16. Children receive a lot of pleasure from this game. 17. They live in small houses. 18. The postmen bring letters three times a day. 19. The boys wake up at six. 20. There are some pictures on the walls. Exercise 15. Match A and B in order to obtain compound nouns. Use them in sentences: arm sitter bottle pages fast heating Yellow chair lawn directory telephone mower chewing conditioner central bag air opener tea food alarm gum post clock baby stop heart tale burglar attack fairy office credit lenses bus card

bank alarm contact account Exercise 16 Underline the nouns in the texts and put the plural ones in the singular: 1. Thieves stole the cameras and videos from two shops in Stapleton Road yesterday. They also took several boxes of video cassettes and hundreds of audio cassettes. 2. Two police officers were injured in a fight last night. One policeman lost four teeth. Three other people were also injured. The police were called to the Central car park where there was a fight involving about two dozen young men and women. Dozens of cars and two buses were damaged. Example: pl. thieves = sg. thief Exercise 17. Complete the sentences with the plural form of the words in brackets: My hotels a bit primitive. Ive seen (1 mouse)_____ in my room! And there are (2 fly)_____ everywhere during the day and (3 mosquito) _____ at night. But the (4 beach) _____ are beautiful. There are a lot of old (5 church) _____ on the island and Ive taken lots of (6 photo) _____ of them. Every day I buy two small (7 loaf) _____ of bread and some (8 fruit) _____ , usually (9 peach) _____ , (10 orange) _____ and (11 tomato) _____ . but the (12 shelf) _____ in the shops are almost empty, so yesterday I went fishing and caught two (13 fish) _____ for my lunch. There arent any (14 bus) _____ so I walk everywhere. My (15 foot) _____ really hurt. I want to go into the mountains. They say there are (16 wolf) _____ there. The (17 person) _____ are very friendly. Sometimes (18 family) _____ come out to say hello when I walk past. The (19 man) _____ have two or three (20 wife) _____ and dozens of (21 child) _____. I dont think their (22 life) _____ have changed for (23 century) _____. Its certainly one of the most unspoilt (24 country) _____ Ive ever been to. Exercise 18. Which are the 15 countable nouns in this news report? Hi! Youre listening to GWR Radio. What a terrible morning! There have been several accidents on the roads. A number of people were hurt in an accident on the M 32 motorway when two cars crashed near Junction 4. And there are a few problems for rail travelers. Many trains between cities in the west and London are running twenty to thirty minutes late. Exercise 19. What are the eight uncountable nouns in the news report of the explosion at Brislington? An explosion has destroyed a chemical factory in Brislington. Thanks to the courage of the firefighters no one was hurt. The air around the factory is still thick with smoke, and for their own safety, residents have been told not to drink the water. Residents are worried about their childrens health and the damage to the environment caused by the explosion. Noun + verb agreement Exercise 20. Choose the right form of the verbs in brackets: 1. His family (is/ are) in Bucharest now. 2. The news (was/ were) a great surprise for all of us. 3. People (rush/ rushes) home when the days work is over.

4. Our football team (plays/ play) this evening. 5. Your group (is/ are) made up of thirty students. 6. The audience (is/are) listening to the piano player. 7. The cattle (is/are) entering the ranch yard. 8. The committee (agrees/agree) with all the changes. 9. The furniture in my daughters room (is/are) new and modern. 10. The crew of the ship (was/were) gathered on the upper deck. 11. The parliament (is/are) voting a new law. 12. The luggage (was/were placed) on the luggage rack. 13. Where (is/are) my glasses? 14. Mathematics(is/are) his favourite subject at school. 15. My cousins trousers (is/are) very expensive. 16. Proceedings of the conference (is/are) published within a week. 17. The particulars of the witness (is/are) taken down by a young policeman. 18. There (is/are) enough money in the drawer. 19. Measles (is/are) a very dangerous catching disease. 20.The customs (is/are) not far from here. Exercise 21. Choose the correct form of the verb: 1.Clothes (isnt/ arent) cheap nowadays. 2.People (doesnt/ dont) buy clothes that are too expensive. 3.60 pounds (is/ are) a lot of money for a pair of jeans. 4.The government (is/ are) trying to keep prices low. Exercise 22. Choose the correct verb forms: His clothes (1 are/ is) _____ very old. His trousers (2 has got/ have got) _____ holes in them and his glasses (3 are/ is) _____ broken. All his belongings (4 is/ are) _____ in a bag on his back. The police often (5 stops/ stop) _____ him and (6 asks/ ask) _____ him questions. People (7 avoid/ avoids) _____ him in the streets. His earnings (8 are/ is) _____ very small. He gets 40 pounds a week from social security. For him 40 pounds (9 is/ are) _____ a lot of money. Im not interested in possessions, he says, mathematics (10 are/ is) _____ my passion. Answer Keys of the exercises Exercise 1. 1 family, 2 team, 3 crowd, 4 crew, 5 flock. Exercise 2. writing-desk, steam-engine, stone wall, bricklayer, washing machine, machbox, bedroom, bathroom, fountain-pen, dining car. Exercise 3. a) buses, towns, women, boxes, flies, keys, bees, Englishmen, teeth, wishes, geese, cities, potatoes, books, children, leaves, lives, feet, apples, toys, balls, wolves, safes, oxen. b) brushes, thieves, Chinese, Germans, donkeys, shelves, fishes, cliffs, Swiss, inches, sheep, lice, bamboo, handkerchiefs, axes, proofs, phenomena, dynamos, means, pianos. c) echoes, loaves, nieces, halves, chiefs, volcanoes, Japanese, deer, mice, knives, births, daughters, buffaloes, atlases. Exercise 4. fruits (varietati de fructe), fishes (soiuri de pesti), damages (despagubiri), airs (aere), compasses (compas), pains (osteneala), colours (steag, drapel).

Exercise 5. pair, flock, herd, pack, flight, cloud, shoal, pair, herd, gang, pair, school, team, pack, audience, bunch, pack. Exercise 6. a) woman, mother, sister, milkwoman, Englishwoman, daughter-in-law, sportswoman, niece, girl, Mrs., wife, aunt, chairwoman. b)widow, witch, waitress, spinster, lady, queen, bride, heroine, bitch, cow, mare, goose, sheep, hen, bee. c)duchess, princess, actress, goddess, hostess, waitress, manageress, tzarina, sultana, poetess, niece, fox. Exercise 7. 1. shortness, cruelty, sanity, gaiety, freedom 2. existentialism, foolishness, socialism, shortness, wideness, 3. meanness, childishness, anxiousness, length, strength. Exercise 8. blood, bath, song, belief, breath, food, loss, life, proof, choice, Breadth, depth, length, strength, width, novelty. Exercise 9 1.He knows nothing about this countrys climate. 2. Do you know the name of the managers typist? 3. The new car of his cousins friend is a Dacia 1300. 4. Jane doesnt know her daughters timetable. 5. She does not doubt the good intentions of her husbands parents. 6. You can easily notice the springs first signs. 7. The shop-girls dresses are the best advertisement. 8. They all welcomed the polices protection. 9. These are G.B. Shaws best plays. 10. He has been studying Scotlands folklore for several years. 11. All the childrens parents are present at the meeting. 12. She wont say a word about her lifes purpose. 13. Romanias industry is in full swing. 14. The nightingales high note can be easily heard. Exercise 10. 1. Nu mai avem suc de portocale; mai bine te-ai duce la bcnie sa cumperi. 2. Costumul cel nou al soului meu nu este gata nc; se afla la croitorie. 3. Cnd mergi in Regatul Unit, sa nu pierzi ocazia sa mergi la muzeul Tussaud. 4. De regul, ei cumpr fructe proaspete de la aprozar in fiecare luni dimineaa. 5. Ai vzut vreodata palatul St. James? 6. Ei s-au decis sa mearg la biroul de avocatura mine la amiaza. 7. In drumul tu ctre casa, te-ai putea opri la tutungerie sa-mi cumperi nite igri. 8. Sunt angajat al firmei Ford de 20 de ani. 9. M voi duce la coafor mai trziu. 10. nainte de a m ntoarce acas, am trecut pe la brutrie, de unde am cumprat o pine proaspt i aceste delicioase cornuri. Exercise 11. 1. The streets of this town are very large. 2. The marriage of my friends children took place two weeks ago. 3. This is my sons new teacher of mathematics. 4. Before starting my classes, I took a twenty minutes walk. 5. The staff of this company is made up of thirty people. 6. In the next months interval we are going to finish all our exams. 7. at this age, a ten hours travel by train must be tiresome. 8. We must never forget about the poors rights.

9. A five minutes wait does not matter any longer. 10. The yesterdays newspaper published many interesting news. Exercise 12. o Decision, approval, discussion, referral, discovery, teacher, weight, growth, payment, performance, limitation, betrayal, o Nationalism, wisdom, likelihood, freedom, greatness, weakness, kindness, happiness, truth, deep height, height, warmth o dictatorship, friendship, scholarship, leadership, childhood, pianist, musician, mathematician, scientist, hospitality, widowhood, waiting. Exercise 13. 1. These are boxes. 2. Those are lorries. 3. Where are the knives? 4. Are they your watches? 5. These are new houses. 6. Those are old chimneys. 7. Those arent my dresses. 8. Those are shoes. 9. Who are these men? 10. They are farmers and these are their wives. 11. Those are rows of people. 12. Are they new bridges? 13. There are matches in the boxes. 14. There are no children in their family. 15. Are there dictionaries on his desk? 16. Are there desks in that room? 17. The faces of those women are attractive. 18. The houses arent large, but they are comfortable. 19. Who are those persons? 20. Which are your books? Exercise 14. 1. The ball is round. 2. The house has a roof. 3. This is a phoneme. 4. The fox is an animal. 5. The rose is a beautiful flower. 6.A watch is a small clock. 7. The dog has a tail. 8. That boy is a good friend to the other one. 9. This is a simple sentence. 10. This isnt a box. 11. The child is at school. 12. This is my notebook. 13. My friend wants to study German. 14. His brother works hard all day. 15.A housewife has to work very hard. 16. A child receives a lot of pleasure from this game. 17. He lives in a small house. 18. The postman brings letters three times a day. 19. The boy wakes up at six. 20. It is a picture on the wall. Exercise 15. armchair, bottle- opener, fast-food, yellow pages, lawn mower, telephone directory, chewing gum, central heating, air conditioner, tea bag, alarm clock, post office, babysitter, heart attack, burglar alarm, fairy tale, credit card, bus stop, bank account, contact lenses. Exercise 16. 1. camera, video, shop, box, cassette, hundred. 2. officer, tooth, person, man, woman, dozen, car, bus. Exercise 17. 1 mice, 2 flies, 3 mosquitoes, 4 beaches, 5 churches, 6 photos, 7 loaves, 8 fruit, 9 peaches, 10 oranges, 11 tomatoes, 12 shelves, 13 fish, 14 buses, 15 feet, 16 wolves, 17 people, 18 families, 19 men, 20 wives, 21 children, 22 lives, 23 centuries, 24 countries Exercise 18. radio, morning, accidents, roads, people, accident, motorway, cars, junction problems, rail, travelers, trains, cities, minutes. Exercise 19. courage, air, smoke, safety, water, health, damage, environment. Exercise 20. 1. are, 2. was, 3. rush, 4. play, 5 .is made up, 6. are listening to, 7. are entering, 8. agree, 9. is, 10. were gathered, 11. are voting, 12. was placed, 13. are, 14. is, 15. are, 16. are published, 17. are taken down, 18. is, 19. is, 20. is.

Exercise 21. 1 arent, 2 dont, 3 is, 4 is/ are trying, Exercise 22. 1 are, 2 have got, 3 are, 4 are, 5 stop, 6 ask, 7 avoid, 8 are, 9 is, 10 is. UNIT 2 PORT DESCRIPTION THE ARTICLE AND OTHER DETERMINERS Objectives: after studying the course and the seminar the students will be able to recognize the articles and the other determiners and use them properly in sentences and describe a port using some technical words and expressions. What is a port? A port is a place where goods, passengers and mail are transferred to, from, or between carriers of the same or different modes. Ships and cargo move cargo and people from one place to another place, so they need ports where ships they can load and unload. Every port has areas called docks where ships tie up along the quayside. The docks are often inside an area of water called a harbour, which is protected from the sea by a massive stone wall or natural cliffs. On the docks there are huge cranes for unloading the ships and warehouses for storing cargo. In the port area there may be ship repair yards, parts shops and customs offices. Until recently, large numbers of people were employed as dockers and many major coastal towns and cities have grown up around ports. But the increased use of containers has dramatically reduced the number of workers. Huge merchant ships now dock at purpose-built ports or terminals, which are specially designed for handling cargoes, such as containers, oil and gas. Tying up. Berthing ropes hooked over bollards are used to tie ships to the quayside. Quays may also be known as wharves. The pilot. The entrance to a harbour is often narrow and busy. It may also have treacherous shallow areas such as sandbanks outside it. A pilot is a person who knows the harbour well. He or she always takes control of large ships to guide them as they enter and leave the port. High and dry. Repair and maintenance facilities in port may include a dry dock. Scaffolding is erected to keep the ship upright. Unloading in port. Dockside cranes unload ships in the port. The crane can be moved along the dockside on railway tracks. Facts: A marina is a small harbour area where leisure craft such as motorboats and sailing yachts tie up. Marinas are usually separate from the normal harbour. They are also common on coasts where there are few natural harbours for small boats to shelter in. each bay, called a berth, in a marina has water and electricity supplies. Port location. The location of a port is a major consideration with regard to its economic functions. Geographers consider location in terms of site and situation. Site refers to the characteristics of the area occupied by the port; situation refers to the relations of the port location to the hinterland and to overseas or forelands with which the port has connections. What is the difference between a port and a harbour?

Nearly all ports include portions of one or more harbours; a harbour may serve a single port, as in the case of a large harbour (San Francisco Bay), several ports, or several harbours may serve one port (London, Chicago, Sydney). VOCABULARY Load = a incarca Unload = a descarca Tie up = a lega Quay = chei Crane = macara Warehouse = depozit Shipyard = santier naval Handle = a manevra, a manipula Hook = a indoi, a incovoia Bollard = bolard, baba, binta Wharf, ves = chei, debarcader, ponton Treacherous = inselator, nesigur Shallow area = zona cu apa mica Maintenance = intretinere Scaffolding = schelarie Railway track = sina de cale ferata Shelter = adapost Berth = dana Leisure craft = ambarcatiune de agrement Hinterland = regiune situata in interior (dincolo de tarm sau de granita) Foreland = cap, promontoriu Site = loc, amplasament THE ARTICLE AND OTHER DETERMINERS DETERMINERS Definite article - the man Indefinite article - a tree, an apple Zero article - men, trees, apples DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES - this newspaper, - that magazine - these/those ships POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES - my/your/his/her/its our/their uniform INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES - what/which/ whose book do you want? INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES - each student, every day, some books, any officer, no rules, either side, neither sailor PREDETERMINERS precede the determiners:

a) all the books, both my children, both of these features, half these cadets b) multiplicative numerals: twice the amount, three times the sum c) fractions: one-third the time, three quarters the total POSTDETERMINERS a) ordinal numerals: the first three important events b) the other name, the next duty station, the last shipment THE ARTICLE is the part of speech which individualize objects and phenomena in a linguistic context; it does not have any flexionary forms; it works as a determiner. The definite article: THE Functions: it is used to express a unique reference a) deictic function: with nouns whose preference is immediately understood by the speakers within a context- in a room: the door, the window: Close the window, will you?; in a forest: The ground is covered with dry leaves; in a city: Can you tell me how to get to the harbour? b) anaphoric function: with nouns which were previously mentioned: I bought a book yesterday; the book is interesting. c) cataphoric function: when the definite determination is after the noun, expressed by a relative clause: The man who is commanding the ship is the master of that ship. d) generic function: the noun is used in a general way, as representing a whole class: The horse is a useful animal. The definite article used with: proper nouns- the UK, the USA, the University of Bucharest; plural nouns- the Browns, the Alps, the Carpathians; geographical names: the Danube, the Olt, the Suez Canal, the Sahara; names of institutions: the Lido (Hotel), the National Theatre, the British Museum; newspapers: the Times, the Guardian; names of ships: the Transylvania. The indefinite article: A, AN Functions: a) epiphoric function: to introduce a word which was not mentioned previously: There is a young officer waiting for you. b) numerical function: the indefinite article has the meaning of one She bought a dress, two blouses, and an umbrella. A/one hundred people are on this ship. c) generic function: to represent an entire class of objects or beings An officer is a gentleman. The zero article: She drinks *tea every day; *Clothes do not make the name; In these situations the absence of the article(*) is equal to the presence of it. Functions: 1) generic function: I like coffee/ literature/long walks. 2) for the unique reference of proper nouns and some common nouns in different contexts: Peter and Mary will go to school in autumn. Proper nouns used with the zero article: a) names of people: Peter, Dr. Smith, Lord Nelson, father, uncle b) time divisions: Monday, January, Christmas c) geographical names: Asia, England, Paris d) proper nouns followed by common nouns: Bran Castle, Oxford Street

Other determiners: The demonstrative adjective: this/that/these/those It determines a noun, saying how far or close is from the speaker. Functions: a) deictic function (space or time orientation in a context) This is my desk./ What are those people doing? b) anaphoric function: I saw an English teacher in his new car. This car is really something. c) cataphoric function: These little children are very pretty. d) emotional function: (to highlight the determined noun) This Tom Brown is always playing the piano at night. The possessive adjective replaces the possessor and determines the name of the possessed object: Peters stamp collection is valuable. His stamp collection is valuable. Possessives are used to specify the ownership of an item or, if the noun refers to something animate, to specify a relationship: Mr. Smith was my teacher when I was a student in the Academy. The possessive phrase acts just like a possessive word but is a noun or noun phrase ending in s or s. A possessive phrase acts as a possessive determiner but may itself include one of the other determiners: Sallys new job; a good days work; the residents dining room; the visitors room. *the body parts are always preceded by the possessive adjective (my hand, his leg, her arm) and clothes items also(his coat, her gloves, my uniform). The demonstrative adjective We use demonstratives to show a certain thing or person in a special situation. This and these refer to something near the speaker. That and those refer to something further away. This and that are singular. These and those are plural. When we are in a place or situation or at an event, we use this, not that, to refer to it: How long is this weather going to last? We can use this or that to refer to something mentioned before: I havent got time. This/That is the problem. We can use that/those to replace a noun phrase with the to avoid repeating the noun: The temperature of cooling water is lower than that of the seawater. In informal English, you can use that or those in front of a noun to refer to things that are already known to the person you are speaking to: That idiot Antonio has gone and locked our cabin door. Grammar Practice. Article Exercise 1. Put the following sentences into singular: 1. Nouns are words. 2. Cities are big towns. 3. Horses are animals. 4. Roses are beautiful flowers. 5. Tables are pieces of furniture. Exercise 2. Fill the blanks with the requested articles and translate the text: LITTLE TOMMY AND ... HORSE Tommy: Father, . . . teacher does not know what horse is. Father: Why do you think so, Tommy?

Tommy: You know, I drew ... horse yesterday and showed it to ... teacher and he asked me what it was. Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article: 1. Would you like ... cup of ... tea and ... cake? 2. It is better to tell . . . truth than tell . . . lies. 3. Where is ... hat I bought yesterday? 4. Smith, ... man I told you about, is ... very man. 5. I like to eat . . . bread and ... butter in . . . morning. 6. Little Tommy goes to ... school only in morning. 7. He went to . . . bed with . . . bad cold. 8. He crossed ... lake in ... record time. 9. He collects . . . butterflies, . . . stamps, and matchboxes. 10. In ... autumn of ... 2003 we went on ... excursion to . . . Danube Delta. Exercise 4. Fill the gaps with the appropriate articles: 1. Take... little tea; it will do you ... lot of good. 2. Out ofsight, out... mind. 3. l like lot of. . . sugar in my tea. 4 ... supper is... last meal of... day. 5. ... bad drivers are punished by law. 6. Take ... chair and make yourself at home; he will be back in ... minute. 7. This is . . . answer to ... problem ... teacher gave us. 8. There wont be another train for at least hour. 9. We had ... dinner together at ... good restaurant yesterday. 10. ... Danube, ... Rhine and ... Thames are three important European rivers. Exercise 5. Put the articles a, an, the into the gaps: 1. He came to see me ... last week and brought English handbook with him. 2. good dictionary is . . . great help to . . . students. 3. ... last night I met Tommy; he said he would come here today if . . . weather were fine. 4. Come to see me on ... Saturday at ... latest. 5. He works hard by day and sleeps soundly at night. 6. ... help came at ... last and ... swimmer was rescued. 7. He works every ... day from . . . early morning till late at . . . night. 8. He went into ... inn and asked for ... bread and butter. 9. By ... way, he said, where is ... shop you told me about? 10. What is matter? Have you had ... accident? Exercise 6. Put the articles into their correct places: Our sun is enormous body with diameter about 108 times that of earth. It would take train, moving at 60 miles hour; over five years to travel round its circumference. But those little pinpoints of light we call stars are also suns, and some of them are very much larger and brighter than one which warms our earth. One of them has diameter three hundred times greater than that of our sun. Of thousands of millions of stars, which can be seen through powerful telescope, only six thousand or so are visible to naked eye, and their distance from earth is so tremendous that their combined light is

only about hundredth of that shed by full moon. (The Childrens New Illustrated Encyclopedia) Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with the right articles: When ... sea was not too rough we were often out in little rubber boat ... taking photographs. I shall not forget ... first time ... sea was so calm that two men felt like putting ... balloon-like little thing into water and ... going for ... row. They had hardly got clear of raft when they dropped ... little oars and sat ... roaring with ... laughter. And as ... waves lifted them away and they disappeared and reappeared among seas, they laughed so loud ... every time they caught glimpse of us that their voices rang out over ... desolate Pacific. We looked round us with ... mixed feelings, and saw ... nothing comic but our own ... bearded faces; but as ... two in ... boat should be accustomed to those by now; we began to have ... suspicion that they had suddenly gone mad. Sunstroke, perhaps ... two fellows could hardly get back on ... board ... Kon-Tiki for sheer laughter, and gasping, with tears in their eyes, begged us just to go and see for ourselves. Two of us jumped down into ... dancing rubber boat, and were caught by ... sea which lifted us clear. We sat down at ... once and roared with ... laughter. We had never before had ... outside view of ... ourselves in open sea. ... raft looked exactly like old Norwegian hay-loft lying helpless, drifting about in ... open sea, hay-loft full of ... sunburnt bearded ruffians. If anyone had come paddling after us at ... sea in ... bath we should have felt ... same spontaneous urge to ... laughter. (Thor Heyerdahl) Exercise 8. Fill in the spaces with the definite article wherever necessary: 1. She is not ... Mrs. Smith I am looking for. 2. My parents live on ... upper floor of an old house; when ... wind blows, all ... windows rattle. 3. ... Carpathians are not so high as ... Alps. 4. ... Danube is Romanias longest river. 5. ... clock in ... dining room is just striking 6. ... room Helen rushes into as soon as she arrives home is ... kitchen. 7. Spring is ... first season of ... year. 8. Id like to see Mr. Smith, please. Do you mean ... Mr. Smith who works in our department or ... Mr. Smith ... sales manager? 9. ... British Library is one of ... largest libraries all over ... world. 10. What is... French for ... boy? 11. ... Mike you met at my place yesterday was not ... Mike I was talking about a week before. 12. I have never feared ... death but ... death of my father was ... greatest loss of my life. 13. Ask them to come downstairs when ... breakfast is ready. 14. ... Eatons have also been invited to ... diner at ... Ritz. 15. She goes to school in ... morning and plays tennis in ... afternoon. 16. She has always said that ...English language is difficult. 17. On ... Sundays I like to stay in ... bed till ... noon and spend ... time reading ... Sunday papers and magazines.

18. Up to a point, Creang is Mark Twain of ... Romanian literature. 19. I have always appreciated ... sublime of ...landscapes in ... Alps. 20. If you leave ... home at 7 you can reach ... school in ... time. 21. My mother comes to ... school sometimes to speak to ... headmaster. Exercise 9. Put the indefinite article a or an in the blanks wherever necessary: 1.We usually have ... lunch at 1 oclock, which, as ... rule, consists of three courses: ...salad, ... dish and ... sweet. 2.Go to the grocers and buy ... dozen oranges and ... pound of coffee beans. 3.The Smiths I am talking about live in ... wonderful house and drive ... new Ford. 4.... old man suffering from ... cold should be given hot tea three times ... day. 5.What ... name to give to ... cat! 6.There was once ... lonely old woman who lived in ... hut in the outskirts of ... large town. 7. What ... hot day for November! Its such ... pity we cant go for ... hike or take ... long walk in the wood. 8.Jack! ... Mr. Thomson wants to see you at once! 9.Our friends gave us ... wonderful supper at the ambassador. 10.She needs ... moments peace after such ... bad piece of news. 11.The youngster was driving with sixty miles ... hour when all of ... sudden ... deer crossed the motorway. He stopped ... few moments later and fled in ... panic without taking ... back look. 12.He was puzzled that he should be in his office at ... time when the General Manager was so busy. 13.During the installation of ... newly selected government there may appear many ... surprise. 14.Mr. Sydney did not appear to be ... man who was making ... joke. 15.He was not ... addicted smoker but, now and then, late at ... night, he was longing for ... cigarette. Exercise 10. Fill in the spaces with the definite, indefinite or zero article wherever necessary: 1.Good ... morning ..., uncle, said ... boy with ... large smile on his face. 2. From ... photos of ... friends and ... relatives, Mr. Abbot selected ... picture of ... Nick Price, ... man who had come to visit them, sometime in ... early 50. 3. She put ... book back on ... piano and went to look out of ... window. 4. His voice was low and carefully modulated ... voice of ... man self-conscious about ... impression he made. Have you ever been to ... Argentine? he asked with ... undertone of ... regret in his voice. . 5. Most ... critics admit that ... writer we are talking about is ... new Shaw of ... English literature. 6. Let me offer you ... cup of ... coffee, Professor. 7. He speaks ... French and ... English quite fluently but he has never been to ... France or ... United Kingdom. 8. ... sky was starry, ... moon was shining brightly and ... night was so warm and lovely that all ... guests decided, all of ... sudden, to take ... bath in ... cool waves of ... Atlantic

0cean. 9. That was not ... sort of ... remark expected of ... right sort of ... chap who studied at ... UCLA. 10. Nick was reminded of ... joke he had heard at his club at ... lunch. 11. He had ... terrible feeling that ... operation was going to be ... Waterloo of his career. 12. You may go either to ... National Theatre to see ... play or to ... Capitol Cinema to see ... film. 13. ... Prime Minister picked up ... telephone and changed his days appointments to make ... time to see ... deputy secretary in ... Cabinet Office. 14. ... few days later we went to ... Henrys dinner at ... Ritz where we met ... old Mr. Snow who claimed to be ... uncle of my wife. 15. Such ... power and ... freedom of ...decision had only five times before been given to ... American president. Exercise 11. Here are some expressions with the noun hand, preceded by the definite, indefinite or zero article: a. to bite the hand that feeds one; to give smb. the glad hand; the hidden hand; by the left hand; to have/get the upper hand; the skips hand; a picture by the same hand; on the right hand; on the one hand; on the other hand; at the best hand; to be on the growing hand . b. to have a free hand; to have an open hand; not to lift a hand; with a heavy hand; a hand for; an old hand at; a good hand at/in; a poor/bad hand at; to have a hand like a foot; a cool hand; to have a hand in smth.; to take a hand at a game; to make a (good/ fine/fair) hand. c. hand in hand; the matter in hand; to take in hand; light in hand; at hand; by hand; to bind hand and foot; supplies on hand; to have a free hand; to have an open hand; to shake hands; clean hands; off hand; hand and glove; hand over; from hand to mouth; out of hand; at first hand; second hand; from good hands. A. Choose some of them and make sentences of your own. B. Find some more new set expressions and build up sentences of your own. Exercise 12. Put the definite or the indefinite article into the blank spaces where necessary. Translate the jokes. A) (1. ...) landlord was sitting with his shephard on (2. ...) hill commanding (3. ...) fine view of (4. ...) valley. Seeing (5. ...) flock of (6. ...) sheep at (7. ...) rest in (8. ...) shadiest nook, he observed to his companion, John, if I were (9. ... ) sheep, I would prefer to lie in(10. ...) sun. Ah, my lord, retorted (11. ...) shepherd, were you (12. ...) sheep, you would have more sense. B) If (1. ...) earthquake engulfed England, (2. ...) English would manage to meet among (3. ...) ruins and organize (4. ...) dinner just to celebrate (5. ...) painful event. Thats what (6. ... ) people of (7. ... ) other nationalities are apt to say about (8. ...) English. Should (9. ...) English be consulted on (10. ...) subject they would say (11. ...) same thing about (12. ...) French and their love of (13. ...) good dinners. C) (1. ...) outside temperature being ten degrees below (2. ...) zero, it was unusually cold in (3. ...) school room. What is (4. ...) Latin for cold? asked (5. ...) school-master addressing one of his boys, who seemed to be suffering from cold more than (6. ...) others. Oh, sir, answered

(7. ...) lad, his hands thrust in his trousers pockets, I cant tell you for (8. ...) moment, although I have it at my fingers ends. D)Dr. Crisp was invited to (1. ...) party in (2. ...) country place. (3. ...) dinner being late and(4. ...) company not quite to his taste, (5. ...) doctor strolled out into (6. ...) garden and then to (7. ...) nearby churchyard. When (8. ...) dinner was served at last and (9. ...) doctor had not yet returned, one of (10. ...) guests wondered where he could have gone. (11. ...) master of (12. ...) house, annoyed by Dr. Crisps (13. ...) absence, explained that (14 ) churchyard being not far from there, (15. ...) doctor had gone to visit his former patients. E)(1. ...) Englishman, driving in (2. ...) hackney-coach through France, was annoyed at (3. ...) slowness of (4. ...) pace. He tried to make (5. ...) coachman drive faster but all in vain. (6. ...) man couldnt understand either his English or his broken French. Then it occured to (7. ...) Englishman, both his English and his French being Greek to (8. ...) coachman, to use (9. ...) high-sounding words that might frighten (10. ...) fellow. So he roared into his ear. Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham! which had (11. ...) desired effect, (12. ...) coachman taking these words for some terrible threat. F) In 1870 Mark Twain was walking along (1. ...) streets of Boston when he noticed in (2. ...) shop window (3. ...) machine he had never seen before. He entered (4. ...) shop, asked (5. ...) shop-assistant how (6. ...) ,,monster functioned and bought it for 125 dollars. He brought home (7. ...) machine he had nicknamed (8. ...) monster and started practicing on it at once. (9. ...) machine was (10. ...) typewriter and Mark Twain typed (l1. ...) whole book on it. When he brought his manuscript to (12. ...) editor, (13. ...) latter was delighted. He made Mark Twain promise him to bring everything he would write later on typed, on this wonderful machine. (14. ...) Tom Sawyer was (15. ...) first book Mark Twain had typewritten. G) You certainly know that (1. ...) waterproof coat is often called (2. ...) mackintosh. But perhaps you dont know that (3. ...) word is (4. ...) surname. In (5. ...) year 1823 in (6. ...) Scotland there lived (7. ...) man whose (8. ...)name was Charles Mackintosh. (9. ...) climate of his country being rainy, he would often get drenched to (10. ...) skin and heartily disliked it. One day, having some rubber at his disposal, he decided to rubberize his coat. Now he could walk outdoors in any weather, his rubberized coat protecting him from (11. ...) rain. Most of his friends and (12. ...) friends of his friends admired (13. ...) waterproof coat and wanted to have their own coats rubberized likewise. Soon (14. ...) tradesmen took up his invention. (15. ...) Waterproof coats became all (16. ...) fashion and (17. ...) staple product of (18. ...) town, (19. ...) name of (2o. ...) inventor, though not (21. ...) inventor himself, getting (22. ...) worldwide popularity. Exercise 13. Fill in the gaps with the where necessary. I hate 1 ___ November! It doesnt get light till 2 ___ 8 oclock in 3 ___ morning. Then its dark again as early as 4 ___ 4 oclock in 5 ___ afternoon. After 6 ___ Christmas, 7 ___ days start to get a bit longer, but 8 ___ weather starts to get colder. On 9 ___ Friday 10 ___ last week, 11 ___ temperature was minus 10 C. 12 ___ next week 13 ___ weather forecast is 14 ___ same. Exercise 14. Put a or an before these words: 1 job, 2 union, 3 unusual name 4 enormous ice cream 5 holiday, 6 honest man.

Exercise 15. Put in a/ an where necessary: 1. She works in restaurant in street near the station. 2. For lunch she only has apple and glass of milk. 3. Anns friend works in pub. Shes barmaid. She works three evenings week. She ear ns 4.50/ hour. Exercise 16. Match the two parts of the sentences. a. I normally go to the dentist once 1. a dozen b. These roses cost $20 2. a litre c. The car was doing 150 kilometers 3. a year d. Lamb is selling at 7.50 4. a week e. The Sunday Mail is published once 5. a metre f. Electric cable costs 50 cents 6. a kilo g. How much is the oil? ~ 2.50 7. a day h. The mail is delivered twice 8. an hour Exercise 17. Complete the sentences with a/ an or the. 1. ___ taxi they phoned for arrived late at their house. 2. ___ taxi-driver didn't say he was sorry. 3. ___ traffic jam was caused by ___ accident on___ motorway. ___ car had collided with ___ lorry. Exercise 18. Put in the where necessary: 1. We had ___ breakfast at ___ home in London before we left. 2. ___ bus station was on 38th Street. 3. We went to ___ hotel by ___ taxi. 4. We're flying home ___ next Thursday. Exercise 19. Complete the sentences, using the where necessary. 1. Our hotel manager went to ___ school in England, then went to ___ university in the States. 2. The New York police arrested a man for the shooting. He was a cleaner at ___ university. 3. He'll appear in ___ court next week. He'll definitely go to ___ prison. Exercise 20. There are seven examples of the in this text. How do you know which thing or person the writer is referring to, in each case? a. because it is only one in the immediate situation; b. because it is only one anywhere; c. because it has been referred to before, in the text; d. because the writer is specifying which one, by adding extra information. Neil Armstrong was the first person to set foot on the surface of the moon. The words that he said are famous: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for the mankind.' He and his co-pilot Buzz Aldrin then planted a flag and collected rocks. The flag is probably still there. The rocks have helped the scientists understand the history of the solar system. Exercise 21 Complete the sentences with a or an, the or no article. 1. 'How much are the leeks?' 'They're 80 pence a pound.' 2. I went to ___ wonderful concert by ___ London Symphony Orchestra. 3. ___ local school is soon to be closed.

4. I usually go to ___ work by ___ train. 5. Is ___ meat in ___ oven? 6. Is this ___ first time you've been to ___ Isle of Man? 7. He's ___ art teacher and she's ___ electrician. 8. A lot of people give ___ money to ___ charity at this time of the year. 9. What ___ beautiful face that child's got! 10. ___ British usually have ___ butter on their bread. 11. ___ life is very difficult for ___ unemployed these days. 12. ___ Leader of ___ Opposition is in danger of losing her seat at ___ next election. 13. I like to have ___ cup of ___ tea when I wake up in ___ morning. 14. I saw ___ fox this morning. I think it must have been ___ same one that I saw last week. 15. Can I have ___ apple? 16. Have you ever seen ___ Acropolis in ___ Athens? 17. ___ police have had a lot of support from ___ general public over this issue. 18. ___ shirts on ___ washing-line should be nearly dry now. 19. ___ people don't like him because of his selfish life. 20. I bought my sister ___ book and ___ bottle of ___ perfume for her birthday but I don't think she liked ___ perfume. Grammar Practice Possessives Exercise A. Put the correct possessive adjective or pronoun: 1. I cant play tennis because Ive forgotten _____ tennis shoes. 2. Jessica cant play because shes forgotten _____ too. 3. Amy cant play because hes broken _____ arm. 4. Rachel and Amanda cant play because theyve forgotten _____ rackets. 5. Jilly and Laura have lost _____ ! 6. Clares at home. Shes looking after her cat. Its broken _____ leg. 7. Can you play Lee? Or have you forgotten _____ racket? Grammar Practice Demonstratives Exercise A Complete this dialogue with this, these, that or those: Customer: Can I have half a kilo of 1_____ tomatoes on the shelf behind you? Assistant: 2 _____ here, do you mean? Customer: Yes, thats right. And have you got any of 3 ______ oranges you had last week? Assistant: No, we havent got any of 4 _____ but 5 _____ here are just as nice. Customer: All right, Ill have a kilo of 6 _____ please. Assistant: Anything else? Customer: Yes, can I have a cabbage please? Assistant: How about 7 _____ one? Customer: Yes, 8 _____ looks fine. Assistant: Anything else? Customer: No, 9 _____ s all thanks. Assistant: 10 _____s 3.45 altogether. Answer Keys for Grammar Practice

Answer Keys for Grammar Practice Articles Exercise 1: 1.A noun is a word. 2.A city is a big town. 3.A horse is an animal. 4.A rose is a beautiful flower. 5.A table is a piece of furniture. Exercise 2: the, the, a, the. Exercise 3: 1.a ,-, a. 2. the ,-. 3. the 4. the, the 5.-, -, the 6.-, the 7.-, a 8. the, - 9.-, -, 10. the, -, an, the. Exercise 4: 1.a, a 2.-, - 3.a, - 4.-, the, the 5.-, the 6.a, -, a 7. the, the, the 8. an 9.-, a, -10. the, the, the. Exercise 5: 1.-, the(an) 2.a, a, the 3.-, the 4.-, the 5.-, - 6.-, -, the 7.-, -, - 8. an, -, - 9. the, the 10 .the, an. Exercise 6. an enormous, a diameter, the earth, a train, an hour, the stars, the one, a diameter, the thousands, a powerful, the naked, the earth, a hundredth, the full. Exercise 7. the, the, -, the, the, -, the, the, -, a, the, the, -, -, the, the, -, a, the, -, -, -, the, the, a, the, -, -, the, the, a, -, -, an, -, the, the, an, the, a, -, -, a, the, -. Exercise 8. 1. the 2. the, the, the 3. the, the 4. the 5. the, the 6. the, the 7. -, the, the 8. the, the, the 9. the, the, the 10. the, - 11. the, the 12. -, the, the 13. - 14. the, -, the 15. -, the, the 16. the 17. -, -, -, the, the 18. the, the 19. the, the, the 20. -, -, - 21. -, the. Exercise 9. 1 .-, a, a, a, a 2. a, a 3. a, a 4. an, a, a 5. a, a 6. a, a, a 7. a, a, a, a 8. a 9. a 10. a, a 11. an, a, a, a, a, a 12. a 13. a, a 14. a, a 15. an, -, a. Exercise 10. 1. -,-,the, a, 2. the, the, -, a, -, a, the 3. the, the,the 4. the, a, the, the, an, -5. -, the, the,the 6. a, -, 7. -, -, -, the 8. the, the,the , the, a, a, the, the 9. the, -, the, -, -10. the, 11. the/ a,the, the 12. the, a, the, a 13. the, the, -, the, the. 14 a ,the, the, the/an, the/an 15. , -, -, an. Exercise 12 : A)1.a, 2.a, 3.a, 4.the, 5.the, 6.-, 7.-, 8.the, 9.a, 10.the, 11.the, 12.a. B)1.an, 2.the, 3.the, 4.a, 5.the, 6.-, 7.-, 8.the, 9.the, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the, 13.-. C)1.the, 2.-, 3.the, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 7.the, 8.the D)1.a, 2.a, 3.the, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 7.the, 8.the, 9.the, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the, 13.-, 14.the, 15.the.E)1.an, 2.a, 3.the, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 6.the, 7.the, 8.the, 9.-, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the. F)1.the, 2.a, 3.a, 4.the, 5.the, 6.the, 7.the, 8.the, 9.the, 10.a, 11.a, 12.the, 13.the, 14.-, 15.the.G)1.a, 2.a, 3.the, 4.a, 5.the, 6.-, 7.a, 8.-, 9.the, 10.the, 11.the, 12.the, 13.the, 14.-, 15.-, 16.the, 17.a, 18.the, 19.the, 20.the, 21.the, 22.a. Exercise 13. 1 -, 2 -, 3 the, 4 -, 5 the, 6 -, 7 the, 8 the, 9 -, 10 -, 11 the, 12 -, 13 the, 14 the, Exercise 14. 1 a, 2 a, 3 an, 4 an, 5 a, 6 an Exercise 15. 1 a restaurant, a street 2 an apple, a glass, 3 a pub, a barmaid, a week, an hour. Exercise 16. a-3, b-1, c-8, d-6, e-4, f-5, g-2, h-7 Exercise 17. 1. The, 2. The, 3. The, an, the, A, a. Exercise 18. 1. -, -, 2. the, -, 3. the, -, 4.Exercise 19. 1. -, -, 2. the, 3. -, Exercise 20. d, d, d, c, c, d, b Exercise 21. 1. the, a 2. a, the 3. the 4. -, -, 5. the, the, 6. the, the, 7. an, an, 8. -, -, 9. a, 10. the, -, 11. -, the, 12. the, the, the, 13. a, -, the, 14. a, the, 15. an 16. the, -, 17. the, the, 18. the, the, 19. -, 20. a, a, -, the Answer Key Grammar Practice Possessives

Exercise A. 1 my 2 hers 3 his 4 their 5 theirs 6 its 7 your Answer Key Grammar Practice Demonstratives Exercise A. 1 those 2 These 3 those 4 these 5 these 6 those 7 this 8 that 9 that 10 That UNIT 3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF A SHIP THE PRONOUN AND THE NUMERAL Objectives: after studying the course and the seminar the students will be able to describe a ship using the words related to the parts of a ship and recognize the different types of pronouns and numerals and use them correctly in sentences . What is a ship? People have used rafts, boats and ships to travel across water for many thousands of years. At its simplest, a ship is any craft that travels on water, but ships have developed from simple log rafts to vast oil tankers. This development has affected life on land, in shipbuilding yards, and at ports where hundreds of people work loading and unloading cargo. The difference between a ship and a boat is not very clear. Generally, ships are larger and travel across seas and oceans. Boats are smaller and usually travel on rivers, lakes and coastal waters. Ships and boats come in a huge variety of shapes and sizes and have a wide range of uses from simple rowing boats to massive cruise liners. Different types of ships do a wide range of jobs in different fields like transport, commerce, leisure, exploration and combat. Parts of a ship The fishing trawler looks similar to many other ships and boats. The body of the boat is called the hull. The backbone of the hull is the keel. The bow (front) is sharply pointed to cut easily through the water. A deck provides a watertight covering for the crew to work on. An engine-driven propeller pushes the ship along. The rudder at the stern (back) is used for steering. Ships and other objects that float can do so because the water they are floating in pushes upward against them. This pushing force is called upthrust. An object will float if the upthrust of the water is great enough to overcome the downward push of the objects weight. The simplest boats float because the material they are made of is less dense than water. Heavy metal ships float because they are specially designed to displace a large weight of water. Not all water has the same density. Salt water is denser than fresh water and gives a stronger upthrust. Ships float higher in salty seawater than in fresh lake water. Facts: One of the earliest uses of boats was fishing. Today there are fishing boats designed to catch different fish in all sorts of conditions- from calm lakes to the deep oceans. Fishing trawlers drag nets through the water behind them. The largest moving machines ever built are big cargo ships. There are different types designed to carry different types of cargoes. Submersibles and submarines are the only types of boat designed to travel under the water as well as on top. Submersibles are small craft used for underwater research, exploration and repairs to pipes and cables. Submarines are usually

larger and most are for military purposes. They are used to launch missiles and sink ships. The fastest boats are racing powerboats. They are one of many types of boats used for having fun on the water. Their hulls are designed to rise out of the water and skim the surface at high speed. VOCABULARY Trawler = trauler Deck = punte Bridge = punte de comanda Funnel = cos de nava Hull = coca navei,corpul navei Keel = chila Bow = prova Stern = pupa Rudder = carma Steering = guvernare, mentinere pe drum Watertight = etans la apa Upthrust = (mec) forta ascensionala Cargo = incarcatura(transportata pe mare) Cargo ship = nava de marfuri, cargou Pipe = teava, conducta Missile = racheta Skim the surface = a tangenta suprafata apei THE PRONOUN The pronoun is the part of speech that replaces a noun, a whole noun phrase or another pronoun. It has the grammatical category of person, gender, number and case. Different from the noun the pronoun has: a) marked gender in the 3rd person singular- he/ she/ it b) marked number using different words- I/ we/ he/ they c) the contrast between accusative/ dative I/ me, he/ him The pronoun has three cases: a) Nominative (pronoun as subject) : I, you, he, she, it, they, we, who b) Objective ( pronoun as object): me, you, him, her, it, us, tem, whom c) Possessive (pronouns showing ownership): my/mine, your/ yours, his, her/ hers, its, our/ ours, their/ theirs, whose There are seven types of pronoun, classified according to their meaning and use. The personal pronoun This type of pronoun shows the persons that take part in a dialogue or replaces the object we talk about; it has gender, number and case, and different syntactical functions. Person category. In English, the pronoun and the verb are the only parts of speech that have the grammatical category of person: I am a captain. He is a sailor. The pronoun is the only indicator of a person, that is why, it is mentioned in communication in English: I speak English. (Eu) vorbesc engleza.

The personal pronoun can have a generic function: He who laughs last laughs best (universal truth). Cine rade(that one who) The pronoun you is sometimes used as an indefinite: You can never tell (nu se stie) They, having the meaning of people in general: They make ships in the shipyard. Gender category. This category appears with the 3rd person singular: he (male gender), she (female gender), it (neuter gender). He/ she may also replace some animate or inanimate nouns of neuter gender: The ship/ she has already arrived. Number category. The personal pronoun we has two uses: exclusive we, meaning I+he (Can we come at 8 oclock?); inclusive we, meaning I+you (How are we feeling today?) The form you is used both for the second person singular and second person plural. The plural you is an inclusive plural (you=you+he). Only the 3rd person plural is a real plural: they=he+he+he. Syntactical functions:1. subject: He is an officer. 2. predicate: It is he who did it. 3. indirect object: Can you tell me the way to the harbour? 4. direct object: I like her. The reflexive pronoun This type of pronoun has the following particularities: it has the 1st, 2nd, 3rd person like the personal pronoun; gender forms for the 3rd person singular (himself, herself, itself); they are spelled self in the singular (myself, yourself) and selves in the plural (ourselves, yourselves, themselves). The reflexive pronoun is used when the speaker is referring to an action that he or she has caused to happen and of which he or she is the object: I cut myself badly. It is also used when the direct object or prepositional object of a sentence has the same reference as the subject: John dressed himself in his most formal suit. The reflexive form oneself can be used to refer to persons in general: One should keep oneself as warm as possible this winter. There are verbs with obligatory reflexive pronoun: absent oneself, behave oneself, pride oneself (I pride myself on my boats). There are verbs after which the reflexive pronoun can be omitted, without changing the meaning: comb, dress, shave, wash (He went into his cabin and washed himself/ washed). Syntactical functions: direct object: She helped herself to another piece of cake. indirect object: He allowed himself a break. predicate: She is always herself. The reflexive can also be used to make some clauses more emphatic. To make a strong point, we sometimes use a normal subject or object pronoun and a reflexive pronoun as well: The sailor himself drew the map/ The sailor drew the map himself. Its syntactical function is that of an apposition: The captain himself helped the crew. The possessive pronoun

The possessive pronoun replaces both the name of the possessed object and the possessor; it has gender, person, number and case. They are used when you want to indicate who owns or is associated with an item. The forms are: mine/ yours/ his/ hers/ ours/ theirs. Attention! Do not confuse the possessive pronouns with the possessive adjectives (which are noun determiners): It is my ship/ It is mine. The interrogative pronoun The interrogative pronouns who, whom and whose are used only for reference to people. The interrogative pronouns which and what can be used for reference to people and things. These type of pronouns allow us to build questions around the thing that the pronoun refers to: Who is dancing with Lucy?/ Whose are these clothes?/ Which is the best book you have aver read? Who is used to ask questions about people in general: Who did this? What is used to ask for things in general: What is she?/ What is the meaning of this word? Which implies selection among a limited number of persons or objects: Which of the tools do you need?/ Which is your favourite poet? Whose is the possessive form of the pronoun: Whose is the car over there? Whom is the object form of who. It is the formal word, used in writing especially: Who do you have in writing?/ Whom have you in mind?/ Who were you speaking to?/ To whom were you speaking? The relative pronoun The relative pronouns are: who, whom, which, and that. They link a subordinate clause to a main clause: I know people who/ that dont like the job of a sailor. A subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun is called a relative clause. Relative pronouns refer back to a noun phrase or pronoun that has just been mentioned. This is called the antecedent of the relative pronoun. It is usually the nearest noun phrase or pronoun. Some of these pronouns (who, whom) can introduce descriptive relative clauses (sentences which bring supplementary, nonessential information): My superior, to whom you were speaking just now, wants you to follow his orders. They also introduce restrictive relative clauses (sentences which bring information necessary to clarify the meaning): The boy who threw the anchor will be punished. Who and whom are restricted to human antecedents: The man who just left is my captain. Which is not used for human subjects or objects, and introduces both descriptive and restrictive relative clauses: Swimming, which is an enjoyable sport, makes people strong and healthy; The bottle which you are drinking out of has just been brought. That is used only in restrictive sentences: The chair that was broken yesterday has been mended. The relative pronouns can also be omitted in restrictive sentences: The magazine (that) you lent me is very interesting. The indefinite pronoun The indefinite pronouns are used in a general sense when you do not know or do not

need to say precisely who or what you are referring to. They show global (all) or partial (each, either) objects or phenomena. The indefinite pronouns can be grouped according to meaning, as follows: a) general amounts and quantities: most, some, none, any, all, both, half, several, enough, many, each; b) choice or alternatives: either, neither c) undefined singular or multiple persons and things: someone-somebodysomething, anyone-anybody-anything, no one-nobody-nothing, everyoneeverybodyeverything. Some is used in affirmative sentences: There are some on the deck./ He bought some. It can also be used in interrogative sentences when you offer something: Will you have some? Any is used in interrogative and negative sentences: Have you got any? I havent got any. Each refers to the members of a group, one by one: Each of them wanted to try. Either (negative form neither) is used mostly in interrogative and negative sentences: Have you seen either of them?/ Neither of them is right. Every is used as a determiner only: Every member of a crew must do his job onboard ship. All its compounds are used as indefinite pronouns: Everybody is present/ I have everything I need. All shows the totality of objects or beings and replaces the uncountable nouns in the plural: I have read them all; or uncountable nouns in the singular: I have read all about this subject One has only one form, no matter the gender, number or case: There were two men on the deck, one was young and one was old. One with impersonal value is used in a general way: One should always perform his/ her duty. Numbers There are two common kinds of number. Cardinal numbers are used in all forms of counting that involves a total: one chair/ two chairs; a hundred people/ ten thousand pounds. The ordinal number is used to give the place of something in an ordered sequence. Ordinals are mostly formed by adding th to a cardinal number (fourth, fifth, twentieth, forty-ninth, hundredth). Exceptions are the words first, second and third, and combinations which contain them, such as twenty-first: The first horse home was disqualified/ It is his fifty-second birthday in August. To show that a cardinal number is only approximate, the word some is often used: Some two hundred people gathered in the pouring rain. Grammar Practice. The Pronoun Exercise I. Complete the sentences. Use I/ me /you/ she/ her etc. 1. I want to see her but she doesnt want to see me 2. They want to see him but doesnt want to see 3. She wants to see him but doesnt want to see .. 4. We want to see them but dont want to see

5. He wants to see us but dont want to see 6. They want to see her but doesnt want to see.. 7. I want to see them but dont want to see . 8. You want to see her but doesnt want to see Exercise II. Write sentences beginning I like .. , I dont like , or Do you like? 1. I dont eat tomatoes. I dont like them. 2. George is a very nice man. I like 3. This jacket isnt very nice. I dont .. 4. This is my new car. Do ? 5. Mrs Clark isnt very friendly. I 6. These are my new shoes..? Exercise III. Complete the sentences. 1. I want that book. Can you give it to me? 2. He wants the key. Can you give ? 3. She wants the key. Can you ..? 4. I want that letter. Can you..? 5. They want the money. Can you.? 6. We want the photographs. Can you? Exercise IV. Finish the sentences. 1. Im going to wash my hands. 2. Shes going to wash .. 3. Were going to wash 4. Hes going to wash .. 5. Theyre going to wash . 6. Are you going to wash? Exercise V. Complete the sentences. Use my/his/ their etc with one of these words: coat homework house husband job key name 1. Jim doesnt enjoy his job .It s not very interesting. 2. I cant open the door. I havent got 3. Sally is married works in a bank. 4. Its very cold today. Put on when you go out. 5. What are the children doing? Theyre doing 6. Do you know that man? Yes, but I dont know 7. We live in Barton Street. is at the end on the left. Exercise VI. Finish the sentences with mine/ yours, etc. 1. Its your money. Its yours. 2. Its my bag Its 3. Its our car .Its 4. Theyre her shoes. Theyre . 5. Its their house. Its . 6. Theyre your books. Theyre 7. Theyre my glasses. Theyre 8. Its his coat. Its . Exercise VII. Complete the following sentences with they, them ,their.

1. Has everybody collected their luggage? 2. Tell everyone Ill wait for .here. 3. If somebody has called,..would have left a message. 4. Nobody offered to help.probably didnt have the time. 5. If anybody wants to know, tell..to phone this number. Exercise VIII. Complete the sentences with some or any. 1. We didnt buy any flowers. 2. This evening Im going out with friends of mine. 3. Have you seen good films recently? No, I havent been to the cinema for ages. 4. I didnt have money, so I had to borrow.. 5. Can I have milk in my coffee, please? 6. I was too tired to do.work. 7. You can cash these travelers cheques at.bank. 8. Can you give meinformation about places of interest in the town? 9. With the special tourist train ticket, you can travel ontrain you like. 10. If there are words you dont understand ,use a dictionary. Exercise IX. Fill the gaps with each other, ourselves, yourselves or themselves. 1. They spent the whole evening arguing with each other. 2. Their house is very beautiful; they designed it themselves 3. Mary met John in April, but they didnt see.again until July. 4. Theyre not friends; in fact, they dont like .. at all. 5. Dont ask me to help you. You must do it .. 6. We didnt buy it . A friend bought it for us. 7. I could hear two people shouting at .. 8. Were working in the same office now, so Ron and I see ..every day. Exercise X. Complete the sentences using both/either/ neither + of + us/ them (e.g. neither of us). 1. I went to the concert with Mary, but neither of us enjoyed it very much because it was very boring. 2. There are two flights we can catch to New York. Both flights cost the same amount, so we can choose.. . 3. I played two games against Harry, and I lost because he is a much better player than me. 4. I saw Jane and Alison walking down the street and I waved at them, but..saw me because they were talking. 5. I looked at George, and George looked at me. Thenstarted to laugh because it was such a funny situation. 6. A man spoke to us but.could understand him, so we didnt answer. 7. Tim and I wanted to go to the game, butcould get tickets, so we didnt go. 8. I wanted to buy a new camera. There were two cameras in the shop that I liked, but they were very expensive. I couldnt afford ., so I didnt buy anything. Exercise XI. A Spanish student is in England, learning English. She is talking to a French friend. Complete the text with reflexive pronouns or each other.

A funny thing happened to me yesterday. Juan and I were sitting in a restaurant, speaking Spanish to 1 _____ , of course. I noticed that the English couple at the next table were listening. After a few minutes they introduced 2 _____ and we started talking to 3 _____ . The English couple said they were trying to teach 4 _____ Spanish. They were finding it difficult because they could only speak to 5 _____ and they knew they were making a lot of mistakes. So we arrange to give 6 _____ language lessons. I would teach them Spanish and they would teach me English! Its very difficult to teach 7 _____ a language, because you dont get a chance to speak it, unless you talk to 8 _____ of course. Exercise X. Complete the sentences with the correct relative pronoun. 1. Thats the man ____ helped me yesterday. 2. Please dont tell him ____I said. 3. The house ____ overlook the sea is Naylas. 4. Thats the village ____ my mother was born. 5. Did you see the people ____ money we found? 6. Anyone ____ arrives late will be punished. 7. Did he explain _____ went wrong? 8. Hes the painter _____ last exhibition was such a failure. 9. I read the magazine ____ was lying on the table. 10. It was my teacher ____ told me to do the exercise. The Numeral Exercise 1. Tick () the correct form in each pair. 1. (49) fourty-nine forty-nine 2. (600) six hundred six hundreds 3. (4th) fourth forth 4. (12th) twelvth twelfth 5. ($2,000) two thousand dollars two thousands dollars 6. (23rd) twenty-three twenty-third 7. (78) eighty-seven seventy-eight 8. (8th) eightth eighth 9. (17) seventeen seventeenth 10. (5th) fiveth fifth 11. (7,000,000) seven million seven millions 12. (9th) ninth nineth 13. (30th) thirteenth thirtieth 14. (395) three hundred and ninety-five three hundred ninety-five Exercise 2. Write out the following numbers. 1. (211) 10. (14). 2. (462)... 11. (2nd) 3. (20th) 12. (5,000) 4. (1st). 13.

(68). 5. (12th).. 14. (34th) 6. (9,000,000) 15. (150) 7. (310).. 16. (3rd). 8. (8th) 17. (25th)... 9. (111).. 18. (19th)... Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps in this interview, using the dates and years in brackets ( ). A. When were you born? B. I was born on the thirteenth of October, nineteen sixty-five. (13.10.65) A. When did you go to secondary school? B. In(1976) A. And when did you leave secondary school? B. Seven years later. My final exam was on..(16.6.83) A. Did you start university in the same year? B. Yes, on.(29 September) A. Did you spend three or four years there? B. Well, I left in(1987). Thats four years. A. And your first job? When was that? B. I started work in an office on..(10.1.88) A. Did you enjoy it? How long did you stay? B. It was terrible! I left two months later, on.. (9th month) A. What did you do then? B. I went to America. I spent two years in New York. I returned to England in(1990) Exercise 4. Complete the following with a number. Write your answer in words. 1. We live in a .................... dimensional world. 2. There are................players in a football team. 3. Im sorry things are a bit untidy. Were all at................ and ..................at the moment. 4. This train seems to be late................ times out of........................ 5. At first I was confused, But then I put................ and ...................together. 6. ....................s company,...................s crowd. 7. Hes a great player. He gives...................... percent in every game. 8. Protests flooded in from the............................ corners of the world. 9. We split the prize money....................., and Ive already spent my half. 10. Life begins at..................... Exercise 5. Complete the following with ordinal numbers (third, sixth etc.). Write your answers in words. 1. I believe the Government should increase its aid to the ....................World.

2. We shouldnt treat immigrants as.....................- class citizens. 3. The Americans celebrate Independence Day on the ......................of July. 4. More progress has been made in the ....................century than in the whole of history. 5. In the last sixty years the Olympic 100m record has improved by four...................of a second. 6. Theyre good friends. Theyve been on ......................name terms for years. 7. Applications will be dealt with on a .........................come,...................served basis. 8. Most people have a special party for their.......................birthday. Answer key: The Pronoun Exercise I. 2 .he.them 3. he..her 4. they..us 5. wehim 6. .she..the 7. .they.me 8. ..sheyou Exercise II. 2. him 3. like it. 4. you like it? 5. dont like her? 6. Do you like them? Exercise III. 2.. it to him ? 3. ..give it to her? 4.give it to me? 5. ..give it to them? 6. give them to us? Exercise IV. 2..her 3. our 4.his. 5.their 6. your.. Exercise V. 2. my key 3. Her husband 4. your coat 5. their homework 6. his name 7. our house Exercise VI. 2. mine ; 3.ours ; 4. hers ; 5. theirs; 6. yours; 7.mine; 8 his . Exercise VII. 2. them ; 3.they; 4. they; 5. them; Exercise VIII. 2. some 3. any 4.any, some 5. some 6. any 7. any 8. some 9. any 10. any Exercise IX. 3. each other 4.each other 5. yourself 6. ourselves 7. each other 8. each other Exercise X. 2. Either 3. both of them 4. neither of them 5. both of us 6. neither of us 7. neither of us 8. either of them Exercise XI 1. each other 2 themselves 3 each other 4 themselves 5 each other 6 each other 7 yourself 8 yourself Exercise X 1 who 2 what 3 which/that 4 where 5 whose 6 who 7 what 8 whose 9 which/that 10 who Answer key: The Numeral Exercise 1. forty-nine, six hundred, fourth, twelfth, two thousand dollars, twentythird, seventy-eight, eighth, seventeen, fifth, seven million, ninth, thirtieth, three hundred and ninety-five. Exercise 2. four hundred and sixty-two, twentieth, first, twelfth, nine million, three hundred and ten, eighth, a hundred and eleven, fourteen, second, five thousand, sixty-eight, thirty-forth, a hundred and fifty, third, twenty-fifth, nineteenth. Exercise 3. 1. nineteen seventy-six 2. the sixteenth of June/June the sixteenth, nineteen eighty-three 3. the twenty-ninth of September/September the twenty-ninth 4. nineteen eighty-seven 5. the tenth of January/January the tenth, nineteen eighty-eight

6. the ninth of March/March the ninth 7. nineteen ninety. Exercise 4. Most of the examples are idioms and worth learning. 1. three 2. eleven 3. sixes and sevens 4. nine times out of ten 5. two and two 6. Twos company, threes a crowd. 7. one hundred 8. four 9. fifty-fifty 10. forty (do you agree?) Exercise 5. 1. Third 2. second 3. fourth 4. twentieth 5. tenth 6. first 7. first come, first served 8. eighteenth (perhaps twenty first, and in some countries twenty fifth and fiftieth) UNIT 4 EXAMINING THE SHIP BY THE CUSTOMS THE ADJECTIVE. THE ADVERB Objectives: after studying the course and the seminar the students will get familiar with the name of some documents issued by the Customs House and will be able to recognize the adjectives and adverbs and use them correctly in sentences. It is required that the master of a ship shall report his vessel to the Customs House within 24 hours of arrival in a foreign port. That means that the captain is to fill up the blank form of the captains declaration or report list and to hand it over to the customs together with certain ships papers: ship register, certificate of practice, bill of health, manifest of cargo, list of stores, search note and others. All the formalities connected with clearing in and clearing out are fulfilled by the ships agent. The customs officers come aboard the ship to search and rummage the vessel for unentered goods and to see if there are any prohibited goods or goods liable to duty. It is well known that each country imposes duties on certain goods brought into the country. The Customs House is the Department of Government that collects these duties. The customs officers see to all the formalities that must be fulfilled. Smuggling of goods is a secret bringing of goods without paying import taxes. To prevent smuggling such goods as spirits, wines, cigarettes, tobacco, perfumes and others, the customs officers request the captain to give the ships store bond on dutiable goods kept aboard for the use of the ships crew and passengers. The customs officers sometimes leave for the crew only a quota and place under seal the surplus stores. According to regulations every ship must be reported to the Customs on arrival. The ship must be entered inwards before she starts discharging the cargo. She must be cleared in. Before any cargo is allowed to be shipped the vessel must be entered outwards; the master signs the Entry outward form and delivers it to the customs. Leaving the port the ship must have: the clearance label with seal, the victualling bill, the

port clearance and the bill of health. Notice issued by the French Customs for vessels entering the port of Dunkerque: Most important: All cigars, cigarettes, tobacco, matches, playing cards, opium should be collected in one place before arrival. If this is not done the vessel may be subject to heavy customs fine. The list should be accurately filled in, and if necessary further items added, so that the customs officer will find all the commodities specified. To avoid a fine, captains are advised to have their manifest of cargo and stores made out as carefully as possible, dated and signed before entering the harbour. The different kinds of cargo should be stated according to Bills of Lading, and should the whole or part of the cargo be in bags, bales, barrels or packages, each being numbered, also the quantity of materials used for stowage. VOCABULARY Fill in a form = a completa un formular Report list = declaratie de sosire Ship register = certificat de registru Manifest of cargo = manifestul incarcaturii List of stores = lista de provizii si materiale Search note = nota de perchezitie Rummage = a perchezitiona Unentered goods = marfuri nedeclarate Smuggle = a face contrabanda Entry outward = declaratie la intrare Victualling bill = lista de provizii Port clearance = permis de plecare Commodity = marfa, bunuri Bill of Lading = conosament Expressions Dutiable goods = bunuri supuse taxelor vamale Ships store bond = bunuri scutite de vama Clear in = a trece prin vama la sosire Clear out = a trece prin vama la plecare Enter the vessel inwards = a indeplini formalitatile vamale la sosire Enter the vessel outwards = a indeplini formalitatile vamale la plecare Impose import (export) duty on = a impune taxe vamale de import/export Make up a list = a intocmi o lista As a matter of fact = de fapt It doesnt matter = nu conteaza, nu are importanta THE ADJECTIVE Adjectives are words that modify and describe nouns and pronouns. They are the color commentators of language, the words that give your writing and speech flavour. They answer the questions: What kind?, How much?, Which one?, How many? What kind?.red nose/gold ring How much?more sugar/little effort Which one?second wife/those units

How many?several students/six cadets There are 5 kinds of adjectives: a) common adjectives-describe nouns and pronouns (strong man, green plant) b) proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns (Mexican food) c) compound adjectives-are formed by more than one word (far-off country, teenage person) d) indefinite adjectives-describe general quantities; most of them were pronouns in their first lives (another, both, each, either, all, more) The comparison of adjectives There are three degrees of comparison: 1) The positive degree-shows the presence of a quality, without making any comparison: He is tall/ She is beautiful. 2) The comparative degree-compares two objects showing the presence of quality in three ways: Equality- He is as kind as Jane. Superiority- He is kinder than Jane. Inferiority- He is less kind than Jane. 3) The superlative degree shows that a member of a group possesses the compared quality in its highest extent through a direct comparison-the relative superlative: He is the cleverest of all, or without a direct comparisonthe absolute superlative: She is very clever. When we compare two notions we use the comparative preceded by the article the, instead of the superlative: She is the younger and the more beautiful of the two sisters. Comparative and superlative- ways of formation: The synthetic comparison- adjectives formed by one syllable form the comparative and superlative by adding (e)r or (e)st: small- smaller- the smallest Spelling: double consonants before short vowels (big-bigger-the biggest); adjectives ending in y (dry-drier-the driest); adjectives ending in e, -ee lose the final e (nicenicer, free-freer) The two-syllable adjectives obey the same synthetic rules: happy-happier, able-abler The analytical comparison- the adjectives formed by two or more syllables form their comparative and superlative using more/the most (careful-more careful-the most careful) The comparison of equality- the adjective in the positive degree preceded by as and followed by as: My cabin is as large as his. The comparison of inferiority- the adjective in the positive degree preceded by not so/as and followed by as/less.than: My assignment is not as easy as yours. The absolute relative- is expressed by the help of: very, too, highly, extremely: It is extremely difficult to reach the top. The irregular comparison: good-better- the best; ill-worse- the worst; much/ many- more- the most; little- less- the least; late- later- the latest/the latter/the last; old- older/elder- the oldest/the eldest; near- nearer- the nearest/the next; far- farther/further the farthest/the furthest. Syntactical functions:

Attribute- Tom has a new uniform. Predicate nominative- This uniform is new. The place of adjectives in the sentence: - the attributes precede the noun they determine (a high mountain) *exceptions: Ambassador Extraordinary, Secretary General, Court Martial, poet laureate - indefinite pronouns ending in body/one/thing are followed by the adjective: She bought something nice/ He said nothing interesting. - when a noun is determined by two adjectives in the comparative, one short and one long, the short one precede the long one: She was taller and more beautiful. - when more adjectives determine a noun, these adjectives follow one after the other in the following order: Sequence of adjectives Article 1 Size 2 Shape 3 Age 4 Colours 5 Participle 6 Nationality 7 Material 8 Noun 9 A large old tree A freezing English day A black leather jacket A blue knitted hat THE ADVERB Adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. They answer the questions: When?, Where?, How?, To what extent? When?.left yesterday /begin now Where?... fell below /move up How?...happily sang /dances badly To what extent? partly finished /eat completely Formation: adverbs of manner- adjectives + -ly (slowly, badly) adverbs of time- adjectives + -ly (weekly) * Not all the words ending in ly are adverbs. Some of them are adjectives:

friendly, lovely, lonely. Adverbs of time ending in ly can be both adjectives and adverbs: This is a daily paper / It comes out daily. * There are adverbs that do not end in ly such as: almost, already, back, hard, low, how, now, far, more, often, late, so, fast. We use an adverb to describe: - a verb: Experiments using dynamite must be done carefully. - an adjective: Charles had an unbelievably huge appetite for chips. - to describe another adverb: They sung so clearly. Conjunctive adverbs are used to connect other words; they act like conjunctions, and are very useful when you want to link ideas and paragraphs. They are also called transitives because they link ideas. Examples: also, besides, again, indeed, therefore, finally, then, accordingly. * Sometimes adverbs can have two forms with different meaning: She came close and looked at me./ I followed the instructions closely. He works hard./ He hardly recovered. He travels light./ He treats everything lightly. It is pretty late./ She dresses prettily. Classification of adverbs- adverbs divide into 3 categories: 1. Adverbs of manner: well, badly, quickly, , actually, absolutely, yes, no 2. Adverbs of place: direction- aside, forward, backward, right, left place- here, there, somewhere 3. Adverbs of time: indicate the moment of action- now, today, then succession in time- before, soon, formerly, afterwards duration- lately, recently, still, yet frequency- weekly, often, usually, seldom Comparison of adverbs- has the same characteristics as the comparison of adjectives. Comparison of superiority- by the help of prefix er (fast-faster, early-earlier) or more (more quickly) Comparison of equality- as..as: She speaks English as fluently as her brother. Comparative of inferiority- not so/as..as: He doesnt learn as fast as his classmates; less.than: He drives less carefully than his wife. The absolute superlative- very/quite/most + adverb: She sings very beautifully. The relative superlative- He runs (the) fastest of all./He answers the most intelligently. * The article (the)may be omitted in spoken English. Irregular comparison of adverbs: well-better-the best/ badly-worse-the worst/ much-more-the most/ little-less-the least Some special adverbs: enough- after adjectives and adverbs: He is old enough to understand this. -before or after a noun: You have enough time/time enough far- usually in negative and interrogative sentences: He didnt go far. hardly- negative meaning: He can hardly speak. barely- He is barely 18.

scarcely- (hardly +barely) He scarcely ate anything. in here/over there-Its hot in here./He is standing over there. just now- He came in just now(not to be confused with just) long- Did you stay there long? I stayed there a long time. much- is preferred in negative and interrogative sentences: Do you like swimming much?/ I dont like it much. presently- He is presently staying with us./Ill presently be with you. still- in interrogative sentences: She is still here. yet- in negative and interrogative sentences: He hasnt arrived yet. very- can modify: an adjective: She is very tall. past participle: He had a very surprised look adverb: He spoke very loudly. GRAMMAR PRACTICE. THE ADJECTIVE 1. There are twelve adjectives in this story. Underline them. I went for a long walk in the countryside yesterday. It was a hot day, and soon I was tired and thirsty. There was a small house by the side of the road, and I decided to ask for a glass of cold water. I rang the bell and an old lady opened the big, wooden door. She looked kind and she offered me a glass of fresh juice. It tasted great! II. Choose from the following adjectives to fill in the sentences below: hungry, new, terrible, expensive, sad, wonderful, Italian, fresh, difficult 1. Gold rings are normally expensive. 2. This food smells.................! I love fish and chips. 3. It was a ................exam. Im sure I havent passed. 4. Ive just bought a ...............sports car. 5. I met my wife in Rome, but she isnt................ 6. He looks................. I dont think he likes his job. 7.Are you....................? Shall I buy some sandwiches? 8. This orange juice tastes..................Is it....................? III. Look at these sentences. If you think the adjectives are in the wrong order, change the order. If you think the order is correct, put a tick (). 1. She lost a gold, small ring at the disco yesterday night. 2. I have an old, Italian painting in my living room. 3. Im looking for my cotton, green shirt and my brown, leather shoes. 4. George has a Spanish, modern villa near the sea. He goes there every summer. 5. I live in an old, white house near the river. Ive got a black, large dog! 6. I had an interesting talk with a Polish, young student last week. 7. We are having lunch in a big, Japanese, new resturant in the centre of town. 8. I left my books in a red, plastic bag on the bus. I was so stupid! IV. Write the comparative form of these adjectives: cold, big, careful, expensive, good, fat, famous, new, modern, young, cheap, delicious, rich, long, hungry, nice, happy, difficult, old, beautiful, friendly, hot, bad, small, sad. V. Put the words in brackets ( ) in the right order to make sentences.

1. (the world Antarctica coldest is place the in) 2. (city the Manchester in England is friendliest) 3. (in New York expensive restaurant The Manhattan the is most) 4. (is river the world the The Nile longest in) 5. (town most in Spain Granada beautiful is the) 6. (painting The Mona Lisa the famous in is most the world) 7. (the Europe mountain in highest Mont Blanc is) VI. Use the words in brackets ( ) to write sentences. Use the + superlative, and the Present Perfect + ever. 1. (Its/cold/place/I/visit) Its the coldest place Ive ever visited. 2. (Its/big/shop/I/see) 3. (Hes/rich/man/I/meet) 4. (Its/difficult/exam/I/do) 5. (Its/sad/film/I/see) 6. (Shes/happy/person/I/meet) 7. (Its/modern/ flat/I/see) 8. (Its/hot/country/I/visit) 9. (Its/small/dog/I/see). VII. Complete the sentences using the comparative form of the adjectives in brackets and than. 1. I think that golf is more interesting than (interesting) tennis. 2. This question is......................(easy) the last one. 3. Im a good player, but Eric is ........................(good) me. 4. The groups first record was.........................(successful) their second record. 5. We both played well, but he was.....................(lucky) me. 6. Your car is......................(powerful) mine. 7. This computer is....................(useful) that one. VIII. Complete the sentences using the superlative form of the adjective in brackets. 1. Anna is the youngest (young) person in her class. 2. We stayed in ......................(bad) hotel in the whole city. 3. People say that it is ...............(funny) film of the year. 4. What is........................(tall) building in the world? 5. Her teachers say that she is ....................(good) student in the school. 6. This is........................(expensive) camera in the shop. 7. Many people say that Venice is..................(beautiful) city in the world. IX. Complete each sentence so that it means the same as the one above it. Use as + adjective/adverb + as. 1. Sweden is bigger than Britain. Britain isnt as big as Sweden. 2. The other students learn more quickly than me. I dont learn....................................the other students. 3. Youre very angry and Im angry also. Im........................................you. 4. The seats at the front are more expensive than the seats at the back.

The seats at the back arent.................................the seats at the front. 5. Central Park in New York is bigger than Hyde Park in London. Hyde Park in London isnt........................Central Park in New York. 6. Her last film was very good and her new film is also very good. Her new film is.......................her last film. 7. The other students work harder than him. He doesnt work........................the other students. X. Join each pair of sentences in brackets ( ), using as much......as, or as many......as. 1. (Ive got 50 books. Jacks got about 100.) I havent got as many books as Jack. 2. (Youve done a lot of work. Ive done a lot of work also.) Ive done ............................you. 3. (Alan earns a lot of money. Sheila only earns a little.) Sheila doesnt earn...........................Alan. 4. (George has been to five countries. Ive also been to five countries.) Ive been to...............................George. 5. (Youve had five jobs. Ive only had two.) I havent had...........................you. 6. (Tom has a lot of luggage. Jane has a lot of luggage too.) Lane has............................Tom. 7. (Mary answered most of the questions. I only answered about half.) I didnt answer.............................Mary. 8. (Ruth spent $50.I also spent $50.) I spent...........................Ruth. XI. Choose the correct adjective in brackets ( ) to put in the gaps. 1. It was a terrible play and I was bored (bored/boring) from start to finish. 2. Im very..................(excited/exciting) because Im going to New York tomorrow. 3. Are you................(surprised/surprising) or were you expecting this news? 4. Im reading a very.................(interested/interesting) book at the moment. 5. Ive had a very..............(tired/tiring) day at work today and I want to go to bed. 6. Most people were...................(surprised/surprising) that he won the championship. 7. Im.......................(bored/boring). Lets go out for a cup of coffee somewhere. 8. Visit our...................(excited/exciting) new shop! 9. His speech was very long and very...................(bored/boring). XII. Complete the sentences using too or enough and the words in brackets ( ). 1. I cant eat this soup because its too hot (hot). 2. We couldnt buy the tickets because we didnt have enough money (money). 3. We didnt buy the car because it wasnt big enough (big). 4. I couldnt see her because it was...................(dark). 5. I cant decide what to do because I havent got..................(information). 6. You cant change the situation now. Its..................(late). 7. Have you had..................(food), or would you like some more? 8. He did badly in the exam because he was....................(nervous). 9. Slow down! Youre driving ...................(fast).

10. He shouldnt play in the team because he isnt.................(good). 11. I havent got ................(clothes). I must buy some more. l2. Robert didnt go to work because he didnt feel.................(well). 13. I couldnt lift the suitcase because I wasnt...................(strong). 14. We didnt go swimming because the water was................(cold). 15. Mary couldnt post all the letters because she didnt have..............(stamps). THE ADVERB I. Rewrite these sentences using an adverb instead of an adjective. 1. Peter is a bad tennis player. Peter plays tennis badly. 2. Hes a dangerous driver. He drives..................... 3. Shes a fast swimmer. She swims................... 4. Martin is a good cook. ................................... 5. Im a slow writer. ................................... 6. Shes a wonderful dancer ................................... 7. Sheila is a hard worker. .................................... 8. They arent quick learners. .................................... II. Complete the sentences. Put in the adverb form of the adjective in brackets ( ). 1. She read the message quickly (quick). 2. Read the instructions ...............(careful). 3. He looked at her.....................(angry), but he didnt say anything. 4. She passed all her exams....................(easy). 5. Iran as ....................(fast) as I could. 6. He thinks that he did the test.................(bad) and that hell fail. 7. Ive been studying very..................(hard) recently. 8. She was working.................(busy) when I arrived. 9. She sang the song..................(beautiful) 10. He was playing................(happy) when I came into the room. 11. He was concentrating...............(hard) on his work. 12. Have I filled this form in ................(correct)? 13. I wasnt in a hurry, so I walked...................(slow) through the park. 14. I closed the door................(quiet) when left. III. Complete the dialogues by putting a suitable adverb into the gaps. Use an adjective from the following ones: slow, fast, hard, good (x2), easy, bad. 1. A: Were the questions difficult? B: No, I answered them easily. 2. A: Does she speak English.....................? B: No, she only knows a few words of English. 3. A: Hurry up! Im waiting! B: Just a minute. Im coming as .....................as I can. 4. A: Did you lose at tennis again? B: Yes, I played.......................and I lost. 5. A: Have you been working.................today? B: No, Ive done nothing all day! 6. A: Have you finished that book yet?

B: No, I always read very...................It takes me a long time to finish a book. 7. A: Is he a bad student? B: No, he does all his work very...................... IV. Put in the comparative adverb form of the adjective in brackets. 1. You must do your work more carefully (careful) in future. 2. He has run the 100 metres......................(fast) than any other athlete in the world this year. 3. Everyone else did the test....................(good) than me. 4 You can travel......................(cheap) at certain times of the year. 5. He plays.................(confident) than he did in the past. 6. Im sorry Ive made so many mistakes. Ill try...............(hard) in future. 7. You will be able to sit...................(comfortable) in this chair. V. Complete these sentences using really or quite. 1. The film was really good. I enjoyed it a lot. 2. Its....................cold outside, but not very cold. 3. It isnt a wonderful book, but its..................good. 4. The tickets were...............expensive they cost much more than I expected. 5. The programme is................popular in my country; millions of people watch it. 6. Hes..............good at his job, but sometimes makes bad mistakes. 7. The meal was..............nice, but it wasnt very good. 8. Its.............dangerous to drive fast in such terrible weather conditions. 9. Im not a very good tennis player, but I am.................good. 10. Theyre all..............intelligent students, and they will all pass their exams easily. 11. The company that I work for is.................big, but its not enormous. VI. Put the words in brackets ( ) in the right place in these sentences 1. I work late at the office. (often) I often work late at the office. 2. You must lock the front door when you leave. (always)............................... 3. Steve and Jill play golf. (twice a month)................... 4. I eat a sandwich for lunch. (usually)............................. 5. I go to jazz concerts at the weekend. (sometimes).................... 6. My teacher gives me a lot of homework. (every day).......................... 7. We see our Mexican friends. (hardly ever)....................... 8. They go to Morroco for their holidays. (often)................................. 9. Bill and Marie go to the theatre. (four times a year)............... 10. They are at home in the evening.

(rarely)................................. VII. Complete the sentences by choosing an ending from the following ones: - the road carefully, - their homework well, - the piano badly, - his car fast, - her breakfast slowly, - Arabic perfectly, - an hour late 1. He drives................................. 2. She plays................................. 3. Maria ate................................. 4. They speak.............................. 5. You must always cross........... 6. They all did............................. 7. The plane arrived.................... MISCELLANEOUS I. In these dialogues underline the adjectives and circle the adverbs 1. A: I think hes a good worker. What do you think? B: Im not sure. He works carefully, but he makes some bad mistakes. 2. A: Hes a wonderful skier. He skis quickly and beautifully. B: In my opinion, he skis dangerously. Hes a stupid skier. 3. A: Hes a rich and powerful man. He lives expensively. B: Yes, but he spends money carefully. He buys valuable objects. 4. A: Paul, Jane, Diana and Mark live in a big, old house in Scotland. They live happily together. B: I know they are happy, but the house is expensive and so they live cheaply 5. A: This bread tastes awful. Did you cook it correctly? B: If you think its horrible, why are you eating it so hungrily? 6. A: Shes very young, but she sings and dances beautifully. B: Shes a wonderful singer, but she dances badly in my opinion. II. Put in the adjective or adverb in brackets ( ). 1. The train was very slow (slow/slowly) and I arrived late. 2. The journey took a long time because the train went very...............(slow/slowly). 3. Mrs. Green went..................(quick/quickly) back to her office. 4. Im afraid I cant give you an ................(immediate/immediately) answer; I need to think about it first. 5. The work that the builders did for us was very.................(bad/badly). 6. The builders did the work for us very....................(bad/badly) 7. She organized the party...............(good/well), and everybody enjoyed it. 8. Everybody said that the party was very................(good/well). 9. She wrote a ..............(polite/politely) letter asking the company to give her the money back. 10. She wrote the company and asked them ..............(polite/politely) to give her the

money back. Answer key: THE ADJECTIVE I. hot, tired, thirsty, small, cold, old, big, wooden, kind, fresh, great. II. wonderful, difficult, new, Italian, sad, hungry, terrible....fresh. III. small, gold; old, Italian; green, cotton; modern, Spanish; large, black; young, Polish; big, new, Japanese; red, plastic. IV. colder, bigger, more careful, more expensive, better, fatter, more famous, newer, more modern, younger, cheaper, more delicious, richer, longer, hungrier, nicer, happier, more difficult, older, more beautiful. Friendlier, hotter, more wonderful, worse, smaller, sadder. V. 1. Antarctica is the coldest place in the world. 2. Manchester is the friendliest city in England 3. The Manhattan is the most expensive restaurant in New York. 4. The Nile is the longest river in the world. 5. Granada is the most beautiful town in Spain 6. The Mona Lisa is the most famous painting in the world. 7. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain in Europe. VI. 1. Its the biggest ship Ive ever seen 2. Hes the richest man Ive ever met. 3. Its the most difficult exam Ive ever done. 4. Its the saddest film Ive ever seen. 5. Shes the happiest person Ive ever met. 6. Its the most modern flat Ive ever seen. 7. Its the hottest country Ive ever visited. 8. Its the smallest dog Ive ever seen. VII. 1. easier than 2. better than 3. more successful than 4. luckier than 5. more powerful than 6. more useful than VIII. 1. the worst 2. the funniest 3. the tallest 4. the best 5. the most expensive 6. the most beautiful IX. 1. as quickly as 2. as angry as 3. as expensive as 4. as big as 5. as good as 6. as hard as X. 1. as much (money) as

2. as many countries as 3. as many jobs as 4. as much luggage as 5. as many questions as 6. as much (money) as XI. excited, surprised, interesting, tiring, surprised, bored, exciting, boring. XII. too dark, enough information, too late, enough food, too nervous, too fast, good enough, enough clothes, well enough, strong enough, too cold, enough stamps. Answer key: THE ADVERB I. 1. dangerously 2. fast 3. Martin cooks well. 4. I write slowly. 5. She dances wonderfully. 6. Sheila works hard. 7. They dont learn quickly./ They learn slowly. II. carefully, angrily, easily, fast, badly, hard, busily, beautifully, happily, hard, correctly, slowly, quietly. III. well, fast, badly, hard, slowly, well. IV. faster, better, more cheaply, more confidently, herder, more comfortably. V. quite, quite, really, really, quite, quite, really, quite, really, quite. VI. 1. You must always lock the front door when you leave. 2. Steve and Jill play golf twice a month. 3. I usually eat a sandwich for lunch. 4. I sometimes go to jazz concerts at the weekend. 5. My teacher gives me a lot of homework every day. 6. We hardly ever see our Mexican friends. 7. They often go to Morroco for their holidays. 8. Bill and Marie go to the theatre four times a year. 9. They are rarely at home in the evening. VII. 1. his car fast 2. the piano badly 3. her breakfast slowly 4. Arabic perfectly 5. the road carefully 6. their homework well 7. an hour late Answer key: MISCELLANEOUS I.1 good, carefully, bad 2. wonderful, quickly, beautifully, dangerously, stupid 3. rich, powerful, expensively, carefully, valuable 4. big, old, happily, happy, expensive, cheaply 5. awful, correctly, horrible, hungrily 6. young, beautifully, wonderful, badly

II. slowly, quickly, immediate, bad, badly, well, good, polite, politely. UNIT 5 RECEPTION OF CARGO PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS Objectives: after studying the course and the seminar the students will be able to recognize words related to the loading of a ship and the reception of cargo and use properly the present tense in the simple and continuous form in writing and conversation. The cargo is taken on board the ship in accordance with the cargo plan. This plan is drawn up beforehand and must be carefully considered by the captain. In planning the stowage of the goods, the captain gives the first consideration to the safety of the ship. That means he must see that the stowage of goods is planned in such a way that the ship will retain her stability and seaworthiness after the cargo has been loaded. This entails another problem: the ship must be duly trimmed and the extra weights must be properly lashed or secured so that they will not shift when the ship encounters bad weather. There are some other considerations, which should be taken into account. First of all, different kinds of cargo should be stowed in such a manner that they would not damage or affect one another by contact or proximity. Secondly, each consignment must be so arranged that it might be easily discharged in the port. After the cargo plan has been approved and, the first mate is first of all to get the holds ready. Then he is to look after the loading and stowage of the cargo. The agent sends him a shipping note or a shipping order with each separate lot of goods. The second mate arranges a careful tally of goods, which are taken aboard. When the first mate has the exact quantity and condition of the goods received, he makes out the mates receipt. The receipts are delivered to the shippers, to the stevedoring company or direct to the agent. On the basis of the receipts, the agent makes out bills of lading in which he is to insert all the remarks contained in the mates receipts. Then the agent presents the issued bills of lading to the master for signature. The master calls for his second mate, verifies with him the accuracy of all the data, and then signs the bills of lading. On no account should the master sign a post-dated or ante-dated bill of lading; it should be signed under date of shipment of the goods. A master is sometimes pressed by a shipper to sign a false bill of lading, in return for a letter of indemnity. He should never accept such a letter, but should insist on qualifying the bills of lading so that they contain statements which are true in substance and in fact. After loading has been completed, a stowage plan and manifest of cargo are compiled. These are rather important and useful documents. They are usually sent ahead of the ship to the port of discharge so that preliminary arrangements may be made as to the type of discharging gear required and as to the number of gangs to handle the cargo. After that the proper method of disposal is arranged. A copy of the cargo manifest is also kept on the ship to be presented to the custom house when required. Dialogue: Our tallies dont agree. There are two bags in dispute. Yes, I know that. What shall we do?

Well, its up to you to decide. I think we should check the entries again. All right. Ill see to that. Ill let you know the result sometime later. VOCABULARY Seaworthiness = navigabilitate Stowage = stivuire Duly = in timp util, la timp Trim = a pune in ordine, a aranja Entail = a avea ca rezultat, a necesita, a impune Make out = a intocmi, a redacta Bill of lading = conosament Reference = trimitere, referire Letter of indemnity = scrisoare de garantie Gang = echipa Mates receipt = ordin de imbarcare Superintend = a supraveghea, a controla Comply (with) = a se conforma cu Discharging gear = echipament de descarcare Manifest of cargo = (mar) certificat de incarcatura Stowage = marfuri stivuite/ambalate, taxa de magazinaj Tally = pontaj Expressions Take into account = a lua in considerare Tallies dont agree = pontajul nu corespunde To the effect that = in sensul ca Relay orders = a transmite ordine/dispozitii Notice is served = notisul a fost prezentat Lash one piece to another = (mar) a lega o bucata de alta PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE In this section we are going to talk about tenses usually referred to as present in grammars and reference books, the present simple and the present continuous. These tenses are discussed in their relation to present time. Another form of present tense is the present emphatic and is important to make the distinction between this and the normal form of the present simple. PRESENT SIMPLE - full form: I walk; negative form: I do not walk; question form: Do you walk to school?/ Dont you walk to school?; tag question: You walk to school, dont you?/ You dont walk to school, do you? Meaning and function- this tense is a timeless tense for actions which are always, repeatedly, or generally true, or actions encapsulated in a single instant (with no reference to past or future). This tense is used to denote truths: Habitual truth: He smokes forty cigarettes a day. Eternal truth: Jesus lives/ The Koran says Recurrent truth: The sun rises in the east. Permanent human truth: I like sweets.

General truth: English people drink a lot of tea. Mathematical and scientific truth: Two and two make four/ Water boils at 100C. It is used for giving instructions, directions, demonstrations (often with the impersonal you): (You) beat the eggs and then (you) add the flour/ (You) turn to the left and walk straight ahead. It is used as a narrative device for dramatic effect in certain situations: In commentaries: He passes the ball to Clark, aims and scores. In headlines and captions: Putin meets G. Bush In describing feelings and senses (sudden ones): I feel sick (suddenly)/ I hear bells. With a future time marker the tense gives a timetable future usually for schedules: My bus leaves at 3.00 p.m. It is used after when to form a time clause: When I get home, Ill make tea. Habitual present tense with adverbs of frequency (always, sometimes, often, never, usually): They never smoke when they are aboard ship/ He always sings when he takes a shower. In formal speech it is possible to use what we call the historic present to describe past events, especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic: so then the second man asks the first one why he has a banana in his ear and the first one says Present continuous- full form: Im looking; negative form: I am not looking; question form: Are you looking?/ Arent you looking?; tag question: You are looking, arent you?/ Arent you looking, are you?/ Im looking, arent I? State and dynamic verbs- some verbs rarely take the present continuous form at all: these are verbs that describe a state of affairs beyond the persons immediate active control (If someone is a man, has a car, knows French, hears music, or like apples-there is little he can do to change this at the moment). These verbs are often called state verbs, as distinct from dynamic ones, where the person is actively doing something. Even verbs which are usually state, can take the present continuous, but they mean something different. The most common state verbs are the following: To be- rarely occurs in the present continuous form except with adjectives of behaviour: You are being silly (suggests a temporary and deliberate action) To have- Im having a bath/ a drink (it implies present enjoyment or experience) Verbs describing involuntary sensations (smell, hear, see)- are usually in the present simple, but they also take the present continuous for particular effect: Im seeing him to the station (change of meaning); Im smelling roses (pretence). Emotion and wishing verbs (intend, hope, wish, like, dislike) can sometimes occur with the present continuous for a polite and tentative meaning: I am hoping that you will take the part of Hamlet. Thinking verbs (think, expect) sometimes take the continuous form when thinking is an activity, not a passive state of mind: Be quiet! I am thinking / The police are expecting trouble, but I think he is at home now (think = believe) Other state verbs (belong to, concern, contain, cost, matter, resemble, keep on) are usually in the present simple, but again there are some exceptions where the continuous form is used, for example to emphasize temporary meaning:

God knows what this meal is costing me! / He is resembling his father more and more. Meaning and function: a) Temporary action- that began before the time of speaking, is continuous across it, and is not yet complete: Im walking at this moment. b) Temporary habit- not necessarily engaged in at the moment of speech, but temporarily contracted for: Im watering his plants while he is away. c) Regrettable habit (always): Im always losing my keys (the speaker is constantly in a state of having lost the keys). d) Future action- for plans and arrangements: Im picking her up at 6.00, were leaving tomorrow. Present emphatic- used to express contradiction, surprise or insistence and rely on stress and intonation for their function. It is created as the ordinary tense, with the addition of stress on the auxiliaries. Meaning and function a) To express reassurement of reaffirmation that action occurs: I do turn off the lights./ He does live here. b) To express contradiction: You do break the speed limit./ I do like icecream. c) To express enthusiasm, strong feeling: I do hope I can come./ I do love Chopin./ I do want to see that film. d) To express enthusiastic reinforcement: I do like your hat. e) To express invitation: Do you play chess?/ I do want to see that film. Grammar Practice. Present Continuous Exercise I. Complete the sentences. Use am/ is/ are + one of these verbs building coming cooking playing standing studying swimming 1. Listen! Pat is playing the piano. 2. They.a new hotel downtown 3. Look! Somebody .. in the river. 4. Youon my foot. Oh I m sorry. 5. Hurry up! The bus .. 6. Where are you Sam? In the kitchen . I .. dinner. 7. (on the phone) Hello. Can I speak to Ann please? She .for an exam right now. Can she call you back later? Exercise II. Whats happening right now? Write true sentences. 1. (I/ wash/ my hair). Im not washing my hair. 2. (it/ snow) 3. (I/ sit/ on a chair) 4. (I/ eat) 5. (it/ rain ) 6. (I/ do/ this exercise). 7. (I/ listen/ to the radio) 8. (the sun/ shine) 9. (I/wear/ shoes ) 10. (I/ read/ a newspaper)

Exercise III. Write positive or negative short answers (Yes, I am/ No, it isnt, etc.) 1. Are you watching TV? No, Im not. 2. Are you wearing shoes? 3. Are you wearing a hat? 4. Is it raining? 5. Are you eating something? 6. Are you feeling all right? 7. Is the sun shining? 8. Is your teacher watching you? Grammar Practice. Present Simple Exercise IV. Write the he/ she/ it form of these verb: 1. read ..reads 2. repair. 3. watch. 4. listen.. 5. love. 6. have. 7. push. 8. do. 9. think. 10. kiss.. 11. buy. 12. go.. Exercise V. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs. boil close cost drink go have like meet open speak teach wash 1. Shes very smart. She speaks four languages. 2. Steve . four cups of coffee a day . 3. We usually. Dinner at 7 o clock. 4. I ..movies. I often . to the movies with friends. 5. Water at 100 degrees Celsius. 6. In my home town the banks . at 9:00 in the morning. 7. The City Museum . at 5 o clock on Saturdays. 8. Food is expensive. It .. a lot of money. 9. Shoes are expensive. They . a lot of money. 10. Sue is a teacher. She math to young children. 11. Your job is very interesting. You a lot of people. 12. Peter . his hair every day. 13. An insect . six legs. Exercise VI. Write the opposite. (positive or negative). 1. I understand. I dont understand. 2. She doesnt drive. She drives. 3. They know. They .. 4. He loves her. .. 5. They speak English. .

6. I dont want it. . 7. She doesnt want them. .. 8. He lives in Taiwan. Exercise VII. Complete the sentences. All of them are negative. Use dont/ doesnt + one of these verbs. cost drive go have know play see sell smoke wash wear 1. Have a cigarette. No, thanks. I dont smoke. 2. They newspapers in that store. 3. She has a car, but .. very often. 4. I like plays, but I ..to the theatre very often. 5.My car is usually dirty because I .. it very often. 6. Its a cheap hotel. It .. much to stay there. 7. He likes soccer, but he very often. 8. I .. much about politics. 9. Shes married, but she .. a ring. 10. He lives next door, but we.. him very often. 11. Can you lend me five dollars? Sorry, I ..any money. Exercise VIII. You are asking somebody questions. Write questions with Do/ Does.? Example: I work hard . How about you? Do you work hard? 1. I play tennis .How about you? . you ..? 2. I play tennis. How about Ann? .. Ann . ? 3. I know the answer. How about you? .. the answer? 4. I like hot weather. How about you? .? 5. My father drinks coffee. How about your father ? ? 6. I exercise every morning. How about you? ..? 7. I speak English. How about your friends? ..? 8. I want to be famous. How about you? ..? Exercise IX. These questions begin with Where/ What/How ? 1. I wash my hair every day. ( how often/ you ?) How often do you wash your hair? 2. I live in Mexico City. (where/ you?) Where .? 3. I watch TV every day. (how often/you?) How ..? 4. I have lunch at home. (where/ you ?) .? 5. I get up at 7:30.(what time/ you?) .? 6. I go the movies a lot. (how often/ you?) ? 7. I go to work by bus. (how/ you?) ..? 8. I always have eggs for breakfast. (what/ you?) .? Grammar Practice. Present Continuous & Present Simple Exercise X. Put the verb in the present continuous (I am doing) or simple present (I do) 1. Excuse me, do you speak .. (you/ speak) English? 2. Tom (is taking) (take) a shower at the moment. 3. They dont watch . (not/ watch) television very often. 4. Listen! Somebody .. (sing). 5. Shes tired. She .. (want) to go home now. 6. How often . (you/ read) the newspaper.

7. Excuse me, but you . (sit) in my place. Oh, Im sorry. 8. Im sorry, I .. (not/ understand). Please speak more slowly. 9. Where are you Dan? Im in the living room. I . (read). 10. What time . (she/ finish) work every day? 11. You can turn off the radio. I.. (not /listen) to it. 12. He ( not/ usually/ drive) to work.. He usually (walk). Exercise XI. Complete the sentences with the Present Simple (I do) or the Present Continuous (I am doing)`. 1. I leave (leave) home at 7 o clock every morning. 2. She usually .. (work) in the sales Department in London, but at the moment she (do) a training course in Bristol. 3.He . (try) very hard in every game that he (play). 4. Excuse me. I think you (sit) in my seat. 5. . (you/ listen ) to the radio very often? 6. Dont talk to me now. I . (write) an important letter. 7. Why .. (they/ drive) on the left in Britain? 8. It (not/ get) dark at this tome of year until about 10 o clock. 9. It usually .. (rain) here a lot, but it . (not/ rain) now. 10. A: What are you doing? B: . (bake) a cake. Why..(you/ smile) ?.(I/do) something wrong? Grammar Practice Answer Key. Present Simple and Present Continuous Exercise I. 2.are building 3.is swimming 4.are standing 5.is coming 6.are cooking 7.is studying Exercise II. 2.It is/it is not snowing 3.I am /I am not sitting 4. I am /I am not eating 5. It is/ it is not raining 6. I am / I am not doing the exercise 7. I am / I am not listening to the radio 8. The sun is/ the sun isnt shining 9. I am / I am not wearing shoes 10.I am / I am not reading a newspaper Exercise III. 2. Yes, I am / No, Im not. 3. Yes, I am / No I m not. 4. Yes, it is / No it isnt. 5.Yes, I am / No, Im not. 6. Yes, I am / No Im not. 7. Yes, it is/ No it isnt. 8. Yes, she is/ No she isnt. Exercise IV. 2. repairs; 3.watches; 4. listens; 5. loves; 6. has; 7.pushes; 8. does; 9. thinks; 10. kisses; 11. buys; 12. goes. Exercise V.2. drinks; 3. have; 4. like; 5. go; 6. open; 7. closes; 8. costs; 9. cost. 10. teaches; 11. meet; 12. washes; 13. has. Exercise VI. 3. they dont know 4. He doesnt love 5. They dont speak English 6. I want it 7. She wants them 8. She doesnt live in Taiwan Exercise VII. 2. dont sell 3. doesnt drive 4. dont go 5. dont wash 6. doesnt cost 7. doesnt play 8. dont know 9. doesnt wear 10. dont have Exercise IX. 2. do you live? 3. often do you watch TV? 4. Where do you have lunch? 5. What time do you get up? 6. How often do you go to the movies? 7. How do you go to work? 8. What do you usually have for breakfast? Exercise X. 4. is singing 5. wants 6. do you read 7. are sitting 8. dont understand 9. are reading 10. does she finish 11.am not listening 12.He doesnt usually drive

Exercise XI. 2. Works; is doing3. 3. tries; plays 4. tries; are sitting 5. Do you listen 6. Am writing 7. Do they drive 8. Doesnt get 9. Rains; is not raining 10. Im
baking; are you smiling; Am I doing