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1.

ARTICOLUL
1. A este articol nehotarat pentru orice substantiv care incepe cu o consoana sau cu o semivocala (w, y sau sunetul iu) An este articol nehotarat pentru orice substantiv care incepe cu o vocala. un baiat - a boy o fata - a girl un unchi - an uncle o matusa - an aunt o fereastra - a window un razboi - a war un an - a year un european - a European (eu se citeste iu) o universitate - a university (u aici se citeste iu) o umbrela - an umbrella (u aici se citeste ca a din padure)

2. Some se foloseste ca plural pentru articolul nehotarat. In limba engleza, articolul nehotarat nu are plural. In limba romana insa, articolul nehotarat are la plural forma niste. Acesta se traduce prin some care in limba engleza apartine altei categorii gramaticale. niste baieti - some boys niste fete - some girls niste unchi - some uncles niste matusi - some aunts

3. The este articol hotarat pentru orice substantiv si la singular si la plural. La substantivele care incep cu o vocala, exemplu: uncle, aunt, the rimeaza cu cuvantul romanesc zi. baiatul - the boy fata - the girl baietii - the boys fetele - the girls unchiul - the uncle matusa - the aunt

4. Daca dorim sa accentuam un substantiv care incepe cu o consoana, the se pronunta ca in cazul substantivelor care incep cu o vocala. Iata! Aceea este casa (cu pricina)! - Look! That is THE house!

5. Un substantiv la singular cu cateva exceptii trebuie sa aiba un determinativ, acesta poate fi un articol: a, an, the; un adjectiv pronominal (posesiv, demonstrativ, etc) my house = casa mea, this house = casa aceasta sau un numeral, ten cars = zece masini, in romaneste acest lucru nu e totdeauna obligatoriu in dulap - in the cupboard pe raft - on the shelf in sertarul meu - in my drawer

6. Articolul se pune intre prepozitie si substantiv dar inaintea oricarui adjectiv. un baiat inalt - a tall boy fata inalta - the tall girl in copacul inalt - in the tall tree

7. Partile corpului se folosesc cu un adjectiv posesiv daca actiunea e facuta de cel ce detine acel corp dar cu un articol daca actiunea e facuta asupra acelei persoane. A fost impuscat in brat - He was shot in the arm. L-a privit in ochi - He looked him in the eye El a ridicat mana - He raised his hand El s-a uitat la piciorul sau - He looked at his leg Iesi cu mainile deasupra capului - Come out with your hands above your head

8. La meserii se pune a, an la singular atunci cand meseria face parte dintr-un predicat nominal (verbul propozitiei e a fi = to be) la plural insa nu se pune articol. De fapt orice substantiv singular din cadrul unui predicat nominal cere articol in caz ca nu are alt determinativ (vezi ultimele doua exemple) Sora mea e profesoara -My sister is a teacher. Vreau sa fiu pompier - I want to be a fireman Ei vor sa fie pompieri - They want to be firemen She is a mother - Ea e mama Shawn is a boy. - Shawn este baiat.

9. La popoare se pune the si adjectivul cu litera mare iar pentru terminatiile sh, s si ch se foloseste singularul (adica nu se mai pune un s): francezii - the French elvetienii - the Swiss americanii - the Americans italienii - the Italians

10. Spre deosebire de limba romana, la substantivele folosite in sens general este necesar articolul nehotarat:

Ca prieten - As a friend Ce om! - What a man!

11. Pentru materii nu se foloseste articol: aurul straluceste - gold shines matasea e moale - silk is soft

12. Substantivele abstracte nu necesita articol: Iubirea nu moare niciodata - Love never dies Inteligenta nu poate fi usor masurata - Intelligence can not be measured easily

13. La plural nu se foloseste articolul, daca se fac afirmatii generale Cartile sunt grele dar trebuie sa iau cartile mari cu mine - Books are heavy but I must take THE big books with me. Cartile sunt grele = Books are heavy (fara articol) I must take the big books = Trabuie sa iau cartile mari (are articol) 14. In titlurile articolelor din ziar de multe ori articolele sunt omise Un student incendiaza o casa - Student burns down house Barbat muscat de un urs - Man bit by bear.

15. Articolul se omite in indicatii scenice Hamlet isi pune intrebarea celebra - Hamlet asks famous question

16. Articolul ca si in romaneste nu apare la inceputul explicatiilor din dictionare Peru: tara din America de Sud - Peru: country in South America

2.SUBSTANTIVUL
17. Ca si in romana substantivele se pot numara si se acorda in numar cu alte parti de vorbire (articol, verb) un baiat, doi baieti - one boy, two boys Un fermier are o ferma - A farmer has a farm Some farmers have a farm - Niste fermieri au o ferma.

18. In engleza, substantivul nu se acorda cu adjectivul

un baiat inalt - a tall boy niste baieti inalti - some tall boys o fata inalta - a tall girl niste fete inalte - some tall girls

19. In general substantivele nu au gen si chiar cand au, substantivul si adjectivul nu se acorda nici dupa gen, nici dupa numar, nici dupa caz. Exemplu: adjectivul friendly ramane neschimbat. un chelner prietenos - a friendly waiter o chelnerita prietenoasa - a friendly waitress chelneri prietenosi - friendly waiters chelnerite prietenoase - friendly waitresses

20. Pentru substantivele colective(politie, counsiliu etc) desi substantivul e la singular, verbul se poate pune la plural: consiliul nu ajunge la o intelegere - the council disagree (in loc de disagrees) 21. Ca si in limba romana exista substantive fara plural fier - iron apa - water aer - air etc

22. In cazul numelor de substante, substantivele nu au plural apa - water aer - air fier - iron lemn - wood silk - matase sange - blood

23. Substantivele abstracte nu au plural: prietenie - friendship bucurie - joy lucrare - work

24. Substantive fara singular: fizica - physics, politica - politics; acestea se folosesc cu verbul la singular: fizica este o stiinta - physics is a science

foarfece - scissors, ochelari - eyeglasses (obiecte pereche)se folosesc cu verbul la plural: These scissors are sharp (Aceasta foarfeca e ascutita).

25. Cand un obiect pereche e folosit cu "a pair of" verbul e la singular. There is a pair of eyeglasses on the table - Este o pereche de ochelari pe masa.

26. Ca regula generala pluralul se formeaza adaugand un s. boy - boys (baiat - baieti) girl - girls (fata - fete) aunt - aunts (matusa - matusi) uncle - uncles (unchi - unchi)

27. Daca substantivul la rostirea lui nu accepta s se pune o alta terminatie dupa caz.

28. Daca substantivul se termina in s la plural se pune es: bus - buses (autobuz - autobuze) class - classes (clasa - clase) boss - bosses (sef, sefi)

29. Daca substantivul se termina in ch la plural se pune es: church - churches (biserica - biserici) patch - patches (petec - petece) bench - benches (banca - banci)

30. Daca substantivul se termina in x la plural se pune es: box - boxes (cutie - cutii) fox - foxes (vulpe - vulpi) mix - mixes (amestec - amestecuri)

31. Daca substantivul se termina in z la plural se pune es: buzz - buzzes (biziit - biziituri) quiz - quizes (extemporal - extemporale) 32. Daca substantivul se termina in sh la plural se pune es: bush - bushes (tufis - tufisuri) crash - crashes (ciocnire - ciocniri) eyelash - eyelashes (geana - gene)

33. Daca substantivul se termina in f sau fe la plural se pune ves: calf - calves (vitel - vitei) knife - knives (cutit - cutite) wife - wives (sotie - sotii)

34. Daca substantivul se termina in doi f nu se pune ves la plural cuff - cuffs (buton - butoni) muff - muffs (manson - mansoane)

35. Daca substantivul se termina in consoana + y la plural y devine i si pluralul se face cu es: country - countries (tara - tari) fly - flies (musca - muste) party - parties (petrecere - petreceri)

36. Daca insa substantivul se termina in vocala + y pluralul se face cu s: day - days (zi - zile) play - plays (piesa de teatru - piese de teatru)

37. Daca substantivul se termina in o pluralul se face cu es: tomato - tomatoes (rosie - rosii) potato - potatoes (cartof - cartofi)

38. Exista exceptii de formare a pluralului man - men (barbat - barbati) woman - women (femeie - femei) child - chidren (copil - copii) goose - geese (gasca - gaste) mouse - mice (soarece - soareci) ox - oxen (bou - boi)

39. Daca substantivul e neologism pluralul poate avea alta forma: analysis - analyses (analiza - analize) datum - data (informatie - informatii)
A nu se confunda data cu data din calendar. Aceasta se numeste date. Exemplu: What is the date? - In cat santem azi? (What day is today?)

40. Unele substantive au pluralul identic cu singularul, dar verbul se pune in functie de numarul la care se refera contextul.

series - series sheep - sheep (oaie - oi) deer - deer (caprioara - caprioare) There is a deer in the bush. - E o caprioara in tufis. There are deer in these forests Sunt caprioare in aceste paduri

41. Cateodata pluralul se refera la mai multe tipuri din substantivul respectiv: fruit (fruct, fructe) - fruits (tipuri de fruct) fish (peste, pesti) - fishes (tipuri de peste) cheese (branza) - cheeses (branzeturi) meat (carne) - meats (carnuri)

42. Genul substantivului:Daca substantivul prin inteles are un gen atunci pronumele care ii tine locul va fi he pentru masculin, she pentru feminin si it pentru neutru. My friend is ten. He is in fourth grade - Prietenul meu are zece ani. El e in clasa a patra. My sister is six. She is in first grade - Sora mea are sase ani. Ea e in clasa intai. My room is small. It is a mess. - Canera mea e mica. Ea e dezordonata.

43. Unele substantive pot capata gen prin personificare: Ship - Vapor, poate fi she

44. Genul poate fi format prin adaugarea sufixului ess la feminin. Dar numai pentru anumite cuvinte. Nu adaugati daca nu stiti ca acel cuvant accepta aceasta: waiter - chelner, waitress - chelnerita actor - actor, actress - actrita lion - leu, lioness - leoaica

45. La pasari doar daca se vrea sa se precizeze genul se zice cock sau hen. sparrow - vrabie cock sparrow - vrabioi hen sparrow - vrabiuta parrot - papagal cock parrot - mascul de papagal hen parrot - femela de papagal

46. Exceptie de la aceasta regula: peacock e paun in general iar peahen e paunita. Pea singur ar insemna mazare.

47. La unele animale se formeaza altfel genul (tot ca mai sus, numai daca trebuie precizat): goat - capra: billy goat, nanny goat ass - catar: jack ass, jenny ass

48. Nominativ: Raspunde la intrebarea: cine? sau ce? Dan merge la scoala. Cine merge la scoala? Dan. Dan goes to school - Dan merge la scoala. The boy goes to school - Baiatul merge la scoala

49. Genitiv: Raspunde la intrebarile: al cui? a cui? ai cui? ale cui? Copertile cartii sunt verzi. Ale cui coperti sunt verzi? Ale cartii. Copertile cartii sunt verzi. The covers of the book are green sau se spune si: The book's covers are green

50. 's se numeste genitivul saxon sau posessive case. E mult mai folosit decat forma cu of. Este folosit mai ales pentru fiinte dar se foloseste din ce in ce mai mult si pentru lucruri. De remarcat faptul ca of pastreaza ordinea din romana a cuvintelor, pe cand 's inverseaza aceasta ordine: acoperisul casei the roof of the house dar the house's roof unde roof = acoperis house = casa

51. Genitivul saxon 's se foloseste: la singularul substantivelor: my brother's friend - prietenul fratelui meu the cat's kittens - pisoii pisicii the garden's flowers - florile gradinii

52. Genitivul saxon 's se foloseste si la pluralele care nu se termina in s:

men - barbat, men's - barbatilor Men's cloting is changing - Imbracamintea barbatilor (pentru barbati) se schimba

53. Daca substantivul e la plural si se termina cu s, genitivul saxon devine numai apostrof si nu se citeste My friends' cars are out there - Masinile prietenilor mei sunt acolo The girls' recital is tomorrow. - Recitalul fetelor are loc maine

54. Daca substantivul e la singular se pune 's chiar daca se termina in s: My boss's car is out there (boss's se citeste la fel ca bosses)

55. Anumite cladiri (house, shop, office etc)se omit dupa acest genitiv saxon la casa unchiului meu: at my uncle's house - at my uncle's la cabinetul doctorului at the doctor's office - at the doctor's

56. Dativ: Raspunde la intrebarea cui? Am dat cartea Matildei Cui am dat cartea? Matildei I gave the book to Matilda - Am dat cartea Matildei I gave the book to my friend - Am dat cartea prietenului meu. Am dat cartea lui Octavian - I gave the book to Octavian

57. Dativul in engleza poate sta si inainte si dupa complementul direct. Daca dativul vine inainte de complementul direct nu se pune to altfel se pune. Complementul direct raspunde la intrebarea: pe cine? sau ce? Give Rose my love sau Give my love to Rose - Transmite-i lui Rose dragostea mea. I gave Octavian the book sau I gave the book to Octavian Ce i-am dat lui Octavian? Cartea. - Cartea este complement direct. 58. Acuzativ: Raspunde la una din intrebarile:Pe cine? ce? L-am vazut pe Octavian Pe cine am vazut? Pe Octavian I saw Octavian - L-am vazut pe Octavian I fed the puppy - Am hranit catelusul I skipped lunch - Am sarit masa de pranz

3.ADJECTIVUL
59. Adjectivul sta inaintea substantivului: tall woman - femeie inalta happy girl - fata fericita white swan - lebada alba

60. Diminutivele in engleza se formeaza punand little sau small in fata substantivului Small descrie mai mult marimea, deci pentru a arata afectiune folositi little My little girl is in kindegarten - Fetita mea e la gradinita I want to buy the small book, please. - As vrea va rog, sa cumpar cartea cea mica.

61. Adjectivul se pune intre articol si substantiv: the old man - barbatul batran the little boy - baietelul a tall man - un barbat inalt the short men - barbatii scunzi

62. Adjectivele nu au gen si nici plural a tired waiter - un chelner obosit a tired waitress - o chelnerita obosita 10 tired waiters - 10 chelneri obositi

63. Ca si in romaneste adjectivele pot fi folosite cu verbul to be - a fi (predicat nominal) sau cu alte verbe de legatura dupa cum veti vedea la capitolul verbe. the cat is grey - pisica este cenusie a grey cat - o pisica cenusie children are curios - copiii sunt curiosi curious children - copii curiosi

64. Adjective demonstrative: acest, aceasta, acesti, aceste totdeauna sunt insotite de un substativ,. Cand sunt singure ele se numesc pronume demonstrative. Acest baiat e fiul meu - adjectiv demonstrativ Baiatul acesta e fiul meu - adjectiv demonstrativ Acesta e fiul meu - pronume demonstrativ

65. In engleza, adjectivul demonstrativ acest/aceasta si pronumele demonstrativ acesta/aceasta estethis

This boy is my son - Acest baiat e fiul meu This is my son - Acesta e fiul meu This girl is my daughter - Aceasta fata e fiica mea, Fata aceasta e fiica mea. This is my daughter - Aceasta e fiica mea.

66. In engleza, adjectivul demonstrativ acesti/aceste si pronumele demonstrativ acestia/acestea estethese These boys are my sons - Acesti baieti sunt fiii mei, Baietii acestia sunt fiii mei. These are my sons - Acestia sunt fiii mei These girls are my daughters - Aceste fete sunt fiicele mele, Fetele acestea sunt fiicele mele. These are my daughters - Acestea sunt fiicele mele.

67. In engleza, adjectivul demonstrativ acel/acea si pronumele demonstrativ acela/aceea este that That boy is my son - Acel baiat e fiul meu, Baiatul acela e fiul meu. That is my son - Acela este fiul meu That girl is my daughter - Acea fata e fiica mea, Fata aceea e fiica mea. That is my daughter - Aceea e fiica mea.

68. In engleza, adjectivul demonstrativ acei/acele si pronumele demonstrativ aceia/acelea este those Those boys are my sons - Acei baieti sunt fiii mei, Baietii aceia sunt fiii mei. Those are my sons - Aceia sunt fiii mei Those girls are my daughters - Acele fete sunt fiicele mele, Fetele acelea sunt fiicele mele. Those are my daughters - Acelea sunt fiicele mele.

69. Adjective posesive: meu, mea/tau, ta/sau, sa/nostru, noastra/vostru, voastra/lor totdeauna sunt insotite de un substantiv. Daca ar fi singure ar fi pronume posesive. Adjective posesive: Cainele meu e alb Pisica mea e bej sau Al meu caine e alb A mea pisica e bej Pronume posesive:

Cainele alb e al meu Pisica bej e a mea

70. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv meu/ mea/ mei/ mele este<b<my< b="" style="margin: 0px;"></b<my<> My son is a teacher - Fiul meu e profesor My daughter is a teacher - Fiica mea e profesoara My sons are teachers - Fiii mei sunt profesori My daughters are teachers - Fiicele mele sunt profesoare

71. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv tau/ ta/ tai/ tale este<b<your< b="" style="margin: 0px;"></b<your<> My son is a doctor - Fiul meu e doctor My daughter is a doctor - Fiica mea e doctor My sons are doctors - Fiii mei sunt doctori My daughters are doctors - Fiicele mele sunt doctori

72. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv lui este<b<his< b="" style="margin: 0px;"></b<his<> His son is a doctor - Fiul lui e doctor His daughter is a doctor - Fiica lui e doctor

73. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv ei este her Her son is a lawyer - Fiul ei e avocat Her daughter is a lawyer - Fiica ei e doctor

74. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv nostru/ noastra/ nostri/ noastre este our Our son is a barber - Fiul nostru e barbier Our daughter is a barber - Fiica noastra e barler Our sons are barbers - Fiii nostri sunt doctori Our daughters are barbers - Fiicele noastre sunt barbierite

75. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv vostru/ voastra/ tostri/ voastre este your Your son is a tailor - Fiul vostru e croitor Your daughter is a dressmaker - Fiica voastra e croitoreasa Your sons are tailors - Fiii vostri sunt croitori Your daughters are dressmakers - Fiicele voastre sunt croitorese

76. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv lor este their

Their son is a painter - Fiul lor e pictor Their daughter is a painter - Fiica lor e pictor Their sons are painters - Fiii lor sunt pictori Their daughters are painters - Fiicele lor sunt pictori

77. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv mai are o forma its - pentru obiecte Pentru obiecte multiple insa, adica la plural, se foloseste, la fel ca pentru fiinte their. That is my book.Its cover is torn - Aceea este cartea mea. Coperta ei este rupta. Those are my books.Their covers are torn - Acelea sunt cartile mele. Copertile lor sunt rupte.

78. Dupa cum se vede in exemplele de mai sus, atunci cand punem my sau oricare din formele adjectivului posesiv, nu se mai foloseste articolul. a dog - un caine the dog - cainele some dogs - niste caini dar my dog - cainele meu your dogs - cainii tai their dog - cainele lor

79. WHAT inseamna CE. What is that? - Ce este aceea? What day is it? - Ce zi este azi? What is his name? - Ce este numele lui (Cum il cheama)? What age is he? - Ce este varsta lui (Cati ani are)? What is in a name? - Ce este intr-un nume (ce inseamna un nume)? - (Romeo si Julieta - Shakespeare) What a man! - Ce om! What are his parents? - Ce sunt parintii lui? What kind of bread is that? - Ce fel de paine este aceea?

80. WHICH inseamna CARE si PE CARE Cand nu e intrebare which se refera deobicei la obiecte sau animale. In cazul oamenilor se foloseste WHO Sigur, cand nu e intrebare, nu putem vorbi de pronume interogativ. In acest caz pronumele se numeste relativ. Which car is Peter's? - Care masina e a lui Peter? Which ones are your parents? - Care sunt parintii tai? Which is better? - Care e mai bun? dar That is the book WHICH I need. - Aceea e cartea care-mi trebuie. That is the boy WHO is my neighbor.- Acela e baiatul care e vecinul meu.

The book WHICH I bought. - Cartea pe care am cumparat-o. That which we call a rose - Cel pe care il numim trandafir (ce numim noi trandafir) (Romeo si Julieta - Shakespeare) 81. WHO inseamna CINE si dupa cum am vazut mai sus poate insemna si care. Who nu poate fi niciodata adjectiv, nu sta pe langa un substantiv. Who are you? - Cine esti? Who is there? - Cine e acolo?(la usa de exemplu) Who is calling? - Cine suna? Who are your parents? - Cine sunt parintii tai? I am who I am - Sunt cine sunt That is the lady who is my teacher - Aceea este doamna care este profesoara mea

82. WHOSE inseamna AL CUI, A CUI, AI CUI, ALE CUI dar si AL CARUI, A CARUI, AI CARUI, ALE CARUI Whose book is that? - A cui e cartea aceea? The boy whose mother is an engineer - Baiatul a carui mama e inginer Chidren, whose nose is long? Pinocchio's! - Copii, al cui nas e lung? Al lui Pinocchio!

83. SOME inseamna NISTE, CEVA, UNII, UNELE I have some apples - Am niste mere. Some apples are sweet but some are sour - Unele mere sunt dulci dar unele sunt acre

84. Interogativ. In intrebari SOME e pozitiv, Nu presupune ca n-ai Do you have SOME money? - Ai ceva bani? 85. Interogativ. In intrebari ANY e negativ - cel ce intreaba presupune ca n-ai Do you have any money? - Ai vreun ban, cat de cat? 86. La negativ se foloseste any sau no, nu se foloseste some. ANY inseamna in acest caz NICIUN, NICIO Trebuie observat ca in romaneste substantivul care urmeaza lui niciun, nicio e totdeauna la singular pe cand in engleza acest lucru nu e obligatoriu. I don't have any brothers - Nu am niciun frate sau I don't have any brother - Nu am niciun frate

87. Any in propozitiile negative (nu interogative) cere ca verbul sa fie la negativ, in afara de cazul cand verbul insusi presupune o negatie (exemplu: to refuse, to deny). I don't have any coins. - Nu am nicio moneda I don't see any stars - Nu vad nicio stea He refused to hear any explanations - A refuzat sa auda vreo explicatie.

He denied any wrongdoing - A negat orice faradelege.

88. NO se foloseste numai cu verbul fara negatie. Any este mai des folosit decat no, in special cu alte verbe dacat to be si to have. I have no time - Nu am timp I have no coins. - Nu am monezi I see no stars - Nu vad stele No good deed goes unpunished - Nici o fapta buna nu scapa nepedepsita I see no evil, I hear no evil, I speak no evil - Nu vad vreun rau, nu aud vreun rau, nu vorbesc vreun rau.(Cele trei maimute cu mainile pe ochi, pe urechi si pe gura care simbolizeaza asa zisul om curat ca lacrima care nu poarta nicio vina.Cum zicem noi: Nam vazut, n-am auzit.)

89. In propozitiile afirmative ANY are intelesul de ORICE Ask any question - Pune orice intrebare Any help is appreciated - Orice ajutor e apreciat Any book will do - Orice carte e buna (merge) (Vrem sa citim ceva, orice - nu conteaza ce) 90. Cu some, any si no se pot forma multe cuvinte noi apropiate ca inteles de aceste trei forme de baza. De remarcat ca orice compus de-al lui no, pastreaza regula de a scoate orice alta negatie din propozitie. In engleza nu exista negatii duble. Deasemeni orice compus de-al lui any se foloseste in propozitii interogative si negative in locul compusului echivalent cu some someone - cineva anyone - oricine no one - nimeni Someone is at the door. - Cineva e la usa. Does anyone know the answer? Anyone can read. - Oricine poate sa citeasca No one can open that door - Nimeni nu poate deschide usa aceea

91. somebody e la fel ca someone anybody e la fel ca anyone nobody e la fel ca no one In general aceste variante somebody, anybody, nobody sunt mai folosite Somebody is on the phone. - E cineva la telefon Anybody can see the difference - Oricine vede diferenta Is anybody there? - E cineva acolo? Nobody can tell you what to do - Nimeni nu-ti poate spune ce sa faci.

92. where - unde somewhere - undeva anywhere - oriunde, nicaieri nowhere - nicaieri Where are you? - Unde esti? I left my keys somewhere - Mi-am lasat cheile undeva Anywhere I go, I am still Romanian - Oriunde ma duc, sunt inca roman(ca) I can not find him anywhere. - Nu il gasesc nicaieri sau I found him nowhere

93. way - fel someway - cumva anyway - oricum no way - in nici un caz, nu!,nici sa nu te gandesti! - e argou Someway, we will solve this - Cumva o s-o rezolvam. Anyway I am glad you came - Oricum, imi pare bine ca ai venit No way, am I going to do that! - In nici un caz nu fac asta!

94. day - zi someday - intr-o zi, intr-o buna zi somedays - in unele zile one day - intr-o zi One day e mai precis decat someday. De aceea se foloseste mai ales la trecut. any day - in orice zi, nu are un inteles deosebit. no day - nu exista. Someday my prince will come - Intr-o buna zi imi va veni printul (cantecul din Alba ca Zapada) Someday I will learn to ride a bike - Intr-o zi voi invata sa merg cu bicicleta Somedays I walk to school - In unele zile merg pe jos la scoala One day I decided to change my life - Intr-o zi am hotarat sa-mi schimb viata One day the world will end - Intr-o zi lumea se va sfarsi

95. sometime - la un moment dat neprecizat in viitor sometimes - cateodata anytime - oricand no time - imediat Come and see me sometime! - Vino vreodata sa ma vezi! Sometimes I think about him Cateodata ma gandesc la el You can visit me anytime. - Ma poti vizita oricand I will fix it in no time - Il voi repara imediat

96. how - cum somehow - cumva< anyhow - oricum, in orice caz no how nu exista (a nu se confunda cu know how care se citeste la fel si inseamna pricepere) Somehow we will work this out (we will solve this). - Cumva vom rezolva asta. Anyhow, he is your boss, just do as he says. - Oricum el e seful tau, fa cum iti spune.

97. thing - lucru something - ceva anything - orice nothing - nimic Something is wrong - Ceva e gresit (nu merge) I will give you anything you want - Iti dau orice doresti Nothing is for free - Nimic nu e gratis

98. Neither - nici, nici unul, nici una neither...nor - nici...nici Se foloseste cand e vorba de numai doua substantive. Nu se foloseste in propozitiile interogative sau in cele ce exprima o negatie deoarece ar produce o dubla negatie Se poate folosi si forma neither one Neither boy finished the race - Niciunul dintre baieti nu a terminat cursa sau Neither one finished the race sau Neither finished the race Neither am I done. - Nici eu nu am terminat If you won't go, neither will I - Daca tu nu mergi, nici eu merg Neither book was chosen - Nici una dintre carti nu a fost aleasa. He is neither tall nor short, he is average - Nu e nici inalt, nici scund ci e mediu (ca inaltime).

99. Either - oricare (in afirmatii), nici (in negatii si propozitiile interogativ negative) either...or - sau...sau Ca si neither, se foloseste cand e vorba de numai doua substantive. Se foloseste si in propozitiile interogativ negative si in cele negative si in cele afirmative In propozitiile interogative se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei. Se poate folosi si forma either one Either one can win. - Oricare poate castiga Either you are done or you aren't - Sau ai terminat sau n-ai terminat. I am not asleep either - Nici eu nu dorm.

She didn't come either? - Nici ea nu a venit?

100. Both - amandoi, amandoua Both runners finished the race - Amandoi alergatorii au terminat cursa They were both exhausted - Erau amandoi epuizati

101. None - niciunul, niciuna Este echivalentul lui neither cand se refera la mai mult de doua substantive Cum se refera la mai mult de doua substantive nu poate fi folosit in combinatia nici...nici None of my friends called - Nici unul dintre prietenii mei nu a sunat.

102. all - tot, toata, toti, toate, tuturor all the time sau always inseamna totdeauna All this land is the farmer's - Tot acest pamant este al fermierului. A nation that provides liberty and justice for all - O tara care ofera libertate si dreptate pentru toti. I told all, to leave. - Le-am spus la toti (tuturor) sa plece. All is well that ends well - Totu-i bine cand se termina cu bine (Shaskespeare) All gave some, some gave all - Toti au dat ceva, unii au dat tot (despre soldatii care mor in razboi) You may fool all the people some of the time, you can even fool some of the people all of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all the time. - Poti sa-i pacalesti pe toti oameni cateodata, poti chiar sa-i pacalesti pe unii oamenii totdeauna, dar nu poti sa-i pacalesti pe toti oamenii totdeauna. - Abraham Lincoln some of the people = some people some of the time = sometimes all of the people = all the people

103. a few - cativa, cateva A few are o nuanta de optimism. We still have a few customers - Avem inca cativa clienti

104. few - cativa, cateva Subliniaza faptul ca e un numar mic, aproape deloc. We have few customers - Avem (doar) cativa cumparatori

105. Asa cum se vede, a few si few folosesc substantive aflate la plural. Si se folosesc in cazuri de multimi numarabile In celelalte cazuri, de multimi nenumarabile, se foloseste a little respectiv little

A little sunlight - Putin soare A few sunny days - Cateva zile insorite. 106. A LITTLE inseamna PUTIN Se foloseste in cazul unor multimi nenumarabile, si in sens pozitiv. We have a little suger left, help yourself! - Mai avem putin zahar, serveste-te! dar We have a few crackers left, help yourself! - Mai avem cativa biscuiti, serveste-te!

107. LITTLE inseamna PUTIN Se foloseste in cazul unor multimi nenumarabile, si in sens negativ. deasemeni Inseamna MIC fara sens negativ We have little time left before the tornado is here - Mai avem foarte putin timp pana sa ajunga tornada aici. dar I have a little girl - Am o fetita

108. EACH - FIECARE EVERY - FIECARE De multe ori pot fi ambele folosite. There is a table in each room - Este o masa in fiecare camera sau There is a table in every room - Este o masa in fiecare camera

109. Each considera lucrurile pe rand, fiecare in parte Each subliniaza diferentele Se foloseste pentru numere mici Analyze each sentence carefully - Analizeaza fiecare propozitie cu atentie There were ten cars, each one was a different color - Erau zece masini, fiecare de alta culoare Each wave was higher than the one before - Fiecare val era mai inalt decat cel dinainte. Each child is special - Fiecare copil este deosebit

110. Every (fiecare) este pentru numere mari si are sensul de toate, de orice. Si in romaneste tot omulinseamna fiecare om. Every face tells a story - Fiecare chip spune o poveste Every dog has his day - Orice caine are ziua sa (proverb) Every child needs to look at the blackboard - Fiecare copil/toti copiii trebuie sa se uite la tabla I solved every problem in the book - Am rezolvat toate problemele din carte

111. Every, nu each arata cat de des se intampla ceva The clock kept ringing every ten minutes - Ceasul suna la fiecare zece minute. la fel se zice: every year, every two weeks - in fiecare an, la fiecare doua saptamani etc

112. Each poate sta pe langa un substantiv (ca adjectiv) sau poate sa nu stea (ca pronume) Buy one of each - Cumpara una din fiecare (pronume) The children were each given candy - Copiii au primit toti bomboane sau (pronume) Each child was given candy - Fiecare copil a primit bomboane. (adjectiv)

113. Every insa cere totdeauna un substantiv, sau cuvantul one. Ca si some, any si no, every este baza pentru o multime de alte cuvinte. everything - tot everyday - in fiecare zi everywhere - peste tot everytime - de fiecare data everybody - toata lumea everyone - fiecare (persoana)

114. thing - lucru everything - toate lucrurile, tot, totul Everything is ready - Totul este gata Everything fell into place - Totul s-a lamurit, a cazut in locasul sau (expresie) Everything is ok - Totul este bine.>br> I'll tell you everything I know - Iti spun tot ce stiu

115. day - zi everyday - zilnic Se pune numai la sfarsitul propozitiei I see him everyday - Il vad zilnic I drink milk everyday - Beau zilnic lapte

116. where - unde everywhere - peste tot I looked for my watch everywhere - Mi-am cautat ceasul peste tot People everywhere are the same - Oamenii peste tot sunt la fel

117. time - timp everytime - de cate ori

Everytime I think of Lisa, I cry - De cate ori ma gandesc la Lisa, plang That happens everytime I dial the number - Asta se intampla de cate ori formez numarul.

118. body - corp everybody - toata lumea, toti, toate Everybody este opusul lui nobody (nimeni) In Romania everybody speaks Romanian Everybody wants to be a cat - Toata lumea vrea sa fie pisica

119. Everyone e sinonim cu everybody Everyone se refera deci la oameni. Everyone cu acest inteles se scrie intr-un cuvant. I'm asking everyone to donate some money - Cer tuturor sa doneze niste bani.

120. Every one scris in doua cuvinte se poate folosi si pentru lucruri cu intelesul de fiecare. One se foloseste ca sa tina locul substantivului. He is invited to lots of parties and he goes to every one. - E invitat la multe petreceri si se duce la fiecare (adica la toate. Every one aici inseamna every party.

121. Every one of si each of inseamna fiecare dintre Each of nu trebuie confundat cu one of each care inseamna unul din fiecare. Sau cu one for each - unul pentru fiecare. Every one of you must be brave in battle - Fiecare dintre voi trebuie sa fie curajos in batalie Each (one) of us has a destiny. - Fiecare dintre noi are un destin Here is the candy. Please take one of each kind. - Iata bomboanele. Te rog ia cate un fel din fiecare. We have a toy for each child - Avem cate o jucarie pentru fiecare copil.

122. Each and every e un mod emfatic de a spune tot Each se refera la particular Every se refera la general Deci impreuna arata tot substantivul, in intregimea sa. Each and every soldier must be ready to die for his country - Fiecare soldat trebuie sa fie gata sa moara pentru tara sa Each and every building needs to withstand earthquakes - Fiecare cladire trebuie sa reziste la cutremure

123. Diferentele dintre each, every si all - Each se refera la fiecare individ fara sa tina seama de grup - Every se refera la fiecare individ din cadrul grupului. - All se refera la toti vazuti ca grup - intregul grup. I ate all of the bread - Am mancat toata painea. I ate every bread - Am mancat fiecare paine, toate painile (din cos de exemplu) deasemeni All I've had was bread - Inseamna tot ce am macat a fost paine. (Nu am mancat decat paine) Everything I had was bread - Inseamna ca fiecare mancare a fost din paine.

124. All se foloseste cu o prepozitie, altfel se refera la toti membri din univers al acelui substantiv . Every cere un substantiv dupa el (e adjectiv). All dogs are mean - Toti caine (de pe pamant) sunt rai No, all of your dogs are mean - Nu, toti cainii tai sunt rai Every dog I have is from an animal sheler - Fiecare caine pe care il am e de la un adapost opentru animale. Each one was probably ill-treated in the past - Fiecare a fost probabil prost tratat in trecut. Caring is all about patience. - Ingrijitul este in intregime legat de rabdare. All for one and one for all! - Unul pentru toti, toti pentru unul.

125. Other - alt, alta, alti, alte Other nearticulat daca sta pe langa un substantiv acesta e la plural I also have other ideas - Am si alte idei

126. The other - celalalt, cealalta, ceilalti, celelalte. The other daca sta pe langa un substantiv acesta poate fi si la singular si la plural. I took the other coat. - Am luat haina cealalta. dar si I took my other coat - Mi-am luat haina cealalta The other coats I have are too warm - Celelalte haine pe care le am sunt prea calduroase

127. Daca the other nu sta pe langa un substantiv se pune cuvantul "one" optional. The other wallpaper is brown - Celalalt tapet e maron The other one is brown - Celalalt (decat cel despre care e vorba) e maron. The other is brown.

128. Another - un alt, o alta I want another book - Vreau o alta carte I want the other book - Vreau cartea cealalta I want other books - Vreau alte carti I want the other books - Vreau celelalte carti

129. Others - altii Others e NUMAI pronume, adica nu poate fi urmat de un substantiv. I want another piece of pie - Vreau o alta felie de placinta, Mai vreau o felie, inca o felie de placinta I want the other piece - Vreau cealalta felie I hope the others liked it too - Sper ca si celorlalti le-a placur
130. In romaneste spunem: Eu te vad pe tine. S-au folosit doua pronume la acuzativ: te si pe tine. In limba engleza nu e necesar sa se puna doua pronume la acuzativ Propozitia de mai sus in engleza ar fi: Eu vad pe tine adica I see you.

Tu ma vezi pe mine - You see me tot asa Eu le vreau pe celelalte se transforma in Eu vreau celelalte - I want the others
131. Bun - mai bun - cel mai bun Reprezinta gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor - mai bun se numeste comparativ - cel mai bun se numeste superlativ Ca si in romana in engleza comparativul poate fi: - de inferioritate - de egalitate - de superioritate

O pasare mai putin frumoasa ca papagalul este porumbelul.- inferioritate O pasare la fel de frumoasa ca papagalul e porumbelul.- egalitate 0 pasare mai frumoasa ca papagalul e porumbelul.- superioritate
132. Vom studia intai comparatia de superioritate: Cel mai raspandit caz e cel al comparatiei Saxone:

smart - smarter - the smartest destept - mai destept - cel mai destept
133. Comparatia saxona se intalneste la adjectivele monosilabice

Exemple red - redder - the reddest -> rosu - mai rosu - cel mai rosu big - bigger - the biggest -> inalt small - smaller - the smallest -> mic

thick - gros thin - subtire old - batran young - tanar tall - inalt short - scund fat - gras fast - rapid slow - incet few - putini hot - fierbinte cold - rece, frig etc
134. Daca ultima consoana e precedata de o vocala scurta ultima consoana se dubleaza. Daca ultima consoana e precedata de doua vocale automat ultima vocala nu e scurta.

red - redder - the reddest big - bigger - the biggest dar fair - fairer - the fairest soon - sooner - the soonest The biggest elephant in the world - Cel mai mare elefant din lume
135. Daca adj se termina in e, nu se pun doi e

cute - cuter - cutest -> scumpel large - larger - the largest -> voluminos
136. Pentru adjectivele de doua silabe terminate in y, y se transforma in i

skinny - skinnier - the skinniest - slab funny - funnier - the funniest - nostim crafty - craftier - the craftiest - viclean
137. Pentru adjectivele lungi se foloseste comparatia franceza

interesting - more interesting - the most interesting terrible - more terrible - the most terrible My book is more interesting than Peter's But the most interesting book is Tom's
138. Unele adjective au comparatie neregulata

good - bun bad - rau little - putin


139. good - better - the best -> bun - mai bun - cel mai bun

This is a good drawing - Aceasta e un desen bun This drawing is better than that one - Acest desen e mai bun decat acela. Erin has the best drawings - Erin face desenele cele mai bune.
140. bad - worse - the worst -> rau - mai rau - cel mai rau bad inseamna si slab intr-o indeletnicire

Bad teachers are everywhere - Profesori slabi sunt peste tot Jeff is a worse teacher than others - Jeff e un profesor mai slab decat altii But he probably is not the worst teacher - Dar probabil ca nu e cel mai slab profesor
141. little - less - the least -> putin - mai putin - cel mai putin

We had little rain this year - Am avut putina ploaie anul asta Yes, but last year we had less - Da dar anul trecut am avut mai putina I know, and two years ago we had the least rain in history - Stiu, si acum doi ani am avut cea mai putina ploaie din istorie.
142. Desi a little si little, a few si few etc Nu inseamna chiar acelasi lucru, gradele lor de comparatie sunt la fel

We had a little rain this year Yes, last year we had less inseamna A plouat putin (adica un pic) anul asta Da, anul trecut a fost mai putina (ploaie) si We had little rain this year But, last year we had even less inseamna A plouat putin anul asta Dar anul trecut am avut si mai putina (ploaie)
143. Pentru a sublinia ideea la comparativ se zice than the others - decat ceilalti iar la superlativ se zice of all - dintre toti

This skirt is longer than the others - Aceasta fusta e mai lunga decat celelalte sau

This skirt is longer than the other skirts - Aceasta fusta e mai lunga decat celalte fuste iar This is the longest skirt of all - Aceasta este cea mai lunga fusta This is the longest of all skirts - Aceasta e cea mai lunga dintre toate fustele sau This skirt is longer than the other skirts - sau
144. My book is better than John's book este exprimarea completa. Dar book se subintelege si de multe ori se omite.

My book is better than John's dar My book is better than your book devine My book is better than yours
145. Comparatia de egalitate as ...as the same...as - la fel ca

My book is as interesting as Peter's - Cartea mea e la fel de interesanta ca al lui Peter My book is the same as Peter's - Cartea mea e la fel cu a lui Petru My book is the same book as Peter's - Cartea mea e aceiasi carte ca a lui Petru
146. as...as - poate fi folosit cu intelesul de cat se poate de

I'm as happy as can be - Sunt fericit(a) la culme as sad as can be - trist(a) la culme as lonely as can be - singur singurel etc
147. Comparatia de inferioritate: mai putin - cel mai putin Se face cu: less - least: sau fewer - fewest

The sky is less cloudy today - Cerul e mai putin inorat astazi (decat ieri sau in trecut se subintelege) That island has the least cloudy sky imaginable - Insula aceea are cel mai putin noros cer imaginabil

dar I have fewer shirts than Andrew - Am mai putine camasi decat Andrew But, Jack has the fewest of all - Dar Jack are cele mai putine
148. Comparativul de inferioritate: poate fi si: not so...as - nu atat de...ca

That cake is not as sweet as this one - Acea prajitura nu e atat de dulce ca asta
149. much - mult much - more - the most: mult - mai mult - cel mai mult Asa cum little sau few formeaza comparatia de inferioritate, more sau many formeaza comparatia de superioritate. Ca si little si few ele pot fi folosite si in alte contexte:

I've been walking many miles - Am mers multe mile Much ado about nothing - Mult zgomot pentru nimic (Shakespeare)- azi folosire iesita din uz
150. Much - se foloseste cu multimi nenumarabile In engleza moderna, se foloseste in propozitii interogative si negative In propozitiile afirmative se inlocuieste cu a lot

Is there much work to be done? - E multa munca de facut? He doesn't know much. - El nu stie prea mult dar I have a lot of work to do. - Am multa munca de facut.
151. Many - se foloseste cu multimi numarabile Se foloseste in propozitii interogative si negative In propozitiile afirmative se poate inlocui cu a lot of dar se foloseste si many of sau many, dupa context

Are there many coins in the drawer? - Sunt multi banuti in sertar? There are not many lion tamers in the world - Nu sunt multi imblanzitori de lei in lume There are a lot of coins in the drawer - Sunt multi banuti in sertar.
152. Observatie Pentru much se foloseste verbul la singular Pentru many se foloseste verbul la plural

There isn't much water left - Nu mai e multa apa ramasa There aren't many wolves left - Nu mai sunt multi lupi
153. In propozitii afirmative pe langa a lot of se foloseste many of

Many of my friends are abroad - Multi din prietenii mei sunt in strainatate Many of my friends are not abroad - Multi din prietenii mei nu sunt in strainatate Are many of your friends abroad? - Sunt multi din prietenii tai sunt in strainatate?

154. so much - atata

So much work needs to be done - Atata munca mai e de facut


155. so many - atatia, atatea

So many people nowadays are tired - Atatia oameni in ziua de azi sunt obositi
156. much more - mult mai mult

Much more time is needed - Mult mai mult timp e necesar


157. many more - mult mai multi

Nowadays, many more people go to college - In ziua de azi, mult mai multi oameni merg la facultate
158. so much...that: atat, atata...incat

So much time has passed that he may not remember you - Atata timp a trecut incat s-ar putea sa nu-si aminteasca de tine
159. so many...that - atati, atatia...incat

So many leaves have fallen that the ground is a carpet of leaves. - Atatea frunze au cazut incat pamantul e un covor de frunze
160. In raspunsuri, afirmatii legate de sentimente se foloseste very much

I like it very much - Imi place foarte mult Thank you, very much - Multumesc foarte mult.

4.PRONUMELE
161. I - Eu I se scrie totdeauna cu litera mare, indiferent de locul din propozitie. .

Eu mananc - I eat That is where I went - Acolo e locul unde am fost

162. You - Tu, Voi Si tu si voi in englezeste se zic la fel. Cateodata se intelege din context daca e tu sau voi, cateodata nu. De aceea se foloseste de multe ori all of you - voi toti sau you both - voi amandoi you two - voi doi you...together - voi...impreuna

You are farmers - Voi sunteti fermieri, nu poate un singur om sa fie mai multi fermieri (deci aici you = voi) You are a farmer - Tu esti fermier (deasemeni singura posibilitate) You have a dog - poate sa fie si Tu ai un caine si Voi aveti un caine. You two have a dog - Voi doi aveti un caine.
163. He - El

He is my brother - El e fratele meu


164. She - Ea

She is my sister - Ea este sora mea


165. It It se foloseste pentru obiecte, deoarece engleza nu are gen si atunci toate obiectele sau chiar fiintele care nu conteaza ca gen sunt numite it . Deasemeni propozitiile care in romaneste nu au subiect prin natura lor, in englezeste folosesc it

I see a fly. It is on the window. - Vad o musca. E pe geam That table needs fixing. - It has a broken leg. - Masa aceea are nevoie sa fie reparata. Are un picior rupt It looks like rain - Pare ca o sa ploua. It must be hard - Trebuie sa fie greu It's a long way to Tiperarry - E lung drumul la Tiperarry
166. We - Noi

We are twins - Noi suntem gemeni.


167. They - Ei, Ele si plural pentru it

They are waiters - Ei sunt chelneri They are waitresses - Ele sunt chelnerite These are the dishes. They need to be washed - Acestea sunt vasele. Trebuiesc spalate
168. mine - al meu yours - al tau his - al lui hers - al ei ours - al nostru yours - al vostru their - al lor

The pencil is mine - Creionul e al meu The pen is yours - Pixul e al tau The notebook is his - Caietul e al lui The eraser is hers - Guma e a ei The pencil sharpener is ours - Ascutitoarea e a noastra

The papers are yours - Hartiile sunt ale voastre/ale tale The ruler is theirs - Linia e a lor

169. it nu are pronume posesiv. Are insa forma de adjectiv posesiv.

The table is red.- Masa este rosie The red color is ? (nu exista pronume posesiv dar folosim genitivul lui table: Culoarea rosie e a mesei - The red color is the table 's sau Its color is red - Culoarea ei e rosie
170. ma spal e verb reflexiv Eu ma spal pe mine. Ma si pe mine sunt pronume reflexive. Nu orice verb reflexiv in romaneste e reflexiv si in engleza. In engleza sunt mai putine verbe reflexive ca in romaneste. De multe ori un verb poate fi reflexiv intr-un context si nereflexiv altul.

Eu spal o cana - nu e reflexiv Eu ma spal pe mine - reflexiv


171. to wash oneself - a se spala pe sine In engleza insa pronumele reflexiv nu se foloseste cand se subintelege ca actiunea are caracter reflexiv Iata o lista de verbe care pot fi reflexive in engleza.

to behave onself - a se purta bine in public (zis mai mult despre copii sau despre animale de companie) to convince oneself - a se autoconvinge to cry oneself to sleep - a plange in pat pana adormi. to deny oneself - a-si refuza to encourage oneself - a se autoincuraja to enjoy oneself - a se distra to hurt oneself - a-si face rau singur to kill oneself - a se sinucide to market oneself - a-si face reclama
172. Reflexivul in engleza se formeaza din adjectivul posesiv la care se adauga terminatia self - la sngular selves - la plural

I enjoyed myself at the party - M-am simtit bine la petrecere. You blame yourself too much - Te invinovatesti prea mult. He hurt himself in the garage - S-a ranit in garaj. She baked herself a cake - Si-a copt o prajitura. We tell ourselves lies everyday - Ne spunem minciuni in fiecare zi.

You made yourselves very clear in the speech. - Ati fost foarte clari in discurs. They built the house themselves - Si-au construit singuri casa.
173. Pronumele reflexive au si intelesul de singur sau sunt folosite si ca intarire. by myself - singur, singura.

I like to live by myself - Imi place sa locuiesc singur I wrote the paper by myself - Am scris lucrarea singur. I wrote this paper myself - Chiar eu am scris lucrarea asta.
174. Pronumele reflexive se pot traduce si cu insumi, insuti, etc.

I went there myself - Eu insuni m-am dus acolo


175. with me -> cu mine In romaneste atunci cand nu pronumele personal face actiunea (adica nu e subiect)se zice de exemplu: M-am dus cu el. . dar si M-am dus cu tine. Prepozitiile de mai jos au numai rolul de a nu pierde din vedere contextul folosirii acestor pronume.

(with) me - (cu) mine (with) you - (cu) tine (with) him - (cu) el (with) her - (cu) ea (with) us - (cu) noi (with) you - (cu) voi (with) them - (cu) ei, ele
176. Sunt multe prepozitii pentru care acest pronume devine obligatoriu.

Emily went with me - Emily s-a dus cu mine Emily talked about you - Emily a vorbit despre tine Emily worked without him - Emily a lucrat fara el Emily took it from her - Emily l-a luat de la ea Emily lives above us - Emily locuieste deasupra noastra Emily wrote a poem for you - Emily a scris o poezie pentru voi Emily thought about them - Emily s-a gandit la ei
177. Pe mine, pe tine se traduc me, you fara prepozitie L-am vazut pe el.- I saw him In romaneste se adauga inca un pronume, acest l-, care in engleza nu exista. Iar pronumele al doilea deobicei lipseste. I love you! - Te iubesc! Subiectul I e obligatoriu, pe nu se traduce te cade si se traduce Eu iubesc pe tine.

Peter asked me - Peter m-a intrebat Peter noticed you - Peter te-a observat Peter called him - Peter l-a chemat Peter saw her - Peter a vazut-o Peter fed us - Peter ne-a hranit Peter called you - Peter v-a chemat Peter rang them - Peter i-a sunat.
178. Give me! - Da-mi! Si in acest caz (cazul dativ) se foloseste aceasta forma a pronumelui personal Dativul totdeauna raspunde la intrbarea CUI?

He told me about it. - Mi-a spus (despre asta) He gave you a present - Ti-a dat un cadou The child showed him the drawing! - Copilul i-a aratat desenul He wrote her a letter - I-a scris o scrisoare ei. He read us a story - Ne-a citit o poveste He built you a tree house - V-a construit o casa in copac He made them an offer - Le-a facut o oferta
179. Vai de mine! Exista unele interjectii care folosesc pronume sau adjective care se traduc cu vai de mine

Dear me! Gracious me! Goodness me Oh my god! Oh my stars! Oh my!


180. WHO - CINE Who este cine fara prepozitie. Whom este cu prepozitie: pe cine, cu cine, la cine Cand nu e interogatie Who poate fi tradus si cu CARE sau PE CARE (whom) Cand se refera mai degraba la oricine, cine se traduce cu whoever.

Who me? - Cine eu? Who do you think you are? - Cine te crezi? Who will answer? - Cine va raspunde? She is the girl who answered. - Ea este fata care a raspuns. That is the man whom I saw - Acela e omul pe care l-am vazut Whoever answers, wins - Cine (oricine) raspunde, castiga.
181. WHOEVER - ORICINE Cand cine are intelesul de oricine se foloseste whoever. Anybody sau anyone au deasemeni intelesul de oricine. Cand oricine poate fi inlocuit de cine atunci se foloseste whoever. Altfel se foloseste anybody, anyone

Whoever buys you earrings again - Cine ti-o mai lua cercei Anybody can come to the party - Oricine are voie sa vina la petrecere Whoever comes to the party, may win a prize - Cine vine la petrecere poate castiga un premiu

182. anyone who - whoever Putem insa inlocui whoever cu anyone who sau anybody who.

This number is for anyone who calls - Acest numar e pentru cine suna This number is for whoever calls
183. WHOM - CU CINE, LA CINE, etc Cand cine e insotit de prepozitie se traduce whom in loc de who Insa astazi aceasta regula e adeseori incalcata, si forma folosita e tot who.

For whom the bells toll - Pentru cine bat clopotele. Look who is talking to whom - Uite cine vorbeste cu cine With whom are you going? - Cu cine mergi? dar veti auzi mai degraba: With who are you going? sau si mai des Who are you going with?
184. to whom, to whoever - cui to whom - la cine, catre cine - deobicei se traduce prin cui

To whom are you writing? - Cui ii scrii? dar To whom are you going" - La cine te duci? Give the old coat to whoever wants it - Da haina veche oricui o vrea, Primele doua intrebari se zic mai degraba: Who are you writing to? - Cui ii scrii? dar Whom are you going to - La cine te duci?
185. To whom it may concern - Cui ii poate fi de interes

Propozitie consacrata folosita de firme pe scrisori trimise catre mai multi destinatari necunoscuti Poate fi si pe o scrisoare lasata de un sinucigas, in sensul de nimanui nu-i pasa dar daca e cineva totusi, caruia ii pasa de mine, sa citeasca asta.
186. who inseamna si caruia, careia, carora

Tell someone who cares - Spune cuiva caruia ii pasa (nu mie)
187. WHO, WHICH si THAT inseamna CARE Contextele in care se foloseste fiecare insa difera putin. Who se foloseste in cazul oamenilor That si which in cazul fiintelor, obiectelor si conceptelor.

The boy who runs fast - Baiatul care alearga repede The train that is fast - Trenul care e rapid The fast train which we saw yesterday - Trenul rapid pe care l-am vazut ieri

188. That introduce informatii obligatorii, which neobligatorii

They are on the team that won first place - Ei sunt in echipa care a luat locul intai(identifica echipa). The present, which I bought her, is very big. - Cadoul pe care i l-am luat e foarte mare. (Se presupune ca nu ai cumparat si alte cadouri) That se foloseste la animale si chiar si la oameni. The big shaggy dog that I love - Cainele mare si latos pe care il iubesc. The man that conquered Mount Everest - Omul care a cucerit Everestul
189. Daca propozitia principala incepe cu this, that, these, those se poate folosi which in loc de that. That car Masina aceea, masina a fost identificata, deci acum putem folosi which.

That car which is in the parking lot is Mary's. - Masina aceea care este in parcare este a Mariei.
190. one another - unul pe altul unul cu altul, unul pe celalalt, unul celuilalt, unii pe altii

They help one another a lot - Se ajuta mult unul pe altul They talk to one another - Vorbesc unul cu altul They often see one another - Deseori se viziteaza (se intalnesc, se vad) unul pe celalalt. Let us help one another - Sa ne ajutam unii pe altii.
191. each other inseamna one another Amandoua au acelasi inteles totusi cand este vorba de doua persoane each other poate fi preferat

They listened to each other speak - S-au asultat unul pe altul vorbind They always had respect for each other - Totdeauna s-au respectat unul pe celalalt They always had respect for one another

5.NUMERALUL
192. 1 - 10 One - 1 Two - 2 Three - 3 Four - 4 Five - 5 Six - 6 Seven - 7 Eight - 8 Nine - 9 Ten - 10

A week has seven days - O saptamana are sapte zile I will be there in ten minutes - Ajung in 10 minute

193. 11 - 20

Eleven - 11 Twelve - 12 Thirteen - 13 Fourteen - 14 Fifteen - 15 Sixteen - 16 Seventeen - 17 Eighteen - 18 Nineteen - 19 Twenty -20

A teenager is somebody between thirteen and nineteen (years of age) - Un adolescent e cineva intre 13 si 19 ani. There are twelve months in a year - Sunt 12 luni intr-un an.
194. 20 - 100 Twenty - 20 Thirty - 30 Forty - 40 Fifty - 50 Sixty - 60 Seventy - 70 Eighty - 80 Ninety - 90

There are sixty minutes in an hour - Sunt 60 de minute intr-o ora


195. 21 Twenty-one - Douazeci si unu In engleza moderna nu se zice si la nici un numar pana la 99 inclusiv. In engleza arhaica puteti auzi one and twenty etc Four and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie - 24 de mierle coapte in placinta

Twenty-one is the legal age for drinking in the US. - 21 de ani e varsta legala pentru baut alcool in SUA. There are twenty-four hours in a day. - Sunt 24 de ore pe zi There are seven days in a week - Sunt sapte zile intr-o saptamana There are fifty-two weeks in a year - Sunt 52 de saptamani intr-un an. There are a hundred years in a century - Sunt 100 de ani intr-un secol.
196. 101 - 110 one hundred and one - 101 sau one hundred one - 101 la fel orice numar intre un multiplu de 100 si multiplul respectiv plus 10 poate primi and. Exemplu: 406 - four hundred and six sau four hundred six. 356 - three hundred fifty six

One hundred and one dalmatians - O suta unu dalmatieni Stefan cel Mare died five hundred eight years ago, in 1504. - Stefan cel Mare a murit acum 508

ani in 1504. This year has three hundred fifty seven days - Anul acesta are 357 zile.
197. a thousand - o mie ten thousand - 10.000 a hundred thousand - o suta de mii a million - 1.000.000 a billion - un miliard

A thousand and one nights - O mie si una de nopti That village has a population of two thousand three hundred seventeen people - Acel sat are o populatie de 2317 locuitori
198. Alta citire pentru mii se zice mai mult: 2530 - twenty five hundred thirty si nu 2510 - two thousand five hundred thirty

Columbus sailed the ocean blue In fourteen hundred ninety two. Columb a navigat peste intinderea oceanului In 1492
199. 2012 Mai ales la ani, se zice mai simplu 2012 - twenty twelve 1945 - nineteen forty-five Bineinteles ca si in engleza anii se scriu tot cu cifre, aici de fapt va arat cum se citesc acesti ani.

In eighteen seventy-seven Romania won its independence - In 1877 Romania si-a castigat independenta In nineteen fourty-four the war ended in Europe - In 1944 s-a terminat razboiul in Europa.
200. Pentru a zice de ordinul sutelor, miilor Se zice: In the hundreds, in the thousands.

People came in the thousands to the concert - Oamenii au venit cu miile la concert
201. 1,64 = 1.64 De remarcat ca in engleza acolo unde noi punem ',' pentru zecimale, ei pun punct si unde noi punem '.' la mii ei pun virgula

1, 64 in romaneste = 1.64 in englezeste 5.279 in romaneste = 5,279 in englezeste 5.237.754 -> 5,237,754

202. The 20's - Anii 20 The twenties - anii 20.

The 40s were hard on everybody - Anii 40 au fost grei pentru toata lumea.
203. in his thirties Am douazeci si ceva de ani - I'm in my twenties

She is in her nineties but she still jogs - Ea are 90 si ceva de ani dar inca face jogging
204. 1-10 first - prima second - a doua third - a treia fourth - a patra fifth - a cicea sixth - a sasea seventh - a saptea eigth - a opta ninth - a noua tenth - a zecea

He came in first! - A terminat primul! He finished the race in fourth place - A terminat cursa pe locul al patrulea.
205. 11 - 20 si peste Se adauga th eleventh - al 11-lea twelfth - al 12-lea thirteeth - al 13-lea fourteenth - al 14-lea fifteenth - al 15-lea sixteenth - al 16-lea seventeenth - al 17-lea eighteenth - al 18-lea nineteeth - al 19-lea Avem regula ca la numeralele terminate in y, acesta se transforma in i sixty - sixtieth Acestea se scriu prescurtat: 11th, 12th, 354th etc

Eminescu lived in the nineteenth century - Eminescu a trait in secolul 19. What country is number forty-eighth globally in oil production? Romania. - Ce tara e pe locul 48 in lume la productia de petrol? Romania
206. Two thirds - Doua treimi Fractiile in engleza se exprima cu numerale cardinale si ordinale Numaratorul e numeral cardinal Numitorul e ordinal Half - jumatate A quarter - Un sfert In engleza americana 0,3 se citeste O point three. Zero se citeste in engleza ca zero sau O (litera o)

I ate one third of the pie - Am mancat o treime din placinta Two fifths of the project is done - 2/5 din proiect este terminat
207. A tenth - A zecea parte A hundredth - A suta parte Se foloseste un numeral ordinal dar cu articolul nehotarat a

A milimeter is a thousandth of a meter and a tenth of a centimter - Un milimetru e a mia parte dintr-un metru si a zecea parte dintr-un centimetru
208. What day is today - Ce zi e azi? In engleza americana luna se scrie inaintea zilei.

Azi e 13 octombrie Today is the 13th of October (engleza britanica) Today is October 13th (engleza americana) Today is October 13 (engleza americana - fara th) The New York City terrorist attacks took place on September 11, 2001. They are also called the 9/11 (luna zi) attacks Atacurile teroriste din New York au avut loc pe 11 Septembrie. Ele sunt deasemeni numite atacurile 9 11
209. What time is it? - Cat e ceasul?

It is noon - E 12 ziua It is midnight - E 12 noaptea 10 sau It is 10 o'clock sau It is 10 - E ora zece It is half past ten. - E zece jumatate It is a quarter past ten - E zece si un sfert It is a quarter to ten - E zece fara un sfert
210. How old are you? - Cati ani ai?

24 I am 24 sau I am 24 years old

6.VERBUL
211. Infinitivele verbelor se formeaza cu particula to, exemple:

To eat - a manca To sleep - a dormi To think - a gandi To read - a citi

To talk - a vorbi To drink - a bea

212. Exceptii can, may, must, shall, will, ought to care nu primesc particula to Ele se numesc verbe modale.si sunt o categorie aparte de verbe

Un exemplu cand se folosesc verbele modale este urmatorul: May I come? - Am voie sa vin? Must I come? - Trebuie sa vin?
213. De asemenea verbele se impart in regulate si neregulate. Verbele neregulate isi schimba radacina la anumite timpuri, si ele trebuie invatate in trei variante. Prima este verbul la infinitiv, apoi radacina pt past tense si apoi radacina pt toate timpurile numite perfecte. Exemplu:

to be - was - been
214. Verbe auxiliare To be - a fi To have - a avea To do - a face

Aceste verbe pe langa sensurile de mai sus construiesc timpuri compuse (asa cum a avea in romana formeaza de exemplu am alergat care nu inseamna ca: eu posed un alergat, cum ai zice am mere, adica am isi pierde sensul cunoscut)
215. To be - a fi

I am - Eu sunt You are - Tu esti He is - El este She is - Ea este We are - Noi suntem You are - Voi sunteti They are - Ei sunt
216. To have - a avea

I have - Eu am You have - Tu ai He has - El are She has - Ea are We have - Noi avem You have - Voi aveti They have - Ei au
217. To do - a face

I do - Eu fac You do - Tu faci He does - El face She does - Ea face We do - Noi facem You do - Voi faceti They do - Ei fac
218. Verbele nu au in engleza timpuri corespunzatoare celor din limba romana. In engleza trebuie precizat daca o actiune e in desfasurare la un anumit moment prezent trecut, viitor sau daca exista fara sa fie in desfasurare.

De exemplu daca cineva iti spune: Lucrez la un proiect. Ce inseamna? Ca lucreaza in fiecare zi un timp la acel proiect? Ca lucreaza acum dar a facut o pauza, poate l-ai intrerupt tu?
219. I work - Eu lucrez.

I work on a project - Lucrez la un proiect. Poate fi un raspuns la intrebarea Cu ce te ocupi? I work on a project, everyday - Lucrez la un proiect zi de zi Poate fi o afirmatie. Acest timp se numeste Present Tense.
220. I am working Daca actiunea a inceput si e in desfasurare fara sa fie insa ceva intrat in rutina, adica va avea un final se zice I am working Acest timp se numeste Present Continuous Dupa cum vom vedea nu orice verb accepta acest timp

I am eating now - Mananc acum. I eat at this time everyday - Mananc la aceasta ora in fiecare zi.
221. Insa si acest mod de exprimare lasa loc pentru confuzie

I am working on a project inseamna fie ca lucrez la un proiect in clipa asta, fie ca am un proiect mare la care lucrez de mai mult timp, dar care nu e munca mea obisnuita. De aceea daca acum lucrezi, e bine sa se precizeze I am worknig on a project (right) now ...chiar acum. Desi chiar si aceasta exprimare lasa loc pentru neintelegeri.
222. To talk - a vorbi Present tense este:

I talk - Eu vorbesc You talk - Tu vorbesti He talks - El votbste She talks - Ea vorbeste It talks - Impersonal vorbeste We talk - Noi vorbim You talk - Voi vorbiti They talk - Ei vorbesc

223. Modul de formare al lui Present Tense pt toate verbele cu exceptia celor auxiliare este urmatorul Se ia forma verbului la infinitivul scurt (fara to) care se pune la toate persoanele. La persoana a treia sigular se adauga s

To walk - a merge pe jos I walk to school and he walks too - Eu merg pe jos la scoala si el merge tot pe jos
224. To eat - a manca Present continuous e urmatorul

I am eating You are eating He is eating She is eating We are eating You are eating They are eating
225. Modul de formare al lui Present Continuous pentru toate verbele care primesc acest timp. Se foloseste prezentul verbul auxiliar to be si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt (fara to) a verbului de conjugat la care se adauga terminatia ing.

Shh, people are reading in here! - Shh, citesc oameni aici! He is talking on the phone - El vorbeste la telefon
226. I am - I'm Verbul to be la prezent se foloseste foarte mult (inclusiv ca auxiliar) intr-o forma contractata I am - I'm You are - You're He is - He's We are - We're You are - You're They are - They're

I'm a lion tamer - Sunt imblanzitor de lei I'm Romanian - Sunt roman(ca) dar si I'm playing the piano - Cant la pian They're singing my favorite song - Ei canta cantecul meu favorit
227. Verbele care nu au forma continua se numesc verbe statice. Ele sunt verbe care nu sunt verbe de actiune. De exemplu: to be, to belong, to love, to hate, to like, to know, to understand.

De exemplu nu se poate zice ca inteleg ceva acum dar stiu ca peste un timp n-am sa mai inteleg acel lucru.

228. Sunt si verbe care in mod normal nu admit forma continua dar in anumite cazuri admit . to see - a vedea

I see an elephant si nu I am seeing an elephant. dar se spune I am seeing somebody - Ma vad cu cineva I am seeing a doctor - Ma duc la un tratament mai lung la doctor
229. To have - a avea ca verb posesiv nu admite forma continua

I am having a car nu e corect dar I am having lunch este.


230. To hear - a auzi to imagine - a-si imagina nu au forma continua.

I hear a bell. - Aud un clopot dar You're hearing things sau You're imagining things. Inseamna ca auzi sau iti imaginezi lucruri care nu sunt adevarate
231. to think - a gandi, a crede (mai rar) To think cu sensul de a gandi are forma continua. Dar in sensul de a crede nu are

I am thinking about you. - Ma gandesc la tine I think you are wrong. - Cred ca nu ai dreptate.
232. Vorbitorii nativi de limba engleza cateodata fac jocuri de cuvinte in care regulile gramaticale pot fi incalcate. Aceste abateri insa nu pot fi create decat de nativi, ceilalti oameni trebuie sa respecte regulile de gramatica, daca vor sa fie siguri ca nu gresesc sau ca ceilalti nu le vad inventiile lingvistice doar ca pe niste greseli.

Un exemplu Verbul to love nu accepta present continuous (dar reclama lui McDonalds: I'm loving it! ar dovedi contrariul) Reclama vrea sa zica probabil ca I am loving it chiar acum, in fiecare minut al vietii mele (de preferinta cu un hamburger in mana)
233. Present Tense se foloseste: 1. Atunci cand actiunea e in derulare pe termen nelimitat (chiar daca pe termen nelimitat ea nu se intampla niciodata vezi mai jos)

I sometimes, talk to my cousin on the phone - Cateodata vorbesc cu varul meu (verisoara mea) la telefon I see my sister everyday - O vad oe sora mea zilnic

I only see my cousin on weekends - Il vad pe varul meu numai in weekend I never see my uncle - Nu-l vad niciodata pe unchiul meu
234. Present Tense se foloseste: 2. Atunci cand ni se prezinta un adevar absolut

The sun heats the earth - Soarele incalzeste pamantul We breathe oxygen - Noi respiram oxigen At night, dogs bark at the moon - Noaptea cainii latra la luna
235. Present Tense se foloseste: 3. Ca viitor

The train arrives at nine - Trenul soseste la 9 I leave in an hour - Plec intr-o ora
236. Present Tense se foloseste: 4. Dupa: after (dupa), before (inainte), when (cand), as soon as (deindata ce), while (in timp ce) daca reprezinta o actiune viitoare Aceata regula e valabila si cu Timpul Prezent din romaneste

When I grow up, I'll be rich and famous. - Cand ma fac mare voi fi bogat si celebru. I will tell her as soon as I see her. - Am sa-i spun de indata ce o vad

237. Present Continuous se foloseste: 1.Cand reprezinta o actiune care se desfasoara in prezent si care are o perioada limitata de desfasurare.

I am reading Gone with the wind - Citesc Pe aripile vantului They are watching TV. - Ei se uita la televizor
238. Present Continuous se foloseste: 2.Verbul descrie o actiune generala dar simultana cu alta actiune:

I always get to the bus station when the bus is leaving. - Totdeauna ajung in statie cand pleaca autobuzul
239. Past Tense al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I talked - Eu am vorbit You talked - Tu ai vorbit He talked - El a vorbit She talked - Ea a vorbit We talked - Noi am vorbit You talked - Voi ati vorbit They talked - Ei, Ele au vorbit

240. Modul de formare al lui Past Tense Pentru toate verbele regulate este prin adaugarea terminatiei ed infinitivului scurt (fara to) al verbului.

to watch - a privi I watched the storm approach - Am privit furtuna apropiindu-se to dance - a dansa They danced all night - Ei au dansat toata noaptea
241. Past Tense pentru verbele neregulate se formeaza in modul urmator: Se ia din lista a doua forma a verbului si se foloseste la toate peroanele: De exemplu pentru to eat - a manca forma a doua e ate.

I ate - Eu am mancat You ate - Tu ai mancat He ate - El a mancat She ate - Ea a mancat We ate - Noi am mancat You ate - Voi ati mancat They ate - Ei, Ele au mancat
242. Verbul to be - a fi are forma la Past Tense was Totusi acest verb este singurul care nu respecta regula. Conjugarea o vedeti mai jos.

I was - Eu am fost You were - Tu ai fost He was - El a fost She was - Ea a fost We were - Noi am fost You were - Voi ati fost They were - Ei, Ele au fost
243. Verbul to have - a avea are forma la Past Tense had:

I had - Eu am avut You had - Tu ai avut He had - El a avut She had - Ea a avut We had - Noi am avut You had - Voi ati avut They had - Ei, Ele au avut
244. Verbul to do - a face are forma la Past Tense did:

I did - Eu am facut You did - Tu ai facut He did - El a facut She did - Ea a facut We did - Noi am facut

You did - Voi ati facut They did - Ei, Ele au facut
245. Past Tense reprezinta o actiune care s-a desfasurat in trecut si s-a terminat.

I rang the doorbell until he answered. Am sunat - Am sunat, pana cand el mi-a deschis. Am sunat dar nu mai sun, el a raspuns si mi-a deschis. I walked a lot yesterday - Ieri am mers mult pe jos.
246. Past Tense E timpul folosit in povestiri Apelati la el daca actiunea e la trecut si aveti indoieli ce timp sa folositi.

Jack and Jill went up the hill To fetch a pail of water Jack fell down and broke his crown And Jill came tumbling after Jack si cu Jill au urcat pe deal Sa aduca o galeata de apa Jack a cazut si si-a spart capul Iar Jill a venit rostogolindu-se in urma lui
247. Present Perfect al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I have talked - Eu am vorbit You have talked - Tu ai vorbit He has talked - El a vorbit She has talked - Ea a vorbit We have talked - Noi am vorbit You have talked - Voi ati vorbit They have talked - Ei, Ele au vorbit
248. Modul de formare al lui Present Perfect pentru toate verbele regulate. Se foloseste prezentul verbului auxiliar to have si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt (fara to) a verbului de conjugat la care se adauga terminatia ed.

I have finished the paper for my History class - Am terminat lucrarea. You have won the race
249. Verbul to have a avea e de multe ori deasemeni contractat ca si verbul to be. Spre deosebire de acest verb insa care poate fi contractat si ca verb de sine statator, to have se contracta aproape numai in cazurile cand e verb auxiliar I have a dog - Am un caine, nu se contracta.

I have - I've You have - You've He has - He's We have - We've You have - You've They have - They've

250. Present Perfect pentru verbele neregulate se formeaza in modul urmator: Se ia din lista a treia forma a verbului si se foloseste la toate peroanele: De exemplu pentru to eat - a manca forma a treia e eaten.

I've eaten - Eu am mancat You've eaten - Tu ai mancat He's eaten - El a mancat She's eaten - Ea a mancat We've eaten - Noi am mancat You've eaten - Voi ati mancat They've eaten - Ei, Ele au mancat
251. Present Perfect se foloseste: 1. Cand exprimam o actiune inceputa anterior momentului prezent si care are consecinte in prezent. Aceste consecinte nu sunt neaparat exprimate De exemplu: Am mancat (deci nu mi-e foame).

No, thank you, I have eaten - Nu multumesc am mancat


252. Present Perfect se foloseste: 2.Daca actiunea din trecut e inca in desfasurare sau daca efectul ei se vede in prezent.

I have painted the house blue - Am vopsit casa in albastru I have graduated from university last year - Am absolvit facultatea anul trecut.
253. Present Perfect se foloseste: 3.Daca verbul e insotit de un adverb often (mereu), sometimes (cateodata), never (niciodata) etc. In aceste cazuri adverbul se pune de regula intre auxiliar si verbul respectiv.

I have never been to Oslo - Nu am fost niciodata la Oslo She has always helped me.- Ea totdeauna ea m-a ajutat
254. Si pentru Present Perfect exista multe exceptii: 1. Americanii folosesc mult Past Tense in locul lui Present Perfec 2. In mod frecvent adverbul nu va fi intre auxiliar si verb.

1. Past Tense in loc de Present Perfect: I never saw a purple cow I never hope to see one But I can tell you anyhow I'd rather see than be one Nu am vazut niciodata o vaca mov Sper nici sa nu vad vreodata Dar pot sa va spun cu siguranta Ca prefer sa vad decat sa fiu 2. Adverb in afara locului sau: Never have I seen you looking so lovely - Niciodata nu te-am vazut aratand mai incantatoare.-

apare de exemplu in cantecul Lady in Red. Observati ca in acest caz, cand adverbul e in afara, se inverseaza I cu have.
255. Past Continuous al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I was talking - Eu vorbeam You were talking - Tu vorbeai He was talking - El vorbea She was talking - Ea vorbea We were talking - Noi vorbeam You were talking - Voi vorbeati They were talking - Ei, Ele vorbeau
256. Modul de formare al lui Past Continuous Pentru toate verbele si regulate si neregulate timpul se formeaza prin conjugarea la past tense a verbului auxiliar to be si adaugarea terminatiei ing infinitivului scurt (fara to) al verbului.

I was writing him a letter when he knocked on my door - Ii scriam o scrisoare cand mi-a batut la usa He was sleeping when the earthquake started - El dormea cand a inceput cutremurul
257. Past Continuous se refera la: Un eveniment in derulare la un moment in trecut care se petrece simultan cu un alt eveniment. De multe ori acest timp e echivalent cu imperfectul din limba romana (mancam) - Atunci cand verbul exprima o actiune in trecut care a fost intrerupta de altceva.

I was eating when the lights went off -Mancam cand s-a intrerupt lumina.
258. Past Perfect al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I had talked - Eu vorbisem You had talked - Tu vorbisesi He had talked - El vorbise She had talked - Ea vorbiseram We had talked - Noi vorbiserati You had talked - Voi vorbeati They had talked - Ei, Ele vorbisera
259. Modul de formare al lui Past Perfect Se foloseste Past Tense al verbului auxiliar to have si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt (fara to) a verbului de conjugat la care se adauga terminatia ed. (forma a treia pentru verbe neregulate)

I had heard of him even as a child - Auzisem de el chiar si cand eram copil
260. Past Perfect pentru verbele neregulate se formeaza in modul urmator Se ia din lista a treia forma a verbului si se foloseste la toate peroanele.

I had eaten - Eu mancasem You had eaten - Tu mancasesi He had eaten - El mancase

She had eaten - Ea mancase We had eaten - Noi mancaseram You had eaten - Voi mancaserati They had eaten - Ei, Ele nancasera
261. La Past Perfect verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa, anterioara unui moment trecut sau anterioara unei actiuni trecute.

I had learned to play the piano before I started violin lessons. - Invatasem sa cant la pian inainte sa incep lectiile de vioara.
262. De multe ori Past Perfect e echivalent cu mai mult ca perfectul din limba romana (invatasem). Anume atunci cand verbul este o actiune ce s-a terminat in trecut fata de momentul/actiunea tot trecuta la care se raporteaza.

I had eaten the desert that is why I did not want the soup - Eu mancasem desertul de aceea nu am mai vrut supa.
263. Future Tense (Viitorul) verbului to talk - a vorbi este:

I will talk - Eu voi vorbi You will talk - Tu vei vorbi He will talk - El va vorbi She will talk - Ea va vorbi We will talk - Noi vom vorbi You will talk - Voi veti vorbi They will talk - Ei, Ele vor vorbi
264. Modul de formare al lui Future Tense Se foloseste forma will provenita de la verbul auxiliar to br si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt (fara to) a verbului de conjugat.

I will tell the truth, he said. - Voi spune adevarul, a spus el Today, I will go by bus. - Astazi, ma duc cu autobuzul The party will be great! - Petrecerea va fi grozava!
265. Future Tense reprezinta o actiune viitoare nelimitata in timp.

I will be an engineer. - Voi fi inginer I will have a big house - Voi avea o casa mare I will do what I promised - Voi face ce am promis
266. Pe langa auxiliarul de departe cel mai folosit de la to be, anume will Exista si shall care atunci cand e folosit deobicei implica o promisiune a infaptuirii actiunii respective, in engleza americana se foloseste foarte rar.

I shall keep my promise, I shall learn to ride a bike. - Imi voi tine promisiunea, voi invata sa merg pe bicicleta

267. O alta forma a timpului viitor in engleza americana se formeaza cu am going to.

I am going to eat - I will eat You are going to eat He is going to eat She is going to eat We are going to eat Yo are going to eat They are going to eat
268. Future Continuousal verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I will be talking You will be talking He will be talking She will be talking We will be talking You will be talking They will be talking
269. Modul de formare al lui Future Continuous pentru toate verbele regulate si neregulate este de folosire a lui will be urmat de infinitivul scurt al verbului la care se adauga terminatia ing

She'll be coming round the mountain when she comes - Ea va veni in jurul muntelui atunci cand va veni.
270. Future Continuous se foloseste atunci cand verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor

Tonight, at 10, I will be grading papers. - Diseara, la 10, eu voi corecta lucrari
271. Future Perfect al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I will have talked - Eu voi fi vorbit You will have talked - Tu vei fi vorbit He will have talked - El va fi vorbit She will have talked - Ea va fi vorbit We will have talked - Noi vom fi vorbit You will have talked - Voi veti fi vorbit They will have talked - Ei, Ele vor fi vorbit
272. Modul de formare al lui Future Perfect Se foloseste will have si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt a verbului de conjugat la care se adauga terminatia ed.

They will have gathered the harvest by the time autumn comes - Ei vor fi strans recolta pana la venirea toamnei.

273. Future Perfect pentru verbele neregulate Se formeaza in modul urmator Se ia din lista a treia forma a verbului si se foloseste la toate peroanele in locul infinitivului scurt. eat - ate - eaten unde eat = a manca

I wil have eaten - Eu voi fi mancat You wil have eaten - Tu vei fi mancat He wil have eaten - El va fi mancat She wil have eaten - Ea va fi mancat We wil have eaten - Noi vom fi mancat You wil have eaten - Voi veti fi mancat They wil have eaten - Ei, Ele vor fi mancat
274. Future Perfect exprima o actiune din viitor care se va petrece inaintea altei actiuni din viitor. Este echivalentul lui voi fi facut, din romaneste.

By the time the mustard comes, the kids will have eaten the stake. - Pana vine mustarul, copiii vor fi mancat friptura
275. Present Perfect Continuous al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I have been talking You have been talking He has been talking She has been talking We have been talking You have been talking They have been talking
276. Modul de formare al lui Present Perfect Continuous pentru toate verbele regulate:si neregulate: Se foloseste verbul auxiliar to have care se conjuga la present la fiecare persoana. Se adauga la toate persoanele been care este forma a treia a verbului auxiliar to be Se adauga infinitivul scurt al verbului folosit la care se adauga terminatia ing

I have been waiting by the phone since 10 a.m - Am asteptat langa telefon de la 10 dimineata.
277. Prezentul Perfect Continuu se foloseste atunci cand verbul reprezinta o actiune care s-a desfasurat pana acum, si va continua probabil si in viitor

I've been working on the railroad all live long day - Am muncit la calea ferata cat e ziua de lunga
278. Trecutul Perfect Continuu al verbului to talk - a vorbi este:

I had been talking You had been talking He had been talking She had been talking We had been talking You had been talking They had been talking

279. Modul de formare al lui Past Perfect Continuous pentru toate verbele regulate:si neregulate: Se foloseste verbul auxiliar to have care se conjuga la Past Tense la fiecare persoana. Se adauga la toate persoanele been care este forma a treia a verbului auxiliar to be Se adauga infinitivul scurt al verbului folosit la care se adauga terminatia ing

I had been washing my car when it started raining - Imi spalam masina cand a inceput ploaia
280. Past Perfect Continuous reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat trecut cand a fost oprita de o alta actiune a carui urmari continua si azi.

He had been eating from the chocolate, before you told him it contained peanuts - Manca din ciocolata inainte sa-i spui ca ea contine alune americane.
281. Future Perfect Continuous al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I will have been talking - Eu voi fi vorbit You will have been talking - Tu vei fi vorbit He will have been talking - El va fi vorbit She will have been talking - Ea va fi vorbit We will have been talking - Noi vom fi vorbit You will have been talking - Voi veti fi vorbit They will have been talking - Ei, Ele vor fi vorbit
282. Modul de formare al lui Future Perfect Continuous pentru toate verbele regulate:si neregulate: Se foloseste forma will care provine de la verbul auxiliar to be Se foloseste infinitivul scurt have a verbului auxiliar to have Se adauga la toate persoanele been care este forma a treia a verbului auxiliar to be Se adauga infinitivul scurt al verbului folosit la care se adauga terminatia ing

It will have been raining for three weeks straight this Monday - Va fi plouat fara intrerupere de trei saptamani lunea asta.
283. Future Perfect Continuous reprezinta o actiune desfasurata in viitor care se intinde pe o perioada lunga de timp in trecut si implica o actiune in derulare.

At 4 o'clock that marathon runner will have been running for over five hours, but he refuses to give up. - La ora 4, acel alergator de maraton va fi alergat de 5 ore, dar el refuza sa se dea batut
284. Exista un numar de verbe care nu exprima o actiune. Aceste verbe sa numesc Linking Verbs (verbe de legatura), sunt insotite de un substantiv sau de un adjectiv Pe romaneste ele formeaza predicatul nominal.

I am an actress - Eu sunt actrita. (sunt actrita e predicat nominal) My neighbor seems happy - Vecinul meu pare fericit. - (pare fericit e predicat nominal)
285. In engleza urmatoarele verbe sunt totdeauna verbe de legatura si trebuie urmate de un nume predicativ: to be - a fi to become - a deveni to seem - a parea

She is funny - Ea este nostima Budgies become frightened easily - Papagalii perus devin usor speriati It seemed like a good idea - Parea o idee buna
286. In engleza urmatoarele verbe NU sunt totdeauna verbe de legatura functia lor in propozitie depinde de context:

to appear - a aparea, a parea to feel - a simti to grow - a creste to look - a privi, a cauta, a parea to prove - a dovedi to remain - a ramane to smell - a mirosi to sound - a suna to taste - a gusta to turn - a (se) intoarce, a deveni
287. To appear, to look si to turn au valoare de predicat nominal atunci cand au intelesul unuia din verbele care am vazut ca sunt totdeauna predicate nominale: to be, to become, to seem

Predicate nominale: He appears tired He seems tired Pare obosit He looks familiar He seems familiar Pare cunoscut He turned 16. - He became 16 (nu se zice) - A implinit, (a devenit de)16 ani. NU sunt predicate nominale He appeared on TV - A aparut la televizor He is looking for his watch - Isi cauta ceasul He turned the car to face the gate - A intors masina ca sa fie cu fata spre poarta
288. Daca celelalte verbe prezentate To feel - a simti, to grow - a creste, to prove - a dovedi, to remain - a ramane, to smell - a mirosi, to sound - a suna, to taste - a gusta pot fi considerate sinonime cu verbul to be, atunci avem de-a face cu un predicat nominal care trebuie urmat de un adjectiv sau de un substantiv.

I feel a stong pain - Simt un mare junghi: verb de actiune I feel tired - Ma simt obosita - Sunt obosita: verb de legatura (predicat nominal) I grow a tree - Cresc un copac: verb de actiune He will grow tall - El va creste inalt - El va fi inalt: verb de legatura (predicat nominal)
289. Exista cateva adjective in engleza care nu pot sta decat pe langa un verb de legatura. Ele nu pot fi folosite pe langa substantive. He is ill. - E bolnav. An ill man - Nu e corect.

afraid: I am afraid - Mi-e frica asleep: He is asleep - El doarme

alone: I am alone - Sunt singur alive: I am alive - Sunt viu aware: I am aware of that - Sunt constient de acest lucru awake: It's ok, I am awake - E ok, nu dorm content: I am content - Sunt multumit due: The paper is due tommorow - Referatul are scadenta maine ready: I am ready - Sunt gata unable: I am unable to sing - Nu pot sa cant glad: I am glad you came - Ma bucur ca ai venit sorry: I am sorry - Imi pare rau well: He is well - El e bine ill: He is ill - El e bolnav sure: I am sure - Sunt sigur
290. Toate timpurile invatate se refera la Diateza Activa, subiectul propozitiei efectueaza actiunea.

I am eating a boa constrictor - Eu mananc un sarpe boa


291. In Diateza Pasiva actiunea se face asupra subiectului

I am being eaten by a boa constrictor. - Eu sunt mancat de un sarpe boa The clothes have been rinsed in the washing machine - Hainele au fost clatite in masina de spalat
292. Diateza Pasiva - Present Tense The crates are lifted by me - Lazile sunt ridicate de mine La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I lift crates - Eu ridic lazi.

I am lifted - Eu sunt ridicat You are lifted - Tu esti ridicat He is lifted - El este ridicat She is lifted - Ea este ridicata We are lifted - Noi suntem ridicati You are lifted - Voi sunteti ridicati They are lifted - Ei, Ele sunt ridicati/ridicate
293. Diateza Pasiva - Present Continuous The creates are being lifted by me La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I am lifting crates.

I am being lifted You are being lifted He is being lifted She is being lifted We are being lifted You are being lifted They are being lifted

294. Diateza Pasiva - Past Tense The crates were lifted by me - Lazile au fost ridicate de mine La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I lifted crates - Eu am ridicat lazi.

I was lifted - Eu am fost ridicat You were lifted - Tu ai fost ridicat He was lifted - El a fost ridicat She was lifted - Ea a fost ridicata We were lifted - Noi am fost ridicati You were lifted - Voi ati fost ridicati They were lifted - Ei, Ele au fost ridicati
295. Diateza Pasiva - Present Perfect The creates have been lifted by me La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I have lifted crates.

I have been lifted - Eu am fost ridicat You have been lifted - Tu ai fost ridicat He has been lifted - El a fost ridicat She has been lifted - Ea a fost ridicata We have been lifted - Noi am fost ridicati You have been lifted - Voi ati fost ridicati They have been lifted - Ei, Ele au fost ridicati
296. Diateza Pasiva - Past Continuous The crates were being lifted by me - Lazile erau ridicate de mine La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I was lifting crates - Eu ridicam lazi.

I was being lifted - Eu eram ridicat You were being lifted - Tu erai ridicat He was being lifted - El era ridicat She was being lifted - Ea era ridicata We were being lifted - Noi eram ridicati You were being lifted - Voi erati ridicati They were being lifted - Ei, Ele erau ridicati
297. Diateza Pasiva - Past Perfect The crates had been lifted by me - Lazile fusesera ridicate de mine La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I had lifted crates - Eu ridicasem lazi.

I had been lifted - Eu fusesem ridicat You had been lifted - Tu fusesesi ridicat He had been lifted - El fusesese ridicat She had been lifted - Ea fusesese ridicata We had been lifted - Noi fuseseram ridicati

You had been lifted - Voi fuseserati ridicati They had been lifted - Ei, Ele fusesera ridicati
298. Diateza Pasiva - Future Tense The creates will be lifted by me - Lazile vor fi ridicate de mine. La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I will lift crates - Eu voi ridica lazi.

I will be lifted - Eu voi fi ridicat You will be lifted - Tu vei fi ridicat He will be lifted - El va fi ridicat She will be lifted - Ea va fi ridicata We will be lifted - Noi vom fi ridicati You will be lifted - Voi veti fi ridicati They will be lifted - Ei, Ele vor fi ridicati
299. Diateza Pasiva - Future Continuous The creates will be being lifted by me. La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I will be lifting crates.

Acest timp e prea complicat. Nu se foloseste


300. Diateza Pasiva - Future Perfect The creates will have been lifted by me - Lazile vor fi fost ridicate de mine. La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I will have lifted crates - Eu voi fi ridicat lazi.

I will have been lifted - Eu voi fi fost ridicat You will have been lifted - Tu vei fi fost ridicat He will have been lifted - El va fi fost ridicat She will have been lifted - Ea va fi fost ridicata We will have been lifted - Noi vom fi fost ridicati You will have been lifted - Voi veti fi fost ridicati They will have been lifted - Ei, Ele vor fi fost ridicati
301. Diateza Pasiva - Perfect Continuous Tenses La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I have been lifting crates sau I had been lifting crates sau I will have been lifting crates

Aceste timpuri devin foarte complicate la diateza pasiva, asa ca nu se folosesc.


302. Modul conditional exista si in engleza si in romana:

I would fly if I had wings. - As zbura daca as avea aripi. As zbura (I would fly) e conditionalul prezent As fi zburat - I would have flown e conditionalul trecut
303. Conditionalul Prezent ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele:

I would fly - Eu as zbura You would fly - Tu ai zbura He would fly - El ar zbura She would fly - Ea ar zbura We would fly - Noi am zbura You would fly - Voi ati zbura They would fly - Ei, Ele ar zbura
304. I shall do this are la conditional echivalentul I should do this iar I will do this are la conditional echivalentul I would do this would si should nu inseamna acelasi lucru: shall implica o promisiune - I should inseamna ar trebui I would inseamna as vrea

Tom: I shall win the race! - Voi castiga cursa! Bill: You should!- Ar trebui (ar fi cazul) Tom: I will call you!- Am sa va sun! Bill I know you would (like to call us), but they might not have phones - Stiu ca ai vrea sa ne suni, dar s-ar putea sa nu aiba telefoane.
305. La diateza pasiva ca si la diateza activa conditionalul nu se schimba in functie de persoana (you, he, she etc)

I would be asked by my teacher - As fi intrebat de profesoara.


306. Conditionalul prezent continuu I, you...would be flying.

They are flying a kite - Ei inalta un zmeu prezent continuu. They would be flying a kite if there was wind - Ei ar inalta un zmeu daca ar fi vant conditionalul la prezent continuu.
307. Conditionalul prezent continuu inlocuieste conditionalul prezent in aceleasi cazuri in care prezentul continuu inlocuieste prezentul.

If he were here, he would be answering your questions, as we speak - Daca ar fi aici, v-ar raspunde la intrebari chiar acum (in timpul acesta in care va vorbesc). iar la prezent Because he is here he is answeing questions, right now - Pentru ca e aici, el raspunde chiar acum la intrebari

308. Si Conditionalul Prezent Continuu ca si conditionalul prezent ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele.

I would be flying You would be flying He would be flying She would be flying We would be flying You would be flying They would be flying
309. Conditionalul Prezent Continuu nu are forma pasiva.

310. Conditionalul Trecut e de forma:

I would have asked - Eu as fi intrebat sau I should have asked - Ar fi trebuit sa intreb
311. Conjugarea Conditionalului trecut e neschimbata la toate persoanele In cazul verbelor neregulate se foloseste forma a treia. Conjugare: to ask (regulat), to eat (neregulat)

I would have asked/eaten You would have asked/eaten He would have asked/eaten She would have asked/eaten We would have asked/eaten You would have asked/eaten They would have asked/eaten
312. Diateza pasiva - Conditionalul Trecut Ca si pana acum nici aceasta forma nu se schimba in functie de persoana (You, he, she etc)

I would have been asked by my teacher - As fi fost intrebat de profesoara mea.


313. Conditionalul trecut continuu I, you...would have been flying.

They were flying a kite - Ei inaltau un zmeu - trecut continuu. They would have been flying a kite if there had been wind - Ei ar fi inaltat un zmeu daca ar fi avut vant -conditionalul la trecut continuu.
314. Conditionalul trecut continuu inlocuieste conditionalul trecut in aceleasi cazuri in care trecutul continuu inlocuieste trecutul.

He would have been doing jail time if the law hadn't changed - Ar fi facut puscarie daca nu s-ar fi schimbat legea.

315. Conditionalul trecut continuu ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele

I would have been flying You would have been flying He would have been flying She would have been flying We would have been flying You would have been flying They would have been flying
316. Conditionalul Trecut Continuu nu are forma pasiva.

317. Propozitiile care contin conditionale contin deasemeni de multe ori prin natura lor conjunctia daca. Aceste propozitii au forma: Daca A atunci B - If A then B Daca A, B - If A, B B daca A - B if A. Aceste propozitii care contin o conditie se numesc conditionale. In engleza, ele au anumite reguli pentru timpurile verbelor din cadrul lor. Ele se numesc If Clauses

If I go to school then I will learn a lot - Daca ma duc la scoala atunci voi invata multe sau If I go to school, I will learn a lot sau I will learn a lot if I go to school - Voi invata multe daca ma duc la scoala).
318. If Clauses - Regula nr1 Daca B e la viitor dupa if, adica in propozitia A se pune prezentul

If you let me in, I will give you a package - Daca ma lasi sa intru, iti dau un pachet sau I will give you a package if you let me in - Iti dau un pachet, daca ma lasi sa intru
319. If Clauses - Regula nr2 Daca B contine connditionalul prezent dupa if, adica in propozitia A se pune past tense

If I met her I would tell her - Daca as intalni-o, i-as spune I would tell her, if I met her - I-as spune, daca as intalni-o
320. Exceptie - Regula nr2 Verbul to be la toate persoanele devine were

If I were happy I would clap my hands - Daca as fi fericit as bate din palme

321. If Clauses - Regula nr3 Daca B contine connditionalul trecut, dupa if, adica in propozitia A se pune past perfect

If I had gone by ship I would have been shipwrecked too - Daca ma duceam cu vaporul as fi fost si eu naufragiat.
322. Pentru aceste reguli valabile pentru IF clauses trebuie sa verificam ca fraza contine un if clause adica contine daca...atunci - if...then. Regulile se aplica numai atunci cand daca introduce o propozitie conditionala. Asa cum am vazut then poate sa lipseasca din propozitie dar existenta lui then trebuie sa se subinteleaga, chiar daca nu exista in fraza.

I don't know if he will come - Nu stiu daca el va veni Aceasta propozitie nu este echivalenta cu: Daca el va veni atunci nu stiu. Deci nu este un if clause, nu are then si acesta nu se subintelege
323. Modul subjonctiv (sau conjunctiv) exista si in engleza si in romana: In engleza moderna modul subjonctiv nu este folosit mult.

Exemple de subjonctiv in romana: Sa fiu eu acolo, acest lucru nu s-ar intampla - If I were there this would not happen Sa fi fost eu acolo, acest lucru nu s-ar fi intamplat. - Had I been there this would not have happened Sa fiu este subjonctivul prezent al lui a fi. Sa fi fost este subjonctivul trecut al lui a fi.
324. In engleza: Subjonctivul prezent cere that in propozitia secundara. Subjonctivul prezent in engleza pune la toate persoanele verbul la infinitiv.

It is required that he pass the exam - Se cere ca el sa ia examenul si It was required that he pass the exam - Se cerea ca el sa ia examenul desi prezentul este: he passes the exam
325. Zicem insa:

Everyone knows that he passes exams - Toata lumea stie ca el ia examenele Deci he passes si nu he pass deoarece dupa cum vom vedea aceasta propozitie in engleza (sau romana) nu cere subjonctivul.
326. Subjonctivul in englezeste exprima dorinte sau cerinte prezente sau trecute.

I want that you come at 6 o'clock - Vreau ca tu sa vii la 6. I would like that you come at 6 o'clock. - Mi-ar placea ca tu sa vii la ora sase. Mult mai normal era insa I would like you to come at six o'clock (Mi-ar placea tu a veni la 6.)

327. Subjonctivul trecut nu se deosebeste ca forma de past tense in majoritatea cazurilor, insa el exprima prezentul. El foloseste fie if - daca fie to wish. Folosirea acestui subjonctiv urmeaza regula nr2 din if clause

If I owned a car, I would leave tommorow.- Sa am o masina as pleca maine. (Daca dorim sa pastram subjonctivul in romana) pe romaneste insa se zice mai mult Daca as avea o masina as pleca maine.
328. Subjonctivul trecut urmeaza si exceptia regulii nr2 din if clause

If I were a singer I would sing all day - Daca as fi cantaret as canta toata ziua. in ziua de azi insa veti auzi de multe ori: If I was a singer - Daca as fi cantaret
329. Un alt caz pentru subjonctivul trecut este atunci cand se foloseste verbul to wish - a dori in principala

I wish you were here - As vrea sa fii aici I wish he were here - As vrea sa fie aici dar se spune si I wish he was here - As vrea sa fie aici I wish I was a millionaire - As vrea sa fiu milionar.
330. Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect exprima cu adevarat un timp trecut (spre deosebire de subjonctivul trecut care am vazut ca exprima un eveniment prezent) . Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect foloseste mai mult ca perfectul (Past Perfect).

Sa ma fi dus ieri, cumparam bilete la spectacol. - If I had gone yesteday, I would've bought tickets to the show
331. Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect se poate exprima si omitand if si inversand locul pronumelui (subiectului) cu verbul auxiliar had

Sa ma fi dus ieri, cumparam bilete la spectacol. - Had I gone yesteday, I would've bought tickets to the show Had Farmer Jones known, he would've harvested sooner. - Sa fi stiut Fermierul Jones, ar fi recoltat mai devreme.
332. Subjonctivul viitor se formeza astfel:

If I were to pass the exam I would be ecstatic - Sa trec examenul as fi in culmea fericirii.
333. In englezeste am vazut ca subjonctivul se foloseste atunci cand verbul din principala exprima o dorinta sau o cerere. Insa constructia cu conjunctia that intre propozitii apare in multe alte situatii In aceste situatii regulile pentru subjonctiv nu sunt valabile

Subjonctiv I wish (that) he pass the class - Imi doresc ca el sa treaca clasa

I wish (that) he were more determined - Mi-as dori sa fie mai hotarat Nu contine subjonctiv I see (that) he studies nowadays - Vad ca el studiaza zilele astea I think (that) in the past he was lazy - Cred ca in trecut era lenes
334. Cand vorbim de acuzativ cu infinitiv verbul din secundara se pune la infinitiv iar pronumele (sau substantivul) la acuzativ. Acuzativul cu infinitiv de multe ori (dar nu totdeauna) se traduce in romaneste cu ajutorul subjonctivului.

I want you to go there in loc de I want that you go there. I want you to go there = Vreau ca tu sa te duci acolo
335. Sa comparam aceste doua forme trecand pronumele al doilea prin toate persoanele. Vedem aceata constructie de verb (wants) + acuzativ (me/you etc) + infinitiv (to go)

Emily wants that I go there - Emily wants me to go there Emily wants that you go there - Emily wants you to go there Emily wants that he go there - Emily wants him to go there Emily wants that she go there - Emily wants her to go there Emily wants that Jake go there - Emily wants Jake to go there Emily wants that we go there - Emily wants us to go there Emily wants that you go there - Emily wants you to go there Emily wants that they go there - Emily wants them to go there
336. Nu orice verb in propozitia principala permite folosirea acuzativului cu infinitivul Urmatoarele verbe sunt doar cateva dintre cele ce NU permit aceasta.

to fall, to run, to talk


337. Verbe care accepta acuzativul cu infinitivul: 1. Verbe care exprima dorinta: (to wish, to want, to like)

I wish him to speak - Doresc ca el sa vorbeasca I wish to speak. - Doresc (ca eu) sa vorbesc They would like me to talk about my hometown - Le-ar place ca eu sa vorbesc despre orasul meu natal
338. Verbe care accepta acuzativul cu infinitivul: 2.Verbe care exprima obligatii: (to make, to cause, to induce)

You made him cry! (fara to) - L-ai facut sa planga! The crisis caused the stock market to fall (cu to)- Criza a facut ca bursa sa cada The teacher convinced the little boy to sing (cu to) - Profesoara l-a convins pe baietel sa cante
339. Verbe care accepta acuzativul cu infinitivul: 3.Verbe senzoriale (to hear, to see, to notice, to feel, to watch) Aceasta categorie de verbe nu are to.

I felt him lose his cool - L-am simtit cum isi pierde firea He watched the plane vanish in the clouds - El a privit avionul disparand in nori. I heard him come in. - L-am auzit intrand I will see the teams compete.- Voi vedea echipele intrecandu-se. He will notice you sing well - Va observa ca tu canti bine.
340. Verbe care accepta acuzativul cu infinitivul: 3.Verbe care exprima activitatea mintala (to think, to consider, to understand)

I think him to be a great writer. - Cred ca el e un mare scriitor. I think (that) he is a great writer - era mai direct They consider him to be the future king - Il considera pe el (sa fie) viitorul rege He understood her to be a shy person.- El a inteles-o pe ea sa fie o persoana timida
341. Nominativul unei propozitii este subiectul, un pronume sau un substantiv. In anumite situatii in propozitii poate exista un nominativ si un infinitiv intre ele fiind intercalat predicatul propozitiei. Aceasta constructie poarta numele de nominativul cu infinitivul

I want to run - Vreau sa alerg.


342. Acesta constructie e posibila pentru anumite verbe aflate la pasiv (to make, to say, to know, to believe)

He was made to apologize by the teacher - A fost pus sa isi ceara scuze de catre profesoara That farmer is said to have many acres of land - Fermierul acela se zice ca are multi acri de pamant My grandmother was known to help people. - Bunica mea era cunoscuta ca ajuta oamenii During the war he was believed to be dead. - In timpul razboiului el era crezut mort
343. Nominativul cu infinitivul se poate folosi pentru verbele to happen, to seem, to appear, to prove.

They happen to be my cousins - Ei sunt verii mei Your friend seemed to have many plans for the future.- Prietenul tau parea sa aiba multe planuri de viitor The dog appeared to bark on command - Cainele parea sa latre la porunca I will prove to be worthy of your trust - Voi dovedi ca sunt demn de increderea voastra.
344. Nominativul cu infinitivul se poate folosi pentru verbul to be urmat de sure, certain sau likely

He is sure to remember the incident - El cu siguranta isi aminteste de incident You are certain to be in the play - Esti cu siguranta in piesa She is likely to succeed.- Ea are sanse sa castige.
345. Pe langa folosirea terminatiei ing la conjugarea continua, aceasta se foloseste si in alte situatii pe post de substantiv, adjectiv sau verb. Dupa rolul jucat in propozitie aceasta forma se numeste fie gerunziu fie participiu prezent.

Substantiv Reading is for everybody - Cititul e pentru toata lumea

Adjectiv I am part of a reading club - Fac parte dintr-un club de citit Verb I enjoy reading - Imi place sa citesc I found him reading - L-am gasit citind
346. Folosirea terminatiei ING pentru formarea substantivelor

Take your belongings! - Ia-ti lucrurile! Skiing is dangerous - Schiatul e periculos Catching trout is hard. - Prinderea de pastravi e grea.
347. Folosirea terminatiei ING pentru formarea adjectivelor

The fishing boat needs repairs - Barca de pescuit necesita reparatii. The tanning salon is closed - Salonul de brozat e inchis The cleaning solution is toxic. - Solutia de curatat e toxica
348. Folosirea terminatiei ING pentru formarea verbelor

I like painting - Imi place sa pictez I imagine him studying all day - Mi-l imaginez invatand toata ziua I saw your parrot flying in my garden - L-am vazut pe papagalul tau zburand la mine in gradina
349. De multe ori aceste propozitii ce contin forma ING se pot reformula, daca dorim. Daca insa suntem siguri de formulare, ele nu trebuie evitate

Do you mind my smoking? devine Do you mind if I smoke? The cleaning solution is toxic. - The solution used for cleaning is toxic I like painting - I like to paint
350. Forma cu ING se poate folosi si in locul expresiilor de forma substantiv care verb care se transforma in adjectiv verb

fata care canta - the girl that sings the ball that bounces - mingea care sare the man that sleeps - barbatul care doarme devin the singing girl the bouncing bal the sleeping man Sleeping beauty - Frumoasa adormita Jumping bean - fasole saritoare (o varietate de fasole)
351. Spre deosebire de alte adjective, aceste adjective cu ing pot fi puse dupa substantiv. Ele se scriu cu cratima. Insa sensul expresiei se schimba:

eatimg man - barbat care mananca man-eating - care mananca barbati (oameni) hunting fox - vupe care vaneaza fox hunting - vanatoare de vulpi fishing boat - barca de pescuit boat-fishing - care pescuieste barci diving sky - cer care plonjeza sky-diving - care plonjeaza din cer
352. Exista si adjective compuse in care primul cuvant e un substantiv si al doilea un adjectiv format cu ing. Impreuna insa ele formeaza un nou adjectiv.

jaw-dropping performance - prestatie extraordinara jaw-dropping - care cade falca mind-boggling idea - idee uluitoare mind-boggling - care zapaceste mintea eye-popping stunt - cascadorie fantastica eye-popping - care scoate ochii
353. Asa cum am vazut subjonctivul englez e folosit mult mai rar ca in romana. In engleza el are numai rolul de a exprima dorinte, cereri pe cand in romana orice verb are subjonctiv. In multe cazuri subjonctivul romanesc in englezeste se traduce printr-un verb cu forma ing

Before eating some people pray. - Inainte sa manance unii oameni se roaga Instead of crying over spilt milk buy some more milk. - In loc sa plangi dupa laptele varsat, mai cumpara lapte They began working - Ei au inceput sa lucreze I like starting new things - Imi place sa incep lucruri noi I think seeing a movie is the best idea. - Cred ca sa vedem un film e cea mai buna idee.
354. Ca si in romana (unde totusi in ziua de azi nu e uzual) subjonctivul (forma cu ing in engleza) poate fi inlocuit cu infinitivul Aceasta formulare in engleza e mult folosita, in continuare. Unele verbe primesc aceasta inlocuire altele nu. Unele nu accepta forma cu ing, si in schimb accepta infinitivul Totul depinde de predicatul propozitiei.

Romaneste Vreau sa pictez - Vreau a picta Englezeste Cazuri cand se foloseste numai infinitivul I want to sing - Vreau sa cant He decided to come - A hotarat sa vina Cazuri cand se foloseste numai forma cu ing He mentioned seeing the movie - A mentionat ca a vazut filmul

Cazuri cand se foloseste oricare forma I started to believe/believing him - Am inceput sa il cred I tried to finish/finishing this - Am incercat sa termin aceasta
355. Verbe care sunt folosite numai cu infinitivul:

afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, care, choose, claim, consent, dare, decide, decline, demand, desire, determine, endeavour, expect, fail, fight, grow, guarantee, happen, hasten, help, hesitate, hope, learn, long, manage, neglect, offer, plan, pledge, prepare, pretend, proceed, promise, prove, reckon, refuse, resolve, scorn, seek, seem, strive, struggle, swear, tend, threaten, trouble, undertake, venture, volunteer, vote, vow, wait, wish, would like
356. Verbe care sunt folosite numai cu forma cu ING:

admit, adore, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, consider, contemplate, defend, defer, delay, deny, detest, describe, discuss, dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, explain, face, fancy, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, involve, keep, lie, loathe, mention, mind, miss, pardon, postpone, practise, prevent, quit, recall, recollect, report, resent, resist, risk, save, suggest, tolerate, understand cant help, cant resist, cant stand, its no use, there is no point/ sense in, its worth
357. Lista de verbe dupa care poate veni un verb si la infinitiv si la forma cu ING:

advise, allow, attempt, begin, bother, cease, come, continue, deserve, dread, fear, forbid, forget, go on, hate, hear, intend, like, love, mean, need, permit, prefer, propose, recommend, regret, remember, require, see, start, stop, try, want, be afraid (of/to), be ashamed (of/to), be sorry(for/to), can't bear, can't stand, care (for/to)
358. Desi aceste verbe permit ambele forme sensul celor doua forme cateodata difera.

He forgot to learn - A uitat sa invete He forgot learning - A uitat ca a invatat He remembered to pay - A tinut minte sa plateasca He remembered paying - Si-a amintit ca a platit She stopped to talk - S-a oprit sa vorbeasca She stopped talking - S-a oprit din vorbit I like to ski - Im place sa schiez I like skiing - Imi place schiatul
359. Aceste reguli se refera la verbe care vin dupa alte verbe. Un verb singur poate fi totdeauna la infinitiv sau la forma cu ING.

To err is human, to forgive is divine. - Erring is human forgiving is divine adica A gresi e omeneste, a ierta e dumnezeieste - Sa gresim e omeneste sa iertam e dumnezeieste. Fiindca sunt doua propozitii ele nu se influenteaza una pe alta. Daca ziceam: To forgive erring people is divine - A ierta oameni care gresesc e divin, atunci to err trebuia pus la gerunziu fiindca to forgive cerea acest lucru. Observatii:

1. Proverbul este: To err is human, to forgive divine. 2. Azi se zice to make a mistake nu to err
360. Forma cu ING se foloseste dupa anumite prepozitii:

After writing the letter I mailed it. - Dupa ce am scris scrisoarea am expediat-o On hearing this, she started to laugh - Auzind aceasta, ea a inceput sa rada
361. Lista de prepozitii care cer forma cu ING atunci cand se foloseste un verb dupa ele against, at, after, by, on, instead of, talk about, tired of, without

We are against bombing other countries - Suntem impotriva bombardarii altor tari He is good at telling stories - El e bun la spus povesti After finishing the paper I went to bed - Dupa ce am terminat lucrarea m-am dus la culcare By passing this round I am now qualified for the final - Trecand de aceasta runda, m-am calificat pentru finale. On meeting the president he was speechless - La intalnirea cu presedintele el a ramas fara cuvinte Instead of going to the circus, let's go to the zoo.- In loc sa mergem la circ hai sa mergem la zoo. Let's talk about catching rhinos - Hai sa vorbim despre prinderea de rinoceri I am tired of hearing about this. - M-am saturat sa aud de asta He left without saying a word - A plecat fara sa zica un cuvant
362. Cateva exemple de propozitii care in romaneste se traduc cu ca, dar care in engleza folosesc tot forma cu ING:

I remember seeing him - Imi amintesc ca l-am vazut I admit telling her - Recunosc ca i-am spus I swear telling the truth - Jur ca am spus adevarul cu traduceri exacte I remember that I saw him I admit that I told her I swear that I told the truth
363. Participiul trecut al verbului to break e broken (a treia forma din lista de verbe neregulate). Ca si in romana participiul trecut al unei actiuni poate deveni adjectiv care sugereaza o insusire dobandita in trecut.

Breaking news - Stiri foarte noi (care sparg) - foloseste participiul prezent breaking insa Broken arm - Mana rupta (sparta) - foloseste participiul trecut broken
364. Exemple de adjective provenite din participiul trecut

melted ice - gheata care s-a topit melting ice - gheata care se topeste sunken treasure - comoara ingropata forgotten facts - fapte uitate colored eggs - oua vopsite

fattened calf - vitelul ingrasat burnt bread - paine arsa heated cofee - cafea incalzita
365. Participiul Trecut poate fi folosit si fara sa fie adjectiv. Pentru noi ca romani e mai directa si de preferat aceasta constructie, pentru cei ce nu sunt avansati.

A building, damaged by the earthquake, was torn down.- O cladire, avariata de cutremur, a fost demolata mai englezeste ar fi fost An earthquake damaged building was torn down A man, hit by a ball, started yelling - Un barbat, lovit de o minge, a inceput sa strige.
366. Participiul Perfect reprezinta o actiune terminata care duce la o alta actiune. Se formeaza din having si participiul trecut al verbului.

Having finished the project she went for a walk. - Terminand (Deoarece terminase) proiectul, ea s-a dus sa se plimbe. Having spent all his money, the student called home. - Deoarece isi cheltuise toti banii, studentul a sunat acasa.
367. Imperativul in limba engleza Acest timp se foloseste in comenzi, sugestii, instructiuni, invitatii. Daca nu e insotitt de Please - te rog ca si in romana de multe ori e nepoliicos Subiectul imperativului e subinteles, si se foloseste rar. Cand persoana e specificata prin nume, acesta se pune sau la inceputul sau (de preferinta) la sfarsitul propozitiei.

Nepoliticos: Shut up! Taci din gura! Get out! - Iesi afara! Politicos! Please be quiet! Please, leave! - Te rog pleaca! Se zice: Come on! - Haide! Andrew! Come on! - Andrew!Haide! Come on, Andrew! - Haide, Andrew
368. Cazurile de imperativ din engleza sunt asemenea limbii romane, anume se foloseste persoana a 2a la toate verbele in afara lui to be In cazul verbului to be - a fi la imperativ se pastreaza forma de infinitiv.

Andrew merge. - Andrew walks. (pers.a 3a) Andrew, mergi! - Andrew walk!(pers.a 2a) dar Andrew este atent. - Andrew is careful. Andrew fii atent! - Andrew be careful!

Observatie: Be careful! inseamna Fii atent la ce faci. Fii atent! la lectie se zice Pay attention!
369. Alta construcitie a imperativului des intalnita, este folosind verbul to let - a lasa Pentru orice verb care accepta o asemenea constructie Let'ssau Let us inseamna Hai sa

Open the door and let me come in! - Deschide usa si lasa-ma sa intru! Let me in! - lasa-ma sa intru! Let me go! - Da-mi drumul! Let us pray - Sa ne rugam Let's play! - Hai sa ne jucam Let's eat! - Hai sa mancam Let's dance! - Hai sa dansam! Ok, let's! - Bine, hai!
370. Cateodata se pune Do in fata infinitivului pentru a il face mai politicos. Cand punem Do nu mai punem Please - Te rog Do nu se foloseste decat in contexte deja politicoase. Daca se spune cuiva: Sweep the floor! atunci e mai bine sa se foloseasca Please! - Please, sweep the floor!

Do, come in! - Intrati! Do, be quiet - Te rog liniste! Do, sit down - Te rog, ia loc! Do, come see me!- Te rog, mai treci pe la mine!
371. Alte exemple de imperativ:

Take the first turn right. - Ia-o pe prima la dreapta. Hurry up!- Grabeste-te! Watch out! - Pazea! Watch it! - Vezi cum vorbesti! Have a good time! - Distractie placuta! Have fun! - Distractie placuta Sleep well! - Dormi bine (Somn usor) Brace yourself - Imbarbateaza-te! Get a grip - Aduna-te! Hang in there! - Rezista!
372. Negativul verbului to be la present tense se formeaza astfel:

I am not - Nu sunt You are not - Nu esti He is not - El nu e She is not - Ea nu e! We are not - Nu suntem You are not - Nu sunteti They are not - Nu sunt

373. Negativul verbului to be la past tense se formeaza astfel:

I was not - Nu eram You were not - Nu erai He was not - El nu era She was not - Ea nu era We were not - Nu eram You were not - Nu erati They were not - Nu erau
374. Negativul unui verb care nu e la un timp compus Acesta se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do:

Nu lucrez noaptea - I do not work at night Nu stiu unde e - I do not know where it is Nu m-a intrebat pe mine - He did not ask me.
375. Daca timpul este compus se foloseste numai not

Nu lucrez acum - I am not working now I will not work tommorow - Nu voi lucra maine I haven't been working for weeks - Nu am nai lucrat de saptamani. I have not been to Australia - Nu am fost in Australia
376. Atunci cand folosim Past Tense care nu e un timp compus si deci negatia contine do, do se pune la trecut nu verbul. Deasemenea do la prezent devine does la persoana a 3a singular

I did not wash my hands - Nu m-am spalat pe maini. He does not know me - Nu ma cunoaste We did not see him there - Nu l-am vazut acolo.
377. Do not se contracta in don't. Did not in didn't

I do not smoke - Nu fumez She does not teach anymore - Ea nu mai preda We do not do that - Nu facem asta devin I don't smoke She doesn't teach anymore We don't do that
378. Present Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I do not wash - I don't wash You do not wash - You don't wash He does not wash - He doesn't wash She do not wash - She doesn't wash

We do not wash - We don't wash You do not wash - You don't wash They do not wash - They don't wash
379. Present Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I am not washing - I'm not washing You are not washing - You're not washing He is not washing - He's not washing She's not washing - She's not washing We are not washing - We're not washing You are not washing - You aren't washing They are not washing - They aren't washing
380. Past Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I did not wash - I didn't wash You did not wash - You didn't wash He did not wash - He didn't wash She did not wash - She didn't wash We did not wash - We didn't wash You did not wash - You didn't wash They did not wash - They didn't wash
381. Present Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I have not washed - I haven't washed You have not washed - You haven't washed He has not washed - He hasn't washed She has not washed - She hasn't washed We have not washed - We haven't washed You have not washed - You haven't washed They have not washed - They haven't washed
382. Past Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I was not washing - I wasn't washing You were not washing - You weren't washing He was not washing - He wasn't washing She was not washing - She wasn't washing We were not washing - We weren't washing You were not washing - You weren't washing They were not washing - They weren't washing
383. Past Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I had not washed - I hadn't washed You had not washed - You hadn't washed

He had not washed - He hadn't washed She had not washed - She hadn't washed We had not washed - We hadn't washed You had not washed - You hadn't washed They had not washed - They hadn't washed
384. Future Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I will not wash - I won't wash You will not wash - You won't wash He will not wash - He won't wash She will not wash - She won't wash We will not wash - We won't wash You willnot wash - You won't wash They willnot wash - They won't wash
385. Future Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I will not be washing - I won't be washing You will not be washing - You won't be washing He will not be washing - He won't be washing She will not be washing - She won't be washing We will not be washing - We won't be washing You will not be washing - You won't be washing They will not be washing - They won't be washing
386. Future Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I will not have washed - I won't have washed You will not have washed - You won't have washed He will not have washed - He won't have washed She will not have washed - She won't have washed We will not have washed - We won't have washed You will not have washed - You won't have washed They will not have washed - They won't have washed
387. Present Perfect Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I have not been washing - I've not been washing You have not been washing - You haven't been washing He has not been washing - He hasn't been washing She has not been washing - She hasn't been washing We have not have washing - We haven't been washing You have not been washing - You haven't been washing They have not been washing - They havn't been washing
388. Diateza Pasiva - Present Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I am not washed - I'm not washed You are not washed - You're not washed He is not washed - He's not washed She is not washed - She's not washed We are not washed - We're not washed You are not washed - You're not washed They are not washed - They're not washed
389. Diateza Pasiva - Present Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I am not being washed - I'm not being washed You are not being washed - You're not being washed He is not being washed - He's not being washed She is not being washed - She's not being washed We are not being washed - We're not being washed You are not being washed - You're not being washed They are not being washed - They're not being washed
390. Diateza Pasiva - Past Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I was not washed - I wasn't washed You were not washed - You weren't washed He was not washed - He wasn't washed She was not washed - She wasn't washed We were not washed - We weren't washed You were not washed - You weren't washed They were not washed - They were'nt washed
391. Diateza Pasiva - Present Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I have not been washed - I've not been washed You have not been washed - You haven't been washed He has not been washed - He hasn't been washed She has not been washed - She hasn't been washed We have not have washed - We haven't been washed You have not been washed - You haven't been washed They have not been washed - They havn't been washed
392. Diateza Pasiva - Past Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I was not being washed - I wasn't being washed You were not being washed - You weren't being washed He was not being washed - He wasn't being washed She was not being washed - She wasn't being washed We were not being washed - We weren't being washed You were not being washed - You weren't being washed They were not being washed - They were'nt being washed

393. Diateza Pasiva - Past Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I had not been washed - I hadn't been washed You had not been washed - You hadn't been washed He had not been washed - He hadn't been washed She had not been washed - She hadn't been washed We had not have washed - We hadn't been washed You had not been washed - You hadn't been washed They had not been washed - They hadn't been washed
394. Diateza Pasiva - Future Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I will not be washed - I won't be washed You will not be washed - You won't be washed He will not be washed - He won't be washed She will not be washed - She won't be washed We will not be washed - We won't be washed You will not be washed - You won't be washed They will not be washed - They won't be washed
395. Diateza Pasiva - Future Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

Acest timp e prea complicat. Nu se foloseste


396. Diateza Pasiva - Future Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I will not have been washed - I won't have been washed You will not have been washed - You won't have been washed He will not have been washed - He won't have been washed She will not have been washed - She won't have been washed We will not have been washed - We won't have been washed You will not have been washed - You won't have been washed They will not have been washed - They won't have been washed
397. Diateza Pasiva - Perfect Continuous Tenses- Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala. Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous

Aceste timpuri devin foarte complicate la diateza pasiva, asa ca nu se folosesc.


398. Conditionalul - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala. Formele de conditional would si should provin de la forma de viitor will asa ca negativul in aceste cazuri se formeaza la fel ca pentru will

I would not tell him if I were you. I wouldn't tell him if I were you Nu i-as spune sa fiu in locul tau

They should not buy a new car They shouldn't buy a new car Nu e nevoie sa-si cumpere o masina noua
399. Forma interogativa a verbului to be Se formeaza prin inversarea verbului cu subiectul, ca si in romaneste. I am happy - Eu sunt fericit(a) Am I happy? - Sunt eu fericita?

Are you a teacher> - Esti profesor? Is he your friend? - Este el prietenul tau? Are they late for work? - Au intarziat ei la serviciu> Are you Swedish? - Esti suedez? Am I right? - Am dreptate? Were you tired? - Ai fost obosit?
400. Spre deosebire de romana, in engleza se poate zice Am I? sau chiar I am?. Dar cele doua au intelesuri diferite. I am? exprima mirare si bucurie. Am I? exprima indoiala. De exemplu:

You are in the top ten. - Esti intre primii zece. I am? - Da? You are not in the top ten. - Nu esti intre primii zece. Oh, I'm not? - O, nu? You are so happy! - Esti asa de fericit! Am I? - Zau? You are not smart! - Nu esti destept! I'm not, am I? - Nu sunt, nu? (ironic)
401. Raspunsul la o intrebare de genul Are you happy> poate fi Yes - Da Yes, I am - Da, sunt No - Nu No, I am not - Nu, nu sunt

Are you a farmer? - No. You are not a farmer?! - No, I am not. Are you? Yes! Esti fermier? - Nu. Nu esti fermier?! - Nu, nu sunt. Tu esti? Da!

402. Interogativul in cazul timpurilor necompuse (Present Tense si Past Tense) Atunci cand propozitia contine alt verb decat to be (si nu contine un verb modal) iar verbul nu e la o forma compusa, interogativul se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do NU se face inversarea verbului cu subiectul ca in cazul lui to be. You work at night - Lucrezi noaptea. You drive - Conduci. I know you - Te cunosc They all live in a yellow submarine - Ei locuiesc toti intr-un submarin galben.

Lucrezi noaptea? - Do you work at night? Do you drive? - Conduci? Do I know you? - Te cunosc? Do they all live in a yellow submarine?- Locuiesc ei toti intr-un submarin galben?
403. Aunci cand in intrebari se cere folosirea verbului to do acesta preia persoana si timpul verbului de baza. Astfel persoana a treia a verbului pierde litera s si la orice persoana verbul ramane la infinitiv. He plays cards - El joaca carti She rides horses - Ea calareste cai. My green parrot flies well - Papagalul meu verde zboara bine. You did your homework - Ti-ai facut temele.

Does he play cards? - El joaca carti? Does she ride horses? - Ea calareste? Does your green parrot fly well? - Zboara bine papagalul tau verde? Did you play cards? - Tu ai jucat carti? Did she play cards? - Ea a jucat carti? Did they ride horses - Au calarit ei cai? Did your geen parrot fly well? - Zbura bine papagalul tau verde? Did you do your homework - Ti-ai facut temele?
404. La interogatii daca timpul este compus do nu se foloseste dar se schimba ordinea pronumelui cuprimul auxiliar. You had eaten enough. - Mancasei destul. She has always come home for Christmas.- Totdeauna a venit acasa de Craciun. You have been jogging lately - Ai facut jogging in ultimul timp. We will overcome - Vom invinge. . The cowboy is riding in the moonlight. - Cowboyul calareste in lumina lunii.

Had you eaten enough? - Mancasei destul? Has she always come home for Christmas? - A venit ea totdeauna acasa de Craciun? Have you been jogging lately? - Ai facut jogging in ultimul timp? Will we overcome? - Vom invinge? Is the cowboy riding in the moonlight? - Calareste cowboyul la lumina lunii?
405. Propozitii interogative fara inversare You work tonight - Lucrezi diseara Do you work tonight - Lucrezi diseara? Se poate spune si

You are working tonight? (deci fara inversare, dar nu este propriu-zis o intrebare, exprima mirarea (You work tonight !?!)

I like to eat grapefruit. - Imi place sa mananc grep. Do you like to eat grapefruit? - Iti place sa mananci grep? You like to eat grapefruit?!? - Iti place sa mananci grep?!? He has gone to hunt lions.- S-a dus sa vaneze lei. Has he gone to hunt lions? - S-a dus sa vaneze lei? He has gone to hunt lions?- S-a dus sa vaneze lei?!?
406. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Present Tense I am happy - Eu sunt fericit I watch a movie every night - Ma uit la un film in fiare seara.

Are you happy? - Tu esti fericit? Is he happy? - E el fericit? Do you watch a movie every night? - Te uiti la un film in fiecare seara? Does he watch a movie every night? - Se uita el la un film in fiecare seara?
407. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Present Continuous I am watching a movie. - Ma uit la un film.

Are you watching a movie? - Te uiti la un film? Is she watching a movie? - Ea se uita la un film? Are they watching a movie? - Ei se uita la un film?
408. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Past Tense I was happy - Eu eram fericit I watched a movie - M-am uitat la un film.

Was I happy - Eram fericit Were you happy? - Erai fericit Was she happy? - Era fericita? Did you watch a movie? - Te-ai uitat la un film? Did they watch a movie - S-au uitat ei la film?
409. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Present Perfect I have been happy in the past - Eu eram fericit in trecut I have watched a movie - M-am uitat la un film.

Have I been happy in the past? - Am fost eu fericit in trecut? Has he been happy in the past? - A fost el fericit in trecut? Have they been happy in the past? - Au fost ei fericiti in trecut?

Have you watched a movie? - Te-ai uitat la un film? Has she watched a movie? - S-a uitat ea la un film?
410. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Past Continuous I was watching a movie when the lights went off - Ma uitam la un film cand s-au stins luminile.

Were you watching a movie, when the lights went off? - Te uitai la un film cand s-au stins luminile. Was he watching a movie, when the lights went off? - Se uita el la un film cand s-au stins luminile?. Were they watching a movie, when the lights went off? - Se uitaU ei la un film cand s-au stins luminile?
411. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Past Perfect I had been happy until then - Pana atunci fusesem fericit(a). I had watched a movie already - Ma uitasem deja la un film.

Had you been happy untill then? - Pana atunci fusesei fericit(a)? Had we been happy untill then? - Pana atunci fusesem noi fericit? Had you watched a movie already? - Te uitasei tu deja la un film? Had they watched a movie already? - Se uitasera ei deja la un film?
412. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbelor to watch si to be la Future Tense Someday, I will be happy - Intr-o zi voi fi fericit(a). I will watch a movie - Ma voi uita la un film.

Someday, will I be happy? - Voi fi fericit(a) intr-o zi? Someday, will they be happy - Voi fi ei(ele) fericiti(e) intr-o zi? Will I watch a movie? - Ma voi uita eu la un film? (vezi verbe modale) Will they watch a movie? - Se vor uita ei la un film? (vezi verbe modale)
413. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Future Continuous I will be watching a movie at that time - Ma voi uita la un film, la acea ora.

Will you be watching a movie at that time? - Te vei uita la un film la acea ora? Will we be watching a movie at that time? - Ne vom uita la un film la acea ora?
414. Forma interogativa a verbelor to watch si to be la Future Perfect I will have been happy - Voi fi fost fericit(a). When this movie is over I will have watched 3 movies - Cand se termina acest film ma voi fi uitat la 3 filme.

Will you have been happy> - Vei fi fost tu fericit(a)? When this movie is over will you have watched 3 movies ?- Cand se termina acest film te vei fi uitat la 3 filme?

415. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Present Perfect Continuous I have been watching a movie all afternoon - M-am uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza.

Have you been watching a movie all afternoon? - Te-ai uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza? Has she been watching a movie all afternoon? - S-a uitat ea la un film toata dupa amiaza?
416. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Past Perfect Continuous I had been watching a movie all afternoon before you came over.- Ma uitasem la un film toata dupa amiaza inainte sa vii tu.

Had you been watching a movie all afternoon before I came over? - Te uitasei la un film toata dupa amiaza inainte sa vin eu? Had he been watching a movie all afternoon before I came over? - Se uitase la un film toata dupa amiaza inainte sa vin eu?
417. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Future Perfect Continuous I will have been watching a movie all afternoon by the time it is 5 o'clock.- Ma voi fi uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza pana sa se faca ora 5.

Will you have been watching a movie all afternoon by the time it is 5 o'clock?- Te vei fi uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza pana sa se faca ora 5?
418. Formarea unui interogativ dintr-o propozitie negativa Are + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in aren't + pronume Is + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in isn't + pronume Do + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in don't + pronume Will + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in won't Have + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in haven't Was + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in wasn't + pronume Were + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in weren't + pronume Did + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in didn't + pronume Had + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in hadn't + pronume Would + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in wouldn't + pronume Should + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in shouldn't + pronume Puteti sa procedati astfel: Luati interogativul pozitiv si inlocuiti dupa caz, auxiliarul inversat cu una din contractiile de mai sus. Altfel porniti de la negatie si faceti inversiunea.

You are 20 - Ai 20 de ani. You are not 20 - Nu ai 20 de ani. Are you 20? - Ai 20 de ani? Aren't you 20? - N-ai 20 de ani? You saw him - L-ai vazut. You did not see him - Nu l-ai vazut. Did you see him? - L-ai vazut? Didn't you see him? - Nu l-ai vazut?

419. Formarea unui interogativ dintr-o propozitie negativa in cazul verbului to be. In cazul verbului to be, interogativul negativ se face tot prin inversarea subiectului cu primul dintre verbele auxiliare. Am I not - NU se contracta.

Am I going to Paris? - Merg la Paris? Are you hungry? - Ti-e foame? Aren't you hungry? - Nu ti-e foame? Were you hungry? - Ti-era foame? Weren't you hungry? - Nu ti-era foame? Have you been hungry? - Ti-a fost foame? Haven't you been hungry? - Nu ti-a fost foame? Was I quick? - Am fost iute? Wasn't I quick? - N-am fost iute? Will he be there? - Va fi acolo? Won't he be there? - Nu va fi acolo?
420. Formarea unui interogativ dintr-o propozitie negativa in cazul altui verb decat to be.

Do you like cheese? - Iti place branza? Don't you like cheese - Nu iti place branza? Will he paint your portrait? - Iti va picta portretul? Won't he paint your portrait? - Nu iti va picta portretul? Have you planted your garden? - Ti-ai plantat gradina? Haven't you planted your garden? - Nu ti-ai plantat gradina? Have you been talking on the phone? - Ai vorbit la telefon? Haven't you been talking on the phone?
421. Formularea raspunsului DA/NU la intrebarile fara negatie. Se face in functie de formularea intrebarii. La intrebari formulate cu verbul to be, se raspunde tot prin verbul to be. La intrebari formulate cu auxliarul to do, se raspunde tot prin to do. La intrebari formulate cu auxliarul to have, se raspunde tot prin to have. La intrebari formulate cu auxliarul will, se raspunde tot cu will. Daca mai multe din aceste auxiliare apar intr-o intrebare, se raspunde cu auxiliarul inversat. (Cel din fata subiectului). Do you play the trombone? - Canti la trombon? Da - yes Da cant - Yes I do (si nu yes I play)

Da cant la trombon - Yes I do play the trombone Nu - No Nu, nu cant - No I don't No I don't play the trombone

Are you Romanian? - Yes, I am Esti roman(ca) - Da, sunt. Am I smart? - Yes, you are Sunt destept/desteapta? - Da esti. Are we late? - No, we are not Am intarziat? - Nu, nu am intarziat Did you have a good time? - Yes I did Te-ai distrat - Da. Do you like ships? - No, I get seasick. Iti plac vapoarele? - Nu, am rau de mare. Have I offended him? - Yes, you have. L-am jignit? Da. Had you known about this? - No, I hadn't Stiai asta? - Nu, nu stiam Will you be telling the teacher? - No I won't Ii vei spune profesoarei? - Nu.
422. Formularea raspunsului DA/NU la intrebarile cu negatie. Ca si in romaneste, la aceste intrebari este cateodata greu de raspuns clar. Noi zicem Ba da. In engleza nu exista ceva echivalent. Se poate zice: Of course! - Sigur! sau se poate repeta toata propozitia, accentuand, pentru emfaza (in cazul ca raspunsul e da), auxiliarul.

Don't you play the piano? - Nu canti la pian? Yes, I DO play the piano. No, I do not play the piano.
423. Alte raspunsuri la intrebari

Of course - Sigur. A little - Putin A lot - Mult Sort of - Intr-un fel Not really - Nu prea Maybe - Poate

424. Exista ca si romaneste cuvinte specifice pentru intrebari pentru care regulile de formare a interogatiei se schimba Acest lucru e adevarat numai daca aceste cuvinte formeaza subiectul propozitiei. In acest caz aceste cuvine reprezinta interogatia si nu e nevoie de alt mod de formare a interogatiei.

Who - Cine What - Ce Where - Unde When - Cand How - Cum How - Cat Which - Care
425. Who - Cine

Who are you? - Cine esti? Who won the race? - Cine a castigat cursa? (Raspuns: X won the race - deci who e subiectul) Who do you think won? - Tu cine crezi ca a castigat? Aici do you think e intercalat in propozitia Who won?
426. What - Ce

What is this? - Ce e asta? What is your name - Cum te cheama?(Ce nume ai?) What happened? - Ce s-a intamplat? What did you say? (aici subiectul e you - Ce ai spus (tu)? What time do they open? - La ce ora deschid? (aici subiectul e they - Cine deschid - ei)? What is the king like? - Cum este regele (Ca ce este regele)? What do you think? - Ce crezi? What...like? - Cum...este? What was it like - Cum a fost? What is the weather like in Katmandu? - Cum e vremea in Katmandu?
427. Where - Unde

Where do you live? - Unde locuiesti? Where is it? - Unde este asta? Where is Djibouti? - Unde e Djibouti? Where are you going? - Unde te duci? Where did you go on vacation? - Unde ai fost in vacanta?
428. When - Cand

When was that? - Cand a fost asta? When was World Wae 2? - Cand a fost Al Doilea Razboi Mondial? When will they be here? - Cand sosesc? When will the universe die out? - Cand va muri universul?

429. How - Cum

How are you? - Ce mai faci? How is granny? - Ce mai face (Cum e) bunica? How about that? - Ce zici de asta? How did you do that? - Cum ai facut? How do you get there? - Cum ai ajuns acolo? How do I look? - Cum arat?
430. How - Cat

How much is it? - Cat costa? How often do you go to the movies? - Cat de des mergi la film? How hot is it? - Cat de cald e? How cold is it? - Cat e de frig (de rece)? How long is it? - Cat de lung e? How short is it? - Cat e de scurt? How big is it? - Cat e de mare? How small is it? - Cat e de mic? How far away is it? - Cat e de departe? How close is it? - Cat e de aproape? How old is he? - Cati ani are? How fat is he? - Cat e de gras? How thin is he? - Cat e de slab? How tall is he? - Cat e de inalt? How short is he? - Cat e de scund?
431. Observatie: Daca vroiam sa zicem: Cat e de gras! nu mai era intrebare, si ziceam How fat he is!

How fat he is! - Cat e de gras! How thin he is! - Cat e de slab! How tall he is! - Cat e de inalt! How short he is! - Cat e de scund!
432. Which - Care

Which one is better? - Care e mai bun? Which should I choose? - Pe care sa il aleg? Which is yours? - Care e al tau?
433. Exista in limba engleza verbe care se numesc Verbe Modale Problema pentru necunoscatori e ca aceste verbe exprima toate nuante ale verbului a putea si fara practica e greu de stiut care trebuie folosit, in functie de ce vrei sa exprimi. Have to fara sa fie verb modal este de multe ori folosit in lolui must.

can - a putea could - a fi in stare

may - a avea voie might - exprima o posibilitate will - exprima vointa would - exprima o dorinta de a realiza ceva must - trebuie shall - exprima o promisiune should - ar trebui ought to - ar trebui
434. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici 1. Nu accepta particula to la infinitiv.

To can inseamna a face conserve. Este altceva decat can - a putea.


435. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici 2. Nu au s la prezent persoana a treia:

I can draw - Eu pot, stiu sa desenez You can talk, now - Ai voie (poti), acum sa vorbesti He can hurt himself up there - Se poate rani acolo sus. She can sing like an angel - Ea poate sa cante ca un inger We can trust them - Putem avea incredere in ei. You can go together - Puteti merge impreuna Shhh, they can hear you. - Shhh, pot sa te auda.
436. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici 3. Nu au participiu si nici forma cu ing si de aceea au multe timpuri lipsa

La timpurile lipsa ele se inlocuiesc prin alte verbe can se inlocuieste cu to be able to may se inlocuieste cu to be allowed to must se inlocuieste cu to have to
437. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici 4.La fel ca verbul to be verbele modale nu formeaza interogativul folosind verbul to do ci prin inversarea verbului cu subiectul.

You can help me - Poti sa ma ajuti Can you help me? - Poti sa ma ajuti He can hear me. - El poate sa ma auda? Can he hear me? - Poate sa ma auda?

I can come - Pot sa vin (sa fiu acolo). Can I come? - Pot sa vin? May I? - Imi dai voie? Yes, you may - Da, te las. I must take this medicine. - Trebuie sa iau acest medicament. Must I take this medicine? - Trebuie sa iau acest medicament? No, you don't have to. - Nu, nu trebuie. Could you help me? - Ai putea sa ma ajuti?
438. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici 5.Ca si verbul to be ele nu formeaza negativul folosind verbul to do.

Yes, I can help you - Da, pot sa te ajut. No, I can not help you. - Nu, nu te pot ajuta Yes, he can hear you.- Da, el te aude. No, he can not hear you.- Nu, el nu te aude. You must add the butter - Trebuie sa adaugi untul You must not devine deobicei shouldn't
439. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici 6.Formele negative deobicei se contracta: can not - can't could not - couldn't may not - nu se contracta si se foloseste ca raspus la o intrebare cu may. E un raspuns taios, de aceea nu se contracta. might - might not - nu se contracta will - won't would - wouldn't must - mustn't shall - shan't (nu se foloseste) should - shouldn't ought to - oughtn't (nu se foloseste)

I can't hear you - Nu te aud They couldn't come - Ei nu au putut sa vina No, you may not talk - Nu nu poti sa vorbesti. He might not know the address. - S-ar putea sa nu ste adresa. He won't tell the difference - Nu va (putea) vedea diferenta She wouldn't say that - Ea nu ar spune asa ceva. You mustn't be late - Nu trebuie sa intarziati They shouldn't upset him - Ar trebui sa nu il supere

440. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici 7.Sunt urmate de verbe la infinitiv fara to. Chiar atunci cand inlocuite cu alt verbe s-ar pune to (sau of)

We want to ride a horse. - Vrem sa calarim We wish to ride a horse. - Dorim sa calarim We are trying to ride a horse. - Incercam sa calarim We are able to ride a horse. - Suntem in stare sa calarim We dream of riding a horse. - Visam sa calarim We think of riding a horse. - Ne gandim sa calarim dar We can ride a horse. - Putem sa calarim We could ride a horse. - Am putea sa calarim We may ride a horse. - Avem voie sa calarim We might ride a horse. - Exista si posibilitatea sa calarim We would ride a horse. - Noi am calari We must ride a horse. - Trebuie sa calarim We shall ride a horse. - Promitem sa calarim We should ride a horse. - Ar fi bine sa calarim
441. La prezent se foloseste must/might/could/may/can't

It's nine, so their train must have left - E 9, deci trenul trebuie sa fi plecat. (Arata ca suntem destul de siguri de afirmatia noastra) It's ten so they might come soon - E 10 deci ar putea veni curand (poate) It's eleven, they could be lost. - E 11, s-ar putea sa se fi ratacit.(poate) They may have missed the train. - Poate au pierdut trenul(poate). They can't still be at home - Nu mai pot fi acasa (suntem destul de siguri de acest lucru)
442. Folosim will respectiv won't cand suntem foarte siguri de afirmatiile noastre. Observati ca will aici nu are rol de auxiliar in Future Tense.

They will be on the train by now. - Ei trebuie sa fie in tren pana la ora asta No, I won't tell you - Nu, nu iti spun
443. Should respectiv shouldn't se folosesc pentru a face supozitii despre lucruri care dupa cate stim noi asa ar trebui sa fie:

They should be here by now - Ar fi trebuit sa fie aici la ora asta. It shouldn't take long - N-ar trebui sa dureze mult
444. Pentru probabilitati se poate folosi can in cazul a ceva posibil la modul general:

Train tickets can be expensive. - Biletele de tren pot fi scumpe


445. Cand vorbim de posibilitati specifice folosim could

They could be stuck in traffic (nu can be) - Ar putea fi blocati in trafic

446. In schimb cand vorbim de trecut, could il inlocuieste pe can.

They could have been stuck in traffic (nu could be care este prezentul)- Ar fi putut fi blocati in trafic.
447. Could se transforma in could be pemtru o posibilitate generala din trecut. Altfel se foloseste could have been

Long ago, people could be happy even without running water.- Demult, oamenii puteau fi fericiti si fara apa curenta He could have been lost in the woods when I called him and he didn't answer - Putea sa se fii ratacit in padure cand l-am strigat si nu mi-a raspuns.
448. Folosim will have, should have + participiul trecut pentru probabilitati trecute.

They will have sold there products yesterday - Ei isi vor fi vandut produsele ieri. (nu prea este folosit) He should have been back yesterday.- Trebuia sa se intoarca de ieri.
449. Urmatoarele verbe modale sunt folosite pentru actiuni din trecut: Must, might, could, may, can't + have + past participle

My dog must have kept you up last night.- Cainele trebuie sa te fi tinut treaz toata noaptea He might have been hungry - Poate ca ii era foame. He could havr been frightened by something - Poate ca au fost speriati de ceva He may have been ill - Poate ca era bolnav He can't have barked for nothing - Nu poate sa fii latrat degeaba.
450. Verbele modale exprima de multe ori putinta de a face ceva.

Aceasta este de exemplu abilitatea generala de a face ceva, abilitate care daca este adevarata, este totdeauna adevarata, cum este vorbitul unei limbi straine de exemplu. Alte abilitati sunt specifice, exista sau nu in anumite momente, cum ar fi sa si mentina echilibrul, sau sa aiba destui bani ca sa plateasca ceva.
451. Can sau can't se folosesc si pentru abilitati generale si pentru abilitati specifice.

I can ride a bike - Eu pot sa merg cu bicicleta I can pay - Pot eu sa platesc He can't sing because he is hoarse.- Nu poate sa cante pentru ca e ragusit We can't send the letter today. - Nu putem sa trimitem astazi scrisoarea
452. La trecut can/can't cand exprima abilitati generale se transforma in could/couldn't

I could ride a bike even in first grade.- Puteam sa merg pe bicicleta chiar si in clasa intai I could pay all my bills before the crisis - Inainte de criza, puteam sa-mi platesc toate facturile. We couldn't send the letters today - Nu am putut sa trimitem azi scrisorile

453. Pentru abilitati specifice avute in trecut deoarece can nu are forma de trecut se foloseste verbul to be able to anume lui can/can't in acest caz ii corespunde was able to/couldn't

When the fire started, because there was no wind, I was able to put it out by myself. - Cand a inceput incendiul, deoarece nu era vant, am putut sa-l sting singur. We couldn't find the lost dog. - Nu am putut sa gasim cainele pierdut I was able to open the door though it was stuck - Am reusit sa deschid usa desi era intepenita
454. Could/couldn't poate reprezenta o abilitate din trecut care nu mai exista in prezent:

I could have played the violin but I didn't practice enough.- As fi putut sa cant la vioara, dar nu am exersat destul. We could have come earlier. - Puteam sa venim mai devreme
455. La viitor can/can't devine will be able to/won't be able to in cazul abilitatilor generale

I will be able to repair a TV set after those classes. - Voi putea sa repar un televizor, dupa ce urmez cursurile acelea. He won't be able to understand those formulas. - Nu va fi in stare sa inteleaga acele formule.
456. In cazul abilitatii specifice la viitor can/can't ramane can/can't.

I can come see you tomorrow - Pot sa vin sa te vad maine I can't take the exam next week.- Nu pot sa dau examenul saptamana viitoare.
457. Verbele modale have to, must, should pot exprima obligatia de a face ceva

I have to keep it a secret - Trebuie sa pastrez secretul You must be polite - Trebuie sa fii politicos You should speak louder - Ar trebui sa vorbesti mai tare
458. Have to reprezinta o obligatie puternica, mai ales impusa din afara

Children have to learn to read - Copii trebuie sa invete sa citeasca The fugitive has to turn himself in. - Fugarul trebuie sa se predea
459. Prin urmare don't have to reprezinta lipsa unei obligatii. De multe ori se pronunta apasat. Don't have to nu te restrictioneaza de la a face ceva. Inseamna doar ca nu este nevoie, dar daca vrei sa faci este alegerea ta.

I don't have to go to college, but I would like to. - Nu trebuie sa merg la facultate, dar mi-ar place
460. Must este de asemeni o obligatie puternica, mai ales cand e venita de la vorbitor.

I must clean my room - Trebuie sa-mi fac curat in camera


461. Mustn't sububliniaza ca nu este voie sau ca este o idee proasta.

You mustn't cross the street if there is no trafficlight. Trebuie sa nu traversezi daca nu exista stop.
462. Should/shouldn't reprezinta o obligatie mai putin stringenta:

You should exercise daily - Trebuie sa faci miscare zilnic You shouldn't quarrel.- Nu trebuie sa va certati
463. La trecut have to/don't have to devine had to /didnt have to

I had to go to bed at nine as a child - Trebuia sa ma culc la noua cand eram copil I didn't have to rescue the cat, but I wanted to. - Nu eram obligat sa salvez pisica, dar asa am vrut.
464. Must la trecut devine tot had to

I had to clean my room last week because my friend was coming over. - A trebuit sa-mi fac curat in camera saptamana trecuta, pentru ca venea in vizita pritenul/prietena mea.
465. Must not la trecut nu exista.

466. Should/ shouldn't devine la trecut should have/shouldn't have si exprima un regret

You should have saved some money. - Ar fi trebuit sa economisesti niste bani I shouldn't have yelled at my best friend. - Nu trebuia sa tip la prietenul meu cel mai bun
467. Verbele modale can, could si may pot exprima o permisiune pe care vorbitorul o cere sau o primeste.

Can I drive the car? Yes you can/No you can't - Pot(imi dai voie) sa conduc masina? Da, poti/Nu, nu poti Could I borrow this book? Yes you could/No you couldn't - As putea sa imprumut aceasta carte? Da/Nu. May I join you? Yes you may / No you may not.- Pot sa stau cu voi? Da poti/ Nu nu poti.
468. Verbele will si would pot exprima obiceiuri, tabieturi si in acest context de multe ori insotesxc subjonctivul.

I would often have a cup of cofee in the morning. - De multe ori beam o cafea dimineata I will always sing in the shower! - Totdeauna voi canta in dus!
469. Intrebari Disjunctive Sunt intrebari care in romana se traduc prin nu-i asa? Ele insa exprima mai mult si deseori depind de intonatia celui care le pronunta. Se formeaza cu verbe auxiliare sau cu verbe modale

You'll be there, won't you? - Vei fi acolo, nu? You ate all the cake, didn't you! - Ai mancat tot tortul, nu-i asa? (spus cu mare suparare) I can come, can't I? - Pot sa vin si eu, nu? (intrebare capcana)

He is so smart isn't he? - E atat de destept, nu-i asa? (entuziasm) He is that smart, is he? - Asa-i de destept, da?(mare indoiala) They lost the money, didn't they? - Au pierdut banii nu? (banuiala sincera) They lost the money did they? - Au pierdut banii, da?(suspiciune)
470. Formarea de Intrebari Disjunctive (CLASICE) Pasul A. 1. Daca propozitia de baza e afirmativa - disjunctia se formeaza prin adaugarea unei negatii. 2. Daca propozitia de baza e negativa - disjunctia se formeaza prin adaugarea unei afirmatii. It is hot today, isn't it? It is not hot today, is it? Pasul B. Disjunctia e o intrebare 1.Pentru verbe modale, se foloseste verbul modal respectiv. 2.Pentru verbul to be - se foloseste verbul to be (cu inversarea tipica intrebarilor) 3.Pentru orice alt verb se foloseste particula necesara timpului respectiv (do, does, will, has etc) dar verbul din propozitie se omite You can sing, can't you? He is here, isn't he? You play the piano, don't you? Atentie! NU SE ZICE: You play the piano, don't you play the piano? sau He is here, isn't he here? (daca TOTUSI zicem asa punctul urmator (C) nu se mai respecta) Pasul C. Intonatia e ca pentru o afirmatie, nu o intrebare (se coboara tonul la sfarsit)

Alte Exemple I should come too, shouldn't I? - Ar trebui sa vin si eu, nu-i asa? You will be there, won't you? - Vei fi acolo,nu-i asa? He hasn't arrived, has he? - Nu a sosit, nu-i asa? She knows English, doesn't she? - Ea stie engleza, nu-i asa?
471. Tipul clasic de Intrebare Disjunctiva

You are a movie star, aren't you? - Esti actor/actrita nu-i asa?
472. Al doilea tip de Intrebari Disjunctive din limbajul vorbit:

(So), you are a movie star are you? - Deci esti actor/actrita...(nu prea crezi asta)
473. 1.To Awake - Awoke - Awoken: A se trezi

My noisy parrot awakes me every morning - Papagalul meu zgomotos ma scoala in fiecare dimineata
474. 2.To Be - Was/Were - Been: A Fi

This is my house - Aceasta este casa mea Where there is a will there is a way - Unde exista o vointa, exista si o cale Two plus three is 5 - 2 + 3 fac 5
475. 3.To Bear - Bore - Borne: - A purta

I bear all the responsibility for what happened - Eu port toata raspunderea pentru ceea ce s-a intamplat. She bore the basket on her head - Ducea cosul pe cap He bore the pain in silence - El suporta durerea in liniste
476. 4.To Beat - Beat - Beaten - A Bate

I beat you at chess! Hahaha! - Te-am batut la sah, hahaha! I beat the carpets monthly - Bat lunar covoarele
477. 5.Become - Became - Become - A deveni

He became the best football coach in the world - A devenit cel mai bun antrenor de fotbal din lume What became of him? - Ce s-a ales de el? Does white become me? - Mi se potriveste albul?
478. 6.Begin - Began - Begun - A incepe

I began writing my thesis - Am inceput sa-mi scriu teza de doctorat This does not even begin to cover the costs - Aceasta nici nu incepe sa acopere costurile
479. 7.Bend - Bent - Bent - A indoi

The car door was bent in the accident - Usa de la masina s-a indoit in accident Some lawyers bend the truth - Unii avocati distorsioneaza adevarul Will you bend the rule a bit, this time? - Vrei sa faci o mica exceptie de la regula, de data asta?
480. 8.Bet - Bet - Bet - A pune pariu

That is the horse I bet my money on - Acesta e calul pe care mi-am pariat banii. Your best bet is to see a lawyer - Cea mai buna solutie e sa mergi la un avocat I bet you'll like the trip - Pun pariu ca o sa-ti placa calatoria
481. 9.Bid - Bid - Bid - A oferi un pret

Let the bidding begin! - Sa inceapa ofertele de pret! He bid the kind family farewell - Si-a luat la revedere de la familia buna la inima.

482. 10.Bind - Bound - Bound - A lega (sfori, carti etc)

Serfs in the Middle Ages were bound to the land - Iobagii din Evul Mediu erau legati de pamant The villagers bound up the robber - Satenii l-au legat pe hot
483. 11.Bite - Bit - Bitten - A musca

He was bitten by 22 cats and a kitten - A fost muscat de 22 de pisici si un pisoi. He bit the bait - A muscat din momeala A mosqito bit me - M-a ciupit un tantar
484. 12.Bleed - Bled - Bled - A sangera

His nose was bleeding - Ii curgea sange din nas. The color of the shirt bled into the other fabrics and now everything is brown - Culoarea de la camasa s-a raspandit in celelalte materiale si acum totul e maroniu
485. 13.Blow - Blew - Blown - A sufla

The wind blew his hat off - Vantul i-a luat palaria Blow your nose! she said to her little boy. - Sufla-ti nasul! a spus ea baietelului ei. The bomb almost blew up in my face! - Bomba aproape ca mi-a explodat in fata! He blew out the candles - A stins lumanarile (sufland in ele)
486. 14.Break - Broke - Broken - A (se) sparge, A se strica

He broke the vase! - A spart vaza! He broke his arm! - Si-a rupt mana! The TV is broke. - Televizorul e stricat. He broke the world record - A depasit recordul mondial He broke the law - A incalcat legea They broke up - S-au despartit. We'll break for cofee. - Vom face o pauza de cafea.
487. 15.Bring - Brought - Brought - A aduce

I brought supplies for the troops - Am adus provizii pentru trupe The enemy was brought to his knees - Dusmanul a fost infrant(ingenuncheat) The quarrel brought out the worst in him - Cearta a scos la iveala toate caracteristicile lui negative He brought it upon himself - Si-a facut-o cu mana lui. It was brought to my attention - Mi s-a semnalat
488. 16.Build - Built - Built - A construi

The house was built around 1850 - Casa a fost construita in jurul anului 1850 The house had a shelf built-in the wall. - Casa avea un raft incorpoat in perete

489. 17.Burn - Burnt/Burned - Burnt/Burned - A arde

He burns all his letters - Isi arde toate scrisorile His job is burning him out - Slujba il epuizeaza
490. 18.Burst - Burst - Burst - A plesni, a fi plin ochi, a izbucni

The kid was bursting with energy - Copilul plesnea de energie The balloon burst from the heat - Balonul a explodat de la caldura. The crowd burst out laughing - Multimea a izbucnit in ras. He burst out the door - A iesit cu putere (a izbucnit) pe usa.
491. 19.Buy - Bought - Bought - A cumpara

I bought a new refridgerator - Am cumparat un frigider nou. He didn't buy my excuse - Nu a crezut scuza mea Going by taxi will buy you some time - Daca mergi cu taxi-ul mai castigi niste timp.
492. 20.Cast - Cast - Cast - A arunca (doar anumite lucruri, multe din ele nautice)

He cast a glance - A aruncat o privire The sea cast them to shore - Marea i-a aruncat la tarm The fisherman cast his net - Pescarul si-a aruncat plasa de pescuit in apa The fishermat cast the fishing line into the sea - Pescarul si-a aruncat firul de pescuit in apa This certainly casts some doubt over his innocence - Aceasta arunca cu siguranta o indoiala asupra nevinovatiei lui. In the summer, I like sitting in the long shadow cast by the tower - Vara imi place sa stau la umbra aruncata de turn.
493. Catch - Caught - Caught - A prinde

He caught the ball - A prins mingea. He caught a cold - A racit He was caught stealing - A fost prins furand He caught the bus - A prins autobuzul I didn't catch all you said - Nu am prins tot ce ai spus
494. 22.Choose - Chose - Chosen - A alege

She was chosen for the team - A fost aleasa in echipa You may leave if you choose - Poti pleca, daca doresti. I cannot choose to stand aside - Nu pot sa aleg sa nu ma implic.
495. 23.Clap - Clapped/Clapt - Clapped/Clapt - A bate din palme, a incropi

The children were clapping their hands - Copii bateau din palme They clapped up a garage - Au incropit un garaj

496. 24.Cling - Clung - Clung - A se agata, a se tine strans

The bus passengers were clinging to the seats in front during the bumpy ride. - Pasagerii autobuzului se tineau de scaunele din fata in timpul calatoriei cu denivelari. They cling to old-fashioned ideas. - Ei se agata de idei invechite
497. 25.Clothe - Clad/Clothed - Clad/Clothed - A imbraca (cuvant vechi)

The queen was clothed in gold and silver - Regina era imbracata in aur si argint Trees clothed in a rainbow of colors - Copaci imbracati intr-un curcubeu de culori
498. 26.Come - Came - Come - A veni

Come see me! - Vino sa ma vezi! They came to a conclusion - Au ajuns la o concluzie My family comes first - Familia vine intai (are prioritate) The project is coming along very well - Proiectul inainteaza foarte bine. A wrench would come in handy - Un cleste ar fi util It's all coming back to me now. - Incep sa imi amintesc totul
499. 27.Cost - Cost - Cost - A costa

How much does asparagus cost? - Cat costa sparanghelul It almost cost me my life - Aproape ca m-a costat viata
500. 28.Creep - Crept - Crept - A se tara

A spider was creeping up the wall - Un paianjen se urca pe perete Depression can creep up on you - Depresia poate sa te cuptinda pe nesimtite
501. 29.Cut - Cut - Cut - A taia

He cut the apple in two - A taiat marul in doua I have to cut my hair - Trebuie sa ma tund That child sometimes cuts class - Copilul acela cateodata chiuleste That paragraph was cut out - Acel paragraf a fost scos He cut in line in front of me - A intrat in fata mea, peste rand He was cut off from the will - A fost scos din testament I'm not cut out to be a hero. - Nu sunt facut sa fiu erou
502. 30.Dare - Dared - Dared - a provoca, a indrazni

I dare you to jump from the tree - Te provoc sa sari din copac Why would I dare do something as silly as that - De ce as indrazni sa fac ceva atat de necugetat?
503. 31.Deal - Dealt - Dealt - A se ocupa de, a avea de-a face cu, a face afaceri, a imparti carti de joc

He deals with a lot everyday - Se ocupa de multe lucruri zilnic. As a teacher she deals with many parents - Ca profesoara are de-a face cu multi parinti He deals in cutlery - El vinde tacamuri
504. 32.Dig - Dug - Dug - A sapa

I want to dig up my garden this spring - Vreau sa imi sap gradina in primavara asta Don't dig your nails into my arm like that! - Nu-ti mai baga unghiile in bratul meu! He dug up a treasure!Unbelivable! - A scos din pamant o comoara! Formidabil!
505. 33.Dive - Dived/Dove - Dived

He dived into the crowd - A plonjat in multime He dived into the ocean waves - A plonjat in valurile oceanului
506. 34.Do - Did - Done - A face

The boy did his homework - Baiatul si-a facut temele He did the dishes - El a spalat vasele He always does his duty - El totdeauna isi face datoria There is still a lot to do - Mai sunt multe de facut What do you do for a living? - Cu ce te ocupi? Do your best, leave the rest - Fa totul cat mai bine, nu te deranja de altceva She does her hair every morning - Isi face parul in fiecare dimineata He did jail time for car theft - A facut puscarie pentru furt de masini Do as the teacher says - Fa cum iti spune profesoara A ham sandwich would do nicely - Un sendvis cu sunca ar merge bine That should do it - Asta rezolva problema I could do without this - As trai si fara asta (spus de ceva care te deranjeaza)
507. 35.Draw - Drew - Drawn - A desena, a scoate

He can't draw - El nu poate sa deseneze I will draw the conclusions - Voi prezenta concluziile. They still draw water from a fountain - Ei inca scot apa din fantana. The nurse came to draw blood - Asistenta medicala a venit sa ia sange If you wear a turban you will draw attention - Daca porti un turban ai sa atragi atentie
508. 36.Dream - Dreamt/Dreamed - Dreamt/Dreamed - A visa

I dream of going to Hawaii - Visez sa merg in Hawaii Last night, I dreamed I was flying over the moon - Azi noapte am visat ca zburam deasupra lunii.
509. 37.Drink - Drank - Drunk - A bea

I drink a cup of milk in the morning - Dimineata beau un pahar de lapte. I sat in the forest, and drank in the beauty around me. - Am stat in padure si am absorbit frumusetea din jur.

510. 38.Drive - Drove - Driven - A conduce

He drives a taxi - El conduce un taxi She'll be driving six white horses - Ea va conduce sase cai albi. The enemy was driven out of the country - Inamicul a fost izgonit din tara He drives me crazy - Ma innebuneste Water drives the turbine - Apa pune in miscare turbina What are you driving at? - Unde bati?
511. 39.Eat - Ate - Eaten - A manca

I love eating spaghetti and cheese - Im place sa mananc spaghetti cu branza Rust ate away the pillars of the old bridge - Rugina a mancat stalpii vechiului pod. What's eating you? - Ce te roade?
512. 40.Fall - Fell - Fallen - A cadea

When the apple fell, Newton discovered gravity - Cand a cazut marul Newton a descoperit gravitatia London bridge is falling down - Podul Londrei se prabuseste (incetul cu incetul) Night falls earlier in winter. - Noaptea vine mai devreme iarna The knight fell in love with the beautiful princess - Cavalerul s-a indragostit de frumoasa printesa The peasant fell to his knees when the heavenly light shone upon him - Taranul a cazut in genunchi atunci cand lumina divina s-a varsat asupra lui. My eyes fell on a letter he had on his desk - Ochii mi-au cazut pe o scrisoare de pe biroul lui When I told him the stock market crashed, his face fell - Cand i-am spus ca bursa a cazut, i-au cazut trasaturile. When does Easter fall this year? - Cand cade Pastele anul acesta? A lot of rain has fallen this spring. - A plouat mult in primavara asta. The governement fell - A cazut guvernul If you don't study you'll fall behind - Daca nu studiezi vei ramane in urma This cottage is falling apart - Casuta asta se darama (incetul cu incetul)
513. 41.Feed - Fed - Fed - A hrani

I need somebody to feed my chickens, said Sfanta Vineri. - Am nevoie de cineva care sa-mi hraneasca puii, spuse Sfanta Vineri. This region alone feeds the towns around it. - Aceasta regiune singura hraneste orasekle din jur.
514. 42.Feel - Felt - Felt - A simti

Do you feel the spirit of Christmas in the air? - Simti in aer spritul Craciunului? I felt my heart sink - Am simtit cum mi-a cazut inima. I felt her little hand tugging at my skirt - I-am simtit maina mica tragandu-ma de fusta A blind man sees by feeling with his hands - Cineva orb vede pipaind cu mainile. I feel for you - Te inteleg, sunt alaturi de tine.

515. 43.Fight - Fought - Fought - A se bate, a se certa

We will fight to the death - Ne vom bate pana la moarte My neighbors fight all the time - Vecinii mei se cearta tot timpul He was fighting off a swarm of flies - Usuia de pe el un roi de muste The child fought back tears - Copilul si-a luptat sa nu planga
516. 44.Find - Found - Found - A gasi

I need to find my cat - Trebuie sa-mi gasesc pisica Will I ever find happiness? - Voi gasi vreodata fericirea? I find this story to be far-fetced. - Mi se pare aceasta poveste, exagerata. Stop finding fault with me! - Nu imi mai tot gasi cusururi!
517. 45.Fit - Fit/Fitted - Fit/Fitted - A potrivi

Can you fit into this dress? - Te incape rochia asta> I can't fit these shoes into the box. - Nu reusesc sa bag acesti pantofi in cutie. This fall scenery fits my mood - Aceasta priveliste de toamna se potriveste cu starea mea de spirit
518. 46.Flee - Fled - Fled - A fugi (dar nu a alerga de placere)

They tried to flee the country - Au incercat sa fuga din tara The robber fled from the house with the police at his heels - Hotul a fugit din casa cu politia dupa el He fled the scene of the crime - A fugit de la locul crimei.
519. 47.Fling - Flung - Flung - A arunca

He flung himself in a chair - S-a aruncat intr-un scaun. David flung a stone at Goliath - David a aruncat cu o piatra in Goliath He flung up his arms in hopelessness - Si-a aruncat bratele in sus in disperare.
520. 48.Fly - Flew - Flown - A zbura

A happy parrot flew high into the sky - Uu papagal fericit s-a inaltat sus in cer. He flew over the North Pole - A zburat peste Polul Nord The ship flew the Romanian flag - Vaporul arbora drapelul romanesc. Splinters were flying everywhere - Aschii zburau peste tot.
521. 49.Forbid - Forbade/Forbad - Forbidden - A interzice

I forbid you to go! - Iti interzic sa te duci God forbid! - Doamne fereste!
522. 50.Foresee - Foresaw - Foreseen - A prevedea(

He did not foresee that - Nu s-a asteptat la asta An unforeseen storm hit the Gulf of Mexico. - O furtuna neasteptata a lovit Golful Mexic
523. 51.Foretell - Foretold - Foretold - A prevesti

Nostradamus foretold many future events - Nostradamus a prevesit multe evenimente viitoare
524. 52.Forget - Forgot - Forgotten - A uita

An elephant never forgets - Un elefant nu uita niciodata


525. 53.Forgive - Forgave - Forgiven - A ierta

Forgive me for asking: How old are you? - Iarta-ma ca te intreb: Cati ani ai? He forgave the burglar - El l-a iertat pe hpt They say to forgive and forget is a wise idea - Se spune ca a ierta si a uita e o idee inteleapta.
526. 54.Forsake - Forsook - Forsaken - A uita de, a abandona

Someday, this God forsaken land will grow more than weeds. - Intr-o zi, acest pamant uitat de Dumnezeu va creste si altceva in afara de buruieni.
527. 55.Freeze - Froze - Frozen - A ingheta

That lake freezes in the winter - Lacul acela ingheata iarna He froze in his tracks when he saw the bear - A inlemnit in cale cand a vazut ursul. My computer froze, it needs rebooted - Computerul nu mai merge, trebuie repornit. He froze in front of the camera - A inlemnit in fata aparatului de filmat.
528. 56.Get - Got - Got/Gotten - A primi, a intelege

I got a puppy for my friend - Am luat un catelus pentru prietenul meu I got The Three Musketeers from the library - Am luat "Cei 3 Muschetari" de la biblioteca. How do you get there? - Cum ajungi acolo? I don't get it - Nu inteleg Get a haircut - Tunde-te! I got off at the wrong station - M-am dat jos la alta statie (decat trebuia) I got on the next train - M-am suit in urmatorul tren Everyday I get to school at 8 in the morning - In fiecare zi ajung la scoala la 8 dimineata I will stay at home because I got the flu - Voi sta acasa fiindca sunt racit I didn't get your name when we were introduced. - Nu ti-am retinut numele cand am fost prezentati We've got a little cabin in the mountains - Avem o mica cabana in munti I hope I got my point across - Sper ca m-am facut inteles Word got around. - Stirea s-a raspandit They barely get by - Abia se descurca cu banii Getting back to the subject - Intorcandu-ne la subiect Let's get to the subject - Hai sa ajungem la subiect

Let's get down to work - Hai sa ne apucam de treaba. Don't get into trouble - Nu da de vreo belea Get out of here - Iesi afara de aici! The whole family got together last week - Intreaga familie s-a adunat saptamana trecuta We get along well - Ne intelegem bine. I get up at six - Ma scol la 6.
529. 57.Give - Gave - Given - A da

We gave the waiter a tip - I-am dat chelnerului un bacsis He gave me a pencil/a car/a house/a drink ... - Mi-a dat un creion/o masina/o casa/o bautura... Give me an example/your word/a piece of advice... - Mi-a dat un exemplu/cuvantul lui/un sfat... He gave me a nod - Mi-a facut semn din cap Give him my best wishes. - Transmite-i toate urarile mele de bine. He gave his life - Si-a dat viata He gave out a scream - A tipat He gave a party - A dat o petrecere He gives me the creeps - Imi da fiori.(Ma inspaimanta) A cow gives milk - O vaca da lapte He gave me a wink - Mi-a facut cu ochiul. Those doors give onto the garden - Acele usi dau in gradina He gave me back my binoculars - Mi-a dat inapoi binoclul He finally gave in to my insistance - In sfarsit a cedat insistentelor mele The cow gave out a deep Moo - Vaca a scos un Moo adanc The robber gave himself up - Hotul s-a predat I gave up looking for buried treasures - Am reuntat sa mai caut comori ingropate
530. 58.Go - Went - Gone - A pleca, a merge, a se duce

I go by bus - Ma duc cu autobuzul Go away! - Pleaca de aici! He went on and on about how unfair this is - A vorbit intruna ce nedreapta e situatia I am going to do this - Voi face acest lucru He went mad - A innebunit That book goes there - Cartea aceea merge acolo Orange and green go well together It goes without saying - Se subintelege All these rugs have to go - Toate aceste covoare trebuie sa dispara How are things going? - Cum merg lucrurile I go: Whaaat? - Zic: Ceee? As time goes by I like this house more - Cu trecerea timpului imi place mai mult casa asta. Can I go in there? - Pot sa intru acolo? Let's go out! - Hai sa iesim!
531. 59. Grind - Ground - Ground - A macina

Grind the wheat at the mill! - Macina-ti graul la moara! He would grind his teeth - Scrasnea din dinti

532. 60.Grow - Grew - Grown - A creste

My apple tree is growing nicely - Marul meu creste frumos The suspense was growing every minute - Suspansul crestea din clipa in clipa He grows a beard - Isi lasa barba He grows chickens - Creste pui The days grow shorter - Zilele se scurteaza Nights grow longer - Noptile se lungesc. He grew up - S-a facut mare.
533. 61.Hang - Hung/Hanged - Hung/Hanged - A atarna, a spanzura Hang - Hung - Hung - verb neregulat inseamna a atarna Hang - Hanged - Hanged - verb regulat inseamna a spanzura

I will hang the painting in the livingroom - Voi atarna tabloul in sufragerie He will hang at dawn - Va fi spanzurat la rasaritul soarelui. He hung his head in shame - Si-a lasat capul in jos de rusine We hung out together in highschool - Ieseam impreuna in liceu.
534. 62.Have - Had - Had - A avea

I have a car - Am o masina Can I have some mashed potatoes - Pot sa iau niste piure? May I have a look? - Pot sa arunc o privire? I had a talk with him. - Am avut o discutie cu el. Let's have a party! - Hai sa dam o petrecere! I had a good time - M-am distrat bine. I must have breakfast/lunch etc first - Intai trebuie sa mananc de dimineata/pranz etc. They have 2 children - Ei au 2 copii She had a baby. - A nascut. This has nothing to do with you - Aceasta treaba nu are legatura cu tine.
535. 63.Hear - Heard - Heard - A auzi

Do you hear what I hear? - Auzi ce aud eu? I heard Mary has a little lamb - Am auzit ca Mary are un mielut. I won't hear of it! - Nici nu vreau sa aud! Please, hear me out - Te rog asculta si ce am eu de spus!
536. 64.Hide - Hid - Hidden - A (se) ascunde

The rabbit was hiding from the fox - Iepurele era ascuns de vulpe Outlaws hid in dark forests - Haiducii se ascundeau in paduri intunecate
537. 65.Hit - Hit - Hit - A (se) lovi

He hit the table with his fist - A lovit cu pumnul in masa I hit my thumb when hammering a nail - M-am lovit la degul mare pe cand bateam un cui.

The bullet hit the target - Glontul a lovit tinta The company was hit hard by the recession - Firma a fost greu lovita de recesiune.
538. 66.Hold - Held - Held - A (se) tine

He held the book on his knees - Tinea cartea pe genunchi He held on to the handrail - S-a tinut de balustrada He held his breath - Si-a tinut respiratia Let's see what the future holds. - Sa vedem ce ne rezerva viitorul He held his tongue - Si-a tinut limba
539. 67.Hurt - Hurt - Hurt - A durea, a se lovi

My head/stomach/arm/tooth etc hurts - Ma doare capul/stomacul/bratul/dintele etc His words hurt - Cuvintele lui m-au durut It never hurts to be polite - Niciodata nu strica sa fii politicos.
540. 68.Keep - Kept - Kept - A tine, a pastra

He kept coming back into the store - Se tot intorcea in magazin. She keeps parrots - Ea creste papagali Keep the children quiet. - Fa-i pe copii sa taca. Keep safe on the road - Stai (pastreaza-te) in siguranta pe drum. Can you keep a secret? - Poti sa tii un secret? This project will keep him busy - Acest proiect il va tine ocupat I keep records of all spendings - Tin evidente pentru toate cheltuielile. Keep your voice down - Vorbeste incet. Keep up the good work - Continua munca cea buna. He keeps to himself - E retras.
541. 69.Kneel - Knelt/Kneeled - Knelt/Kneeled - A ingenunchea

He kneeled beside his sick dog - A ingenuncheat langa cainele sau bolnav.
542. 70.Knit - Knit/Knitted - Knit/Knitted

His grandmother would knit beautiful sweaters. - Bunica lui impletea pulovere frumoase.
543. 71.Know - Knew - Known - A sti, a cunoaste.

He knows many poems - El stie multe poezii. I know you - Te cunosc. I have known him for a long time. - Il cunosc de multa vreme You never know what might happen - Niciodata nu stii ce s-ar putea intampla.
544. 72.Lay - Laid - Laid - A pune

He wanted to lay down and rest - Vroia sa se intinda ca sa se odihneasca. He laid the table - A pus masa He laid the bedspread upon the bed - A pus cuvertura pe pat. He laid thick coats of paint. - A dat straturi groase de vopsea. If he lays a finger on my dog I will sue - Daca face vreun rau cainelui meu il dau in judecata. My hen lays big eggs. - Gaina mea face oua mari.
545. 73.Lead - Led - Led - A conduce

He led his army to victory - Si-a condus armata la victorie. The trail led them to the famous cave - Drumul i-a condus la celebra pestera. He led the way when the children crossed the street. - El i-a condus (a stat in fata lor) cand copiii au traversat strada He leads an interesting life - El duce o viata interesanta
546. 74.Lean - Leant/Leaned - Leant/Leaned - A se inclina, a se sprijini

The leaning tower of Pisa started to be built in 1172. - Turnul inclinat din Pisa a inceput sa fie construit in 1172. He leans on me for help - Se sprijina de mine sa il ajut. He leaned against the wall in pain - S-a sprijinit de perete datorita durerii.
547. 75.Leap - Leapt/Leaped - Leapt/Leaped - A sari (ca o lacusta si in sus)

With the bull right behind him, the man leaped over the wall - Cu taurul in urma lui, barbatul a trecut peste zid dintr-o saritura He learns by leaps and bounds - Invata in salturi. He leaped at the chance to go to Tokyo - A actionat imediat pentru sansa de a merge la Tokyo
548. 76.Learn - Learnt/Learned - Learnt/Learned - A invata, a afla

I learned Chinese - Am invatat chinezeste He learned he was broke - A aflat ca nu mai are nici un ban
549. 77.Leave - Left - Left - A pleca, a lasa

He left in a hurry - A plecat in graba He left me a note - Mi-a lasat un bilet. Because he was late, he was left out of the game. - Deoarece a intarziat, a fost omis din meci. Do your best, leave the rest - Fa totul cat mai bine, lasa restul(alte framantari). Leave me alone! - Lasa-ma-n pace! The train leaves at 9. - Trenul pleaca la 9. Anne left Bill - Anne l-a parasit pe Bill.
550. 78.Lend - Lent - Lent - A imprumuta

He lent me a book - Mi-a imprumutat o carte We are building a house. Can you lend us a hand? - Construim o casa. Poti sa ne ajuti?

551. 79.Let - Let - Let - A lasa

He will let the parrot out of the cage - A lasat papagalul afara din cusca Let a be greater than b - Fie a mai mare ca b Let him in. - Lasa-l sa intre Let us pray - Sa ne rugam. I can't drive a car, let alone a bus - Nu pot sa conduc o masina, darmite un autobuz Don't let me down! - Nu ma dezamagi.
552. 80.Lie - Lay - Lain - A sta culcat A nu se confunda cu to lie care inseamna a minti

Saturday morning, I like to lie in bed - Sambata dimineata imi place sa stau culcat in pat. You left the book lying on the floor - Ai last cartea pe podea. Constanta lies on the Black Sea coast -Constanta se afla pe tarmul Marii Negre. Here lies Mihail Eminescu - Aici, se odihneste Eminescu If I lay low maybe the bear won't find me - Daca stau pitit poate ca ursul nu ma va gasi. I laid out a wonderful plan - Am conceput un plan grozav.
553. 81.Light - Lit - Lit - A aprinde

Light a fire! - Fa un foc! I lit the lamp - Am aptins lampa Her face lights up when she hears of her home town. Because of the drought the forest lit up - Datorita secetei padurea a luat foc.
554. 82.Lose - Lost - Lost - A pierde

I lost my wallet - Mi-am pierdut portofelul He got lost in the city - S-a ratacit in oras. He lost his job last week. - Si-a pierdut slujba saptamana trecuta. He loses his temper too easily - Isi pierde cumpatul prea usor. I must lose weight - Trebuie sa slabesc.
555. 83.Make - Made - Made - A face, a produce

The baby was making a lot of noise - Copilul mic facea mult zgomot. The carpenter made a table - Tamplarul a facut o masa He made a mistake in these calculations. - A facut o greseala in aceste calcule I'm making lunch - Pregatesc pranzul He made the bed - A facut patul He made a phone call - A dat un telefon He barely made it - A ajuns in ultima clipa. 2 and 4 make 6 - 2 si cu 4 fac 6. He made up with his friend - S-a impacat cu prietenul sau. He made off with the money - A plecat cu banii.

556. 84.Mean - Meant - Meant - A insemna

What do you mean? - Ce vrei sa spui? He didn't mean it - N-a vorbit serios (N-a vrut sa te jigneasca). What does this word mean? - Ce inseamna acest cuvant? How do you mean to find him? - Cum ai de gand sa-l gasesti. This means war! - Acest lucru inseamna razboi! (adica acest lucru m-a suparat foarte tare) Your support means a lot to me - Sprijinul tau are mare importanta pentru mine.
557. 85.Meet - Met - Met - A (se) intalni

Lets meet at 8 - Hai sa ne intalnim la 8. He did not meet all the required conditions - El nu indeplinea toate conditiile cerute. Our project met the committee's approval. - Proiectul nostru a primit (a intalnit) aprobarea comitetului. The horizon is an illusion. Land never meets sky. - Orizontul e o iluzie. Pamantul nu intalneste cerul niciodata
558. 86.Melt - Melted - Molten/Melted - A (se) topi Dupa cum se vede, numai Molten e o forma neregulata

The snowman melted. - Omul de zapada s-a topit. Molten lava - lava topita Molten iron - fier topit etc
559. 87.Mistake - Mistook - Mistaken - A lua ceva drept altceva A nu confunda cu substantivul mistake. A mistake inseamna o greseala Insa a gresi = to make a mistake Se foloseste cu for

Oh I'm sorry. I mistook you for somebody else - O, iarta-ma te-am luat drept altcineva I mistook him for a beggar - Am crezut ca e cersetor
560. 88.Mow - Mowed - Mown - A tunde iarba

I have to mow the lawn - Trebuie sa tund gazonul


561. 89.Pay - Paid - Paid - A plati

Wait till I go pay - Asteapta pana ma duc sa platesc. I paid a lot for the car. - Am dat mult pe masina It pays good interest. - Da dobanda buna. It pays to work hard - Da rezultate munca grea. Can you pay off your debts? - Poti sa iti platesti datoriile?

562. 90.Prove - Proved - Proven/Proved - A (se) dovedi, a demonstra Forma proved se foloseste ca verb, forma proven ca adjectiv.

I have proved this, so now it is a proven fact - Am dovedit aceasta asa ca acum e un fapt dovedit The party proved to be a succes - Petrecerea s-a dovedit a fi de succes. I proved this theorem - Am demonstrat aceasta teorema
563. 91.Put - Put - Put - A pune

Put that book back where it belongs - Pune cartea inapoi unde-i e locul I have to put my coat on - Trebuie sa pun haina pe mine. Can I put(sau ask) a question? - Pot sa pun o intrebare? ' Bluntly put, my answer is NO - Pe scurt (pus scurt) raspunsul meu e nu. Stop putting this off! - Nu mai amana! Put out that fire first, it's dangerous - Intai stinge focul acela, e periculos. I am finished putting up with him! - Am terminat sa il mai rabd!
564. 92.Quit - Quit - Quit - A-si da demisia, a renunta

I quit my job - Mi-am dat demisia I quit smoking - Am renuntat la fumat.


565. 93.Read - Read - Read - A citi

I learned to read at 5 - Am invatat sa citesc la 5 ani. You read my mind - Mi-ai citit gandurile I wouldn't read to much into that - Eu n-as interpreta asta ca insemnand prea mult. The ammeter reads 10 amps - Ampermetrul indica 10 amperi. Read out the rules - Citeste cu voce tare regulile I need to read up on my history - Trebuie sa-mi improspatez cunostintele de istorie.
566. 94.Rid - Rid/Ridded - Rid/Ridded - A scapa de

The candidate promised to rid the city of stray dogs. - Candidatul a promis sa scape cainele de caini vagabonzi. He's rid of his debts - A scapat de datorii.
567. 95.Ride - Rode - Ridden - A calari, a merge cu un mijloc de transport

He rode away into the sunset - A calarit pierzandu-se in lumina apusului de soare. She rides a tan horse - Ea calareste un cal bej. He rides the bus to work - Merge cu autobuzul la serviciu. She loves riding a bike - Ei ii place sa mearga pe bicicleta.
568. 96.Ring - Rang - Rung - A suna

Ring me up! - Suna-ma! What he says rings true - Ce spune el suna adevarat. The doorbell is ringing - E cineva la usa (Soneria suna) The classroom rang with laughter - Clasa a rasunat de rasete
569. 97.Rise - Rose - Risen - A se ridica To rise e numai a se ridica To raise (verb regulat) e a ridica

The sun rises in the east - Soarele se ridica in est. Hot air balloons were rising in the sky during the festivities - Baloanele cu aer cald se ridicau pe cer in timpul festivitatilor. Inflation causes prices to rise - Inflatia face ca preturile sa creasca. The preacher's voice rose till it sounded like thunder - Vocea predicatorului a crescut pana a devenit ca un tunet. I saw a thin column of smoke rising in the distance - Am vazut o coloana subtire de fum ridicandu-se in departare. He rose from his seat with difficulty - S-a sculat de pe scaun cu dificultate. The city of Warsaw rose from the ashes after WW2 - Orasul Varsovia s-a ridicat din cenusa dupa razboi.
570. 98.Run - Ran - Run - A alerga, a merge (despre aparate), a conduce, a candida

He ran the whole marathon - A alergat intreg maratonul He wants to run for president - Vrea sa candideze la presedentie. The TV runs all day - Televizorul sta aprins toata ziua. The rehearsal ran from 3pm to 8pm. - Repetitia a tinut de la 3 la 8 dupa masa. The scientist was running a six month experiment - Savantul desfasura un experiment cu durata de sase luni. It seems you've run out of luck, we have no more umbrellas - Se pare ca te-a lasat norocul, nu mai avem umbrele.
571. 99.Saw - Sawed - Sawn/Sawed - A taia cu fierastraul

I always saw off the Christmas tree branches before getting rid of it - Totdeauna tai ramurile la brad inainte sa ma descotorosesc de el.
572. 100. Say - Said - Said - A spune

Say something! - Zi ceva! "I made a mistake!" "I'll say" - "Am gresit!" "Si inca cum" Let's say it's so - Sa spunem ca asa e. He said goodye and rode off. - Si-a luat ramas bun si a plecat pe cal.
573. 101.See - Saw - Seen - A vedea, a intelege

I see an eagle in the sky - Vad un vultur pe cer I see what your saying. - Inteleg ce spui. I see her as the leader - O vad pe ea in postul de conducator Please see what they want - Te rog vezi ce vor. He is seeing somebody - Se vede cu cineva The doctor will see you now - Poti intra in cabinetul doctorului. See that they do it right - Vezi sa faca treaba bine. He had to see the ruins for himself - A trebuit sa vada ruinele cu ochii lui. Please see the guests to the door - Te rog condu-i pe musafiri.
574. 102.Seek - Sought - Sought - A cauta

I'll go seek help - Ma duc sa caut ajutor He is seeking employment - Cauta o slujba.
575. 103.Sell - Sold - Sold - A (se) vinde

I want to sell the house - Vreau sa vand casa Apples don't sell so well anymore - Merele nu se mai vand asa de bine. He was sold on the idea of a rooftop garden - I-a placut ideea unei gradini pe acoperis.
576. 104.Send - Sent - Sent - A trimite

He sent me a letter - Mi-a trimis o scrisoare They sent the children to boarding school - Au trimis copiii la internat The football player sent the ball out of the field - Jucatorul de fotbal a trimis mingea in afara terenului. I was sent for, wasn't I? - Am fost chemat(a), nu?
577. 105.Set - Set - Set - A aseza, a aranja

He set the statuette on the table - A pus statueta pe masa He set the house on fire - A dat foc la casa I set the alarm clock at 8 - Am pus ceasul sa sune la 8 He must set the table by 6 - Trebuie sa puna masa pana in ora 6. It's all set - Totu-i aranjat. You must set a good example for your little sister - Trebuie sa fii un model pentru sora ta mai mica. The sun sets at 8. - Soarele apune la 8. Set apart the clothes you will need - Aseaza deoparte hainele de care vei avea nevoie. Let me set forth my ideas - Lasa-ma sa-ti prezint ideile mele. His smoking set off the fire detector - Fumatul lui a pornit detectorul de incendii. I set up shop in town - Mi-am ridicat un magazin in oras.
578. 106.Sew - Sewed - Sewn/Sewed - A coase

He is sewing the hem of his pants - El isi coase tivul la pantaloni.

579. 107.Shake - Shook - Shaken - A tremura, a scutura To shiver with cold - A tremura de frig.

The hunter started shaking when he saw the lion. - Vanatorul a inceput sa tremure cand a vazut leul. The night the earth shook - Noaptea cand pamantul s-a zguduit. To shake hands - A da mana. She shook the tambourine and the music played - Ea scutura tamburina iar muzica rasuna. We shook hands on it - Ne-am inteles
580. 108.Shave - Shaved - Shaven/Shaved - A (se) rade

He shaved his mustache this morning - Si-a ras mustata in dimineata asta. He shaved the wood carefully - A dat cu atentie lemnul la rindea.
581. 109.Shed - Shed - Shed - A pierde (par, kilograme, lacrimi etc) A pierde ceva e to lose

He shed tears in silence - Plangea in liniste What you said shed some light on this mystery. - Ceea ce mi-ai spus a aruncat putina lumina asupra acestui mister. The oaktree has shed its leaves. - Stejarul s-a lepadat de frunze. My dog's hair is shedding - Cainelui meu ii cade par din blana.
582. 110.Shine - Shone - Shone - A straluci

Moonlight shone on the forest path - Lumina lunii stralucea pe cararea din padure The happiness that shone in his eyes said it all - Bucuria care-i stralucea in ochi era graitoare.
583. 111.Shoe - Shod - Shod - A (se) incalta Uzual pentru a se incalta e to put on one's shoes Astazi se foloseste aproape numai cand vorbim de cai.

Who will shoe your pretty little feet? - Cine-ti va incalta piciorusele? He shoes horses - E potcovar
584. 112.Shoot - Shot - Shot - A impusca

I shot the sheriff - L-am impuscat pe serif. Peter shot an angry look at him - Peter i-a aruncat o privire suparata. Water shot out of the pipe - A tasnit apa din teava. Pain shot through my arm - O durere m-a sagetat in brat
585. 113.Show - Showed - Shown - A arata

He showed me his stamp collection - Mi-a aratat colectia lui de timbre. He showed them to the door. - I-a condus la usa.

What's showing at the movies this week? - Ce film ruleaza saptamana asta? You didn't show up for rehearsal. - Nu ai venit la repetitii.
586. 114.Shrink - Shrank - Shrunk - A se micsora

People shrink with age - Cu varsta, oamenii scad in inaltime I want to shrink this photo, and keep it in my purse - Vreau sa micsorez aceasta fotografie si sa o tin in poseta. The lake shrank because of the draught - Lacul s-a micsorat datorita secetei.
587. 115.Shut - Shut - Shut - A inchide

Shut up! - Taci din gura! Please, shut the door! - Te rog, inchide usa! The electricity is shut off. - Curentul e oprit. The health inspectors shut down the store - Inspectorii de sanatate au inchis magazinul They shut off the radioactive plant - Au inchis (si au izolat) uzina radioactiva.
588. 116.Sing - Sang - Sung - A canta

She sings in the choir - Ea canta in cor Let's sing a song - Hai sa cantam un cantec Happy birds are singing in the sky - Pasari fericite canta in cer.
589. 117.Sink - Sank - Sunk - A (se) scufunda

The battleship has been sunk! - Nava de razboi a fost scufundata! His heart sank at the news - I s-a prabusit inima la aflarea vestii. His words finally sank in - Cuvintele lui au capatat in sfarsit inteles. Sink or swim - Sau inoti sau te scufunzi.
590. 118.Sit - Sat - Sat - A sta jos

Don't sit on the floor, pull up a chair. - Nu sta pe jos, trage-ti un scaun. My parrot sits on my shoulder - Papagalul imi sta pe umar Their house sits in a green valley - Casa lor se afla intr-o vale verde. Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet - Mica Miss Muffet sta pe un delusor That doesn't sit well with me - Nu imi cade bine asta That stadium sits 30,000 people - Stadionul acela are 30.000 de locuri. Sit still! - Stai locului!
591. 119.Slay - Slew - Slain - A ucide

Ceasar was slain by his political adversaries - Cezar a fost ucis de adversarii sai politici
592. 120.Sleep - Slept - Slept - A dormi

I usually sleep until seven - Deobicei dorm pana la 7. I slept like a log - Am dormit bustean.
593. 121.Slide - Slid - Slid - A aluneca Pentru a aluneca din greseala e mai uzual to slip A slide = Un tobogan

Children on a sled slid past - Copiii pe sanie au trecut in zbor He slid on the ice and broke his arm. - A alunecat pe gheata si si-a rupt mana Let it slide! - Las-o moarta! Treaca! He slid the stolen watch into his pocket - Si-a bagat ceasul furat in buzunar.
594. 122.Slit - Slit - Slit - A taia cu o lama (nu cu un foarfece) Cuvantul uzual pentru a taia e to cut

He got life in prison for slitting his neighbor's throat - A primit inchisoare pe viata pentru ca a taiat gatul vecinului sau.
595. 123.Smell - Smelt/Smelled - Smelt/Smelled - A mirosi

We must all stop sometimes and smell the roses - Toti trebuie sa ne oprim cateodata si sa mirosim trandafirii. Throw away this cheese, it smells. - Arunca branza asta, miroase.
596. 124.Speak - Spoke - Spoken - A vorbi

She spoke at the gathering - A vorbit la adunare They are not on speaking terms - Nu isi vorbesc I speak in their name - Vorbesc in numele lor Do you speak English? - Vorbesti engleza? Speak out, don't be afraid! - Vorbeste cu curaj, nu-ti fie frica! Speak up, we can't hear you - Vorbeste mai tare, nu te-auzim! Speaking of pets, how's Fifi? - Apropo de animale de companie, Fifi ce mai face?
597. 125.Speed - Sped/Speeded - Sped/Speeded - A merge cu viteza, a accelera

Speed up! Step on it! - Grabeste-te! Calca acceleratia! Cars sped by - Masinile treceau in viteza
598. 126.Spell - Spelt/Spelled - Spelt/Spelled - A spune un cuvant pe litere

Spell out your name, please - Spune-ti numele pe litere te rog. This could spell the end of the European Union - Acest lucru ar putea marca sfarsitul Uniunii Europene.
599. 127.Spend - Spent - Spent - A cheltui

You spend to much! - Cheltuiesti prea mult! How much time do you spend with your family? - Cat timp petreci cu familia? Where will you spend your vacation? - Unde iti vei petrece vacanta?
600. 128.Spill - Spilt/Spilled - Spilt/Spilled - A varsa

I spilled some juice on my blouse. - Mi-am varsat niste suc pe bluza. The beads spilt onto the floor - Margelele s-au imprastiat pe podea.
601. 129.Spin - Span/Spun - Spun - A se invarti (ca un titirez), a toarce

My great grandmother could spin very well. We still have her spinning wheel - Strabunica mea torcea foarte bine. Inca avem masina ei de tors. We play football with our fingers, by spinning coins. - Jucam fotbal cu degetele, invartind monezi. She spins wonderful stories - Ea spune niste povesti minunate. My head is spinning - Ma simt ametit (mi se invarte capul)
602. 130.Spit - Spat/Spit - Spat/Spit - A scuipa

Stop spitting out the medicine! - Nu mai scuipa medicamentele! He is constantly spitting out insults - El tot timpul arunca (scuipa) insulte.
603. 131.Split - Split - Split - A taia, a imparti

Will you please split the watermelon in two? - Vrei te rog sa tai pepenele in doua? I will split the cake equally - Voi imparti tortul in mod egal.
604. 132.Spoil - Spoilt/Spoiled - Spoilt/Spoiled - A alinta, a se strica

You spoil that child too much! - Alinti copilul prea mult. The milk has spoilt - Laptele s-a stricat
605. 133.Spread - Spread - Spread - A (se) intinde

Would you like to spread butter on your toast? - Ti-ar place sa intinzi unt pe painea prajita? Please spread out the tablecloth - Te rog intinde fata de masa. The news spread fast - Vestea s-a raspandit repede. Take a picture when the eagle spreads its wings. - Fa o poza cand vulturul isi intinde aripile.
606. 134.Spring - Sprang - Sprung - A sari (din ghemuit, ca un arc)

The tiger sprang from the bushes - Tigrul a sarit din tufisuri. Small stores are springing up everywhere - Magazine mici apar (ca din senin) peste tot. She has a spring to her step lately - Se simte o vioiciune deosebita (o bucurie) in mersul ei in ultima vreme. An idea sprang into my mind. - Mi-a venit o idee in minte.

607. 135.Stand - Stood - Stood - A sta in picioare

Stand still! - Nu te misca! All the seats on the bus were taken, so I stood the whole time. - Toate locurile din autobuz erau luate asa ca am stat in picioare tot timpul. The old house is still standing - Vechea casa inca mai exista Does the agreement still stand? - Mai e valabila intelegerea? His paintings stood the test of time - Picturile lui au rezistat trecerii timpului, sunt inca celebre. I can't stand math - Nu suport matematica. They stood by me in tough times - Ei m-au sustinut in vremuri grele. I stand for Women's Rights - Sustin drepturile femeilor. The republic for which it stands - Republica pe care o reprezinta. A flamingo stands on one leg - Un flamingo sta intr-un picior. Please stand up! - Va rog sculati-va in picioare.
608. 136.Steal - Stole - Stolen - A fura

He stole my wallet - Mi-a furat portofelul! He stole the show - A fost de departe cel mai bun numar din spectacol. He stole a glance - S-a uitat pe furis
609. 137.Stick - Stuck - Stuck - A lipi, a infige

He stuck a pin into the pin cushion - A infipt un bold in perna de ace. I am stuck in this boring job - Sunt prins in aceasta slujba plicticoasa. The door is stuck - Usa e intepenita. Let's stick together! - Hai sa ramanem uniti! I will stick a note on his door - Ii voi lasa un biletel la usa.
610. 138.Sting - Stung - Stung - A intepa

I once was stung by a bee - Am fost odata muscat de o viespe. The smoke made my eyes sting - Fumul facea sa ma intepe ochii. A stinging remark - O remarca usturatoare.
611. 139.Stink - Stank - Stunk - A mirosi urat

Flowers in vases can end up stinking - Florile din vaze pot in cele din urma sa puta. This deal stinks - Aceasta intelegere imi displace profund (pute)
612. 140.Stride - Strode/Strided - Stridden - A merge cu pasi lungi si vigurosi A merge se zice to walk

He was striding to the airport terminal - Mergea la termnalul aeroportului.


613. 141.Strike - Struck - Struck/Stricken - A lovi

The bullet struck him in the arm - Glontul l-a lovit in brat He strikes me as a kind person - Mi se pare o persoana de treaba The clock struck midnight - Ceasul a batut miezul noptii. To strike a bell - A bate clopotul The speaker struck a chord in many. - Vorbitorul a atins o coarda sensibila in multi ascultatori. In the Middle Ages many were struck down by the plague. - In Evul Mediu multi erau loviti de ciuma.
614. 142.String - Strung - Strung - A insira String e fir. Multe actiuni legate de fire se traduc prin to string.

I have to string my guitar - Trebuie sa-mi acordez chitara They strung an electrical wire across the street. - Au intins un cablu electric de-a lungul drumului. I have to string these beads back. - Trebuie sa pun margelele acestea inapoi pe sforicica.
615. 143.Strive - Strove - Striven - A se zbate (in sens pozitiv), a depune un mare efort

I strive to be the best teacher - Ma lupt sa fiu cea mai buna profesor. Strive to reach the stars - Zbate-te sa ajungi la stele.
616. 144.Swear - Swore - Sworn - A jura, a injura

I swear allegiance to my country, Romania. - Jur credinta tarii mele, Romania I swear I didn't eat the cake - Jur ca n-am mancat tortul He was swearing and cursing everyone around - Ii injura si ii blestema pe toti cei din jur. Don't swear at him! - Nu il mai injura!
617. 145.Sweat - Sweat/Sweated - Sweat/Sweated - A transpira

I sweat bullets when I work out - Transpir din greu (gloante) cand ma antrenez.
618. 146.Sweep - Swept/Sweeped - Swept/Sweeped - A matura

Let me sweep the kitchen - Lasa-ma sa matur in bucatarie The flood waters swept away everything in their path.- Inundatia a maturat totul din calea ei. The hills sweep down to the sea. - Dealurile coboara pana la mare.
619. 147.Swell - Swelled - Swollen - A se umfla

The river is swelling - Raul se umfla Your face is swollen - Ai fata umflata
620. 148.Swim - Swam - Swum - A inota

I swam 50 laps - Am inotat 50 de lungimi de bazin. I dream of swimming in money someday - Visez ca intr-o zi sa inot in bani

621. 149.Swing - Swung - Swung - A (se) legana

The monkey was swinging from its tail - Maimuta se legana atarnata de coada. He doesn't swing his arms when walking - Nu isi leagana bratele cand merge. He came swinging down the road, whistling a tune - Venea vesel pe drum fluierandu o melodie
622. 150.Take - Took - Taken - A lua

Did you take your medicine today? - Ti-ai luat azi doctoriile? Take a bus to school - Du-te cu autobuzul la scoala His reactions always take me by surprise - Reactiile lui totdeauna ma iau prin surprindere. He took her hand in marriage - El s-a insurat cu ea. (i-a luat mana in casatorie) He took a seat - A luat loc Take a picture - Fa o poza Take your time - Nu te grabi Take comfort in your daughter - Gaseste-ti consolarea in fata ta. Take a left turn and you are there - Ia-o la stanga si ai ajuns. You should take your temperature - Ar trebui sa-ti iei temperatura Take a walk - Du-te la plimbare Take a break - Fa o pauza. Take down the curtains - Da jos perdelele Take off your coat - Scoate-ti haina Can you please take out this splinter? - Poti te rog sa-mi scoti aceasta aschie? He took off - A plecat in graba As I take it, he's not coming home - Dupa cate inteleg eu, el nu va veni acasa.
623. 151.Teach - Taught - Taught - A invata pe altii

Can you teach me English? - Ma poti invata engleza? He taught History all his life. - Toata viata el a predat istoria.
624. 152.Tear - Tore - Torn - A rupe

The nail tore a hole in my sock - Cuiul mi-a facut o gaura in ciorap After reading that article he tore the newspaper to pieces - Dupa ce a citit articlul a rupt ziarul in bucati They will tear down this building - Vor demola aceasta cladire. A country torn by rival political parties - O tara sfasiata de partide politice rivale. The dog tore into the food - Cainele s-a repezit la mancare
625. 153.Tell - Told - Told - A spune (cu sensul de a povesti)

Tell us a story! - Spune-ne o poveste! Tell me what happened - Spune-mi ce s-a intamplat Tell me about the trip - Povesteste-mi despre excursie. I'll tell you a secret - Iti spun un secret Could you tell if he was lying? - Iti dadeai seama daca minte? I can't tell who's coming, it's too dark. - Nu-mi dau seama cine vine, e prea intuneric.

626. 154.Think - Thought - Thought - A gandi, a crede

I thought about what you said - M-am gandit la ce ai spus. I think you are right - Cred ca ai dreptate He thinks he is smart. - Se crede destept. What do you think your doing? - Ce faci? (Ce iti inchipui ca faci?) - Ce te-a apucat? I am thinking about you - Ma gandesc la tine.
627. 155.Thrive - Throve/Thrived - Thriven/Thrived - A merge infloritor, a prospera

That plant thrives in the shade - Plantei aceea ii merge infloritor la umbra. My business is thriving - Afacerii mele ii merge infloritor
628. 156.Throw - Threw - Thrown - A arunca

My dog wanted me to throw the ball - Catelul meu vroia sa arunc mingea. He threw me a glance - Mi-a aruncat o privire He threw away the left-overs. - A aruncat mancarea ramasa He threw out the garbage - A dus gunoiul (l-a scos din casa) He threw up - A vomitat
629. 157.Thrust - Thrust - Thrust - A vari

He thrust his hands into his pockets - Si-a varat mainile in buzunar. He thrut his sword into the enemy - Si-a varat sabia in dusman
630. 158.Tread - Trod - Trodden - A merge cu pasi grei peste ceva

He tread through the forest with heavy feet and a heavy heart - Mergea prin padure cu picioare grele si cu inima la fel.
631. 159.Understand - Understood - Understood - A intelege

I understand your point of view - Iti inteleg punctul de vedere I don't uderstand this theorem - Nu inteleg aceasta teorema I understand this is unexpected. - Inteleg ca e ceva neasteptat
632. 160.Upset - Upset - Upset - A necaji, a supara, a rasturna

He upset the vase and it broke - A rasturnat vaza care s-a spart. Stop upsetting your brother - Nu-l mai necaji pe fratele tau Why is he so upset? - De ce e el atat de suparat?
633. 161.Wake - Woke - Woken - A trezi

Wake me up in an hour - Scoala-ma peste-un ceas That moment was for me a wake up call - Momentul acela a fost pentru mine unul de trezire. Romanian, wake up from the sleep of death - Desteapta-te romane din somnul cel de moarte

634. 162.Wear - Wore - Worn - A purta

On her head she wore a yellow ribbon - Purta pe cap o funda galbena Wear a coat it's freezing outside - Poarta o haina e foarte frig afara He wears glasses - El poarta ochelari I will wait until the alcohol has worn off - Am sa astept pana se duce efectul alcoolului. Children can wear you out - Copiii te pot epuiza My car is so worn down I am afraid to drive it sometimes - Masina mea e atat de uzata incat uneori mie frica sa o conduc
635. 163.Weave - Wove - Woven - A tese, a impleti A impleti par - to plait hair.

She weaves rugs - Ea tese covoare He weaves baskets - El impleteste cosuri The writer wove his memories into the plot - Scriitorul a intercalat amintirile proprii in poveste
636. 164.Wed - Wed/Wedded - Wed/Wedded - A (se) casatori

I wed when I was 20. - M-am casatorit la 20 de ani. I wed David - M-am casatorit cu David. We need a minister to wed us. - Ne trebuie un preot care sa ne casatoreasca.
637. 165.Weep - Wept - Wept - A plange amar

They wept when they remembered all their freinds killed in the war - Au plans cand si-au amintit de toti prietenii lor morti in razboi.
638. 166.Wet - Wet/Wetted - Wet/Wetted - A umezi

Wet the sponge, please. - Umezeste te rog buretele He still wets the bed at night, although he is 9 - Inca mai uda noaptea patul desi are noua ani.
639. 167.Win - Won - Won - A castiga

She won the competition - A castigat concursul. Her speech won over many listners - Discursul ei a castigat pe multi ascultatori.
640. 168.Wind - Wound - Wound - A (se) incolaci

I have to wind my watch - Trebuie sa imi intorc ceasul. Where does this path that winds up the mountain take me? - Unde ma duce aceasta carare ce serpuieste in sus pe munte? You'll wind up in a bear's cave. - Ai sa nimeresti intr-o pestera de urs.

641. 169.Wring - Wrung - Wrung - A stoarce A nu se confunda cu to ring (care se citeste la fel) - a suna.

He was wringing his hands in dispair - El isi frangea mainile de disperare The washing machine will wring out the water. - Maina de spalat va stoarce apa.
642. 170.Write - Wrote - Written - A scrie

He writes poems - El scrie poezii. Let me write you a check - Sa-ti completez un cec. He wrote to us that he would come visit - Ne-a scris ca va veni sa ne viziteze Write down what I'm about to tell you - Scrie ce am de gand sa-ti spun.
643. Verbe care au aceeasi radacina deobicei au si aceleasi forme neregulate.

put input output sau cast forecast broadcast sau chiar stand understand

7.SUBSTANTIV, ADJECTIV, VERB - SCHIMBAREA CATEGORIEI


644. Multe verbe sunt si substantive. Adica infinitivul scurt(fara to) al verbului e si substantiv. De exemplu:

(to) back a sprijini, spate (to) cook a gati, bucatar (to) cut - a taia, taietura (to) drink - a bea/bautura (to) fall - a cadea, cazatura< (to) fish - a pescui, peste (to) hate - a uri, ura (to) heat - a incalzi, caldura (to) help - a ajuta, ajutor (to) laugh a rade, ras (to) search a cauta, o expeditie de cautare (to) talk a vorbi, cuvantare (to) walk a merge, plimbare (to) work a munci, munca

645. Verbele de mai sus sunt cateva verbe care sunt identice ca substantive. Exista si verbe care se scriu la fel dar ca substantive au accentul altfel decat la verbe.

To export - a exporta, export To record - a inregistra, inregistrare To present - a prezenta, cadou

646. Terminatia - ment Substantive abstracte provenite din verbe:

to excite - a entuziasma excitment - entuziasm to enjoy - a se bucura enjoyment - bucurie


647. Terminatia - tion sau - ion Substantive provenite din verbe

To comunicate - A comunica Communication - Comunicare To pollute - A polua Pollution - Poluare To admit - A admite, a recunoaste Admission - Recunoastere
648. Terminatia - er, - or sau - ist Substantive provenite din verbe si care reprezinta meserii:

to teach - a invata pe altii teacher - invatator, profesor to run - a alerga runner - alergator to act - a juca in piese actor - actor to translate - a traduce translator - traducator to economize - a economisi economist - economist
649. Terminatiile - er, - ee desemneaza substantive care contrasteaza unul cu celalalt

employer - angajator employee - angajat


650. Terminatia - ing Gerunziile verbelor pot fi folosite ca substantive. To sleep - a dormi Sleeping bag - Sac de dormit - adjectiv

Sleeping is vital for our health - Dormitul e vital pebntru sanatatea noastra - substantiv. Obs: si sleep is vital for our health era corect.

Learning can be tiresome - Invatatul poate fi obositor. Eating all day is dangerous - Mancatul toata ziua e periculos Singing is fun - Cantatul e distractiv.
651. Terminatia - ist/ism Ca si in romaneste desemneaza oameni/ideologii

marxist/marxism communist/communism terrorist/terrorism


652. Terminatia - al Substantive provenite din verbe: Atentie! In romaneste acest mod de a construi substantive e automat: da - dare, veni - venire, alerga - alergare, pleca - plecare In engleza nu exista decat rar aceasta constructie cu - al Ea poate fi inlocuita de constructia cu: - ing Plecarea in vacanta a fost grea - Plecatul in vacanta a fost greu Leaving for vacation was hard Atentie! Multe adjective deasemeni au terminatia al

arrival - sosire refusal - refuz denial - negare burial - ingropare


653. Terminatia - ness Substantive abstracte provenite din adjective:

Laziness - lene Hapiness - fericire Sadness - tristete Kindness - bunatate


654. Terminatia - hood Creeaza substantive abstracte provenite din alte substantive Mai ales termeni legati de familie (dar nu numai):

motherhood - maternitate childhood - copilarie brotherhood - fratie dar si priesthood - preotie neighborhood - vecibnatate

655. Terminatia - ship Substantive abstracte care desemneaza o relatie si care provin din alte substantive sau din adjective.

friendship - prietenie membership - calitatea de a fi membru partnership - partenariat hardship - greutati hard - greu (adjectiv, adverb)
656. Terminatia - ty: Substantive abstracte provenite din adjective:

honesty - onestitate loyalty - loialitate priority - prioritate majority - majoritate


657. Un adjectiv

Poate proveni din: - un substantiv (day - daily - zilnic, fur - furry - cu blana) - un verb (fishing, melted) sau poate fi chiar el baza pentru formarea - unui alt adjectiv (red-reddish) - unui verb (red - redden; danger - endanger, tight - tighten) - unui substantiv (tall - tallness)
658. Terminatia - al Adjective provenite din substantive:

accidental brutal regional universal personal


659. Terminatia - ly Adjective provenite din substantive Aceasta terminatie insa este tipica pentru adverbe nu pentru adjective.

daily - zilnic friendly - prietenos monthly - lunar bodily - care tine de corp

660. Terminatia - ful Adjective provenite din substantive Full of pline de

joyful - full of joy - cu fericire careful - full of care - grijuliu graceful - full of grace - gratios delightful - full of delight - incantator beautiful - full of beauty - frummoasa
661. Terminatia - less Adjective provenite din substantive Less - fara

homeless - fara locuinta a homeless beggar - un cersetor fara locuinta he is homeless - el e fara locuinta powerless - fara putere faithless - fara credinta meaningless - fara sens
662. Cuvintele terminate in y schimba pe y in i inaintea sufixelor: ful, less, ous

plentiful, penniless dar nu daca inaintea lui y este o vocala playful, joyful, joyless
663. Terminatia - ary Adjective provenite din substantive Sunt legate de o insusire sau de un loc

customary - conform obiceiului momentary - de moment, efemer Here, it is customary to take your shoes off in the house - Aici, este obiceiul de a te descalta in casa
664. Terminatia - ic Adjective provenite din substantive

athletic - atletic basic - fundamental historic - istoric


665. Terminatia - ical Adjective provenite din substantive

magic, magical - magic logical - logic historical - istoric

666. historic si historical

Diferenta este ca historic inseamna important, monumental pe cand historical inseamna legat de istorie
667. Substantive pot fi adjective, adica pot descrie un alt substantiv. Ca orice adjectiv ele trebuie puse in fata substantivului la care se refera. De multe ori ele se folosesc in romaneste cu prepozItia de: cardboard box - cutie de carton marble statue - statuie de marmura battleship - nava de razboi

in alte cazuri pe romaneste nu se foloseste de: baby food mancare pentru copii. health diet dieta sanatoasa yard table masa din curte

1.Unele combinatii sunt consacrate classroom - sala de clasa apple juice suc de mere cheese sandwich -sendvis de branza snowstorm furtuna de zapada snowman om de zapada tree branch ramura de copac skyscraper zgarietor de nori (zgarie nori) computer screen monitor de calculator mountain bike bicicleta de munte (montana) football minge de picior (fotbal) paper airplane avion de hartie Altele pot fi facute de vorbitor pentru a preciza despre care substantiv vorbeste: the forest river raul de padure the emerald forest padurea de smarald the office car masina de birou a sarmale meal o mancare de sarmale the Voronet painting pictura de Voronet
668. In putine cazuri aceste substantive devenite adjective pot fi cuvinte cu totul noi:

ladybug - gargarita butterfly - fluture dragonfly - libelula pineapple - ananas eggplant - vanata
669. Aceste substantive devenite adjective isi pierd caracteristicile substantivale si ca orice adjectiv in engleza nu accepta plural:

housse plant planta de casa house plants plante de casa.


670. Terminatia - ish De multe ori are terminatia - esc in romaneste Poate fi folosita si la culori. Deobicei nu e folosit in sens pozitiv. childish - copilaresc - simplu, fara maturitate

foolish - prostesc childish - copilaresc selfish - egoist bluish - albastrui


671. Terminatia - like Inseamna asemeni Deobicei e folosit in sens pozitiv. childlike - ca un copil - inocent, dragut

lifelike - in marime naturale, ca in viata ladylike - care e potrivit pentru o doamna godlike - asemeni lui Dumnezeu
672. Terminatia - ous

glamorous - incantator dangerous - periculos poisonous - otravitor


673. Terminatia - y

rainy - ploios a rainy day - o zi ploioasa funny - nostim sunny - insorit furry - cu blana
674. Numeralele deasemeni pot actiona ca adjective In cazul acesta substantivul pierde pe s adica devine la singular.

a 100 page document - un document de 100 de pagini a 20 day diet - un regim de 20 de zile a 10 foot ladder - o scara de 10 picioare
675. Ca si in romaneste adjective pot fi formate de participiul unui verb

lacul inghetat (de la a ingheta) the frozen lake peretele zugravit the painted wall merele cumparate the bought apples varza umpluta stuffed cabage

676. Unele verbe au doua forme de participiu, de exemplu: shave are si shaved si shaven. Ca adjectiv se foloseste forma neregulata.

He has shaved his beard. - El si-a ras barba (aici shaved e verb, descrie o actiune) He is clean shaven - El este complet ras. (shaven e adjectiv)
677. Terminatia - ing: Adjective formate din gerunziul verbelor

sleeping dog - caine care doarme sleeping bag sac de dormit talking movies filme care vorbesc (filmele sonore din epoca cinematografului mut) talking parrot - papagal vorbitor
678. Terminatia - able: Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au terminatia abil

agreeable - agreabil expandable - expandabil remarkable - remarcabil likable - placut


679. Terminatia - ible: Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au terminatia ibil

sensible - intelept (nu inseamna sensibil) flexible - flexibil accessible - accesibil


680. Terminatia - ent: Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au tot terminatia ent

excellent - excelent urgent - urgent different - diferit


681. Terminatia - ant: Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au tot terminatia ant

pleasant - placut reliant - dependent ignorant - ignorant vacant - vacant


682. Terminatia - ive: Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au tot terminatia iv

attractive - atractiv creative - creativ secretive - secretos informative - informativ

8.ADVERBUL
683. Adverbul este partea de vorbire care arata o caracteristica a unei actiuni, a unei stari sau a unei calitati El determina verbe, adjective sau alte adverbe. Un adverb trebuie sa raspunda la una din intrebarile : Cum? Cand? Unde?

Ma duc degraba la gara. Cum ma duc? Degraba este adverb pe langa verbul a se duce.

684. Adverbele care determina un adjectiv, stau totdeauna in fata adjectivului Astfel de adverbe sunt very - foarte, quite - destul de, absolutely - foarte etc Very poate sa fie si adjectiv cu intelesul de chiar This is the very example I need - Acesta este chiar exemplul de care am nevoie.

A very big dog - Un caine foarte mare A very rainy day - O zi foarte ploaiasa This is a very tall man - Acest barbat e foarte inalt This man is quite tall - Acest barbat e destul de inalt He's absolutely delighted - El e cu desavarsire incantat. quite de multe ori e folosit ca eufemism pentru very. A doua propozitie putand insemna si ca barbatul respectiv e foarte inalt.
685. Adverbele englezesti se grupeaza in adverbe de mod, de loc, de timp de frecventa si de scop.

Adverbele cateodata pot fi puse in multe locuri in propozitie, cateodata nu. Ele au trei locuri in propozitie unde e posibil sa-si aiba locul. - pozitia initiala (inaintea subiectului) - pozitia de mijloc (intre subiect si verb sau imediat inainte de verbul to be daca e cazul) - pozitia finala(la sfarsitul propozitiei)
686. Adverbe de mod slowly - incet carefully - atent awfully - teribil

A citit incet scrisoarea Toate urmatoarele formulari sunt corecte Slowly, he read the letter He slowly read the letter He read the letter slowly

A deschis cu grija plicul Toate urmatoarele formulari sunt corecte Carefully, he opened the envelope He carefully opened the envelope He opened the envelope carefully El este teribil de trist - He is awfully sad
687. Adverbe de loc here - aici there - acolo behind - in spate above - deasupra In general aceste adverbe se pun la sfarsit, mai rar se pun si inaintea subiectului.

We met him here. - L-am intalnit aici We stayed there. - Am stat acolo In aceste doua cazuri, adverbele nu pot fi asezate in alta parte in propozitie.
688. Adverbe de timp now - acum then - atunci yesterday - ieri In general aceste adverbe se pun la sfarsit, mai rar se pun si inaintea subiectului.

Now listen to a story - Acum asculta o poveste Listen to the story now - Asculta povestea acum. He went fishing yesterday - S-a dus la pescuit ieri Yesterday he went fishing - Ieri s-a dus la pescuit. Constructia romaneasca - S-a dus ieri la pescuit - NU se poate respecta deci He went yesterday fishing e GRESIT. Aceasta propozitie da impresia ca yesterday e un adjectiv adica exista un mod de a pescui numit yesterday.
689. Adverbe de frecventa always - totdeauna already - deja never - niciodata seldom - rareori usually - deobicei Daca verbul este to be si nu este un timp compus, deobicei se pune dupa be. La timpurile compuse ele se intercaleaza. La verbele celelalte aceste adverbe se pune inaintea verbului.

I am usually on time Deobicei ajung la timp. I have never seen this movie - Nu am vazut niciodata acest film. I often dream of him De multe ori il visez.
690. Adverbele de frecventa occasionally - din cand in cand frequently - mereu usually - deobicei sometimes - cateodata Se pot pune inaintea subiectului.

Cateodata, am nevoie de o vacanta. I sometimes need a vacation Sometimes I need a vacation Deobicei, alerg repede Usually I run fast I usually run fast
691. Adverbele de frecventa occasionally - din cand in cand rarely - rareori often - ades Se pot pune si la sfarsit.

Il vizitez ades I often visit him. I visit him often.


692. Adverbe de frecventa in propozitiile negative Ele se intercaleaza intre verb si auxiliar sau intre verb si modal, dupa caz.

I don't always do my homework. - Nu imi fac intotdeauna temele. I can't always help you. - Nu pot sa te ajut totdeauna. I must never leave the door unlocked - Nu trebuie niciodata sa las usa neincuiata I am not always happy - Nu sunt totdeauna fericit.
693. Adverbe de frecventa in propozitiile interogative Ele se intercaleaza intre subiect si verb.

Do you often listen to music? - Asculti deseori muzica? Can you always tell who is singing? - Totdeauna iti dai seama cine canta? Haven't you ever been wrong?- Nu te-ai inselat niciodata?
694. Spre deosebire de limba romana in limba engleza nu se fac doua negatii in propozitie. Niciodata nu a cantat tradus se spune Niciodata a cantat: He never sang.

De aceea adverbele never - niciodata, seldom - rareori, rarely - rareori nu se folosesc in propozitii negative (propozitii cu not).

He never went to school - Niciodata nu a mers la scoala He seldom eats alone - Rareori mananca singur I rarely see him - Il vad rareori.
695. In propozitii interogative si negative never devine ever.

Have you ever seen him? - L-ai vazut vreodata? No I have never seen him - Nu nu l-am vazut niciodata. sau No I haven't ever seen him. No, I have seldom/rarely seen him
696. Adverbe de mod Daca un adverb raspunde la intrebarea CUM atunci este adverb de mod. Deobicei aceste adverbe se formeaza adaugand -ly la un adjectiv.

He drives slowly El conduce incet. Cum conduce? - Incet (adverb) dar He is a slow driver. - El e un sofer incet slow - adjectiv slowly - adverb
697. Cateva adverbe de mod des intalnite

quickly - repede - quick(adjectiv) The car quiickly turned right - Masina a virat repede la dreapta. frightfully - nespus de, inspaimantator de - frightful (adjectiv) He is frightfully sad - El e inspaimantator de trist. unexpectedly - pe neasteptate - unexpected (adjectiv) He unexpectedly opened the door - A deschis pe neasteptate usa suddenly - brusc - sudden(adjectiv) Suddenly, I realized I didn't know him - Deodata mi-am dat seama ca nu il cunosc.
698. Exista un numar mic de adverbe de mod care nu au terminatia -ly fast - repede hard - greu late - cu intarziere straight - drept well - bine

He walks fast. - El merge repede fast poate fi si adjectiv A fast car sped by. - O masina iute a trecut in viteza

He went straight home - S-a dus drept acasa straight poate fi si adjectiv He draws straight lines. - El trage linii drepte
699. Hard este un adjectiv (cu intelesul de tare) care poate deveni hardly ca adverb avand sensul de abia. Dar poate ramane si hard ca adverb cu intelesul de dificil. La fel late (tarziu) si lately (in ultimul timp)

He hardly shows up. - Abia il vedem (la lucru) He works hard. - El munceste din greu. He arrived late. - A sosit tarziu. Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything - In ultimul timp, parea ca nu ajunge la timp pentru nimic.
700. Adjectivul good - bun nu formeaza adverb. Adverbul este well - bine

Ai facut o treaba buna You did a good job. Ai facut treaba bine - You did the job well.
701. Verbul to taste - a gusta cere -ly pentru adverb: Verbul to taste a avea gust insa nu cere. Aceeasi regula se aplica pentru to smell - a mirosi si to smell a avea un miros. Deasemeni pentru to look - a privi si to look - a arata. Si pentru feel - a pipai si feel - a simti.

At the king's orders, the servant obiediently tasted the food - La ordinul regelui, servitorul ascultator a gustat mancarea This food tastes fine, he said. - Aceasta mancare are gust normal, spuse el. I smell badly Nu miros bine (Nu am un bun simt al mirosului) This fish smells bad. - Acest peste miroase rau She looked angrily at me - S-a uitat suparata la mine. She looks beautiful. - Arata foarte frumoasa The blind man gently felt things with his fingers. - Barbatul orb pipaia usor lucrurile cu degetele I feel happy we are leaving. - Sunt bucuros ca plecam.
702. Adjectivele care au deja terminatia -ly raman neschimbate ca advrbe. Ele nu mai primesc inca un ly. lovely - incantator lonely - singuratic motherly - ca o mama friendly - prietenos neighbourly - ca un bun vecin.

She sings lovely - Canta incantator (adverb, defineste un verb) She has a lovely voice - Are o voce incantatoare (adjectiv, defineste un subtantiv) He is a lonely man - E un barbat singuratic That was a lonely walk - A fost o plimbare singuratica

703. Unele adjective care se termina in e, nu primesc - ly ci intai este indepartat e-ul: true - truly - cu adevarat whole - wholly - intreg nice - nicely polite - politely

She draws nicely she also paints nice landscapes. - Ea deseneaza frumos, deasemeni picteaza peisaje frumoase. a desena frumos - frumos e adverb peisaje frumoase - frumoase e adjectiv Your idea is truly good - Ideea ta e cu adevarat buna
704. La formarea adverbului din adjective, daca adjectivul se termina in - y, inlaturam y-ul si adaugam ily.

crazily - cu nebunie happily - cu fericire The actor crazily read his part, waving his arms and shouting at the top of his voice. - Actorul sia citit cu nebunie rolul, dand din brate si strigand cat il lua gura. The parrot happily flew away - Papagalul a zburat cu fericire in departari.
705. Daca adjectivul se termina in - ic adaugam -ically.

ironically - cu ironie enthusiastically - cu entuziasm He enthusiastically clapped to the music - Cu entuziasm a batut din palme in ritmul muzicii.
706. Ca si adjectivele, adverbele au grade de comparatie. Pentru adverbele terminate in -ly se foloseste comparatia cu more si most:

I can yell, you can yell more loudly than me but he can yell the most loudly. - Eu pot sa tip, tu poti sa tipi mai tare ca mine dar el tipa cel mai tare. desi adjectivul are formele loud - louder - the loudest. I have a fast car and I want more than a faster car. I want the fastest car around - Eu am o masina rapida si vreau mai mult decat o masina mai rapida. Vreau cea mai rapida masina existenta. We are all healing - Toti ne insanatosim I am doing well, you are doing better and he is doing the best - Eu ma simt bine, tu te simti si mai bine iar el se simte cel mai bine.
707. Cand se foloseste mai mult de un adverb, ordinea normala e: de mod, de loc, de timp,

The old man usually climbed cheerfully upstairs everyday to peer from the watchtower. Batranul deobicei urca cu veselie la etaj zilnic ca sa se uite din foisor.

708. Intensificatorii adverbiali sunt folositi ca emfaza pe langa verbe. Aceste expresii emfatice se folosesc in engleza formala in cuvantari, prezentari sau in documente scrise. Iata cateva din aceste adverbe:

categorically - categoric, fara nicio rezerva deeply - cu putere in sentiment, profund enthusiastically - cu entuziasm freely - fara ezitare fully - in intregime, fara dubii honestly - cu sinceritate positively - fara dubii readily - fara ezitare sincerely - sincer, urari de bine strongly - cu convingere totally - fara dubii utterly - fara dubii

9.PREPOZITIA
709. Prepozitiile sunt parti de vorbire care indica legatura temporala spatiala sau logica dintre substantive, pronume si alte cuvinte din propozitie. Sunt invariabile si de cele mai multe ori in engleza stau in fata unui substantiv.

in dulap - in the cupboard sub pat - under the bed acasa - at home (la casa)

710. In englezeste prepozitiile pot fi simple sau compuse, adica formate dintr-unul sau mai multe cuvinte

The toy is in the box and the box is next to the TV set. - Jucaria e in cutie iar cutia este langa televizor in - in (prepozitie simpla) next to - langa (prepozitie compusa)
711. ON - prepozitie de timp - se foloseste pentru a indica o zi a saptamanii sau o zi a anului.

I will go see him on Monday. - Ma duc sa-l vad luni. I was born on October 13. on Monday - M-am nascut pe 13 octombrie, lunea.
712. IN - prepozitie de timp indica luna sau anotimpul - indica perioada din zi - indica anul - indica peste cat timp va avea loc ceva

- in March - in martie - in winter - iarna - in the morning - dimineata - in the evening - seara

- I will graduate in 2014 - Voi absolvi in 2014 - in an hour - intr-o ora


713. AT - prepozitie de timp Se foloseste in legatura cu noaptea.

At night I hear voices. - Noaptea aud voci


714. SINCE prepozitie de timp Dintr-un moment trecut si pana acum.

Since World War 2 many things have changed.- De la al Doilea Razboi Mondial multe s-au schimbat.
715. FOR prepozitie de timp Timp de: intr-o anumita perioada de timp, din trecut si pana acum.

She has been away for two years - A fost plecata timp de doi ani
716. FROM prepozitie de timp De la - marcheaza momentul de inceput al unei actiuni.

I start working from 6 in the evening - Muncesc incepand de la 6 seara.


717. AGO prepozitie de timp acum (numai legat de timp)

Two years ago - Acum doi ani


718. BEFORE prepozitie de timp legat de timp inseamna inainte de o anumita data.

He was born before 1980. - El s-a nascut inainte de 1980. Before you leave Inainte sa pleci.
719. TO prepozitie de timp are rolul lui fara din romana pentru exprimarea timpului

12 fara 10, 10 to 12.


720. PAST prepozitie de timp - are rolul lui si din romana pentru exprimarea timpului:

12 si 10 - 10 past 12
721. TILL/UNTIL prepozitie de timp - impreuna cu FROM formeaza combinatia: dela ... pana la - fara FROM inseamna pana. Till si until sunt sinonime.

I study English from 6 to 7 everyday. - Studiez engleza de la 6 la 7 zilnic. He has until Friday to finish the project. - Are pana vineri sa-si termine proiectul? Please stay indoors until the storm has passed. - Te rog stai in casa pana trece furtuna.
722. BY prepozitie de timp cel tarziu - pana in

I will be back by six. - Ma intorc cel tarziu la 6. By June I had learned to ride a bike. - Pana in iunie invatasem sa merg pe bicicleta.
723. By spre deosebire de until indica o data limita

He has until Friday to finish the project - until este pozitiv, arata tot intervalul de timp in care el poate termina proiectul He has by Friday to finish the project are caracter de avertizare
724. OVER prepozitie de timp over este numai in legatura cu trecutul. In a century from now este in viitor.

over a century ago acum peste un secol Over time de-a lungul timpului. He stayed over the weekend A stat (la noi) peste weekend. We talked over a cup of coffee - Am stat de vorba la o ceasca de cafea.
725. OF prepozitie de timp - se foloseste la exprimarea datei.

The Fourth of July Patru iulie The first of December - Intai decembrie He was born on the the 20th of May.- S-a nascut pe 20 mai.
726. AFTER prepozitie de timp - se foloseste la exprimarea orei - inseamna dupa

10 after five. Cinci si zece I am tired after I run Sunt obosit dupa ce alerg. Year after year An dupa an.
727. DURING prepozitie de timp - in timpul.

During the day I play and at night I work. - In timpul zilei ma joc si in timpul noptii muncesc. During the concert, my cellphone rang In timpul concertului, mi-a sunat mobilul.
728. IN prepozitie de loc - in din romaneste - cand actiunea este statica, se poate traduce cu intr-un,intr-o

- partile corpului se folosesc cu in - se foloseste la superlative. - orasele mari sunt cu IN. Obs:Pentru in autobuz, in tren, in avion vezi on

- I lost my keys in the car Mi-am pierdut cheile in masina. - I found the keys in a pocket Am gasit cheile intr-un buzunar. - in the arm la brat. - the most beautiful girl in the land cea mai frumoasa fata din tinut - one in a thousand - unul dintr-o mie. - in Paris, in Bucharest
729. Alte contexte pentru IN

Is Margaret in? Este Margareta acasa? Aici in este de fapt adverb.


730. AT prepozitie de loc inseamna la Daca actiunea este statica se foloseste at Pentru verbe de miscare vezi to.

He's at the door - El e la usa. He's at the railway station - E la gara. I sat down at the table M-am asezat la masa. I'm at the library. - Sunt la biblioteca.
731. ON prepozitie de loc se foloseste de asemeni la etaje - TV, radio. internet - autobuz, avion, tren

- on the table, the chair etc pe masa, pe scaun etc - on the left pe (partea) stanga - on the first floor la primul etaj - on TV la TV. - on the radio la radio - on the internet pe internet - I lost my keys on the bus, on the plane, on the train - Mi-am pierdut cheile pe autobuz, in avion, pe tren
732. BY/NEXT TO/BESIDE prepozitie de loc - langa, alaturi. By, next to si beside sunt sinonime.

In the picture, my friend is standing by me - In poza prietena mea sta langa mine. Stand by me! Sprijina-ma (moral)!
733. BESIDES prepozitie de loc BESIDES nu trebuie confundat cu beside.

Besides poate fi tradus cu pe langa Besides nu are sensul din Pe langa plapii fara sot care este mai degraba by. By the odd numbered poplars.

Pe langa matematica, iau si cursuri de fizica.- Besides math I also take physics classes.
734. UNDER prepozitie de loc sub - poate avea si sens abstract.

- The dog is under the table - Cainele e sub masa - Underground, ants build entire cities. - Sub pamant, furnicile construiesc adevarate orase. - This job is under me - Aceasta slujba nu este demna de mine. - Under construction - in constructie. - - Under atac atacat. - Under arest arestat.
735. UNDERNEATH prepozitie de loc - are acelasi inteles ca under dar subliniaza ideea de ceva mic, complet acoperit de ceva mare. Asemanator cu dedesubt. Underneath se refera numai la lucruri fizice nu se refera la situatii abstracte.

The money is underneath the book. - Banii sunt sub carte.


736. BELOW prepozitie de loc sub Below arata ca ceva este mai jos decat altceva, nu ca este neaparat sub un obiect material.

below zero temperature - sub 0 grade Below the surface seaweed grows in abundance - Sub suprafata (apei) algele cresc din abundenta. The image below imaginea de mai jos. He is below average El se afla sub medie.
737. OVER prepozitie de loc peste

I will spread the blanket over the bed. - Voi intinde patura peste pat The bear went over the mountain Ursul a trecut peste munte. A little over a kilometer Putin peste un kilometru. Walk over the bridge Treci peste pod (traverseaza podul) He will get over it Ii va trece. Over his head Peste intelegerea lui, prea destept pentru el. We quarelled over nothing Ne-am certat pentru nimic. Over here aici, over there acolo.
738. ABOVE prepozitie de loc - deasupra. Above este opusul lui Below iar Over este opusul lui Under.

The room above (us). Camera de deasupra noastra. 5 degrees above 0 - 5 grade peste 0. I try to stay above these quarrels Incerc sa raman deasupra acestor certuri.
739. ACROSS prepozitie de loc peste, de-a curmezisul. - de partea cealalta. Over are intelesul de asezat peste ceva, across nu.

I live across the street Locuiesc pe partea cealalta a strazii. I came across an old man in the forest - Am dat de/peste un batran in padure. A hole 2 meters across sau 2 meters wide O gaura cu diametrul de 2 metri.
740. THROUGH prepozitie de loc - prin. Across este o miscare directa (to cross = a traversa). Through presupune ca si prin, un loc inchis.

I walked through the forest Am mers prin padure. I drove through the tunnel.
741. TO prepozitie de loc la, catre. Spre deosebire de AT care arata ca te afli undeva, TO arata ca mergi spre acel loc.

I am going to the library. In 10 minutes I will be at the library Merg catre bibliteca. In 10 minute voi fi la biblioteca. He turned to me S-a intors catre mine. He worked them to exhaustion - I-a pus sa munceasca pana la epuizare. He was nursed back to health A fost ingrijit pana la insanatosire. An answer to my question Un raspuns la intrebarea mea.
742. INTO prepozitie de loc in Spre deosebire de in, into exprima patrunderea intr-un spatiu. Daca ideea nu este ca el este intr-un loc anume, se zice to. He went in/into the kitchen to get the salt - S-a dus in bucatarie sa ia sarea. . Go to your room! - Du-te in camera ta (esti pedepsit)!

He went deeper and deeper into the forest. - S-a afundat din ce in ce mai adanc in padure. -He went into the kitchen.- A intrat in bucatarie. The prince was turned into a frog.- Printul s-a transformat intr-o broasca
743. TOWARDS prepozitie de loc - spre . Miscare intr-o directie dar cu aproximatie.

Take 10 steps towards me. - Fa 10 pasi spre mine.

744. BEFORE prepozitie de loc - inainte

He stood before me in line Era inaintea mea la coada.


745. ONTO prepozitie de loc - pe ceva mai sus decat restul

The dog jumped onto the chair Cainele a sarit pe scaun.


746. ABOUT prepozitie de loc - in jurul

There are flowers all about me. - Sunt flori peste tot in jurul meu.
747. WITH - cu - in sprijinul - din cauza, de

I write with my left hand Scriu cu mana stanga. He came with a present A venit cu un cadou. He left the keys with the neighbors A lasat cheile cu (la) vecini. I'm with the peace movement Sprijin (Sunt cu) miscarea pacifista. trembling with fear tremurand de frica. Sick with diabetes bolnav de diabet. Sick with an infection: Bolnav din cauza unei infectii.
748. TO - cu - cateodata se traduce cu in - dupa - in onoarea - se foloseste si ca infinitiv fara verb cand verbul se subintelege

face to face: fata in fata face pressed to the window fata apasata in (de) geam They danced to the music Au dansat dupa muzica. According to his abilities Potrivit/Dupa capcitatile lui. A toast to my guest - Un toast in onoarea musafirului meu. I'll drink to that Voi bea/inchina in onoarea acestei idei Sing if you want to - Canta daca vrei (sa canti este subinteles). I hurt his feelings but I didn't mean to - L-am jignit dar nu am vrut (sa-l jignesc se subintelege) E gresit sa zici: I hurt his feelings but I didn't mean, desi in romaneste pare corect.
749. TOWARDS - cateodata inseamna si fata de

Her feelings towards me Sentimentele ei fata de mine.


750. OF - ale, de

- in: Doctor of Law doctor in drept, doctor of medicine doctor in medicina etc. - din partea Observatie Cadoul e din partea lui, din partea dreapta etc se formeaza cu FROM.

the customs of Romania obieiurile Romaniei west of here la vest de aici dress of silk rochie de matase glass of wine pahar de/cu vin, they were dying of hunger mureau de foame how nice of him! - ce dragut din partea lui
751. OFF - de pe, din

I got off the bus/the train/the boat/the plane M-am dat jos din autobuz/tren/vapor/avion. I raised the book off the floor Am ridicat cartea de pe podea. Take this burden off my back Ia-mi aceasta greutatea din spate.
752. OFF se poate folosi si in alte contexte:

He drove off El a plecat cu masina. He dozed off a atipit He shaved off his beard si-a ras barba. Turn off the light/ the radio! - Stinge lumina/radioul! I took my clothes/socks/hat/shoes off Mi-am scos hainele/ciorapii/palaria/pantofii. The show/wedding etc is off. - Spectacolul/nunta etc nu se mai tine. We're off to see the wizard! The wonderful wizard of Oz! - Am plecat sa-l vedem pe vrajitor! Pe minunatul vrajitor din Oz! I'm off duty Sunt in afara programului
753. OUT OF: - (afara) din

He got out of the car A coborat din masina. What is the wooden statue made of? It's made out of wood, silly! He did it out of spite A facut-o de ciuda. Out of town by sundown Afara din oras pana la apusul soarelui (ordin dat impotriva cuiva in zilele vestului salbatic).
754. ABOUT - despre - aprximativ

A book about parrots O carte despre papagali That happened about a year ago Asta s-a intamplat cam acum un an. He is about my age/height/weight El este cam de varsta/inaltimea/greutatea mea.
755. ABOUT TO - pe punctul:

I was about to miss the train Am fost pe punctul sa pierd trenul.


756. BETWEEN - printre, dintre, intre: Totdeauna se foloseste BETWEEN in cazul a doua optiuni si nu AMONG.

This is between you and him. - Aceasta problema este intre tine si el. The choice between good and evil - Alegerea dintre bine si rau. I talked on the phone between classes - In perioada dintre cursuri am vorbit la telefon.
757. AMONG: - printre, dintre, intre. AMONG spre deosebire de between arata apartenenta Daca sunt numai doua substantive implicate folositi between

He is among the winners - El se afla printre castigatori. The money was divided among the winners. Banii s-aui impartit intre castigatori.
758. UPON - pe, asupra

The wrath of God be upon you! Fie mania lui Dumnezeu asupra ta! The little girl climbed upon her dad's shoulders. - Fetita s-a urcat pe umerii tatalui ei. The statue is upon a pedestal Statuia este pe un piedestal. Combina up si on.
759. OVER are si intelesul de terminat

Over and out La radiourile vechi: Convorbire terminata The movie is over - Filmul s-a terminat
760. A nu se confunda TO cu TOO care inseamna DEASEMENI sau cu TWO care inseamna DOI.

I too want to go with those two Si eu vreau sa merg cu cei doi.


761. FROM - de la - datorita - de

A letter from my aunt. - O scrisoare de la matusa mea. I walked home from school Am venit pe jos acasa de la scoala. Taking a book from the box Luand o carte din cutie. He collapsed from all the hard work. - S-a prabusit datorita (de la) muncii istovitoare She knows right from wrong Ea stie binele de rau. It is 100 kilometers from here. - Este la 100 de mile de aici.
762. Vorbitorii nativi de multe ori pun prepozitii la sfarsitul frazei ceea ce poate incurca pe un strain:

That's where I'm going to. - Acolo ma duc That's where I'm coming from - De-acolo vin

The money was not accounted for - Banii nu au fost explicati. Which class is he in? - In care clasa e? What are you talking about? - (Despre) ce vorbesti That is something I am aware of - Sunt constient de acest fapt.

10.CONJUNCTII
763. Conjunctiile leaga cuvinte de acelasi tip gramatical. Verbe cu verbe, substantive cu substantive. Cele mai simple conjunctii, se folosesc la fel ca in romana si sunt si AND sau OR dar BUT deci (asa ca) SO

Anne and Jane go to a movie - Anne si Jane merg la film Water and oil don't mix - Apa si uleiul nu se amesteca Do you want ham or cheese? - Vrei sunca sau branza? Are you coming or going? - Vii sau pleci? I can't skate but I can ski - Nu pot sa patinez dar pot sa schiez. I am tall but you are taller - Eu sunt imalt dar tu esti mai inalt It was late so I left I was hungry so I ate

764. ALTHOUGH/THOUGH desi. - in alte contexte are intelesul de totusi sau desi:

Although it is late I am still at work - Desi este tarziu sunt inca la birou. I can not come, I would like to though. - Nu pot sa vin, mi-ar placea totusi (sa vin). I can not come though I would like to - Nu pot sa vin desi mi-ar placea
765. AS - ca pe cand asa cum

as ...as She is as cute as a button sau she is cute as a button. - Ea este draguta ca un nasturas. - Clean as a pack of new pins - curat ca un pachet de ace noi. - Happy as a skylark - fericita ca o ciocarlie etc Do as I do Fa ca mine. As I read on the lesson became easier Pe cand citeam lectia a devenit mai usoara. He cannot come as you well know Nu poate veni asa cum bine sti.

766. BECAUSE - pentru ca

Take your coat because it's cold outside Ia-ti haina pentru ca este frig afara
767. IF daca, daca...atunci

If you are happy, clap you're hands. Daca esti vesel, bate din palme sau Atunci bate din palme Then clap your hands.
768. SINCE si SINCE WHEN de cand SINCE nu se foloseste la interogativ La interogativ se foloseste SINCE WHEN.

The boy is sad since his parrot flew away. - Baiatul este trist de cand i-a zburat papagalul. Since when do you swim? Since I was six.- De cand inoti? De cand aveam sase ani.
769. SINCE are si intelesul de cum - din

Since you know everything, I won't tell you Cum tu le stii pe toate nu iti spun. She has been skiing since childhood Ea a schiat din copilarie.
770. THAN - decat, ca

I am taller than you.- Eu sunt mai inalt ca tine. Better later than never - Mai bine mai tarziu decat niciodata
771. UNLESS - decat daca

Don't answer the door unless it rings three times. - Sa nu raaspunzi la usa decat daca suna de trei ori.
772. WHERE - unde, acolo unde

Where are my eyeglasses? - Unde imi sant ochelarii? Where you left them. - Acolo unde i-ai lasat. He stays in hotels where rooms are cheap. - Sta in hoteluri unde (in care) camerele sunt iefine. He stays where rooms are cheap. - El sta acolo unde camerele sunt ieftine.
773. WHERE...FROM? - de unde

Where are you from? - De unde esti? I am from Bucharest Sunt din Bucuresti
774. WHEN - cand, atunci cand

When you buy food, always check the expiration date. - Cand cumperi mancare totdeauna verifica data expirarii. When did she leave? - (She left) when the phone rang. Cand a plecat? - (A plecat) atunci cand a sunat telefonul.
775. WHILE - in timp ce Tot while poate fi si substantiv cu intelesul de putin timp, un pic.

Whistle while you work Fluiera in timp ce muncesti. Stay with us for a while - Stai cu noi un pic.
776. BOTH ... AND - atat...cat si

Both his dog and his cat sleep on his bed Atat cainele cat si pisica lui dorm la el in pat.
777. EITHER ... OR - sau...sau

You either apologize for breaking the vase or you buy it. - Sau iti ceri scuze ca ai spart vasul sau il cumperi.
778. NEITHER ... NOR - nici ...nici.

No. I'll neither apologize nor buy it. - Nu, nici nu imi voi cere scuze nici nu il voi cumpara.
779. NOT ONLY ... BUT ALSO - nu numai...ci si

Not only was I pushed but I also hit myself when I fell over the vase. - Nu numai ca am fost impins ci m-am si lovit cand am cazut peste vas.

11.ORDINEA CUVINTELOR
780. Complimentul determina predicatul. El este de urmatoarele tipuri.

Compliment direct Eu joc sah. Raspunde la intrebarea ce? Ce joc? Sah. Sah este compliment direct

Complimentul indirect Eu joc sah cu bunica. Raspunde la una din intrebarile: (cui?, pe ce?, cu cine?, cu ce?, despre cine? despre ce? etc) Cu cine joc? Cu bunica. Bunica este compliment indirect. Compliment de mod Eu joc sah bine Raspunde la intrebarea Cum? Cum joc? Bine. Compliment de loc Eu joc sah in fata blocului Raspunde la intrebarea Unde? Unde joc? In fata blocului. Compliment de timp Eu joc sah zilnic. Raspunde la intrebarea Cand? Cand joc? Zilnic.

781. Subiectul vine in fata predicatului iar complementul direct si complementul indirect vin dupa predicat.

I am reading Eu citesc I am reading a book Eu citesc o carte. Aceasta ordine se pastreaza si in cadrul propozitiilor din fraza. The people who are my neighbors are reading a story book. - Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc o carte.
782. Daca exista si un complement indirect acesta vine dupa complimentul direct daca se foloseste prepozitia to. Daca NU se foloseste TO complementul indirect vine INAINTEA complimentul direct

The people who are my neighbors are reading a story book (complement direct) to the little girl (complement indirect)- Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc o poveste fetitei. sau The people who are my neighbors are reading the little girl (complement indirect) a storybook(complement direct) - Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc fetitei o poveste.
783. Daca nu exista compliment direct (a storybook) este obligatoriu sa se puna TO cand complimentul indirect raspunde la intrebarea cui?

The people who are my neighbors are reading to the little girl - Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc fetitei. Iata un exemplu care nu cere to (nu raspunde la intrebarea cui?) The people who are my neighbors are reading a storybook with the little girl - Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc cu fetita.
784. Adverbele de timp cu caracter precis (yesterday ieri, today - azi, tomorrow - maine, last year - anul trecut, last month - luna trecuta, next year - anul viitor etc) se pun la inceputul frazei

Orice altfel de compliment vine dupa complimentul direct daca acesta exista. Daca nu exista vine direct dupa predicat.

Yesterday, the people who are my neighbors were reading a storybook to the little girl. - Ieri, oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citeau o poveste fetitei. Sometimes the people who are my neighbors read a storybook with the little girl.- Cateodata, oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc o poveste cu fetita.br> Sometimes the people who are my neighbors read a storybook out loud to the little girl in the evening - Cateodata, oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc cu voce tare o poveste fetitei seara.
785. Alte reguli: adjectivele se pun inaintea substantivelor, iar adverbele de frecventa se intercaleaza la verbe

Last month, the people who are my neighbors would often read a beautiful storybook to the little girl in the park in the evening. - Luna trecuta oamenii care sunt vecinii mei deseori citeau cu voce tare o frumoasa poveste fetitei seara, in park.
786. Never si hardly au urmatoarea regula de inversare a subiectului cu predicatul.

Se zice: I have never heard such beautiful stories sau Never have I heard such beautiful stories. - Niciodata nu am mai auzit povesti atat de frumoase I could hardly believe my ears sau Hardly could I believe my ears. - Abia-mi puteam auzi urechilor.
787. Inversiunea in cazul lui if Cand se face o inversiune if cade.

If I had known the truth sau Had I known the truth.

12.CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR
788. In englezeste timpul unui verb (trecut, prezent sau viitor indiferent ca e continuu sau nu) trebuie sa urmeze o anumita structura in cadrul frazei, structura numita concordanta timpurilor. Aceasta spune ca in functie de timpul verbului din propozitia principala, verbul din propozitia secundara nu poate fi decat la un anumit timp.

De exemplu Eu mancam cand tu ai venit acasa. - I was eating when you came home. Cand mancam? Cand tu ai venit acasa. - propozitia secundara Aici si in engleza si in romana ambele propozitii sunt la trecut si se respecta concordanta timpurilor. Insa daca spunem: El a zis ca face bine, in romaneste nu se respecta structura ceruta de concordanta timpurilor Concordanta in engleza cere sa spunem El a zis ca facea bine. Pentru romani o asemenea exprimare da impresia ca facea bine inainte sa fii zis acest lucru, in

trecut, dar in engleza constructia este : He said that he was well. Daca am vrea sa spunem ca mai demult era bine spunem: He said that he had been well.

789. Daca in principala verbul este la prezent sau la viitor, in secundara verbul poate fi la orice timp prezent trecut sau viitor dupa context.

He says that he is a student He says that he was a student He says that he will be a student He will say that he is a student He will say that he was a student He will say that he will be a student
790. Daca in principala verbul este la trecut in secundara verbul va fi la un timp perfect (aceste timpuri au legatura cu trecutul)

He said that he was a student El a spus ca este student Traducere exacta: El a spus ca era (a fost) student - Past Tense He said that he had been a student El a spus ca el era student Traducere exacta: El a spus ca fusese student Past Perfect He said that he would be a student El a spus ca va fi student Traducere exacta: El a spus ca ar fi student - Conditional (numit in acest context si Future in the Past)
791. Daca principala este la conditional prezent atunci secundara este la trecut (past tense)

I would go there if I had a passport M-as duce acolo daca as avea pasaport
792. Daca principala este la conditional trecut atunci secundara este la mai mult ca perfectul

I would have gone there if I had had a passsport. - M-as fi dus acolo daca as fi avut pasaport.
793. Daca secundara exprima un adevar absolut

He said that global warming is happening for real A spus ca incalzirea globala se intampla cu adevarat. - nu was happening They recited the poem that is the longest in the world. - A recitat poezia care e cea mai lunga din lume - nu was the longest
794. Daca secundara descrie un loc, da o explicatie sau face o comparatie.

He lived in a town where everybody rides horses. - Locuia intr-un oras unde toti oamenii calaresc cai. He went to Brasov because he is from there. - S-a dus la Brasov pentru ca e de acolo They said that old cars are best. - Ei au spus ca masinile vechi sunt cele mai bune

795. Daca secundara joaca rolul de adjectiv (este o propozitie atributiva) de exemplu:

Elevul a compus o poezie care imi place foarte mult The student composed a poem that I like very much.(si nu that I liked)
796. May din secundara se transforma in might la trecut, daca secundara a fost introdusa cu that.

He hopes he may get another chance Spera sa mai primeasca o sansa. He hoped he might get another chance. - Spera sa mai primeasca o sansa. sau (fara may si might) He hoped he got another chance.
797. Daca principala este la viitor, secundara dupa cum am vazut poate sa fie la orice timp. DAR daca este introdusa prin when, until, before, after atunci secundara se pune la prezent.

You will know when I am done (NU will be done) - Vei sti cand am terminat I will stay here until the rain stops (NU: the rain will stop) - Voi sta aici pana se opreste ploaia.
798. Daca principala este la conditional prezent si secundara contine verbul ito be acesta devine were la toate persoanele

I would have my own car if I were 18. - As avea masina mea daca as avea 18 ani.
799. Principalele care contin as if (ca si cum), if (daca), if only(doar daca), it is time (este timpul, este cazul) si wish that (a dori sa) sunt urmate de secundare la trecut.

I wish I was younger Imi doresc sa fiu mai tanar It is time you stopped feeling sorry for yourself Este cazul sa nu-ti mai plangi de mila. She plays the violin as if her life depended on it Canta la vioara ca si cum ii depinde viata de asta (altfel isi da duhul).
800. Sa presupunem ca Alice zice:

I want to buy this car tomorrow - Vreau sa cumpar masina asta maine. Aceasta este vorbirea directa. Alice a zis ca vrea sa cumpere masina asta maine este vorbire indirecta. Asa cum rezulta din aceasta constructie acest gen de fraza cere intotdeauna atentie sporita la concordanta timpurilor.
801. Daca atunci cand povestim ce a spus Alice suntem in aceeasi zi si langa masina spunem:

Alice said (that) she wanted to buy this car tommorow. - Alice a zis ca vrea sa cumpere masina asta maine. Vorbirea indirecta se introduce prin that (ca in romana, Alice a spus ca...) Dar acesta poate lipsi. Daca suntem in viitor si nu langa masina spunem: Alice said that she wanted to buy that car the next day. In loc de that putem zice the one I told you about sau doar the car etc ca si in romaneste.

802. Daca vrem sa spunem

Alice said to me that... (Alice mi-a spus mie...) se inlocuieste verbul to say cu to tell . Alice told me...
803. Iata o lista de schimbari care pot fi necesare la vorbirea indirecta:

this devine that these devine those now devine then tomorrow devine the next day today devine that day yesterday devine the day before ago devine before next week poate deveni last week

13.REGULI DE ORTOGRAFIE ENGLEZA


804. Urmatoarele sunete a (cat) , e (hen), i (pig), o (dog), u (bug) se numesc vocale scurte.

805. Sunetele vocalice din made, Pete, fine, bone, fuse se numesc vocale lungi.

806. Diftong este un sunet format din doua sunete care se citesc odata. In romaneste oa (soarta) este diftong.

Engleza contine 8 diftomgi care se pronunta in urmatoarele cuvinte: day - zi sky - cer toy - jucarie beer - bere bear - urs tour - tur no - nu brown - maron
807. Litera S

La inceputul cuvantului se citeste intotdeauna ca pe romaneste: to swim a inota same la fel to see a vedea sky - cer soft moale seat - scaun seed samanta Litera s la mijlocul cuvantului se citeste fie s: faster mai repede loose - larg

use - folosinta Fie se citeste Z Cazurile [si], [su] sunt tratate separat. SS se pronunta s si este la mijocul sau la sfarsitul cuvantului: lesson - lectie class - clasa cross - cruce address - adresa less mai mic to caress a mangaia Exceptii dessert desert scissors foarfece to posses - a poseda
808. C se citeste s inainte de e, i, y :

center - centru, celery - telina, malice rautate, circle - cerc, cinema cinematograf, cyanide cianura, bicycle bicicleta.
809. Combinatiile sce si sci se citesc tot S:

science - stiinta ascent - inaltare


810. S se citeste si combinatia ps la inceputul cuvantului:

psalm - psalm psychology - psihologie in interior se citeste ps: corpse - cadavru to incapsulate - a incapsula
811. Pluralele sau terminatiile verbale s si es se citesc

Fie s daca vin dupa sunEtele (nu literele): f, t, k,p: laughs - rasete, staffs - toiege, cats - pisici, works - munci, maps - harti Fie [iz] dupa s, z, x, ch, tch, ge, dge, sh Fie z in celelalte cazuri.
812. Sunetul C

K la inceputul cuvantului se citeste c daca nu este urmat de un n: kitten pisoi, kettle ceainic, kitchen bucatarie, to kiss a saruta, to kill a omor. Daca K la inceputul cuvantului este urmat de un n, nu se aude K: knife cutit; to knit - a impleti, knee genunchi, to know a sti.

813. Litera K

Daca este la sfarsitul cuvantului, si vine dupa o vocala scurta se inlocuieste cu ck to pack aimpacheta, cracker biscuit, sick bolnav, dock debarcader, truck camion Daca vine dupa o vocala lunga. un diftong sau dupa o consoana k nu se schimba look - uite, book - carte, beak - cioc, skeleton - schelet, sky - cer, napkin - servetel
814. Litera C

Se poate citi si c nu numai s. Aceasta inaintea vocalelor a, o, u si inaintea consoanelor cat, corn, record, calculate, crab, class. Aceasta regula este valabila si pentru CC inaintea vocalelor a, o, u account, occur, accord. Inaintea vocalelor E, I, Y,.CC se citeste [CS]. Ca terminatie in combinatia ic, c totdeauna se citeste c. analytic - analitic historic - istoric
815. QUE in cateva cuvinte se citeste la sfarsit C

unique - unic technique - tehnic physique - fizic


816. Literele CH

Reprezinta sunetul c in cuvinte de origine greaca sau latina: mechanic - mecanic, monarchy - monarhie, school - scoala, chemistry - chimie
817. Sunetul CH

Aceasta combinatie tipic reprezinta sunetul ch din multe cuvintelor englezesti cum ar fi: chair - scaun, rich - bogat, church biserica, child copil. El mai poate reprezenta sunetul c dupa cum am vazut sau sunetul s (din soarece) in cuvinte de origine frantuzeasca (chic).
818. Combinatia TCH reprezinta acelasi sunet ca ch tipic

kitchen - bucatarie to catch a prinde


819. Combinatia TU e foarte aproape de ch tipic

depature - plecare nature - natura century - secol

820. Sunetul G Litera G se citeste G inainte de vocalele a, o, u si inainte de consoane, cu exceptia lui h God, game, gold, guy, singular, kangaroo, grass, grey, glass. In unele cuvinte inainte de E si I se citeste g, in altele se citeste j [dz].

Cuvinte in care se citeste g: girl - fata, to get - a lua, geese - gaste, anger - manie, singer - cantaret, finger - deget. Daca incheie cuvantul G totdeauna se citeste G: dog, bag, fog, beg, fig. GG in general se citeste g: giggle, wiggle, egg. Exceptii exaggerate, suggest Unele cuvinte au terminatia GUE, niciodata GU: tongue - limba, vague - vag
821. Literele GH

Se pronunta G numai la inceputul cuvantului: ghost - stafie, ghetto - ghetou La sfarsitul cuvantului aceasta combinatie sau nu se citeste sau se pronunta F. Cuvinte in care nu se citeste: though desi, through prin, bough ramura. Cuvinte in care se citeste F: to laugh - a rade; rough - aspru;
822. Combinatia GHT Este alta combinatie des intalnita.

Ea pastreaza regulile lui GH anume Sunt cuvinte in care combinatia GH nu se aude si GHT se citeste T thought gand, height inaltime, weight greutate. si altele, putine, in care GHT se citeste FT: laughter
823. Sunetul dat de litera J(joy)

Litera G se citeste ca joy in unele cuvinte inainte de E si I: gentle - bland, general - general, giant - urias, gin - gin (rachiu), giraffe - girafa Se citeste totdeauna j(joy) inainte de y: gypsy - tigan, gym - sala de fitness, Egypt - Egipt
824. La inceputul sau la mijlocul cuvintelor se foloseste de multe ori litera J:

joy - bucurie jet - avion cu reactie just - tocmai pajamas - pijama


825. La sfarsitul cuvintelor adeseori se foloseste DGE dupa vocale scurte

bridge - pod judge - judecator edge - margine badge - insigna

badger - bursuc to fidget - a se foi


826. GE: cottage, manage apare oriunde in cuvant si este si parte din terminatia des intalnita age.

Se citeste j(joy) cu exceptia unor cuvinte de origine straina: garage. (se citeste si garaj)
827. Sunetul ZH (j romanesc)

Combinatia GE in cazul unor cuvinte de origine straina: garage - garaj, mirage - miraj, montage - montaj.
828. Sunetul ZH (j romanesc) Literele SI se citesc ca acest sunet.

erosion - eroziune explosion - explozie vision - viziune


829. Sunetul ZH (j romanesc) Literele SU se citesc ca acest sunet.

visual - vizual leisure - lejer pleasure - placere


830. Sunetul ZH GH se citeste F la sfarsitul unor cuvinte

laugh - raset cough - tusit enough - destul


831. Sunetul F

De cele mai multe ori este dat chiar de consoana F file - fisier, after - dupa, safe - siguranta, fin - aripioara (de peste), scarf - batic Daca vocala inainte de f este scurta si dupa f fie vine inca o vocala sau se termina cuvantul, f se dubleaza to affirm - a afirma, offer - oferta, cuff - manseta, muff - manson, bluff - cacealma
832. Sunetul F Combinatia PH reprezinta sunetul F

photo - fotografie alphabet - alfabet symphony - simfonie

833. Sunetul S (ca in scoala) Cel mai ades acest sunet este reprezentat de combinatia SH

to shine a straluci fish peste shampoo sampon she ea shelter adapost


834. Combinatia CH poate fi citita s (scoala) in cuvinte de origine frantuzeasca

chic - sic chef - sef mustache - mustata


835. Combinatia CI e citita s (scoala)

magician - magician delicious - delicios social - social


836. Combinatia SI poate fi citita s(scoala)

mission - misiune extension - extensiune conprehension - comprehensiune insa nu sick - bolnav rasin - stafida
837. Combinatia TI poate fi citita s (scoala)

to negotiate - a negocia patient - pacient section - sectiune insa nu static - static tiara - tiara
838. Combinatia SU poate fi citita s (scoala)

sugar - zahar sure - sigur pressure - presiune tissue - tesut insa nu sun - soare opossum - oposum

839. X - reprezinta sunetul X Ca si in romana

CS: exercise exercitiu to explain a explica extreme extrema export export to mix - a amesteca GZ: exact exact example - exemplu to exit - a iesi
840. XH se citeste cateodata tot X

H nu se aude cs: exhibition - expozitie gz: to exhaust a epuiza H se aude to exhume a exhuma to exhale a expira
841. Combinatia CC inaintea vocalelor E, I, Y Se citeste [CS]

accident - accident to succeed - a reusi


842. Sunetul Z Litera S de multe ori reda acest sunet.

rose - trandafir to lose a pierde to use a folosi


843. Combinatia ES Dupa s, z, x, ch, tch, ge, dge, sh se citeste [IZ]

classes - clase roses - trandafiri prizes - premii quizzes - teste matches - chibrituri oranges - portocale bridges - poduri

dishes - farfurii fixes . repara


844. La inceputul cuvantului sunetul Z este aproape totdeauna reprezentat prin litera Z

zebra - zebra zero zero zoo - zoo exceptie xylophone - xilofon


845. Litera Z se citeste Z in practic toate cuvintele Literele ZZ se citesc tot Z In foarte putine cazuri z si zz se citesc ca in limbile din care provin cuvintele respective: pizza, mozzarella, Mozart, Nazi. Deasemeni in cele cateva cuvinte in care apare combinatia TZ ea se citeste ts: waltz - vals, blitz - blit (aparat foto)

dozen duzina lazy lenes quiz extemporal puzzle muzzle botnita


846. In cateva cuvinte grecesti litera X se citeste Z

xylophone xilofon xenfobia xenofobie xerox - xerox


847. mb la sfarsitul cuvantului se citeste m:

comb - pieptan miel - lamb


848. wr la inceput se citeste r

to write - a scrie to wring - a stoarce wrist - inceietura mainii


849. lk dupa a se citeste k

talk - conversatie walk - plimbare altfel se citeste lk milk - lapte bulk - in masa

850. Cand intr-un cuvant exista o singura vocala si aceasta nu se afla la sfarsitul cuvantului se citeste ca vocala scurta

fat - gras cat - pisica hen - gaina men - barbati big - mare will - testament hot - fierbinte dog - caine bug - insecta dumb - prost Exceptie comb - pieptan
851. O vocala singura aflata la sfarsitul cuvantului se citeste ca vocala lunga.

she - ea he - el no - nu go - mergi
852. Cand un cuvant se termina in e, acesta este mut dar vocala dinaintea lui devine lunga

to make - a face cradle - leagan pentru bebelus fire - foc hole - gaura abuse - abuz exceptii scare - spaima some - unii sure - sigur
853. Cand doua vocale diferite sunt alaturate deobicei prima se citeste ca vocala lunga iar a doua nu se citeste

rain - ploaie, pail - galeata, play - joaca, lied - a mintit, cheat - trisor dar sunt destule exceptii de la aceasta regula read read read - a citi bread - paine to swear - a jura said - a zis fair - targ cow - vaca brown - maron

854. Cand o vocala este urmata de o consoana dubla, ea se citeste ca vocala scurta.

fatty - grasan skinny - slabanog summer - vara funny - nostim to stammer - a se balbai
855. Ee si uu se citesc ca vocale lungi

to peek - a trage cu ochiul to greet - a saluta vacuum - aspirator


856. Oo deobicei se citeste u ca in

pool - bazin fool - prost tool - unealta dar si ca in book - carte foot - picior door - usa

14.CATEVA DIFERENTE DINTRE ENGLEZA BRITANICA SI AMERICANA


857. In engleza americana present perfect este mult mai putin folosit si este inlocuit de past tense.

Am pregatit masa pentru petrecere devine I have prepared the meal for the party engleza britanica I prepared the meal for the party engleza americana Aceste diferente exista si in cazul folosirii adverbelor already, just si yet tocmai am ajuns acasa devine I've just got home engleza britanica I just got home engleza americana.

858. In engleza americana verbul to have - a avea, in forma sa de verb de sine statator, nu de auxiliar, de multe ori este inlocuit de have got.

I have got a farm poate inlocui I have a farm. - Am o ferma


859. Formele verbului to get

in engleza britanica to get got got in engleza americana

este deseori folosita si forma to get got gotten


860. Datele se scriu altfel in engleza britanica fata de engleza americana.

23 august 1944 In engleza britanica the 23rd of August 1944 In engleza americana august 23rd, 1944 august 23, 1944
861. Substantivele colective Un substantiv care exprima un grup: armata, comitet, stol etc

In engleza britanica un substantiv colectiv e la singular (verbul se pune la singular) daca in cadrul propozitiei intelesul e de bloc care actioneaza ca unul si la plural in sens contrar A committee was appointed - A fost numit un comitet The committee were unable to agree - Comitetul nu s-a (s-au in engleza) putut pune de acord In engleza americana totdeauna aceste substantive sunt la singular The committee was unable to agree
862. Auxiliarul shall e putin folosit in engleza americana.

Iar shan't (forma negativa) nu e folosit deloc in engleza americana.


863. In engleza americana dupa verbe ca to go - a merge, to come - a veni si to help - a ajuta se foloseste mult urmatoarea constructie:

I want to go eat - Vreau sa merg sa mananc I wish to help build the house - Vreau sa ajut sa se construiasca casa Can you come see a movie? - Poti sa vii sa vezi un film? in loc de I want to go to eat I wish to help to build the house Can you come to see a movie? Engleza britanica in schimb zice: I want to go and eat I wish to help and build the house Can you come and see a movie?

864. Engleza americana are tendinta (cateodata) de a taia sufixele adjectivelor formate cu ing, din participiu (cu ed) sau genitivul saxon('s). Prezentam mai jos forma americana, forma englezeasca si traducerea pentru cateva exemple.

jump rope - skipping rope - coarda (de sarit) racecar - racing car - masina de curse dial tone - dialing tone - ton (de telefonat) mash potatoes - mashed potatoes dollhouse - doll's house
865. In engleza britanica la rauri cuvantul RAU - RIVER se pune la inceput iar in engleza americana la sfarsit.

The River Thames - raul Tamisa (in Marea Britanie) River Trent - Marea Britanie Mississippi River - raul Mississippi (in SUA) Yukon River - Canada
866. Diferente ortografice intre engleza britanica si engleza americana Redam mai jos schimbarile principale de ortografie, cu prima varianta fiind cea britanica. Diferentele de ortografie sunt cel mai ades vizibile la terminatiile unor cuvinte. Regulile se aplica pentru orice cuvant (cu unele exceptii), nu doar pentru cele prezentate.

- our, - or colour - color - culoare, flavour - flavor - savoare; humour - humor - umor - re, - er centre - center - centru, metre - meter - metru - ise, -ize recognise - recognize - recunoaste, realize - realise - realiza - ogue, - og analogue - analog, catalogue - catalog
867. Diferenta de cuvinte. Prezentam mai jos o lista de 40 de cuvinte care difera in engleza britanica fata de engleza americana

Engleza Britanica Engleza Americana Traducerea Aerial Autumn biscuit bonnet boot braces chemist's Antenna Fall cookie hood trunk suspenders drugstore Antena Toamna fursec capota portbagaj bretele farmacie

the cinema cotton crossroads curtains dust-bin engine film flat ground floor handbag holiday ill jug lift lorry luggage maize nappy pavement to peep petrol postman pub queue rubber sweet

the movies thread intersection drapes trashcan motor movie apartment first floor purse vacation sick pitcher elevator truck baggage corn diaper sidewalk to peek gasoline maiman bar line eraser desert

cinematograf ata intersectie perdele caldare de gunoi motor film apartament parter poseta vacanta bolnav container cu lichid, ulcior lift camion valiza porumb scutec trotuar a trage cu ochiul benzina postas bar coada guma de sters desert

timetable tin torch trousers waistcoat wardrobe zip

schedule can flashlight pants vest closet zipper

orar conserva lanterna pantaloni vesta sifonier fermoar

15.FALSE FRIENDS
868. Exista in limba engleza cuvinte care seamana cu unele cuvinte din limba romana dar care au alt inteles. Aceste cuvinte se numesc false friends adica prieteni falsi, inselatori. Cand le intalnim ne bucuram ca le stim dar de fapt suntem pacaliti, fiindca insemnau altceva. Iata o lista de 20 astfel de cuvinte.

Nr Friend 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 actual actually antic bucket directory to entitle eventually fabric genial gust

Traducere adevaratul de fapt gluma, farsa galeata carte de adrese a indreptati in final material textil amabil boare de vant

Nu inseamna Care se zice actual actual antic buchet director a intitula eventual fabrica genial gust present present ancient bouquet manager to title possibly factory brilliant taste conceit bookstore tot matter(substantiv) tot minister

infatuation iubire puternica infatuare library to matter minister biblioteca a conta preot, ministru librarie materie ministru

15 16 17 18 19 20

parcel physician present to realize sensible talon

pachet doctor cadou, prezent a-si da seama intelept gheara

parcela fizician prezent a realiza sensibil talon

lot of land physicist tot present to accomplish sensitive coupon

16.LUNILE ANULUI
869. Lunile anului in engleza Se scriu totdeauna cu litera mare Anotimpurile insa se scriu cu litera mica. In December we celebrate Christmas - In Decembrie sarbatorim Craciunul. In the spring we celebrate Easter - Primavara sarbatorim Pastele

January - ianuarie February - februarie March - martie April - aprilie May - mai June - iunie July - iulie August - august September - septembrie October - octombrie November - noiembrie December - decembrie

17.ANOTIMPURILE IN ENGLEZA
870. Anotimpurile in Engleza Se scriu cu litera mica La anotimpuri se foloseste prepozitia in the cand ne reperim la ceva din cadrul ei, altfel nu se articuleaza si e fara in(exemplul 3)

spring - primavara summer - vara fall, autumn - toamna winter - iarna In the winter it snows. - Iarna ninge In the summer the snow melts - Primavara zapada se topeste

This summer I will go fishing - Vara asta ma duc la pescuit. I hope fall doesn't come early - Sper ca toamna sa nu vina devreme.

18.ZILELE SAPTAMANII
871. Zilele saptaminii in engleza Se scriu totdeauna cu litera mare Se folosesc cu prepozitia on daca ne referim la ceva din ziua aceea. Deci de exemplu lunea se zice on Monday sau Monday in functie de context. I was born on a Monday. - M-am nascut intr-o zi de luni. Monday is a hard day - Lunea e o zi grea.

Monday - luni Tuesday - marti Wednesday - miercuri Thursday - joi Friday - vineri Saturday - sambata Sunday - duminica I'll be done by Friday - Voi fi gata pana vineri And on Saturday I'll come visit - Si sambata vin sa te vizitez. Saturdays are fun - Sambetele sunt distractive. Monday is a hard day to stand - Lunea e o zi greu de suportat.

Monday Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday are weekdays Luni, marti, miercuri, joi, vineri sunt zile lucratoare Saturday and Sunday form the weekend Sambata si Duminica formeaza sfarsitul de saptamana (zilele nelucratoare). Zilele lucratoare formeaza the workweek - saptamana de lucru During the workweek I work, but during the weekend I relax.

19.FORMULE DE SALUT IN ENGLEZA


872. Formule de salut in engleza

Intre prieteni Hi Howdy Hey si mai noul: Hurry up! - Grabeste-te!That's all right!

I'm sorry! - Iarta-ma! Excuse me! - Scuza-ma! That's all right! - N-are nimic! Bless you! - Noroc!(la stranut) Good luck - Noroc (vezi urari) Pardon? - Poftim? Your welcome - Cu placere Thank you - Multumesc Thanks - Merci! Please - Te rog!

23.ALFABETUL SI CURIOZITATI ALE LIMBII ENGLEZE


876. Alfabetul limbii engleze ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Urmatoarea fraza engleza contine toate literele englezesti.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog - Vulpea iute, maronie sare peste cainele lenes

877. English is a language in which you can turn a light on and you can turn a light off and you can turn a light out, but you can't turn a light in;

Engleza e o limba in care poti aprinde lumina (turn on the light) poti stinge o lumina (turn off the light), poti opri o lumina (turn out the light) dar nu poti sa o predai(turn in the light)
878. When the sun or the moon or the stars are out, they are visible, but when the lights are out, they are invisible.

Cand soarele, luna sau stelele sunt out (afara) ele sunt vizibile, dar cand lumina e out (afara) e invizibila (e stinsa)
879. The sun comes up and goes down, but prices go up and come down.

Soarele vine in sus (rasare) si merge in jos(apune) dar preturile merg in sus(cresc) si vin in jos(scad)
880. Why are people who ride motorcycles called bikers and people who ride bikes called cyclists?

De ce oamenii care merg pe motociclete (motorcycles) sunt numiti bikers iar cei care merg pe biciclete (bikes) sunt numiti cyclists?
881. How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites?

Cum poate o posibilitate slaba (adica mica) si o posibilitate grasa (tot mica) sa insemne acelasi lucru, pe cand un om intelept si un tip intelept, (cum am zice noi Desteptule!) au sensuri opuse?
882. You have to marvel at the unigue lunacy of a language in which the house burns up as it burns down, you fill in a form by filling it out and an alarm clock goes off by going on.

Trebuie sa te minunezi de nebunia unei limbi in care o casa arde in sus pe cand arde in jos, in care umpli (fill in) un formular, completandu-l (fill out)si un ceas desteptator suna (goes off) dupa trecerea timpului (time goes on)
883. In what language do people recite at a play and play at a recital? Ship by truck and send cargo by ship?

In ce alta limba oamenii recita intr-o piesa (play) si canta (play) la un recital?

24.GRESELI FRECVENTE IN LIMBA ENGLEZA


884. Gresit: - My sister is doctor

My sister is a doctor - Sora mea e doctor.

885. Gresit: I have told you all what I know.

I have told you all (that) I know.


886. Gresit:I realized my plan to go fishing.

I accomplished my plan to go fishing - Mi-am realizat planul de a merge la pescuit.


887. Gresit: Is good idea Gresit: I like very much

It is a good idea - E o idee buna I like it very much - Imi place foarte mult
888. Gresit: According to me, its a bad movie.

In my opinion, its a bad movie - Dupa parerea mea.


889. Gresit: Normally I will be there next Friday.

I should be able to be there next Friday - In mod normal voi veni vinerea viitoare
890. Gresit: I am working for Company X

I work for Company X - Lucrez pentru Compania X


891. Gresit: Except Andu, everybody was there.

Except for Andu, everybody was there.- In afara lui Andu, au venit toti.
892. Gresit: I love the music.

I love music - Iubesc muzica

893. Gresit: I have done a mistake.

I have made a mistake. - Am facut o greseala


894. Gresit: Please, how I go to the park? Gresit: Do you know where is my purse?

Please how do I go to the park? - Va rog, cum merg in parc? Do you know where my purse is? - Stii unde mi-e poseta?

25.PUNCTUATIA
895. Folosirea virgulei (the comma) in engleza

1. In caz de apozitie, o intercalare in propozitie care actioneaza ca o lamurire dar ar putea si sa lipseasca. 2. Cand e o insiruire. Spre deosebire de romana se pune virgula si inainte de si 3. Daca substantivul are mai multe adjective ele se depart prin virgula. Ultimul adjectiv nu are si in fata. 4.Intre oras si tara se pune virgula: Brasov, Romania 5 Explicatiile introductive ca si apozitiile se despart prin virgula. 6.Intre doua propozitii independente.(juxtapunere) 7.Se pune virgula dupa cazul vocativ. 8.Inainte si dupa ghilimele se pune virgula daca este vorbire directa.

896. Folosirea cratimei (the hyphen si the dash) in engleza

The hyphen este o liniuta de unire scurta care uneste cuvinte care impreuna formeaza un nou cuvant: up-to-date, twenty-one etc. The dash este o liniuta lunga care poate delimita o scurta intrerupere de text, o schimbare brusca a ideii sau o rasturnare de situatii. .
897. Folosirea ghilimelelor (quotation marks) in engleza

In engleza nu se folosesc linii de dialog asa ca folosirea ghilimelelor e obligatorie. Daca in interiorul unui dialog cineva da alt citat, atunci se pun ghilimele simple.
898. Folosirea punct si virgula (the semicolon) in engleza

Se foloseste cand se despartdoua propozitii independente dar inrudite. Se folosesc pe post de virgula in insiruiri care deja necesita virgule.

26.COMPUNEREA UNEI SCRISORI


899. Elementele unei scrisori oficiale in engleza

1. Adresa proprie - se scrie in coltul din dreapta sus 2. Adresa destinatar - se scrie pe stanga mai jos de nivelul adresei proprii. 3. Formula de politete

Dear Sir or Madam - Draga Dle sau Dna - in cazul in care nu stim cine ne va citi scrisoarea Dear Mr X sau Dear Mrs X in caz contrar. 4.Continutul: O fraza introductiva care sa explice scopul scrisorii: cerere, plangere etc 5.Continutul propriu zis. Scurt si la obiedt 6.Un paragraf de incheiere in care sa precizezi ce masura vrei sa ia destinatarul. 7.Formula de incheiere: Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully etc 8.Semnatura

900. Exemple de scrisoare Order - Scrisoare de comanda

123, S Figueroa Str San Francisco, CA Dear Sir, I would like to purchase the Encyclopedia of the Living World which I saw advertised in your company catalogue. I have sent the amount of ... $ to the address specified in the catalogue via Paypal I am hoping I will receive it in two weeks as advertised. Regards, Mr Anderson
Letter of confirmation - Scrisoare de confirmare

123 E Shelby Ave Houghton, MI 48831 Dear Mr Anderson, Your order has been processed. We are pleased to inform you that your order for The Encyclopedia of the Living World should arrive on Tuesday, April 1st If you have any questions or comments feel free to contact us at the phone number provided. Thank you for shopping with us. Best wishes, Mr Jones