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Cursul practic (obligatoriu/opional/facultativ) de limba englez dedicat studenilor anului I de studiu i propune s fixeze i s aprofundeze cunotinele de limba englez general dobndite de studeni n nvmntul preuniversitar, n vederea pregtirii acestora pentru nelegerea i aprofundarea practicilor de succes din domeniul de specializare. Pentru studenii de la programul de studiu ID activitile tutoriale se desfoar prin ntlniri fa n fa cu coordonatorul de disciplin sau cu tutorele conform programrii prevzut n calendarul disciplinei. Activitile tutoriale pentru disciplina Limba englez curs practic sunt urmtoarele: Introducing yourself (1h) Introduction to the British civilisation (1h) Social network sites between theory and practise (2h) Bibliografie general Obligatorie: Barbu A.M., Chirimbu S., English Practice for Daily Use, Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucureti, 2007. Bondrea E., Mihil R. (Coord.), Aspecte ale civilizaiilor europene, Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucureti, 2009. Facultativ: Banciu V., Chirimbu S., Aspecte ale vieii britanice, EUO, Oradea, 2013. Barbu A.M., Chirimbu S., Discurs cotidian n limba englez, Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucureti, 2011. Bondrea E., Mihil R. (Coord.), Dicionar poliglot de termeni comunitari, Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucureti, 2006. Chirimbu S., English Language within a Business Context, Editura Stef, Iai, 2011. Chirimbu D., Chirimbu S., Critu A., Marea Britanie ntre tradiie i realitate, Editura Doxologia, Iai, 2013. Obiectivele cursului nsuirea i aprofundarea formelor i structurilor gramaticale de baz legate de timpurile verbale i concordanta timpurilor; dezvoltarea competenelor lingvistice: citire, ascultare, exprimare oral i scris; mbogirea vocabularului cotidian n limba englez. Competene conferite La sfritul cursului studenii vor fi capabili: s neleag sensul global al unui mesaj scris sau ascultat n limba englez; s foloseasc un limbaj adecvat pentru a descrie activiti cotidiene; s participe activ la interactiuni verbale bazate pe limbaj cotidian; s decodeze corect un mesaj scris prin diferenierea informaiilor generale de detaliile specifice; s redacteze diferite tipuri de texte; s identifice i s i exprime opiniile personale asupra unor aspecte de civilizaie britanic / european; s identifice timpurile verbale i s le utilizeze n contexte adecvate.

Resurse i mijloace de lucru Resursele de lucru sunt reprezentate de bibliografia obligatorie i facultativ, precum i de materialele suplimentare ncrcate pe platforma Blackboard pe parcursul fiecrui semestru. Pe lng cursul n format F.R., studenii dispun pentru studiul individual i de material publicat pe Internet sub form de sinteze i teste de autoevaluare. n timpul convocrilor, n prezentarea cursului vor fi folosite echipamente audio-vizuale, metode interactive i participative de antrenare a studenilor pentru conceptualizarea i vizualizarea practic a noiunilor predate. Vor fi desfurate i activiti tutoriale prin dialog la distan, pe Internet, dezbateri n forum, rspunsuri online la ntrebrile studenilor n timpul e-consultatiilor, conform programulu i fiecrui tutore. Activitile tutoriale se vor desfura n sli cu dotri multimedia i vor conine scurte expuneri teoretice, activiti intercative, prezentri PowerPoint. n plus, studenii pot urmri activitile tutoriale difuzate la Televiziunea TVH (emisiunea Universitaria). Structura cursului (2013-2014) Cursul practic de componente: Unitatea de nvare 1. Unitatea de nvare 2. Unitatea de nvare 3. Unitatea de nvare 4. Unitatea de nvare 5. Unitatea de nvare 6. Unitatea de nvare 7. Unitatea de nvare 8. Unitatea de nvare 9. Unitatea de nvare 10. Unitatea de nvare 11. Unitatea de nvare 12. Unitatea de nvare 13. Unitatea de nvare 14. limba englez este structurat n 14 uniti de nvare cu urmtoarele HELLO! IM A STUDENT CAREER GOING ON A HOLIDAYS THE UNITED KINGDOM 1 THE UNITED KINGDOM 2 THE EUROPEAN UNION 1 GOING SHOPPING CAN MONEY BUY HAPINESS? EATING OUT COMMUNICATION THE USA 1 THE USA 2 THE EUROPEAN UNION 2

Teme de control (TC) Tema de control 1: Choose a job advertsement from a newspaper / specialized web site and write an Application Letter and a Curriculum Vitae for it. Tema de control 2: Write a short essay about how you see yourself 10 years from now on; refer to your possible personal and professional achievements. (20-25 lines) Vor fi exploatate din punct de vedere lingvistic, gramatical, funcii ale limbii, traducerii textele reproduse n paginile urmtoare (Unitile 1-14). Metoda de evaluare Evaluarea studenilor este de tip electronic, folosind platforma Blackboard (test grila coninnd 20 de itemi), precedat de dou teme de control / prezentarea oral a unui portofoliu.


UNIT 1 1. Identify yourself using the following questions: a) What is your name? b) When and where were you born? c) Where do you live? Where are you living now? d) Who do you live with? e) What are your hobbies? f) Which zodiacal sign were you born under? Do you know any of its main characteristics? g) Do you have a job? If the answer is positive describe it in a few words. 2. Reading objective Greetings in every day life Ten minutes to 8. I am going to the office. In front of the elevator door, my neighbour greets me: Morning. Morning, I reply absent-minted. After 9 hours I meet his uncle in the very place Ive met him this morning. Afternoon, I say. Afternoon, he answers. 7 oclock p.m. Id like to watch the news. But grandpa has a terrible headache. Have to go to the chemists to buy some pills for him, I say to myself. Good evening, I say. The chemist asks me smilingly: Good evening. What can I do for you? I need something against a terrible headache, I answer. She gives me a plastic bottle with some pills. Twenty lei, she adds. Here you are. Thank you. Good night. Good night, she says. Our entire social life is marked by greetings. Peoples greetings are connected with either certain moments of the day or with certain events. The greetings we utter in our everyday life are: 6-12 a.m. : Good morning to which we reply Good morning. In the informal speech we use the short form Morning. 12-6 p.m. : Good afternoon, which will be answered the same way. After 6 p.m. : Good evening and Good night. No matter the hour we can say Hello when we meet somebody and Goodbye when we leave a place or, more informally, Hi and Bye What do you say if you meet someone youve never met before? Youll have to introduce yourself to the person whom is sitting next to you at a workshop/symposium or conference. You will say your name and surname My name is Elizabeth Parker. You may be introduced to an unknown person by one of your acquaintances: Robert, this is Elizabeth Parker. Robert will say Hello, Elizabeth. You can answer: Hello, Robert. The interest shown by the speaker is obvious in the question How are you?, which is generally answered Very well, thank you, Fine, Not bad. A polite person says: Nice to meet you if you see that person for the first time or Nice to see you, if you know the speaker well. If you arrive at a company for an appointment, your introduction will be more official. Youll be expected to say not only your full name, i.e. name and surname Sebastian Chirimbu but also the reason why you are there. My names Sebastian Chirimbu. I have an appointment with Mr. Smith at 8.30 a.m., or Can I introduce myself? Im Sebastian Chirimbu from the Spiru Haret University, Department of Foreign Languages. If a person who knows both speakers is there he will say: I dont think you know each other, do you? Sebastian, this is Robert White, our new marketing assistant manager. Robert, this is Sebastian Chirimbu, the English trainer Ive told you about.

If you introduce a person who is visiting your organisation, be it school, college or office, to your colleagues, youll say: Mr. White, may I introduce my colleague, Daniel Green to you. Daniel, this is Ms. Samantha. After saying your name clearly, you add: How do you do?, sentence which has no particular meaning, its simply a greeting. If you are welcoming a visitor, youll be more polite than when welcoming an old friend: Mr. Green? How do you do? How do you do, Miss Parker? Do come into my office. Im very pleased to meet you again Compare the above conversation, which is polite, formal with the following quite informal one: Hi, you must be Laura. Oh, no, Liz, I havent seen you for ages! Since we graduated. In the 1996. Makes 17 years ago. How are things going? Reading comprehension: a. According to the text, what are the greetings we utter every day? b. What can we say when we meet somebody for the first time? 3. Practise introductions after the following models: Im Martin Grber from Bonn, Germany. Im a German citizen although my mother comes from Romania. I live at Number 10 Weisstrasse Street. My parents and I live in a large house. Im the only child. My family is rather small. My uncle and aunt are both clerks. My cousin is a football player. I work as a consultant in a large software company. I like playing sports, climbing mountains, reading novels and poetry and speaking English. I also like travelling both inside Germany and abroad. So far, Ive visited some Eastern and Western European countries. I also visited Romania, the USA, Canada, Japan, China and Thailand. Id like to travel all over the world. I consider that all countries are very interesting from many points of view. They really deserve to be visited. Im Ioana Pavelescu from Ploieti, Romania. Im 23 years old. Im a Romanian. I live at Number 12, Iancului Street in a block of flats at the 3rd floor, apartment no 22. My telephone number is 021. 2506421. I have a large family. My dad is a businessman and my mum is a teacher. I also have two younger sisters who are pupils at an elementary school in Bucharest. My uncle is an economist, my aunt is an accountant and my cousins are both doctors. Im a student. I love speaking English and listening to English pop music, which is a great way of learning new words and every day expressions. I also like listening to music and travelling a lot both inside Romania and abroad. I visited some Western European countries. In future, Id like to visit some countries from other continents, such as Canada or the USA. I know they are very interesting. Now, Id like to give you some more details about my family. My father speaks English and Russian very fluently. He wants me to speak it well enough so that I can join his company after graduating university. But Id rather work in public relations in the near future.


UNIT 2 2.1. Lead in Before reading the text of this learning unit lets answer a few questions connected to the topic: Do you remember which your favorite subject in school was? What about the subject you liked the least? What would you appreciate at a teacher? What attitudes/ behavior of the teacher might prevent you from learning? Why did you apply for the faculty where you are now a student? What do you know about Spiru Haret University? What useful things do you expect to learn in the next three years? Why is it important for you to learn English / a foreign language in general? 2.2. Reading objective Studying in the UK When we think about studying in the UK, the names of two famous universities, Cambridge and Oxford, definitely come to our mind. However, these two, although among the best known in the world, are not the only ones which make the pride of an old, tradition based educational system. Speaking about the British education in general, one of the first things to be noticed is that there is no unitary system of education, but two systems: one covering England, Wales and Northern Ireland and one covering Scotland, but the core organizational principles and the main examinations are the same all over the country. If you decide to study in the UK you have to know that higher education is divided into two sectors: further education and higher education proper. Further education is offered by schools or colleges to both young people between the ages of sixteen and eighteen and adults; it teaches skills valuable in the work market such as Communication and Technological skills or sometimes they prepare people for University admittance. Students who choose this type of education receive a Vocational Diploma and Universities such as London Metropolitan University cooperate with employers from all the spectrum of the marketplace in order to teach useful skills. Higher Education is offered by Universities. There are about ninety universities in England, the most notable being Oxford and Cambridge known collectively as Oxbridge. These two institutions were established in the thirteenth century, and have a rich and distinguished history. They are currently ranked in the top ten best universities according to Times Magazine and they receive the best students from all over the world. Anyone may apply for a place at these universities and should they be considered suitable by the admissions committee they will receive both a place and in some cases financial help. The tuition fees of students from underprivileged backgrounds are paid entirely by the state. Higher education includes both the teaching and the research activities of universities, and as far as teaching is concerned, it includes both the undergraduate level and the graduate levels. Undergraduate degrees take three years to complete in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, while at Scottish universities they last four years. At the graduate level, a master's degree is normally obtained in a single year, a research master's degree takes two years and a doctoral degree is often completed in three years. Professional courses, such as medicine, veterinary medicine, law and teaching, usually are undertaken as five-year undergraduate degrees. UK universities are popular all over the world and about 270,000 foreign students come to study in England every year. One of the features which makes UK Universities so popular with people from all countries, backgrounds and cultures its the fact that high diversity and cultural exchanges are traditionally encouraged among the student body. Degrees and Graduation There is a three-level hierarchy of degrees (Bachelor, Master, Doctor ) currently used in the United Kingdom. A graduate student is an individual who has completed a bachelor's degree (B.A.,

B.S./B.Sc., or another similar programme) and is pursuing further higher education, with the goal of achieving a master's degree (M.A., M.S./M.Sc., M.Ed., etc.) or doctorate (Ph.D., Ed.D., D.A., D.Sc., D.M.A., Th.D., etc.) Reading Comprehension 1. What are the two types of higher education you can attend in the UK? 2. What degrees can you get at the end of each higher education cycle in the UK? 3. Why are foreign students attracted by British universites? 2.3 Translation Practice (EnglishRomanian) A. Education is an important part of British life. There are hundreds of schools, colleges and universities, including some of the most famous in the world. Education is free and compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 - 16. Some children are educated at home rather than in school. Children's education in England is normally divided into two separate stages. They begin with primary education at the age of five and this usually lasts until they are eleven. Then they move to secondary school, there they stay until they reach sixteen, seventeen or eighteen years of age. Find out what year (grade) you would be in England. Teachers in primary schools (4-11 year olds) are always addressed by their surname by parents and pupils alike, always Mr, Mrs. or Miss Smith In secondary schools (11-16 years), teachers are usually addressed as Miss or Sir. Education is important in England, as it is Wales and Scotland too. British children are required by law to have an education until they are 16 years old. Education is compulsory, but school is not, children are not required to attend school. They could be educated at home. 1996 Education Act of the UK . Section 7 of the 1996 Education Act states: "The parent of every child of compulsory school age shall cause him to receive efficient full-time education suitable(a) to his age, ability and aptitude, and (b) to any special educational needs he may have, either by regular attendance at school or otherwise." British children are required to attend school until they are 16 years old. In England, compulsory schooling currently ends on the last Friday in June during the academic year in which a pupil attains the age of 16. Current government proposals are to raise the age until which students must continue to receive some form of education or training to 18. This is expected to be phased in by 2015. At the age of 16, students in England, Wales and Northern Ireland take an examination called the GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education). Study of GSCE subjects begins at the start of Year 10 (age 14-15), and final examinations are then taken at the end of Year 11 (age 15-16). In state schools English, Mathematics, Science, Religious Education and Physical Education are studied during Key Stage 4 (the GCSE years of school); in England, some form of ICT and citizenship must be studied and, in Wales, Welsh must be studied. Other subjects, chosen by the individual pupil, are also studied. In Scotland, the equivalent of the GCSE is the Standard Grade. After completing the GCSE, some students leave school, others go onto technical college, whilst others continue at high school for two more years and take a further set of standardized exams, known as A levels, in three or four subjects. These exams determine whether a student is eligible for university. B. Spiru Haret University-21st Century University- Established in 1991, today Spiru Haret University comprises 23 accredited faculties with over 43 specializations. Spiru Haret University has a complex structure which reflects a diversity of specializationsfrom law, public administration and economic studies to architecture and veterinary medicine, from philosophy, journalism, sociology and psychology to history and international relations, from mathematics and informatics to drama, music and physical education. But the most important aspect is the fact that in terms of the content of studies, teaching methodology, the Faculties of Spiru Haret University have reached European standards .Students working for their first degree at our university

are called undergraduates. When they take their degree we say that they graduate and then they are called graduates. If they continue studying at Spiru Haret University, after they have graduated, they are called Post- graduates. Spiru Haret has a highly-educated staff the teaching quality at Spiru Haret relies, first of all, on the activity of highly dedicated professors with excellent methodological skills. Moreover, many of them are personalities well known nationally and internationally. Another aspect, just as important as the one mentioned above, is the fact that Spiru Haret has a permanent staff of professors, which ensures the continuity of teaching. A national, cultural and academic television station that broadcasts live and recorded lectures, debates, syntheses and seminars, TH2O represents a major advantage that Spiru Haret University has in promoting distance learning, a form of attendance that has come up to a standard of EU countries.To the young people who choose to attend one of our faculties and specializations we only wish them good luck with the exams, as Spiru Haret University is a guarantee for their success in life. The long, medium and short term objectives set by Spiru Haret University and Romanias Tomorrow Foundations are meant to add new dimensions to our academic community. They regard the fulfillment of high quality cultural tasks and the improvement of a kind of educational system whose essential attributes should be modernity and competitiveness, dynamism and flexibility, so as to adequately and efficiently meet the requirements raised by the integration of Romanian higher education into the European higher education and research area. (Adapted from Monitorul Oficial Official Bulletin, July 2002) C. There are forty-seven universities in Britain and thirty polytechnics, plus 350 colleges and institutes of higher education. Undergraduate courses normally take three years of full-time study, although a number of subjects take longer, including medicine, architecture and foreign languages (where courses include a year abroad). They lead in most cases to a Bachelors degree in Arts or Science (BA or BSc). Students of law, architecture and some other professions can take qualifications that are awarded by their own professional bodies instead of degrees. There are various postgraduate degrees, including Master of Arts or Philosophy (MA or MPhil) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Universities accept students mainly on the basis of their A levels, although they may interview them as well. At present, students who have been accepted by Universities or other institutions of higher education receive a grant from their local authority, which covers the cost of the course, and may cover living expenses, books travel, although parents with higher incomes are expected to make a contribution. Before 1990 the grant was paid back, but since then a system of loans has been introduced. (Adapted from Britain Explored, Longman, 1998)


UNIT 3 3.1. Lead in How do you feel about working and being a student at the same time? What kind of job would you like to have as a student? Have you ever been to an interview? Why do you think you were / were not successful? When applying for a job, the first step is usually to send an Application Letter (or Covering Letter) and a Curriculum Vitae. What are the role and function of each? 3.2. Reading objective The Curriculum Vitae and the Application/ Covering Letter When you have decided to find a job, the first step is to read the ads for vacancies in different newspapers, magazines, on specialised internet sites or to contact a recruitment agency. Then, after you have selected some position that might suit your wishes and experience you need to write an Application Letter and a Curriculum Vitae. Read the following model of application letter and decide what its main communicative functions are. The letter is written by a student of marketing who graduated an economic college and also worked for eight months as a market research trainee for a company in Bucharest. Advertisement: BEST FASHION Ltd, a multinational company providing expertise, human resources and equipment for the clothing industry requires Assistant Manager (Ref. 095MK) for its Marketing Department. Applications are accepted from students and recent graduates of marketing and / or related fields. Applicants should be reliable and enthusiastic, willing to work in teams and able to meet deadlines. Fluent English is a must while knowledge of French or German would be a plus. E-mail or fax your covering letter and CV to Mr. Paul Densfield, Human Resources Manager, tel./fax 021 3113030, e-mail Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted. APPLICATION LETTER Attn. of: Mr. Paul Densfield Human Resources Manager Best Fashion Ltd. Dear Mr. Densfield, Ref.: 095MK (Assistant Manager Vacancy) I am writing to apply for the position of Assistant Manager that you advertised in Romania Libera newspaper on 15 June 2006 as I believe it offers the career challenge which I am seeking As you will see from my Curriculum Vitae, I currently study Psychology and Marketing at Spiru Haret University and last year I graduated from a theoretic college (humanities specialization) , which offered me a strong background in the field. I would like to highlight the following skills which I believe would add value to your organisation: - basic practical marketing skills and team work abilities developed by working for a market research company as well as theoretical marketing knowledge acquired as a student of marketing; - ability to meet deadlines and to work under pressure developed as a market research trainee; - fluency in English acquired by attending an intensive Business English Course and working in an English speaking environment for almost a year. I have a genuine interest in marketing and I would appreciate the opportunity of an interview to discuss why I believe I am an eligible and suitable candidate for the vacancy you advertised. I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely, Andrei Popescu Tel. 021 222 2020, 0720304050 E-mail:

CURRICULUM VITAE Eupropass Format PERSONAL Replace with First name(s) Surname(s) INFORMATION [All CV headings are optional. Remove any empty headings] REPLACE WITH HOUSE NUMBER, STREET NAME, CITY, POSTCODE,


STATE PERSONAL WEBSITE(S) REPLACE WITH TYPE OF IM SERVICE REPLACE WITH MESSAGING ACCOUNT(S) Sex Enter sex | Date of birth dd/mm/yyyy | Nationality Enter nationality/-ies JOB APPLIED FOR POSITION PREFERRED JOB STUDIES APPLIED FOR WORK EXPERIENCE [Add separate entries for each experience. Start from the most recent.] Replace with dates Replace with occupation or position held (from - to) Replace with employers name and locality (if relevant, full address and website) Replace with main activities and responsibilities Business or sector Replace with type of business or sector EDUCATION AND TRAINING [Add separate entries for each course. Start from the most recent.] Replace with dates Replace with qualification awarded Replace with European (from - to) Qualification Framework (or other) level if relevant Replace with education or training organisations name and locality (if relevant, country) Replace with a list of principal subjects covered or skills acquired PERSONAL SKILLS [Remove any headings left empty.]

Replace with preferred job / job applied for / studies applied for / position (delete non relevant headings in left column)


Mother tongue(s) Other language(s)

Replace with mother tongue(s) SPEAKING WRITING Spoken Spoken Listening Reading interaction production Enter level Enter level Enter level Enter level Enter level Replace with name of language certificate. Enter level if known. Enter level Enter level Enter level Enter level Enter level Replace with name of language certificate. Enter level if known. Levels: A1/2: Basic user - B1/2: Independent user - C1/2 Proficient user Common European Framework of Reference for Languages Replace with your communication skills. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: good communication skills gained through my experience as sales manager Replace with your organisational / managerial skills. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: leadership (currently responsible for a team of 10 people) Replace with any job-related skills not listed elsewhere. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: good command of quality control processes (currently responsible for quality audit) Replace with your computer skills. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: good command of Microsoft Office tools Replace with other relevant skills not already mentioned. Specify in what context they were acquired. Example: carpentry Replace with driving licence category/-ies. Example: B UNDERSTANDING

Replace with language Replace with language

Communication skills

Organisational / managerial skills Job-related skills

Computer skills

Other skills

Driving licence



Publications Presentations Projects Conferences Seminars Honours and awards Memberships References ANNEXES

Replace with relevant publications, presentations, projects, conferences, seminars, honours and awards, memberships, references. Remove headings not relevant in the left column. Example of publication: How to write a successful CV, New Associated Publishers, London, 2002. Example of project: Devon new public library. Principal architect in charge of design, production, bidding and construction supervision (2008-2012).

Replace with list of documents annexed to your CV. Examples: copies of degrees and qualifications; testimonial of employment or work placement; publications or research. In Romania, there are different sources of job information (just use them to get the proper job): newspaper advertisements: the classified section of newspapers is a major source of job openings. Two kinds of classified advertisements are listed in newspapers: signed and blind. A signed advertisement includes the name of the firm placing the advertisement. A blind advertisement does not show the firms name. In many cases only a telephone number or a post office box number is given in a blind advertisement. Private employment agencies must place signed advertisements; employment agencies; placement offices and instructors: most schools and colleges have placement counsellors that aid students in career planning; friends and relatives. 3.3 Identify the steps for a job apllication process. Then translate the text ointo Romanian: The job application process Before you apply for a job with a particular company, find out all you can about the company. This information is needed for two major reasons. First, you need to know if you meet your career goals by working for this company. Secondly, you need to know as much about the company as possible in order to be prepared for the interview. One question often asked in the interview is Why do you want to work for this company Unless you know something about the company, you cannot satisfactorily answer this question. When a company needs to employ new people, it may decide to advertise the job or position in a newspaper. People who are interested can then apply for the job by sending in a letter of application or covering letter (US cover letter) and a curriculum vitae or CV (US resum) containing details of their education and experience. In some cases a company may prefer to do this initial selection after asking candidates to complete a standard application form. The companys human resource department will then select the applications that it considers the most suitable and prepare a shortlist of candidates or applicants who are invited to attend an interview.


UNIT 4 4. 1. Lead in 1. When was the last time you went on a trip? Where did you go? 2. Do you have a favourite holiday destination? 3. What makes a perfect holiday destination? 4. If you won a trip at a contest would you rather choose to visit to visit a large city or a desert island? 5. What specific points would you include in a sightseeing tour of Romania for foreigners? 4.2. Reading objective Travelling in the UK There are a lot of places worth visiting if you go on a trip to The United Kingdom. Besides the well known destinations such as Stonehenge, Stratford upon Avon or Oxford, the capital cities of its provinces should be on your sightseeing list. It goes without saying that any tourst to The UK should stop for at least a few days in London, but there are other capital cities that you shouldnt miss either. Just like any other country in the world, officially, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has just one capital city, London. However, Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland, the other three countries (besides England) that are included in the UK, have their own capital cities. LONDON the capital of England and the UK, is the world's ninth-largest city and it is situated on the banks of the river Thames, in the south-east of England. London is made up of two ancient cities which are now joined together: the City of London (known as Londinium during Roman times) and the City of Westminster. The City of London or the City is the business and financial heart of the United Kingdom while The City of Westminster, is the place where the Parliament and most of the Government buildings are located. Here tourists can visit Buckingham Palace, the official London residence of the Queen and of the Royal family. BELFAST is the capital of Northern Ireland. As this part of the UK has a certain degree o independence, the Government and the Legislative Assembly of Northern Ireland are located here. The city consists of seven "quarters", the historic centre of Belfast being situated in the Cathedral Quarter. CARDIFF the capital city of Wales is the most important commercial and industrial centre of this part of Britain as well as the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. Tourists can visit the very old Cardiff Castle which was started during Roman times. The Norman and Victorian influences are also present in the architecture and decorations of the castle. EDINBURGH the capital city of Scotland is the seventh largest city in the UK and the second largest city in Scotland, after Glasgow. As the other capitals described above, it is also the seat of the Scottish Parliament. It is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe due to its numerous medieval and Georgian buildings and monuments. Something that few people know is that Edinburgh is situated on two extinct volcanoes, one of them right in the City Center on which Edinburgh Castle is built. Reading comprehension A. Answer the following questions: 1. Where is London situated? 2. Which are the two ancient cities that gave birth to London? 3. What is Edinburgh famous for? 4.3 Translation Practice (EnglishRomanian) New Year's Day is a public holiday in the United Kingdom on January 1 each year. It marks the start of the New Year in the Gregorian calendar. For many people have a quiet day on January 1,

which marks the end of the Christmas break before they return to work. However, there are some special customs, particularly in Scotland. What do people do? On New Year's Eve (December 31), just before midnight, many people turn on a television to show pictures of one of the four clocks on the Clock Tower on the Palace of Westminster, or Houses of Parliament, in London counting down the last minutes of the old year. At midnight, as the New Year begins, the chimes of Big Ben, the bell inside the Clock Tower, are broadcast to mark the start of the New Year. Champagne or other sparkling wines are often served at this point. Many people hold parties at home or go out to pubs or night clubs. These parties often continue into the early hours of the morning. Hence, for many people, New Year's Day is time for recovering from the excesses of the night before. For others, it is the last day of the Christmas holiday before they return to work. Some take the opportunity to carry out home improvements or to go for a walk in the country. In many places around the United Kingdom's coast, groups of people dress up in fancy costumes and run into the cold sea. Many people make New Year's resolutions. These are promises to themselves that they will lead a better life in some way in the coming year. Common New Year's resolutions include stopping smoking, losing weight, eating more healthily, getting more exercise or spending less money. Some types of resolution that would lead to a healthier lifestyle are supported by government advertising campaigns. In some areas, there are a number of customs associated with New Year's Day. In Scotland many people sing the song 'Auld Lang Syne' at midnight as New Year's Day begins. In Scotland and northern England, it is customary to go first footing. This is the first person to enter a house on January 1. There are many traditions and superstitions associated with first footing. A male first-footer brings good luck, but a female bad luck. In different areas there are different traditions about whether the first footer should have fair or dark hair, whether the person should bring coal, salt or other things and what food or drink that person should be served after arrival. Public life New Year's Day is a bank holiday. If January 1 is a Saturday or Sunday, the bank holiday falls on Monday, January 2 or 3. Nearly all schools, large businesses and organizations are closed. In some areas stores may be open, although this varies a lot. Public transport systems do not usually run on their normal timetables. In general, public life shuts down completely on New Year's Day. Background Now the start of a new calendar year is marked in the winter on January 1. However, this was different in the past. From the earliest times in Europe, winter festivals have been held around or just after the winter solstice (December 21). These have now developed into the Christmas and New Year celebrations that are now held. However, before the present Gregorian calendar was adopted in England, in 1752, the Julian calendar was used. According to the Julian calendar, the administrative year began on March 25. The Julian calendar was introduced in the Roman Empire 45 years before the birth of Christ. The average length of a year in this calendar was slightly shorter than the actual length of a solar year. For this reason, by the 1700s, the official dates of the winter, spring, summer and autumn equinoxes had moved about ten days from the days on which the actual equinoxes fell. This meant that a correction to the date had to be made, when England changed over to the Gregorian calendar. Hence, in 1752, Wednesday, September 2 was followed by Thursday, September 14. This had important consequences for the tax, or fiscal, year. The British tax authorities and many landlords were unhappy about potentially losing 11 days worth of revenue. For this reason, the 1752-1753 tax year did not end on March 24 but April 4 and so still lasted for 365 days. Another correction was carried out in the calendar in 1800 and again the tax year was adjusted so that it still lasted for the full 365 days. Since then the tax year in the United Kingdom has stated on April 6. This tax year was also used in the Republic of Ireland until 2001, when the start of the tax year was moved to coincide with the start of the calendar year on January 1.


UNIT 5 5.1. Lead in 1.What comes to your mind when you think about Britain / about London? 2.What is the official and full name of Britain? 3. Name a few important cities from the UK. 4. What do you know about the weather in the UK? 5.What specific points would you include in a sightseeing tour of Romania for foreigners? 5..2. Reading objective Whats in a Name? There is a number of names used to describe the country whose language you are trying to study, which might lead to confusions: Britain, Great Britain, The United Kingdom, the UK, England. Great Britain is made up of three separate countries - England, Wales and Scotland. England is the dominant country, but the peoples of Scotland and Wales have kept a strong sense of national identity. It is important to remember that the terms Great Britain and England refer to different political entities; they are not interchangeable, and to say England when you mean Britain could cause offense if you are in Wales or Scotland. Scotland has a separate parliament and church, plus its own systems of law, banking and education. Wales has its own National Assembly- although it doesnt enjoy as much autonomy as the Scottish parliament. The United Kingdom (UK) consists of Great Britain, Northern Ireland and some semiautonomous islands such as the Isle of Man. The island of Ireland consists of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland (also called Eire). Geographically speaking, the British Isles is the name given to a group of about 5,000 islands off the north-west coast of Europe, situated between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, more precisely between the latitudes 50N and 61N. The archipelago consists of the large islands of Great Britain (the largest island of Europe) and Ireland and several smaller island groups :the Orkney Islands, the Shetland Islands, the Hebrides, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Wight and the Isle of Man as well as numerous other very small islands. Together, Great Britain (made up of England, Scotland and Wales), Northern Ireland and the smaller islands mentioned above form what is officially called The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK). The Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom flag was officially adopted on the 1st of January 1801. Just like the country itself, it is made up of more different flags put together: the flag of England (St. George's Cross - the centered red cross bordered in white), St. Andrew's Cross of Scotland (the diagonal white cross on the blue field), and the cross of the Patron Saint of Ireland (diagonal x-shaped red cross). National Anthem The National Anthem of the country is "God Save the Queen". When a male monarch is on the throne of England, it becomes "God Save the King." Public Holidays In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, public holidays are often called bank holidays. When an anniversary day that is usually a bank holiday falls on a weekend, the date of the bank holiday is postponed and declared for a following weekday. This new date is termed a 'bank holiday in lieu' of the actual anniversary day. In this way, public holidays are not 'lost' on years when they coincide with weekends (which will already be a day off for many people). Increasingly, there are calls for public holidays on the patron saints' days in England, Scotland and Wales (Northern Ireland already has St Patrick's Day as a holiday). An online petition sent to the Prime Minister received 11,000 signatures for a public holiday in Wales on St. David's Day; the Scottish Parliament has passed a bill creating a public holiday on St. Andrew's Day although it must be taken in lieu of another public holiday; campaigners in England are calling for a bank holiday on St. George's Day; and in Cornwall there are calls for a public holiday on St. Piran's Day.

Reading comprehension: A. Answer the following questions: 1. Which are the three components of the British flag? 2. What is the title of the British National Anthem? 3. Name an important holiday in each of the British territories. 5.3 Translation Practice (English Romanian) There are currently around 61 million people living in the UK (National Statistics Online March 2009). Despite the UK being a relatively small surface area, experiences of living here can vary greatly. The UK is a highly multicultural society with no official language. However, English is the main language and the de facto official language but there are other languages spoken; in Wales, English and Welsh are both widely used by officialdom, and Irish and Ulster Scots enjoy limited use alongside English in Northern Ireland. Additionally, the Western Isles council area of Scotland has a policy to promote Scottish Gaelic. The traditional UK culture has changed somewhat over the last 50 years and incorporates elements of other cultures due to its diversity. The following sections provide an insight into typical UK culture as it stands today. Many people enjoy spending social time in pubs (public houses) in the UK. It gives people an opportunity to chat to friends and enjoy an alcoholic drink. Usually there is no table service in UK pubs and you must order your drinks at the bar and pay for them immediately. It is not usual to tip the barman every time you have a drink as it is in the USA and the legal age to drink in a pub is 18 years. Should you or a family member decide to settle permanently in this country you will need to apply for naturalization as a British citizen or for indefinite leave to remain. Part of this process requires you to take a test to show that you know about life in the UK. If you live in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland, you can do this in two ways: by taking the Life in the UK Test or by taking combined English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and citizenship classes.


UNIT 6 6. 1. Lead in 1. What is the name of the present British Monarch? What about the Prime Minister? 2. What do you know about the British political system? 6.2. Reading objective The UK. Political System The monarchy of the United Kingdom (commonly referred to as the British monarchy,) is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. Monarchy is the oldest form of government in the United Kingdom. In a constitutional monarchy, an elected Parliament makes and passes laws, and the Sovereign plays a ceremonial and representational role. The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, has reigned since 6 February 1952. She and her immediate family have various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As a constitutional monarch, the Queen must follow the advice of government ministers. Britain is governed by Her Majestys Government in the name of the Queen. The Queen is Head of State and an important symbol of national unity in the United Kingdom. Her official title in the UK is "Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith". The monarch is also the head of the church, commander in chief of the Armed Forces (the Royal Navy, the British Army, and the Royal Air Force), accredits British High Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states. The king or the queen has the prerogative to summon and to dissolve the Parliament. Each new parliamentary session is marked by the State Opening of Parliament, during which the Sovereign reads the Speech from the Throne in the Chamber of the House of Lords, outlining the Government's legislative agenda. The Queen is also metaphorically called Fount of Justice, from whom justice in the United Kingdom derives. The Queen has a special relationship with the Prime Minister, the senior political figure in the British Government, regardless of their political party. Although she is a constitutional monarch who remains politically neutral, the Queen gives a weekly audience to the Prime Minister at which she has a right and a duty to express her views on Government matters. If either The Queen or the Prime Minister are not available to meet, then they will speak by telephone. These meetings, as with all communications between The Queen and her Government, remain strictly confidential. The Parliament. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom the legislative power is exercised by the two Houses of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons, located in Westminster Palace. The House of Commons. The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and represents its dynamic power. The Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 659 members, who are known as "Members of Parliament" or MPs and who are publicly elected. The party with the largest number of members in the Commons forms the government. Members of the Commons (MPs) debate the big political issues of the day and proposals for new laws. The Commons alone is responsible for making decisions on financial Bills, such as proposed new taxes. The Lords can consider these Bills but cannot block or amend them. The House of Lords. The House of Lords is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords". It is not democratic in any sense at all but its existence is a centuries old tradition. Members of the House of Lords are mostly appointed by the Queen, a fixed number are elected internally and a limited number of Church of England archbishops and bishops sit in the House. The Lords act as a revising chamber for legislation and their work complements the activity of the Commons. The House of Lords is also the highest court in the land: the supreme court of appeal. A group of salaried, full-time judges known as Law Lords carries out this judicial work. The Government. The Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.

Following a general election, the Queen invites the leader of the majority (or largest, in the absence of an overall majority) party represented in the Commons, to form a government on her behalf. Government ministers are invariably members of the House of Commons, but sometimes members of the House of Lords are appointed. These are at a disadvantage since it is in the Commons that the government is expected to explain its conduct of affairs. All government ministers, even the Prime Minister, who are members of the Commons, continue to represent the parliamentary constituencies which elected them. After a general election, the leader of the party which has the most seats in the House of Commons becomes Prime Minister, who chooses the Chancellor of the Exchequer (for the Treasury), the Foreign Secretary (for foreign affairs), the Home Secretary (for domestic affairs), and others, to form the Cabinet. The composition of governments can vary both in the number of ministers and in the titles of some offices. The Prime Minister is, by tradition, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. The Prime Ministers office is located at 10 Downing Street in central London. The doctrine of collective responsibility means that the Cabinet acts unanimously even when Cabinet ministers do not all agree on a subject. The UK is a multi-party system and since the 1920s. The two largest political parties have been the Conservative Party and the Labour Party, before the Labour Party rose in British politics, while the Liberal Party was the other major political party along with the Conservatives. Though coalition and minority governments have been an occasional feature of parliamentary politics, the present electoral system used for general elections tends to maintain the dominance of these two parties, though each has in the past century relied upon a third party to deliver a working majority in Parliament. The political party system has evolved since the eighteenth century, and since the first half of the nineteenth century has been essentially a two-party system. Today, this two-party contest is between the Conservative Party (still known by their previous nickname, the Tories) and the Labour Party, which emerged at the end of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of universal suffrage and the decline of the Liberal Party. The Conservative Party is the party of the Right, identified with the idea of economic freedom and until 1979 with the idea of resistance to change. It gives emphasis to the importance of law and order, and the maintenance of strong armed forces to protect British interests. The Labour Party is preeminently the party of social justice, though its emphasis is less on equality than on the achievement of well-being and opportunity for all members of the society. The Liberal Party, which traces its origins to the eighteenth century Whigs, merged with the new Social Democratic Party in 1988 to become the Liberal Democrats, after fighting the 1987 election unsuccessfully as an alliance of both parties. It is the party keenest on constitutional and electoral reform. It also prides itself on being less tied to either capitalist or union interests, and being free to offer more radical policies. Reading comprehension a. Answer the following questions: 1) After a general election, who becomes Prime Minister? 2) Whom does the Prime Minister choose for the Treasury? 3) What do all the ministers chosen by the Prime Minister form? 4) What does the doctrine of collective responsibility mean? 5) Which are the most important British parties? 6) When was the universal suffrage introduced? What did that mean? 7) What are each partys main interests / goals? b. True or false? 1. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. 2. The Parliament is located in London. 3. Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories. 4. At its head is the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II.

5. The parliament is bicameral, with an upper house, the House of Lords, and a lower house, the House of Commons. 6. The Queen is the third component of the legislature. 7. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal . 8. The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by both the Parliament of England and Parliament of Scotland passing Acts of Union. 9. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom and the Head of Her Majesty's Government. 10. Current Prime Minister David Cameron was appointed on 11 May 2010. 11. Current Prime Minister is Gordon Brown helped by Tony Blair. 6.3 Translation Practice (English Romanian) Monarchy is the oldest form of government in the United Kingdom. In a monarchy, a king or queen is Head of State. The British monarchy is known as a constitutional monarchy. This means that, while The Sovereign is Head of State, the ability to make and pass legislation resides with an elected Parliament. Although the British Sovereign no longer has a political or executive role, he or she continues to play an important part in the life of the nation. As Head of State, The Monarch undertakes constitutional and representational duties which have developed over one thousand years of history. In addition to these State duties, The Monarch has a less formal role as 'Head of Nation'. The Sovereign acts as a focus for national identity, unity and pride; gives a sense of stability and continuity; officially recognizes success and excellence; and supports the ideal of voluntary service. In all these roles The Sovereign is supported by members of their immediate family. The British Sovereign can be seen as having two roles: Head of State, and 'Head of the Nation'. As Head of State, The Queen undertakes constitutional and representational duties which have developed over one thousand years of history. There are inward duties, with The Queen playing a part in State functions in Britain. Parliament must be opened, Orders in Council have to be approved, Acts of Parliament must be signed, and meetings with the Prime Minister must be held. There are also outward duties of State, when The Queen represents Britain to the rest of the world. For example, The Queen receives foreign ambassadors and high commissioners, entertains visiting Heads of State, and makes State visits overseas to other countries, in support of diplomatic and economic relations.


UNIT 7 7.1. Lead in 1. How would you define the European Union? 2. Do you happen to know how many countries have joined the European Union so far? 3. Think of some advantages / risks generated by or related to the European membership, for you as an individual and for our country. 7.2. Reading objective Introduction to the European Union Historic Steps The idea of a united Europe was at first just a dream in the minds of philosophers and visionaries. Victor Hugo, for example, imagined a peaceful United States of Europe inspired by humanistic ideals. After World War II a few courageous statesmen (Konrad Adenauer, Winston Churchill, Alcide de Gasperi, Robert Schuman) decided to put an end to international hatred and rivalry in Europe and to build a long lasting peace. Robert Schuman (French Foreign Affairs Minister) took up an idea originally conceived by Jean Monnet and on 9 May 1950 proposed setting up a European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which was a big success. It was the start of an extraordinary and ever tighter cooperation among European states. Todays European Union is the result of half a century hard work. In no other region of the world have sovereign countries pooled their sovereignty to this extent and in so many areas of crucial importance to their citizens. The EU has created a single market in which people, services, goods and capital move around freely. Founding Treaties The ground rules of the European Union are set out in a series of treaties: The Treaty of Paris, which set up the above mentioned European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951, signed by six European states: France, The Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg, considered the EU founding members. The Treaties of Rome, which set up the European Economic Community (EEC), replacing the former ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in 1957. The EEC came as a natural continuation of ECSC, as the six member states decided to enlarge and deepen their cooperation. The EEC was based on a common market in awide range of goods and services. Customs duties between the six countries were completely removed on 1 July 1968 and common policies notably on trade and agriculture were also set up during the 1960. The founding treaties were subsequently followed by the Single European Act (1986) signed in Luxembourg and The Hague, by the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht, 1992) which makes the name European Union official, the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Treaty of Nice. All of these treaties have created very strong legal ties between the EUs member states and have offered a legal frame for important European matters such as EU institutions functioning procedures, the rights of European citizens, trade, defence policies, the European Currency Unit, etc. Enlargement So successful was the EEC initiated by France The Federal Republic of Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Belgium and Luxembourg that Denmark, Ireland and The United Kingdom decided to join the Community. This first enlargement from six to nine members took place in 1973. New social, regional and environmental policies were introduced and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) was set up in 1975. In 1981 Greece joined the Community, followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986. The future European Union was thus being built little by little. Three more countries, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the EU on 1 January 1995. The Union now had 15 members and was on the way for its most spectacular achievement yet replacing its national currencies with a single European currency, the euro. On 1 January 2002, euro notes and coins came

into circulation in 12 EU countries (euro area). The euro is now a major world currency, having a similar status to the US dollar. Soon after the European Union grew to 15 members another 12 countries began knocking at its door. The EU welcomed this opportunity to help stabilise the European continent and to extend the benefits of European unification to the young democracies in Central and South-Eastern Europe. For ten of the candidate countries negociations were completed in Copenhagen, at the end of 2002 and starting from May 2004 the EU enlarged to 25 members, by welcoming the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Cyprus and Malta as full members. Romania and Bulgaria became EU members on 1 January 2007, after the implementation of all the 31 chapters of the Community Acquis. The European Unions Symbols The idea of a citizenss Europe is very new. Making it a reality means, among other things, obtaining popular support for symbols that represent shared European identity. That is why the European Union has a very special anthem Beethovens Ode to Joy, from Symphony 9, a Celebration Day 9 May and a flag (a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background). Things like the introduction of the euro, the European model of passport (in use since 1985) and the EU model driving licences also contribute to the creation of a sense of belonging to a common space. We are not bringing together states, we are uniting people said Jean Monnet back in 1952. More than half a century of integration has had an enormous impact on the history of Europe and on the mentality of Europeans. The member state governments, whatever their political colour know that only by joining forces and pursuing a shared destiny can their ancient nations continue to make economic and social progress and maintain their influence in the world. Reading Comprehension 1. Who were the initiators of the European Union? 2. Name, in chronological order, the main treaties that have forged the identity of the European Union. 3. When was the European single currency introduced? 4. Which European countries joined the Union in: 1951: __________________________________________________ 1973: ___________________________________________________ 1981: ___________________________________________________ 1986: ___________________________________________________ 1995: ___________________________________________________ 2004: ___________________________________________________ 2007: ___________________________________________________ 4. Which are the main areas of cooperation between members states? 5. Which are the EUs symbols? 7.3 Translation Practice (English Romanian) Already in the 1920s some politicians (such as Briand and Stresemann) tried to achieve reconciliation between France and Germany as the basis for establishing a durable peace in Europe. A few intellectuals, such as Fritz von Unruh in Germany, even talked and wrote about a union of sorts

between France and Germany. However, the Great Depression and the rise of the Nazis wrecked their efforts. After WW2 there were fresh efforts, however. Initially, the countries actively involved were France, West Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries. The move also had the support of Churchill. It began in 1951 with European Coal and Steel Community which created a common market for coal and steel amongst 6 member-states (West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg). The next step was a customs union - the European Economic Union (1957) - with tax harmonization in some areas. It was also felt that economic interdependence would strengthen peace. The first expansion occurred in 1973 when Britain, the Irish Republic and Denmark joined. The EU has continued to expand and now consists of 27 countries with an overall population of about 492 million people (2007). Additional countries are clamouring for admission. After all, nothing succeeds more than success. Britain appears to be a reluctant member. It has still not succeeded in finding a post-imperial role for itself. Moreover, at key junctures many British politicians have badly underestimated the potential of the EU - and still do so.


UNIT 8 8.1. Lead in 1. How frequently do you go shopping? What do you buy most often? 2. Do you prefer super/hypermarkets or small shops? Explain your answer. 3. Which is the most extravagant thing you have ever bought? 4. Which is the most expensive thing you have ever bought? 5. How important is it for you to buy branded products? Which are your reasons for (not) buying no name products? 6. Can you define FMCG, durables, white goods, brown goods? 7. How much does advertising influence your buying choice? 8.2 Reading objective One of the most successful brands exported by Britain, known all over the world, is the famous Marks & Spencer. There are a few M&S stores in Romania as well, selling clothes; However clothes are just one of the companys product lines, as it also sells food. Marks and Spencer plc (also known as M&S) is a British retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, with over 700 stores in the United Kingdom and over 300 stores spread across more than 40 countries. It specialises in the selling of clothing and luxury food products. M&S was founded in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds. In 1998, it became the first British retailer to make a pre-tax profit of over 1 billion, though a few years later it plunged into a crisis which lasted for several years. The company was founded by a partnership between Michael Marks, a Litvak Jew from Slonim, Poland (now in Belarus), and Thomas Spencer, a cashier from Yorkshire. The next few years saw Michael Marks open market stalls in many locations around the North West of England. In 1894, Thomas Spencer invested in Marks' activities and they opened their first store, in partnership, in Manchester. Marks and Spencer, known colloquially as "Marks and Sparks", "Markies", or "M&S", made its reputation in the early 20th century on a policy of only selling British-made goods (a policy eventually discontinued in 2002). It also accepted the return of unwanted items, giving a full cash refund if the receipt was shown, no matter how long ago the product was purchased, which was unusual for the time. It adopted a 90-day returns policy in 2005 but on 12 April 2009 the refund policy changed once again to 35 days. The company put its main emphasis on quality, for most of its history having a reputation for offering fair value for money. M&S has historically been an iconic retailer of 'British Quality Goods. Reading comprehension: 1. How old is the M&S brand? 2. Who created it? 3. What does M&S sell? 4. Which have been its refund policies which changed in time? 8.3 Translation Practice (English Romanian) Oxford Street is undeniably the West End's main shopping attraction. Start at Marble Arch -- the westernmost end -- for an enormous branch of budget clothes chain Primark and designer department store Selfridges. As you walk the length of the famous street toward Tottenham Court Road, you'll notice that the quality of shops goes downhill, especially east of Oxford Circus. Think bargain basement tat and cheap souvenirs, and you have the idea. Topshop remains an Oxford Street must-visit (the branch here is the largest clothes shop in Europe), and a giant New Look close to Marble Arch offers yet more great value clothes. You're certainly very brave to attempt Oxford Street at the weekend; weekday mornings are best for your sanity.

Oxford Street is also a great starting point for hitting the more interesting shopping areas, such as affluent Marylebone. If you're looking for some extreme shopping adventures, this is where London's top plastic surgeons are based -- and it's impossible not to fall in love with the quaintness of Marylebone's main street. The street's chocolate shops and interiors brands ooze luxury; make sure you pop into Rococo, 45 Marylebone High St. (tel. 020/7935-7780;, for some chocolate samples -- they're sometimes free. Regent Street -- home to an Apple Store -- crosses Oxford Street at Oxford Circus. Regent Street shopping is more toward the high end of "high street," typified by the affordable luxury of chain shops such as Mango and French Connection. Boutique lifestyle shop Anthropologie is a relatively new addition, but is expensive in comparison to its U.S. equivalent. Head south from Oxford Circus for the world-famous Liberty department store. Inside a mock-Tudor building, Liberty is a London landmark. You're now at the top of Carnaby Street, and although it's not quite the Sixties' style mecca it once was, it's worth a stroll -- especially if you veer off into the Newburgh Quarter. The area is also home to Kingly Court, a gorgeous little piazza of independent shops and vintage boutiques -- the cafes are generally overpriced, but do provide a great perch to sit and people-watch. Parallel to Regent Street, the Bond Street area connects Piccadilly with Oxford Street, and is synonymous with the luxury rag trade. It's not just one street, but a whole area, mainly comprising New Bond Street and Old Bond Street. It's the hot address for international designers -- Donna Karan has two shops here, and Tiffany is quite at home nestled among designer jewelry shops. A slew of international hotshots, from Chanel to Versace, have digs nearby. Make sure you stop off at Dover Street Market -- not a market at all, but actually a designer shop housing all sorts of fashionable folk under one roof. Burlington Arcade (Tube: Piccadilly Circus), a glass-roofed Regency passage leading off Piccadilly, looks like a period exhibition, and is lined with 35 mahogany-fronted intriguing shops and boutiques. Lit by wrought-iron lamps and decorated with clusters of ferns and flowers, its small, upscale stores specialize in fashion, gold jewelry, Irish linen, and cashmere. If you linger there until 5:30pm, you can watch the beadles (the last London representatives of Britain's oldest police force), in their black-and-yellow livery and top hats, ceremoniously place the iron grills that block off the arcade until 9am, at which time they remove them to start a new business day. Also at 5:30pm, the Burlington Bell is sounded, signaling the end of trading. Make sure to catch the clock at Fortnum and Mason -- it moves on the hour in a rather lovely display. Nearby Jermyn Street (Tube: Piccadilly Circus), on the south side of Piccadilly, is a tiny twoblock street devoted to high-end men's haberdashers and toiletries shops; many have been doing business for centuries. Several hold Royal warrants, including Turnbull & Asser, 71-72 Jermyn St. (tel. 020/7808-3000), where HRH Prince Charles has his PJs made. A bit to the northwest, Savile Row is where you'll find London's finest men's tailors. The West End theatre district borders two more shopping areas: the still-not-ready-for-primetime Soho (Tube: Tottenham Court Rd. or Leicester Sq.), where the sex shops are slowly morphing into cutting-edge designer boutiques -- check out clothing exchange Bang Bang, 9 Berwick St. (tel. 020/7494-2042), for designer bargains -- and Covent Garden, a shopping masterpiece stocked with fashion, food, books, and everything else. The original Covent Garden marketplace has overflowed its boundaries and eaten up the surrounding neighborhood; it's fun to shop the narrow streets. Just off trendy Neal Street and Seven Dials, Neal's Yard is a stunning splash of color on rainy days if you're looking to buy foodstuffs from Neal's Yard Dairy. Monmouth Street is somewhat of a local secret. Many shops here serve as outlets for British designers, selling both used and new clothing. In addition, stores specialize in everything from musical instruments from the Far East to palm readings. Make sure, too, to take in Charing Cross Road and get your nose into one of the many secondhand bookshops. You can't avoid Foyles (and nor should you), but the smaller shops have some great options and well-priced first editions if you're particular about your Pulitzers. West London If you're heading west, the first place you should find yourself in is Notting Hill. Of course, one of the main draws for shopping in West London is Portobello Market. Every Sunday, the whole of Portobello Road turns into a sea of antiques, cool clothing (and even cooler shoppers), and maybe even a celebrity or three.

Some of the best boutiques in London are also here. The independent shopping scene thrives; this is an area where people want to be unique, but still look expensive and groomed. Expect one-off, vintage-style dresses, quirky homewares, and more than a handful of retro record shops. Stick to Portobello for antiques, but head to Westbourne Grove and Ledbury Road for boutiques. The area is also full of organic and fancy food stores, with Whole Foods having its flagship home here. They take their food very seriously in West London: It does come at a price, but the quality is good so make sure you pick up a few bits. Pop into Melt on Ledbury Road for luxury chocolate, or head to one of London's top cupcake bakeries, the Hummingbird Bakery at 133 Portobello Rd. (tel. 020/7851-1795). West London is also home to two American-style shopping malls. Westfield takes up residence in Shepherd's Bush and Whiteleys sits in Bayswater. They're huge, they have everything, and they're busy. If it's raining and you still want your high-street shops, head here. Just don't expect to find anything special or out of the ordinary. Southwest London The home of Harrods, Knightsbridge is probably the second-most famous London retail district (Oxford Street just edges it out). Sloane Street is traditionally regarded as a designer area, but these days it's more "upscale high-street," and nowhere near as luxurious as Bond Street . This is where you can grab some aromatherapy from Jo Malone, 150 Sloane St. (tel. 0870/192-5121;; Tube: Sloane Sq.), a haven for bespoke perfumes. Walk southwest on Brompton Road -- toward the V&A Museum -- and you'll find Cheval Place, lined with designer resale shops, and Beauchamp Place (pronounced Bee-cham). It's high end, but with a hint of irony. Expect to see little lapdogs in handbags. If you walk farther along Brompton Road, you'll connect to Brompton Cross, another hip area for designer shops made popular when Michelin House was rehabbed by Sir Terence Conran, becoming the Conran Shop. Seek out Walton Street, a tiny snake of a street running from Brompton Cross back toward the museums. Most of the shops here specialize in nonessential luxury products, the kind a severe Victorian moralist might dismiss as "vanities and fripperies." You'll also be near King's Road (Tube: Sloane Sq.); once a beacon of Sixties cool, this is now a haven for designer clothes and homewares. About a third of King's Road is devoted to independent fashion shops, another third houses design-trade showrooms and stores for household wares (Scandinavian designs are prominent), and the remaining third a mix of dress shops and shoe boutiques. The clothes shops tend to suit a more mature customer (with a more mature budget), but you'll have fun shopping here if you remain oblivious to shop assistants who can be on the snooty side. Finally, don't forget all those museums in nearby South Kensington. They have fantastic and exclusive gift shops. If you're looking for jewelry and homewares, the V&A and the Design Museum are must-visits. The Science Museum shop is perfect for inquisitive youngsters. Make sure to view the collections, too. They're free, and have some world-class exhibits. Kensington High Street (Tube: High St. Kensington) is the hangout of the classier breed of teen, one who has graduated from Carnaby Street. While there are a few staples of basic British fashion here, most of the stores feature items that can be described as modern classics with a twist. Think black, well cut, and tailored, with a fun edge for the youngsters. From Kensington High Street, you can walk up Kensington Church Street. Like Portobello Road, this is one of the city's main shopping avenues for antiques, offering everything from antique furniture to Impressionist paintings. Insider Tip: Kensington might scream money, but there are still places to pick up a bargain. The charity shops here (particularly along Kensington Church Street) are full of designer bargains. After all, where else is London's upper crust going to drop off last season's clobber? It might not be good enough for them, but if you're looking for cut-price Gucci and Pucci, that's where you'll find it. That's not to say you'll be paying pennies for your wares (the people who work here aren't stupid), but you can pick up a vintage bargain and do your bit for charity at the same time. There's nothing better than virtuous shopping, is there? Herne Hill (Train: Herne Hill) and Dulwich (Train: North Dulwich) merge slightly, and both attract a "yummy mummy" crowd -- that's middle-class mothers with posh buggies, in case you're wondering -- but the shops also benefit from a local community vibe. It's certainly worth browsing

here, in preference to Clapham -- which apart from a few gems such as Lisa Stickley, is unlikely to wow you. The best place for shopping in London's far southwest is Chiswick (Tube: Turnham Green), which has always had a thriving artsy community. This is where you'll find modern little galleries on the corner of residential streets, and unique homewares retailers such as Eco as well as pop-up stores (temporary shops). It's still a mostly residential suburb, but there's always something new happening here, especially when it comes to shopping. Start your browsing along Devonshire Road and follow your senses. On the Outskirts -- The outskirts of South London are a bit of an odd bag, because the shopping areas are so widely separated. You can easily get to each area by train or bus (usually from London Bridge or Victoria stations), but you can't hop between them very easily like you can in the center of town. One place to head is Crystal Palace (Train: Crystal Palace) for its cute collection of vintage shops and indie stores. Check out the Bookseller Crow, 50 Westow St. (tel. 020/8771-8831;, for unique children's books, and then Crystal Palace Antiques. The South Bank Apart from Gabriel's Wharf, the South Bank isn't really a shopping destination on its own -although the area is slowly getting a facelift. The OXO Tower, Bargehouse St. (tel. 020/7021-1600; Tube: Waterloo), now has a collection of upscale boutiques in its lower floors, and Hay's Galleria, 2 Battle Bridge Lane (tel. 020/7403-3583; Tube: London Bridge), by the Tooley Street entrance to London Bridge station, is cute, if rather empty (you'll find a toyshop and a ubiquitous Starbucks, but not much else). Borough Market brings foodie crowds south in their droves, as does Tate Modern with its fabulous shop for artsy visitors and locals. Something delightful happens to the area over Christmas, however. There's a Christmas Market, which stretches along the whole South Bank, offering festive delights. Everything from food to Christmas decorations can be bought, all before taking a trip to see Santa himself. There's also a Slow Food Market in winter (visit, offering roasted meats and chutneys and foods that you'll want to savor. The City & East London The financial district itself doesn't really offer much in the way of shopping -- especially at the weekend, when everything tends to be shut. However, a new shopping center, One New Change, is attracting a rich crowd for its luxury goods. It's opposite the eastern end of St. Paul's Cathedral. You'll also find a handful of tailors in the area, and there are several high-end brands in the nearby Royal Exchange (; Tube: Bank). Unless you're often suited up for work, however, it's really not a shopping destination by itself. Wander west from St. Paul's and you'll wind up in the jewelry district around Hatton Garden (Tube: Chancery Lane). On Saturdays it's a sea of nervous men hunting the perfect engagement ring. If you're not in the market for fancy finger adornments, Lamb's Conduit Street is a short stroll farther west. It's a beautiful street, full of history -- and now independent shops and restaurants. Make sure you pop to Persephone for unique literature, and pick up food goodies from Kennards, 47 Lamb's Conduit St. (tel. 020/7404-4030;, next door. Continue your adventure farther east on Commercial Street (Tube: Liverpool St./Train: Shoreditch High St.), Shoreditch. This is where you'll find the best vintage shops in the city. They're on almost every corner, and new ones seem to appear every day, alongside pop-up stores just here for the weekend. Make sure you hit Absolute Vintage and the smaller Blondie around the corner, on the way to the antiques market in Spitalfields. A short stroll north, Columbia Road is more than just a flower market; in many ways, the main attractions are the artist studios that line the street. Head up every single one of those staircases you see. If the door is open, you're allowed in. You'll find artists at work and shops such as Jessica Chorley, 158a Columbia Rd. (tel. 07708/921550;; Train: Shoreditch), selling handmade notebooks and jewelry. Once you're done with the studios and shops -- Ryan Town sells fabulous papercuts -- everything at the flower market will be going cheap come 3pm. North London


Shoppers should split north London in two: Camden (Tube: Camden Town) has its heavy metal and Goth shops; Primrose Hill (Tube: Chalk Farm) and its surrounds has perfect little streets full of local finds. The two could not be more different, but that doesn't mean either is less enticing. Camden could never be dull. Even if the bustling high street with its black leather-clad crowds isn't your thing, it's worth a stroll just for the spectacle: street-food stalls and Goths in full make-up at lunchtime against a backdrop of Camden Lock and the canal. Camden Market itself has changed somewhat since a fire in 2008. The refurbishment has tidied things up a little, although many would argue that some of the charm has gone with it. The stalls are back, the Stables area is more exciting, and everything is just perhaps a little more refined; it still has some rough Camden charm, but also a wider appeal, whether you're looking for neon industrial clubwear or handmade jewelry. It's best to avoid the food stalls, though. Primrose Hill is Camden's northern neighbor, and the Cinderella to North London's ugly sister. Everything is pretty, perfect, and rather posh. The original cupcake Primrose Bakery, 69 Gloucester Ave. (tel. 020/7483-4222;, is here, and the area is popular with fashion celebs such as Kate Moss and Sadie Frost. Designer stores, chi-chi art galleries, and overpriced clothes are what you'll find in this part of town. Some might claim that there's not much substance, but if you're willing to search, there are great frocks in Anna, 126 Regent's Park Rd. (tel. 020/7483-0411;, and beautiful interiors shops for any budget. Angel -- in Islington, south and east of Camden -- bridges the gap between indie and vintage cool, and luxury and boutique style. Head to Camden Passage for the best of vintage (we favor other shops over Decorexi). The weekend market stalls are interesting, but the real charm lies in the street's small shops. Upscale vintage and specialized antiques flank both sides, leading up to Essex Road and Upper Street. Both these major thoroughfares have shops lining them: Essex Road is good for independent designers; Upper Street sticks to high-street and specialist chains such as Joy and Oliver Bonas, 147-148 Upper St. (tel. 020/7424-5305; Make sure you walk south from Angel along St. John Street; My Sugarland is a beautiful shop showcasing the very best in women's clothing. Greenwich Although many London stores now open on Sundays, the best weekend shopping is still the stalls of Greenwich's flea and craft markets. The ideal way to arrive is to float downstream on a boat from Embankment or Westminster piers. The trip takes about a half-hour. Both the DLR station (Cutty Sark) and the pier are minutes from the indoor craft market, which is held Wednesday through Sunday. Greenwich town center isn't very big: Follow the signs -- or the crowd -- and you'll find it. Greenwich Market is bursting with art and crafts, both global and local. The shops around the outside of the market are also worth a look, and make sure to walk through the food market when you're done, if only to try the churros filled with dulce de leche (milk caramel). You're now only 5 minutes from Greenwich rail station, on Greenwich High Road, from which there's a train back to the center of London every half-hour until about 11:30pm. Make sure you check out the shops around the rest of Greenwich first. Buy pies and tarts at Rhodes Bakery, 37 King William Walk (tel. 020/8858-8995;, or vintage accessories and retro music from Beehive, 322 Creek Rd. (tel. 020/8858-1964). Booktime, 227 Greenwich High Rd. (tel. 020/8293-0096) is great for bargain books.


UNIT 9 9. 1. Lead in 1. If you could save, invest or spend 1,000 euros in just one day what would you do with it? Explain your answer. 2. Does it matter if a wife earns more than her husband? 3. Were you given or did you earn your pocket money as a child? What about now? 4. What was the first thing you saved up for and bought yourself? 5. What cant money buy? 6. What do you understand by plastic money? 7. How many ways of paying for a product do you know? 9.2. Reading objective Can Money Buy Happiness? The following questions and answer make up an imaginary interview that sum up the real answers to the same questions, given by more hundreds of people, as part of an opinion survey about how important money is in our life. Q: Were you given or did you earn pocket money as a child? A: I was given two shillings a week by my father, but on condition that I behaved myself. If I didnt behave well, I didnt receive it. Parents were much stricter in those days. Q: What was the first thing you saved up for and bought yourself. A: A set of toy soldiers. Not the plastic ones you get nowadays, but little metal ones, beautifully hand painted. It took me nearly a year to save up for them. If Id known that they would be valuable antiques today, I would have kept them. They would probably be worth a fortune now. Q: Its impossible to have too much money do you agree? A: Yes. If you have dreams, money makes them possible. Personally, I cant imagine having too much money. Im always broke. Anyway, if I ever felt I had too much money, Id give it away to charity. Q: Would you prefer fame or fortune? A: Being practical, Id say fortune, but if I were single, with no kids and no responsibilities, Id go for fame. Q: If you could buy yourself a skill, a talent or change in your appearance, what would you choose? A: Well there are lots of things Id like to be better at, but if I had to choose one, I d like to be a brilliant football player. Q: What cant money buy? A: Happiness. I tend to think that once I have enough money to buy some new clothes or get a better car, then Ill be happy. But it never works out like that. Reading comprehension? 1. What did the respondent first save up money for? 2.What would the respondent choose between fame and fortune? Why? 3. What cant money buy according to the text? 9.3 Language in use I. Paying and bargaining. If a product you want to buy has no price label you may ask : How much is it ? or How much does it cost ? The shop assistant can ask you : What method of payment do you you prefer : cash, by cheque or by credit card ? If you go shopping in an ellegant boutique in the centre of a large city it is quite probable that bargaining is not accepted. But if you go to small shops, to bazaars in Greece, Turkey or the Middle East the shopkeepers will be happy to haggle and most of them speak English.

If you don agree to their price you can say something like : Ill buy this for (sum) . or : How much is that if I buy two ? , Ill buy a T-shirt as well if you give me the jeans for 10 euros. Now imagine you are a customer. What would you say if you want to buy the following for a lower price: a) a shirt (initial price 25 euros) for 15 euros ; b) a gold bracelet (initial price 100 euros) for 80 euros. II. Stating preferences. When you go shopping (and not only) you may need to express your preferences. Comparing things often involves making a choice. If we are comparing different cars, items of clothing, etc for example, we often state our preferences at the same time. Here are some useful ways of stating what you prefer: As far as Im concerned, the best From my point of view, the best Id go for this one because Id much prefer that one because This one is preferable because Id rather have that one because Decide how you would use these expressions to talk about a) a dress / a pair of trousers / a suit / a computer you want to buy; b) different things to eat and drink. (Perhaps look at a restaurant menu and decide what dishes to select.) 9.4. Translation practice (English Romanian) 'The best things in life are free, But you can give them to the birds and bees, I want money, That's what I want, That's what I want.'' In 1959, these words were written by Barrett Strong in a song called ''Money (That's What I Want).'' The song was later made famous throughout the United States and the UK when The Beatles covered it in 1963. One year later, The Beatles again topped the charts with the hit song, ''Cant Buy Me Love.'' When asked about the meaning of the lyrics, Paul McCartney said, ''The idea behind it was that all these material possessions are all very well, but they won't buy me what I really want.'' However, when reflecting on the perks that money and fame had brought him, he was to later comment: ''It should have been 'Can Buy Me Love.' '' Paul McCartney and The Beatles are not the only ones who have contradictory views around the age-old question, ''Can money buy happiness?'' Put another way, ''Does money, or lack thereof, impact how happy we are?'' Psychologists, philosophers and ordinary folks have debated this question for years. In the last decade, the field of psychology took a dramatic turn from only looking at mental illness, to exploring what makes people feel fulfilled, engaged and happy. This Positive Psychology Movement has produced an expansive amount of researchers who are looking at things such as happiness, positive emotions, optimism and healthy character traits. At some point, every one of these top researchers explored the effects of money on happiness and positive emotions. What we are finding out is that happiness is the ultimate currency. Not only do happy people enjoy life more and have more fun, but they also practice positive lifestyle habits and have stronger immune systems. When faced with illness, happier and more optimistic individuals have been shown to be more proactive in their medical care, more compliant with treatment and medication, have quicker recoveries and show better health outcomes. So, if we want to be healthier and happier, its worth figuring out where money comes into play. When we talk about happiness, we need to look at it from two separate aspects--life satisfaction as a whole vs. moment-to-moment moods. I can be satisfied with my overall life, yet still have moments when I am not happy. Vice versa, some folks can be dissatisfied with their current circumstances and wish for change, but still have many moments of joy throughout the day. Interestingly, money affects our feelings about both aspects of happiness.

UNIT 10 10.1. Lead in 1. How many meals do you have daily? 2. Are you a good cook? What can you cook best? 3. Ask your desk mate about his/ her favourite food/ drink. Then tell him/her what to cook if he/she invites you to have dinner together. 4. What do you think about being a vegetarian? 5. In terms of food, what comes to your mind when you think of the following countries: the USA, France, Austria, Japan, China, Greece, Turkey, the UK? 6. Can you add any more countries to the list above? What food/ drink are they famous for? 7. What Romanian traditional dishes would you recommend a foreigner? 10.2. Reading objective British Food and Cuisine British cuisine has always been multicultural, a pot pourri of eclectic styles - in ancient times influenced by the Romans and in medieval times by the French. During Victorian times good old British stooge mixed with exotic spices from all over the Empire. The Britons learnt quite a lot from the colonies. In London especially, one can not only experiment with the best of British, but the best of the world as there are many distinct ethnic cuisines to sample, Chinese, Indian, Italian and Greek restaurants are amongst the most popular. Among English cakes and pastries, many are tied to the various religious holidays of the year. Hot Cross Buns are eaten on Good Friday, Simnel Cake is for Mothering Sunday, Plum Pudding for Christmas, and Twelfth Night Cake for Epiphany. Some traditional dishes such as roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, Cornish pasties, steak and kidney pie, bread and butter pudding, treacle tart, spotted dick or fish and chips, remain popular. Roast beef is still the national culinary pride. It is called a "joint," and is served at midday on Sunday with roasted potatoes, Yorkshire pudding, two vegetables, a good strong horseradish, gravy, and mustard. The British Breakfast The great British breakfast is famous throughout the world! Actually many British people are more likely to have a bowl of cornflakes or a cup of coffee but the typical English breakfast is a 19th century invention, when the majority of English people adopted the copious meal of porridge, fish, bacon and eggs, toast and marmalade, that has now appeared on English breakfast tables for 100 years. The annual consumption in the United Kingdom is 450,000 tones of bacon, 5,000 tones of sausages and millions of eggs, so you can see the Great British Breakfast is very much alive and well. It has retained its popularity as one of the country's favorite meals, and survived a whole series of eating trends and food fads. Nowadays the great British breakfast consists of toast with jam or marmalade, pastries, fresh orange juice, freshly brewed coffee, a choice of cereals, porridge, stewed fruit , scrambled egg, streaky and back bacon, black pudding or grilled mushrooms. Tea Tea, that most quintessential of English drinks, came relatively late to British shores. Although the custom of drinking tea dates back to the third millennium BC in China, it was not until the mid 17th century that the beverage first appeared in England. It was the Portuguese and Dutch traders who first imported tea to Europe, with regular shipments by 1610. England was a latecomer to the tea trade, as the East India Company did not capitalize on tea's popularity until the mid-18th century. It was the London coffee houses that were responsible for introducing tea to England. One of the first coffee house merchants to offer tea was Thomas Garway, who owned an establishment in Exchange Alley. He sold both liquid and dry tea to the public as early as 1657. Three years later he issued a broadsheet advertising tea at 6 and 10 per pound (ouch!), touting its virtues at "making the body active and lusty", and "preserving perfect health until extreme old age". Tea gained popularity quickly in the coffee houses, and by 1700 over 500 coffee houses sold it.. By 1750 tea had become the favored drink of Britain's lower classes. Nowadays , it is Britains favorite drink and it is also a meal in the afternoon, consisting in cookies, other sweets and of course tea.

Reading comprehension 1. What does a traditional English breakfast consist of? 2. Enumerate a few traditional English dishes. 3. Why is tea not only a drink but also a meal? 10.3 Translation Practice ( English Romanian) A. Potatoes have a unique place in the British diet. We each eat around 130kg every year; boiled, baked, roasted, mashed and chipped, the humble spud is a familiar, much loved part of mealtimes. What is surprising, though, is that although there are around 500 varieties of potato, only about 80 varieties are grown commercially, so only a few are well known and available in Britain's supermarkets. We're all familiar with delectable Jersey Royals, with their wonderfully distinctive flavor; Cara are excellent for baking; King Edwards are superb roasted, mashed or chipped; Maris Piper are dry and floury and good for all methods of cooking, while the dense, moist flesh of Charlottes makes wonderful potato salad. But how many of us have come across Lady Christl, Dunbar Rover or Mr Little's Yetholm Gypsy? These old-fashioned potato types are now deemed 'heritage' or 'gourmet' varieties and are hard to find, although you may be lucky and come across them at farmers' markets or from a specialist grower. The trouble is that these heirloom potatoes are not cosmetically perfect. Even the Prince of Wales had his organic potatoes rejected by the supermarkets because they weren't shiny enough! He sold them to South Gloucestershire County Council instead, who supply them to local schools. It's not surprising that many people think of potatoes as bland and insipid if they can only buy flawless, perfectly shaped specimens with little flavor. The supermarkets may offer us a choice beyond just 'White' or 'Red' nowadays, but there's still a terrific range of potatoes with unique flavors and textures far beyond those currently available. Fortunately, some supermarkets are dipping a cautious toe in the water and are offering a few 'heirloom' varieties. I discovered some Shetland Blacks in the supermarket recently. These small, purplish/black-skinned potatoes have yellow flesh and a floury texture and are very tasty baked or sauted. Different potatoes have their own distinctive taste and their texture varies considerably too, so it's important to cook them correctly. A potato may be described as having a waxy or floury texture. Floury potatoes tend to break up when boiled, so are best baked, roasted or chipped, while waxy potatoes are moister and have less starch, so are good for boiling and in potato salad and layered potato dishes. Some old-fashioned varieties date back a century or more and come in an amazing range of shapes, colors and interesting flavors. I'm going to try and track down as many unusual varieties as possible, not only for their unique flavors, but also to experience a true taste of our culinary history. B. Britons eat out much more than they used towhich means their diets are even worse than those figures suggest. The average Briton eats just three grams of green vegetables in a restaurant each week. He dines out on 44 grams of chips and 75 grams of meat. Engels was partly right about the reasons for this: harried working mothers have less time to cook. Steady advances in technologynot just freezers and microwave ovens but better containers for processed foodmean they do not need to. Above all, people have far more choice. The speed with which Britons have abandoned foods like cabbage suggests they never liked them much. Brussels sprouts were once such a staple that they were part of the basket of goods used to calculate inflation. Sprout consumption has fallen by more than four-fifths since 1974. But if worries about changes in what people eat are well-founded, fears about the decline of cooking and family meals are much less so. Britons are no worse in the kitchen than they were in the past. They are just no better. Most people can rustle up about seven different meals and simply repeat them, says Jon Firth of Kantar World panel, a market-research firm. That is not all that different from

1950s family meals in which the same dishesSunday roasts, leftovers made into cottage pies, sausage and mashfeatured every week. And todays repertoires might at least feature once-exotic dishes such as pasta. Nor has the tradition of family eating declined as much as is commonly supposed. Britons have never eaten together as much as they like to think. People interviewed in the 1970s about their childhoods in the early 20th century often remembered meals without parents. Posh mothers were commonly off doing charity work; working-class fathers were on unsociable shifts. People still sit down to a roast Sunday lunch, a meal rarely eaten in solitude, 14 times a year on average. Mealtimes are no longer conventional or clearly defined. People eat often and quickly. One study comparing Britain and Spain found that about 40% of Spaniards were eating at 2.50pm and about 30% at 9.30pm. At no point in the day were as many as 20% of Britons eating. Over the years, peaks in sewage flow have greatly diminished, notes Rob Smith, chief sewer-flusher for Thames Water. Still, include the number of hours spent eating out, and the total time that families spend together over food has stayed remarkably constant over the years, says Peter Jackson, a geographer who studies families and food at Sheffield University. Britons eat badly and erratically. But they do it together.

10.4. Language in use Ordering food. Talking to the waiter. If you go abroad you may want to eat out, so it would be useful to know a few words coonected to ordering food. Read the following short dialogues between a guest and a waiter and then build your own dialogues. a) A : Hello, sir ! B : Hello. Can I have a have sandwich, please ? A : Yes, of course. Here you are. Anything else ? B : No, thanks. A : Fifty nine cents, please. B : Thanks. Keep the change. A : Thank you, sir. b) A : Hello, Im John Howard. I have booked a table for six for 9p.m. tonight. B : Hello, sir. Just a moment to check your booking. Youre right, table for six, near the window, 9 p.m.. The waiter will see you off at your table. C : Hello, ladies and gentlemen, follow me. This way, please this is your table and here are the menus. Enjoy your evening. c) A : Are you ready to order, madam ? B : Yes, Id like two tuna salads, two chocolate icecreams and a white coffe for my friend. A : Sure, madam. Anything else ? B : A glass of still water for me, please. A : OK, madam. B. Thank you. d) A : Yes, sir ? B : A coffee, please. A : Black or white ? B : Sorry ? A : Black or white ? Milk ? B : Ah ! Black please. No milk. A : Sixty pence, sir. B : Thanks. Now imagine you are hungry and you go to a nice restaurant in London. How do you order your food ? You can also think of a menu.

UNIT 11 11..1. Lead in 1. How is communication different now from what it was a) 20 years ago; b) 50 years ago; c) 150 years ago; d) 1000 years ago? 2. What new communication devices do you think will be invented in the next 25 years? 3. The Internet is among the most important inventions of the 20th century. What are its main uses? What do you, as a student, use it for? 4. Are you a member of social networ sites? How have they changed the way we conceive communication? What do you use them for mainly? What are their other possible uses? 11.2. Reading objective Social Network Sites Since their introduction, social network (or networking) sites have attracted millions of users, who have integrated them into their daily routines. As statistics say, most of SNS-s users are young and very young people who become members of such sites for socializing, keeping in touch with friends and making new friends. But private issues are not the only ones discussed on SNS-s. Public ones (such as politics, social problems) are of interest for SNS-s members. Regarding a possible definition of a social networking service, it is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on building and reflecting of social networks or social relations among people, who, for example, share interests and/or activities. A social network service essentially consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks. The main types of social networking services are those which contain category places (such as former school year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages) and a recommendation system linked to trust. Popular methods now combine many of these, with Facebook and Twitter widely used worldwide, Nexopia (mostly in Canada); Bebo, VKontakte, Hi5, Hyves (mostly in The Netherlands), (mostly in Latvia), StudiVZ (mostly in Germany), iWiW (mostly in Hungary), Tuenti (mostly in Spain), Nasza-Klasa (mostly in Poland), (mostly in Czech Republic), Decayenne, Tagged, XING, Badoo and Skyrock in parts of Europe;] Orkut and Hi5 in South America and Central America; and Friendster, Mixi, Multiply, Orkut, Wretch, renren and Cyworld in Asia and the Pacific Islands and Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Orkut are very popular in India. Social networks or social communities such as Facebook,, YouTube, MySpace, Xing or Friendster are currently the most popular ways of meeting people. These networks meet the young peoples needs of communication, help them develop / find their identity, (re) present themselves, practice peer-group experiences, offer them spaces of freedom, experimentation and crossing any boundaries. The popularity of these communities could be explained by children and young peoples needs to be noticed, recognized and to become popular. They want to be seen and, in the same time, to see how appreciated and sympathized they are or how they seem to be. Reading comprehension: 1.How would you define a social network site? 2.What are its main functions? 3.What needs ane expectations of young people (and not only) do they satisfy? 11.3. Language in use Telephoning. Making and changing arrangements. 1. Complete the following conversations with phrases from the list below: Dialogue 1: A: _______________________

B: Good morning! Could I speak to Ms. Reynolds, please? Dialogue 2: A: I need Mr. Stevens number, please. B: ______________________________ Dialogue 3: A: _____________________________ B: Yes, hold the line one moment and Ill put you through. Dialogue 4: A: Im afraid hes in a meeting at the moment. B: ______________________________ Dialogue 5: A: ___________________________ B: Mihai Ionescu from Flamingo electronics. Phrases: a) OK. Ill call back later. Thank you. b) Hello, RB Advertising. Can I help you? c) Just a moment, sir. Ill look it up for you. d)Hello. Extension 4521, please. e) Whos calling, please? 2. Unscramble the sentences below so as to obtain three coherent telephone conversations: Dialogue 1: ____ A: Oh, good morning, Miss Smith! ____ B: Mr. Hartley? Good morning! ____ A: Good. See you the. Good bye. ____ B: Im ringing to remind you about the meeting tomorrow. 10 a.m., at your office as arranged? A: 10a.m., thats right. DIALOGUE 2: ____ A: Right. Im looking forward to seeing you. goodbye. ____ B: Oh, hello, Mr. Williams, nice to hear from you! ____ B: Im afraid I cant today. What about tomorrow? ____ A: Hello! Ms. Lester? This is Tom Williams speaking, from RB Advertising. ____ A: I called to see if we can discuss a business proposition that our company wishes to make. ____ B: Yes, 1 p..m. is OK. See you tomorrow. ____ A: Actually I hoped we could meet and talk about it. How about me coming to your office later today? ____ B: I see. Could you be more specific? ____ A: Tomorrow will be fine. Lets say 1 p.m., if its suitable for you, too. Dialogue 3: ____ A: Would it be possible for you to meet us on Tuesday afternoon instead? ____ B: Hello, John Andrews speaking, from Durham Building. ____ A: Hello, Mr. Andrews. ____ A: Im calling on behalf of my boss. He is very sorry he wont be able to meet you this afternoon. ____ B: OK, Ill be waiting for your call. Good bye, then. ____ B: Let me check my diary Im afraid I cant. What about Wednesday morning?

____ B: Oh, I see. ____ A: Wednesday morning is all right. However Ill call you back later on to confirm. ____ A: Thank you. Goodbye. 3. Together with your desk mate imagine a few short telephone conversations in which: a) you ask for an extension; b) you want to speak to someone but the line is busy / the person is not in the office; c) you make an arrangement to meet someone tomorrow at 4 p.m.; d) you try to change an arrangement already made. 11.4 Translation practice (English Romanian) Who can turn around your day with a kind word or a smile? At my local coffee shop, there is a barista who always makes my day. She greets me with a big smile, always has a compliment at the ready and is sincerely interested in my life. I love getting coffee from her. If I am having a crap time, she makes it a bit brighter. She does this for all of her customers. She knows their names, their orders, and their lives. My barista is a shiny beacon of positivity and joy. There is push-pull effect in all communication. The way you communicate can pull people toward you like a magnet or repel people away like a deadly scorpion hiding in the rug. Every time you open your mouth, the question needs to be asked: is what I am about to say going to pull people in or push them out of my life? Luckily, there are 11 inspired minds (and one fictional rabbit) who can guide us to have improved communication and better relationships in these 12 brilliant quotes: 1. You never know when a moment and a few sincere words can have an impact on a life ~ Zig Ziglar A well-timed positive word or compliment can change the course of someones day. 2. Who you are is speaking so loudly that I cant hear what youre saying ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson Being authentic to who you are speaks volumes. People are drawn to authenticity and vulnerability. Coming off like a slimy, fake used-car dealer (or Kardashian) pushes people away. 3. If you dont have something nice to say, dont say anything at all ~ Thumper from Bambi Negative words traumatize and leave an impression that can last for days. If the communication is going to do harm, take Thumpers advice. 4. You can make more friends in two months by becoming interested in other people than you can in two years by trying to get other people interested in you ~ Dale Carnegie You is the most important word in any conversation. Minimize the I and the Me and focus on the you. 5. What will they think of me? Must be put aside for bliss ~ Joseph Campbell Put aside your worries about what others will think of you and just serve others with your message. 6. I speak to everyone in the same way, whether he is the garbage man or the president of the university ~ Albert Einstein Treat everyone with respect no matter their status. 7. Dont be embarrassed by your failures. Learn from them and start again ~ Sir Richard Branson Miscommunications and misunderstandings happen! You learn much about how you communicate through your mistakes and you learn a lot about the person you are talking to as well! 8. The most important thing in communication is hearing what isnt said ~ Peter Drucker The ability to read the emotions and nonverbal communication of another person increases understanding and elevates relationships. 9. Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something ~ Plato Speak with a purpose, not just to fill-up a silence. Remember: silence is a gift that allows selfreflection.

10. Be sincere; be brief; be seated ~ Franklin D. Roosevelt Amen! 11. The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug ~ Mark Twain Words are powerful! When you chose just the right word, you increase understanding ten-fold. 12. The way we communicate with others and with ourselves ultimately determines the quality of our lives ~ Anthony Robbins If you are positive and communicate positivity, you will attract more of that into your life. Heres your challenge: go out today and make a positive impact on someones day. Listen. Be sincere. Smile generously. Be generous in praise and compliments. Communication has power to make a difference and change lives, or at the very least make someones day more luminous.


UNIT 12 12.1. Lead in 1. What comes to your mind when you think of the USA? 2. Enumerate a few reasons why you would like to visit the USA. 3. Think of some positive and some negative aspects of the American civilisation, which, in your opinion, have an effect on your daily life. 4. What comes to your mind when you think about sports in the USA? 12.2. Reading objective The United States of America (also referred to as the United States, the U.S., the USA, or America) is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. The country is situated mostly in central North America, where forty-eight states and Washington, D.C., the capital district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to the east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also possesses several territories in the Caribbean and Pacific. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) and with over 310 million people, the United States is among the largest and most populated countries in the world. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. The U.S. economy is the world's largest national economy, with a 2010 GDP of $14.780 trillion. How did we come to call this vast territory America? In 1507, German cartographer Martin Waldseemller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere "America" after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci. The former British colonies first used the country's modern name in the 1776 Declaration of Independence. Later on, other official documents used this name as well. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The federal government is composed of three branches: legislative (the bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government), executive (the president and the government; the president is the commander-in-chief of the military forces, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies), judicial (the Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval, conduct trials, interpret laws and change those they find unconstitutional). The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history. Since the middle of the 19th century, the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, and the Republican Party, founded in 1854. Within American political culture, the Republican Party is considered center-right or "conservative" and the Democratic Party is considered center-left or "liberal". The states of the Northeast and West Coast and some of the Great Lakes states, known as "blue states", are relatively liberal. The "red states" of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative. The winner of the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama, is the 44th U.S. president. The 2010 midterm elections saw the Republican Party take control of the House and make gains in the Senate, where the Democrats retain the majority. In the 112th United States Congress, the Senate comprises 51 Democrats, two independents, and 47 Republicans; the House comprises 242

Republicans and 193 Democrats. There are 29 Republican and 20 Democratic state governors, as well as one independent. The USA are many times seen as a symbol of freedom; they are the land where people go to achieve their dreams and the lad which as influenced the worlds culture in a decisive way. Who hasnt fallen in love with the American film industry and its stars, who has never eaten in a fast food restaurant, who has never watched a baseball match (the American national sport), at least in movies? We are going to end this first presentation of the USA by talking about American sport, promoted by everybody, from the President himself to educational and health policies. Besides baseball, American football and basketball are also very popular among Americans, as well as golf and auto racing. However sport is not the only important issue when talking about American culture; customs and traditions, food, holidays are also very present in the Americans lives, and not only as they have been successfully exported worldwide. The following Reading objective will be dedicated to them. Reading comprehension: 1. Which are the main two parties in the USA? 2. What two structures does the Congress consist of? 3. Which are the three branches of the American federal Government? 4. Enumerate a few aspects of culture / civilization that the USA are famous for. 5. Enumerate a few sports popular among the Americans. 12.3. Vocabulary 1. Having a hobby is good both for your physical and mental health. Check the meaning of the new words from the list below and tell if any of them is your hobby: dancing, visiting museums, doing crosswords, walking, skiing, listening to music, watching TV, taking photographs, ice-skating, cooking, playing computer games, sailing, painting, swimming, reading, going to the cinema, playing volleyball, windsurfing, sunbathing, playing cards, fishing. 2. Write play or go in front of the following: _______ football, _______ iceskating, _______, swimming, ______ windsurfing, _______ golf, _______ baseball, ______ ice hockey, _______ sailing, _______ fishing, _______ tennis, _______ walking, _______ dancing, _______ volleyball, _______ skiing.

12.4 Language in use

Inviting. Accepting / refusing an invitation. Apologising . 1. Depending on the addressee, an invitation can be more or less formal. Read the following possible invitations and rank them according to their degree of formality. a) Were going to the theatre on Sunday evening and we were wondering if youd like to join us. _____ b) If youre free tonight, why not come round for a drink ? _____ c) If you dont have any plans for the weekend Id be happy to show you the old town and some museums. Im sure youll love it. _____ d) Hello, sir. Andreea Popescu speaking, Mr. Howards assistant manager. He would like to invite you to dinner tomorrow evening. Woud that be possible for you ? _____ e) It gives me great pleasure to invite you to the hotels inauguration ceremony , on the 20th next month. ______ f) We would be honoured if you accepted to have supper with the members of our department at the company club on Friday evening. _____ g) How about going to a movie on Saturday ? _____ 2. Now look at the following thank you expressions. Some of them can be used when accepting, others when declining an invitation. Use them to build your own answers to the invitations above.

It very kind of you to invite me bu Ive already got something planned. What a pity. I dont think I can come. Ive got some friends coming for dinner. Thank you very muck, that would be nice. Sure, why not ? Thank you for the invitation. Thats very nice of you but unfortunately I m busy this weekend. 1. You are an assistant manager and you have to invite a foreign guest : a) to dinner ; b) to look round the factory ; c) to make a speech at an official dinner ; on behalf of your boss. Together with your desk mate decide what exactly you can say. 12.5. Translation practice (English Romanian) The Story of Helen Keller, The Girl Who Could Not See, Hear or Speak Id like you to know the story of Helen Keller, who could neither see nor hear from the time she was a baby. Yet the brilliant girl was able to overcome all those handicaps, to graduate from a college with honors and become a useful citizen. I must say there was nothing wrong with Helen Keller when she was born. Her father and mother were very proud of their pretty baby, who tried to say pa-pa and ma-ma. For nineteen months Helen grew bigger and stronger. She was able to walk when she was a year old; she could say a few words. But one day the child fell ill. She must have been very ill. For days she was laid up with a high fever and soon the parents learned that their darling would never be able to see and hear. The little child was now doomed to a life of silence and darkness. She could not hear what was said to her and did not know how to talk, she was unable to play with other children. When Helen was 6 years old her parents took her to Baltimore and then to Washington to famous doctors to find out if they could do something to make her hear and see again, but the doctors could do nothing. The child was hopelessly deaf. Dr. Bell said the Kellers should address the Perkins Institution for the blind in Boston and ask if they could send someone to help the child. It was a wonderful day for Helen Keller when Ann Sullivan arrived in March 1887 to take charge of the child who could neither hear nor speak. Helen was nearly seven, Ann Sullivan was past twenty. Ann Sullivan found a way to make herself understood. She gave the child a doll, and taking Helen Kellers hand she slowly spelled out "d-o-l". The child learnt for the first time that things must have names. When Miss Sullivan later spelled into the little girls hand the word w-a-t-e-r and then let the water from the pumps run over her hand, a new light seemed to brighten the face of the child. During the next 3 months, she learned 300 words and could even put some of them into sentences. Miss Sullivan loved her pupil who was so quick to learn. She lived with Helen, played with her and worked with her every hour of the day. By means of the hand language, Helen and her teacher were able to talk to each other. Helen learned to read books that were printed for the blind with raised letters. She also learned to use the typewriter to write what she wanted to say. When Helen was 10 she was determined that she would learn to speak. At first she learned only the sounds of the letters of the alphabet, but soon she was able to say words and sentences. In the story of her life Helen Keller writes, I shall never forget the surprise and delight I felt when I uttered my first connected sentence: It is warm. At first she had much difficulty with her speech, but Ann Sullivan understood what Helen trying to say. Helen practised speaking day after day until at last she developed a clear voice. Later she was able to speak before large crowds which came to hear her whenever she lectured. At the age of 20 Helen Keller passed all the difficult entrance examinations to Radcliffe College. Helen did extremely well in her classes and was able to keep up with the other students. Helen wrote

The Story of My Life while she was in college. In her writings and lectures Helen did everything she could to help and encourage others who were blind. (From "Short Stories of Famous Women")


UNIT 13 13.1. Lead in 1. Name a few official or unofficial American holidays which have come to be celebrated worldwide (Romania included). 2. What do you know about these holidays? 3. Enumerate a few differences bettween the UK and the USA in terms of culture, civilisation, language. 13.2. Reading objective American Holidays Americans celebrate a variety of holidays throughout the year. Many of them are the same with those celebrated in many other parts of the world, such as the New Year, Christmas or Easter but there are also other celebrations which are specifically American. Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday in January. The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. was an African American promoter of equality among people; he is recognized for his tireless efforts to win civil rights for all people through nonviolent means. Groundhog Day is February 2 and has been celebrated since 1887. On Grounghog day crowds gather in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, to see if the groundhog sees his shadow after emerging from his burrow, thus predicting six more weeks of winter weather. Valentines Day is celebrated on February 14. The day was named after an early Christian martyr and on Valentines Day Americans give presents like candy or flowers to the ones they love. The first mass produced valentine cards were sold in the 1840s. Washingtons Birthday is a federal holiday observed in the third Monday of February to honour George Washington, the first president of the United States. This date is commonly called Presidents Day and people honour the legacy of past presidents on this date. Mothers Day celebrate mothers every second Sunday of May. President Woodrow Wilson who issued a proclamation in 1914 asked Americans to give a public expression of reverence to mothers on this day. Fathers Day celebrates fathers every third Sunday of June. Fathers Day began in 1909 in Spokane, Washington when a daughter requested a special day to honour her father, a Civil War veteran who raised his children after his wife died. Independence Day is July 4. This holiday honors the nations birthday the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. It is a day of picnics and patriotic parades, a night of concerts and fireworks. Labor Day is the first Monday of September. This federal holiday honors the nations working people, typically with parades. For most Americans it marks the end of the summer vacation season and the start of the school year. Haloween is celebrated on October 31. On Haloween American children dress up funny or scary costumes and go trick or treating by knocking on doors in their neighborhood. The neighbors are expected to respond by giving them small gifts of candy and money. Thanksgiving Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. In the fall of 1621 the Pilgrims held a three-day feast to celebrate a good harvest. Many people consider this event as the nations first Thanksgiving. The Thanksgiving feast became a tradition when families gather together and give thanks to God for the good thing in their lives. The traditional dishes eaten on this day are roast turkey, cranberry sauce, potatoes and pumpkin pie. Reading comprehension 1. What do the Americans celebrate at the end of October? 2. What holidays are celebrated in the first two months of the year? 3. How do the Americans celebrate Independence Day?

13.3. Language in use Making a date. If you like a person and you want to invite him / her out you have to make a date. These are expressions you can use to arrange to meet someone. Some possible answers are also given. Oh, um, are you doing anything this evening, by any chance? Um, I was thinking of going to the cinema this evening, would you like to come? Er, are you going to be busy this evening? I was wondering if you might like to come to the cinema with me. Im going out to the theatre with some friends. Would you like to join us? YES! Thatd be lovely. Id love to. How nice of you, thanks very much. Mmm, thats a great idea. NO! Oh, dear, Im afraid Im busy tonight. Tonights difficult. Perhaps tomorrow evening, though. Im sorry, Im expecting some visitors this evening. This evenings a bit of a problem. What about tomorrow? Task: Decide when each of these expressions would be appropriate and what you might say before and after. Think of some possible situations in which you would use each expression. 13.4 Translation Practice (English Romanian) A. Native American life is different today than it was centuries ago, but there is still a great degree of pride and independence in Native American life. Pride in ones tribe, care of the land and respect for nature characterize native American life, and many Native Americans share these principles today. Although the history of American Indians on the continent has in later years has included many sad events, Native American pride still remains and Native American life is ideally filled with pride for ones roots and love of nature. Many Native Americans today live on reservations, but in generations past, they spanned the continent and their lifestyles and traditions varied from tribe to tribe as they do today. Some Native Americans survived by hunting and gathering and lived in tents, while others lived in complex longhouses and had a very organized and complex political system. Before white settlers came to the continent, Native American life was free of European influences, and Native Americans lived simply off the land. They were not yet acquainted with the serious diseases that would later claim many lives, as Europeans brought smallpox against which Native American populations lacked resistance. Although there was often cooperation between tribes regarding farming and trade, other tribes were continuously at war with each other, such as the Algonquin and the Iroquois. However, the Iroquois would often incorporated conquered tribes into their sophisticated political system and thus enlarge their nation. Many of these alliances and rivalries were exploited when white settlers landed on the American continent, and some tribes were pitted against others to serve the colonists designs. B. The American Way of life is individualistic, dynamic, pragmatic. It affirms the supreme value and dignity of the individual; it stresses incessant activity on his part, for he is never to rest but is always to be striving to "get ahead"; it defines an ethic of self-reliance, merit, and character, and judges by achievement: "deeds, not creeds" are what count. The "American Way of Life" is humanitarian, "forward-looking", optimistic. Americans are easily the most generous and philanthropic people in the world, in terms of their ready and unstinting response to suffering anywhere on the globe. The American believes in progress, in self-improvement, and quite fanatically in education. But above all, the American is idealistic. Americans cannot go on making money or achieving worldly success simply on its own merits; such "materialistic" things must, in the American mind, be justified in "higher" terms, in terms of "service" or "stewardship" or "general welfare"...

UNIT 14 14.1. Lead in Name a few institutions of the European Union. 14.2. Reading objective Structure of the European Union : The Three Pillars The EU constitution arises from the totality of rules and fundamental values by which those in authority perceive themselves to be bound. These rules and values are best summarised in a tripartite structure metaphorically called a three pillar structure. The first pillar is made up of the three European Communities (EC, Euratom and ECSC) which have been deepened and enlarged by economic and monetary union. At the heart of the EC is the single market with its four basic freedoms (free movement of goods, free movement of workers, freedom to provide services and free movement of capital and payments) and its rules on competition. Policy areas for which the Community is responsible include: economic and monetary affairs (centred around the single European currency, the euro); agriculture; visa requirements, asylum and immigration; transport; taxation; employment; trade; social welfare, education and youth welfare; culture; consumer protection and health; trans-European networks; industry; economic and social cohesion; research and technology; the environment; development aid. The second pillar is related to the common foreign and security policy, with the following declared aims: safeguarding the commonly held values, fundamental interests and independence of the EU; strengthening the security of the EU and its member States; securing world peace and increasing international security; promoting international cooperation; promoting democracy and the rule of law and safeguarding human rights and basic freedoms. The third pillar of the European Union covers the domain of cooperation in justice and home affairs. The aim is to offer citizens freedom, security and justice by jointly preventing and combating crime (especially terrorism, trafficking in human beings, illicit drug and arms trafficking corruption and fraud), racism and xenofobia. The European Unions Main Institutions The foundations of a united Europe were laid on fundamental ideas and values to which the Member States subscribe and which are translated into practical reality by the Communitys operational institutions. The main actors on the Community stage are the European Council and the EC institutions the European Parliament, The Council of the EU, The European Commission (these three being the most important) , the European Court of Justice and the Court of Auditors. There are also a number of ancillary bodies: the European Central Bank and the European Investment Bank, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. The function of the European Council is to establish policy guidelines for European integration. The Parliament officially represents the peoples of the Member States. The number of seats may not exceed 700 and its functions can be divided up into three areas: decision-making functions (legislative function), advisory function (it can be consulted by the Council and the Commission) and supervisory function (over the Commission). The Parliament also appoints an Ombudsman to whom complains about maladministration in the activities of Community institutions. The European Commission consists of 20 members including 1 President and 2 Vice-Presidents, all elected by common accord of the governments of the Member States for a renewable term of five years. Among its main responsabilities are : initiatives for the further development of Community policy, monitoring observance and proper application of Community law, administering and implementing Community legislation, representing the Community in international organisations. The seat of the European Commission is in Brussels.


Reading comprehension: 1. What does the three pillar structure consist of? 2. Which are the EUs main institutions? Which are the main attributions of each of them? 3. Where is the seat of the European Commission? What about the European Parliament? 14.3. Vocabulary Use the following words and expressions in sentences of your own: fundamental values, single market, free movement of goods, free movement of workers, free movement of capital, single European currency, taxation, social welfare, rule of law, human rights, home affairs, tyrafficking, xenofobia, ancillary bodies, policy guidelines, Ombudsman, maladministration, observance of community law, financial instrument(s), non-reimbursement funds. 14.4. Language in use Agreeing and disagreeing Here are some useful ways of agreeing or disagreeing with someones opinion. Notice that you need to be very polite when disagreeing with someone in English even someone you know quite well. AGREEMENT I couldnt agree more. Thats just what I was thinking. You know, thats exactly what I think. I agree entirely. Thats a good point. DISAGREEMENT Yes, thats quite true, but Im not sure I quite agree Well, you have a point there, but Perhaps, but dont you think that I see what you mean, but If you know someone very well you can disagree more directly using expressions like these: I cant agree with you there. You cant be serious! Come off it! Dont be so silly! Tasks: 1. What do you say if you want to agree / to disagree with someone who tells you that: a) Nadia Comaneci is the most famous sport personality in Romania; c) Hagi was one of the best football players in the world. 2. Here is a series of extreme opinions: Learning English is pointless. Britain is unpleasant to live in. Football is boring. Marriage is out of date. Space travel is a waste of money. Strikes should be made illegal. All motorists should be obliged to wear seat belts. There should be a 50 km speed limit on all roads. English is a very easy language to learn. Build a short conversation about each topic, using the expressions presented above. Follow this pattern: A: It says here that learning English is pointless! B: Im not sure I quite agree, Id say it was very worthwhile. A: Why do you think that?

B: Well, because English is a world language you need it to communicate with people from other countries. A: Thats just what I was thinking. 14.5 Translation Practice (English Romanian) The European project relies on a number of principles, such as solidarity, openness and a vision for the future, but also on the relinquishing of nationalism, the source of numerous conflicts on our continent. European integration is a constantly evolving process. The secret of its success is constant re-invention and adaptation to new circumstances and needs. By bringing together former enemies in this process, the EU is the most successful guaranty for peace our continent has ever seen. The EU has managed to find a peaceful way for neighbors to cooperate. It relies largely on harmoniously coordinating the policies of its member states, but integration, the famous Community method, gives it extra soul. Instead of looking for the lowest common denominator, here we have for the first time a model which can achieve much more than simply adding up the various components. The European Union is a family of 27 countries and 490 million citizens, working together for peace and prosperity. Therefore European integration is a large project incorporating areas as diverse as economics, social policy, consumer protection, competition policy, monetary policy, cooperation in the area of internal affairs and justice, humanitarian aid, development cooperation, the Common Foreign and Security Policy, as well as European citizenship. Whilst it may be easy for me to tell you about all of the EUs great achievements in furthering integration on the continent and improving the lives of its citizens, these achievements may not always be apparent to the EUs general citizen. It is important in our modern information technology society to inform our citizens as best as we can of the advantages that membership in the European Union brings them, as the EU cannot move forward in its drive for further integration without the full backing of its citizens. One thing is clear: Ordinary people have other worries on their minds than what institutional changes the new Lisbon Treaty will bring. To put it in a nutshell: what matters most to citizens is to find solutions for the problems they face in their everyday lives - in particular against the background of changes due to globalization. In a way citizens expect the EU to provide them with a kind of insurance certificate for what I would call the European way of life. In my mind this is a wide concept which goes well beyond European preferences for certain pastimes or fashions: The European way of life stands for some of the most important achievements in European politics: peace and stability, the rule of law, human rights and the respect for minorities, solidarity, pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, equality of men an women, but also the aim of full employment, sustainable jobs, social security, healthcare, a healthy environment, education, security and last but not least the respect of diversity. It may sound ironic, but it is still true: the European way of life is in fact outlined rather well by the very Lisbon Treaty that we find difficult to familiarize the citizens with. In fact, a great number of the new instruments in the Treaty are there to better defend our way of life. Each European Citizen has the right to live, work and study in each member state. Free movement of workers is a fundamental right which permits nationals of one EU Member State to work in another Member State under the same conditions as that Member States own citizens. This is an important instrument to make sure people can develop their skills in the best possible way.


Appendix 1 BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH It is widely known that there are differences between American and British English, but it is also important to remember that there are differences between American English and, well, American English. The English language was introduced to the Americans through British colonization in the early 17th century and it spread to many parts of the world because of the strength of the British empire. Over the years, English spoken in the United States and in Britain started diverging from each other in various aspects. This led to two dialects in the form of the American English and the British English. Prior to the Revolutionary War and American independence from the British in 1776, American and British accents were similar. Both were rhotic i.e. speakers pronounced the letter R in hard. Since 1776, the accents diverged but English accent in America has changed less drastically than accents in Britain. Towards the end of the 18th century, non-rhotic speech took off in southern England, especially among the upper class; this "prestige" non-rhotic speech was standardized, and has been spreading in Britain ever since. To be fair, both American and British English have several types of accents and there is no one true American or British accent. In British English the present perfect is used to express an action that has occurred in the recent past that has an effect on the present moment. For example: I've misplaced my pen. Can you help me find it? In American English, the use of the past tense is also permissible: I misplaced my pen. Can you help me find it? In British English, however, using the past tense in this example would be considered incorrect. Other differences involving the use of the present perfect in British English and simple past in American English include the words already, just and yet. British English: I've just had food. Have you finished your homework yet? American English: I just had food. OR I've just had food. I've already seen that film. OR I already saw that film. While some words may mean something in British English, the same word might be something else in American English and vice versa. For example, Athlete in British English is one who participates in track and field events whereas Athlete in American English is one who participates in sports in general. There are also some words like AC, Airplane, bro, catsup, cell phone etc. which are common in American English and not used very often in British English. Some words widely used in British English and seldom in American English are advert, anti clockwise, barrister, cat's eye. A majority of the spelling differences between American and British English fall into the following categories: Latin-derived spellings o -our (British) and -or (American). e.g. colour vs color o -re (British) and -er (American). e.g. centre vs center o -ce (British) and -se (American). e.g. defence vs defense Greek-derived spellings o -ise (British) and -ize (American). e.g. centralise vs centralize o -yse (British) and -yze (American). e.g. analyse vs analyze o -ogue (British) and -og (American). e.g. dialogue vs dialog o Simplification of ae and oe in American English. e.g. gynaecology vs gynecology There are also a few differences between British and American English in the use of prepositions. For example: While the British would play in a team, Americans would play on a team. Another example: While the British would go out at the weekend, Americans would go out on the weekend. Both languages have a slightly different structure of telling the time. While the British would say quarter past ten to denote 10:15, it is not uncommon in America to say quarter after or even a quarter after ten. Thirty minutes after the hour is commonly called half past in both languages. Americans always write digital times with a colon, thus 6:00, whereas Britons often use a point, 6.00.

While the British would write Mr, Mrs, Dr, the Americans would write Mr., Mrs., Dr.

Engleza Britanica Aerial Autumn Biscuit Bonnet Boot Braces chemist's the cinema Cotton crossroads curtains dust-bin Engine Film Flat Ground floor handbag Holiday Ill Jug Lift Lorry luggage Maize Nappy pavement to peep Petrol postman Pub Queue Rubber Sweet timetable Tin Torch trousers waistcoat wardrobe Zip

Engleza Americana Antenna Fall cookie hood trunk suspenders drugstore the movies thread intersection drapes trashcan motor movie apartment first floor purse vacation sick pitcher elevator truck baggage corn diaper sidewalk to peek gasoline maiman bar line eraser desert schedule can flashlight pants vest closet zipper

Traducerea Antena Toamna Fursec Capota Portbagaj Bretele farmacie cinematograf Aa intersecie Perdele cldare de gunoi Motor Film apartament parter poeta vacana Bolnav container cu lichid, ulcior Lift camion Valiza porumb Scutec trotuar a trage cu ochiul benzina Postas Bar Coada Guma de sters Desert Orar conserva lanterna pantaloni Vesta ifonier fermoar


Appendix II LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS BASE FORM Arise Be Bear Beat Become Begin Bend Bet Bind Bite Bleed Blow Break Breed Bring Broadcast Build Burn Burst Buy Catch Choose Come Cost Creep Cut Deal Dig Do Draw Dream Drink Drive Eat Fall Feed Feel Fight Find Fly Forbid Forget Forgive Freeze Get Give PAST SIMPLE Arose Was, were Bore Beat Became Began Bent Bet Bound Bit Bled Blew Broke Bred Brought Broadcast Built Burnt / burned Burst Bought Caught Chose Came Cost Crept Cut Dealt Dug Did Drew Dreamt / dreamed Drank Drove Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Flew Forbade Forgot Forgave Froze Got Gave PAST PARTICIPLE Arisen Been Born Beaten Become Begun Bent Bet Bound Bitten / bit Bled Blown Broken Bred Brought Broadcast Built Burnt / burned Burst Bought Caught Chosen Come Cost Crept Cut Dealt Dug Done Drawn Dreamt / dreamed Drunk Driven Eaten Fallen Fed Felt Fought Found Flown Forbidden Forgotten Forgiven Frozen Got Given TRANSLATION A se ridica, a rsri A fi A (se) nate A bate A deveni A ncepe A ndoi A paria A lega A muca A sngera A bate (despre vnt) A rupe, a sparge A crete (animale) A aduce A transmite A construi A arde A izbucni A cumpra A prinde A alege A veni A costa A se tr A tia A se ocupa de A spa A face A desena A visa A bea A ofa A mnca A cdea A hrni A simi A se lupta A gsi A zbura A interzice A uita A ierta A nghea A obine A da

Go Grind Grow Hang Have Hear Hide Hit Hold Hurt Keep Kneel Know Lay Lead Lean Learn Leave Lend Let Lie Light Lose Make Mean Meet Pay Put Read Ride Ring Rise Run Say See Seek Sell Send Set Shake Shine Shoot Show Shrink Shut Sing Sit Sleep Slide Smell

Went Ground Grew Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knelt Knew Laid Led Leant / leaned Learnt / learned Left Lent Let Lay Lit Lost Made Meant Met Paid Put Read Rode Rang Rose Ran Said Saw Sought Sold Sent Set Shake Shine Shot Showed Shrank Shut Sang Sat Slept Slid Smelt

Gone Ground Grown Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knelt Known Laid Led Leant / leaned Learnt / learned Left Lent Let Lain Lit Lost Made Meant Met Paid Put Read Ridden Rung Risen Run Said Seen Sought Sold Sent Set Shaken Shone Shot Shown Shrunk Shut Sung Sat Slept Slid Smelt

A merge A mcina A crete A atrna A avea A auzi A ascunde A lovi A ine A rni A ine A ngenunchea A ti A ntinde A conduce A (se) sprijini A nva A pleca A da cu mprumut A lsa A (se)ntinde A aprinde A pierde A face A nsemna A (se) ntlni A plti A pune A citi A clri, a merge cu bicicleta A suna A se ridica, a rsri A alerga A spune A vedea A cuta A vinde A trimite A apune A scutura A strluci A mpuca A arta A (se) micora A nchide A cnta A sta jos, a se aeza A dormi A aluneca A mirosi

Speak Speed Spell Spend Spill Spin Split Spoil Spread Stand Steal STICK Sting Strike Swear Sweep Swim Swing Take Teach Tear Tell Think Throw Understand Wake Wear Win

Spoke Sped Spelt Spent Spilt Spun Split Spoilt / spoiled Spread Stood Stole Stuck Stung Struck Stroke Swore Swept Swam Swung Took Taught Tore Told Thought Threw Understood Woke Wore Won

Spoken Sped Spelt Spent Spilt Spun Split Spoilt / spoiled Spread Stood Stolen Stuck Stung Struck Stricken Sworn Swept Swum Swung Taken Taught Torn Told Thought Thrown Understood Woken Worn Won

A vorbi A se grbi, a merge cu vitez A ortografia A petrece (timp), a cheltui (bani) A vrsa (un lichid) A se roti A despica A strica, a rsfa A (se) mprtia A sta n picioare A fura A lipi A nepa A bate (despre ceas), A lovi A jura A mtura A nota A (se) legna A lua A preda A sfia A spune A se gndi A arunca A nelege A (se) trezi A purta A ctiga


Appendix III SPELLING RULES A. Doubling of consonants Final consonants (except x) are doubled before ending beginning with a vowel letter when the vowel before it is stressed and spelled with a single letter. permit permitting, permitted hot hotter, hottest There is no doubling when the vowel is unstressed or written with two letters. enter dread Exceptions: i. Words ending in certain consonants are doubled also after single unstressed vowels: -g -gg-c ckhumbug humbugging, humbugged traffic trafficking, trafficked ii. British English breaks the rule as regards certain other consonants as well: -l -ll- -m -mmsignal travel -p -ppsignalling, signalled (BrE) signaling, signaled (AmB) travelling, travelled (BrE) traveling, traveled (AmE) entering, entered dreading, dreaded

programme programming, programmed (BrE) program programming, programmed (AmE) worship worshipping, worshipped (BrE) worshiping, worshiped (AmE) Most verbs ending in p, however, have the regular spellings in both BrE and AmE, eg: develop, envelop, gallop, gossip. B. Treatment of y i. -y changes to ie before s lady ii.


carry carries -y changes to i before -ed

carry carried iii. iv. v. vi. -y changes to i before er and -est easy easier, easiest -y changes to i before -ly heavy heavily -y does not change before -ing carry carrying -y does not change if the word ends in vowel + y play plays, played boy boys Exceptions: day pay paid lay laid say said daily

C. Treatment of e i. Final e is regularly dropped before ing and -ed ii. iii. shave shaving, shaved Verbs ending in ie change ie to y before -ing die dying Verbs with ending in ee, -ye, -oe, and often ge, are exceptions to the rule in that they do not drop the e before ing; but they do drop it before ed. agree agreeing, agreed dye hoe singe dyeing, dyed hoeing, hoed singing, singed


Appendix IV USEFUL EXPRESSIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS AT at a loss / a profit at a time (when) at all costs at Christmas / Easter at church / the hairdressers / school at ease at first (sight) at hand at home / the office at last at least at lunch at this / any rate at night at once at peace / war at present at sea at the end (place) at the same time (as) at the weekend at times at work BY by accident by air / bus / car / plane / sea / ship / train (and other means of transport) by all means by chance by day / night by far by mistake by post by sight by surprise by yourself (alone) FOR for a while / time for ever for goodness sake for heavens sake once and for all


FROM from A to Z from beginning to end from head to toe from morning to night from time of time IN in a hurry in a loud voice in a sense in a way in all in any case in bed in common in danger in debt in difficulties in fact in general in half in ink / pencil in love in my opinion in other words in particular in prison in private in public in secret in sight in spite of in stock in tears in the end (time) in the morning in time in turn OF ahead of by means of dozens of hundreds of in case of in front of instead of on account of on behalf of

OFF off duty off limits


off work ON on business on duty on foot on holiday on purpose on sale on the other hand on the whole on time OUT OF out of breath out of control out of danger out of date out of order out of practice out of reach out of stock out of the question out of work TO according to due to in addition to owing to UNDER under control under oath (in a court of law) under orders UP up-to-date (modern) ups and downs (good times and bad ones) WITH / WITHOUT (whats) wrong with (?) green with envy with / without difficulty with best wishes with love with pleasure without any fuss