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Chapter 1: Introduction to Communication Systems

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The theory of radio waves was originated by: a. Marconi b. Bell ANS: C !. The "erson who sent the first radio signal across the Atlantic ocean was: a. Marconi c. Maxwell b. Bell d. Hert ANS: A #. The trans$ission of radio waves was first done by: a. Marconi c. Maxwell b. Bell d. Hert ANS: % &. A co$"lete co$$'nication syste$ $'st incl'de: a. a trans$itter and receiver b. a trans$itter( a receiver( and a channel c. a trans$itter( a receiver( and a s"ectr'$ analy er d. a $'lti"lexer( a de$'lti"lexer( and a channel ANS: B ). *adians "er second is e+'al to: a. !, - f b. f . !, ANS: A /. The bandwidth re+'ired for a $od'lated carrier de"ends on: a. the carrier fre+'ency c. the signal0"l's0noise to noise ratio b. the signal0to0noise ratio d. the baseband fre+'ency range ANS: % 1. 2hen two or $ore signals share a co$$on channel( it is called: a. s'b0channeling c. S3NA% b. signal switching d. $'lti"lexing ANS: % 4. T%M stands for: a. Ti$e0%ivision M'lti"lexing b. Two0level %igital Mod'lation c. Ti$e %o$ain Meas're$ent d. none of the above c. the "hase angle d. none of the above c. Maxwell d. Hert

ANS: A 5. 6%M stands for: a. 6ast %igital Mod'lation b. 6re+'ency %o$ain Meas're$ent ANS: C 17. The wavelength of a radio signal is: a. e+'al to f . c b. e+'al to c . 8 c. the distance a wave travels in one "eriod d. how far the signal can travel witho't distortion ANS: C 11. %istortion is ca'sed by: a. creation of har$onics of baseband fre+'encies b. baseband fre+'encies 9$ixing9 with each other c. shift in "hase relationshi"s between baseband fre+'encies d. all of the above ANS: % 1!. The collection of sin'soidal fre+'encies "resent in a $od'lated carrier is called its: a. fre+'ency0do$ain re"resentation c. s"ectr'$ b. 6o'rier series d. all of the above ANS: % 1#. The baseband bandwidth for a voice0grade :tele"hone; signal is: a. a""roxi$ately # <H c. at least ) <H b. !7 H to 1)(777 H d. none of the above ANS: A 1&. Noise in a co$$'nication syste$ originates in: a. the sender c. the channel b. the receiver d. all of the above ANS: % 1). 9Man0$ade9 noise can co$e fro$: a. e+'i"$ent that s"ar<s b. te$"erat're ANS: A 1/. Ther$al noise is generated in: a. transistors and diodes b. resistors ANS: % c. co""er wire d. all of the above c. static d. all of the above c. 6re+'ency0%ivision M'lti"lexing d. none of the above

11. Shot noise is generated in: a. transistors and diodes b. resistors ANS: A 14. The "ower density of 9flic<er9 noise is: a. the sa$e at all fre+'encies b. greater at high fre+'encies ANS: C 15. So called 91=f9 noise is also called: a. rando$ noise b. "in< noise ANS: B !7. 9>in<9 noise has: a. e+'al "ower "er Hert b. e+'al "ower "er octave ANS: B

c. co""er wire d. none of the above

c. greater at low fre+'encies d. the sa$e as 9white9 noise

c. white noise d. "artition noise

c. constant "ower d. none of the above

!1. 2hen two noise voltages( V1 and V!( are co$bined( the total voltage VT is: a. VT ? s+rt:V1 - V1 @ V! - V!; c. VT ? s+rt:V1 - V!; d. VT ? V1 @ V! b. VT ? :V1 @ V!;=! ANS: A !!. Signal0to0Noise ratio is calc'lated as: a. signal voltage divided by noise voltage b. signal "ower divided by noise "ower c. first add the signal "ower to the noise "ower( then divide by noise "ower d. none of the above ANS: B !#. S3NA% is calc'lated as: a. signal voltage divided by noise voltage b. signal "ower divided by noise "ower c. first add the signal "ower to the noise "ower( then divide by noise "ower d. none of the above ANS: % !&. Noise 6ig're is a $eas're of: a. how $'ch noise is in a co$$'nications syste$ b. how $'ch noise is in the channel c. how $'ch noise an a$"lifier adds to a signal d. signal0to0noise ratio in dB ANS: C

!). The "art( or "arts( of a sin'soidal carrier that can be $od'lated are: a. its a$"lit'de c. its a$"lit'de( fre+'ency( and direction b. its a$"lit'de and fre+'ency d. its a$"lit'de( fre+'ency( and "hase angle ANS: % COMPLETION 1. The tele"hone was invented in the year ANS: 14/# !. *adio signals first were sent across the Atlantic in the year ANS: 1571 #. The fre+'ency band 'sed to $od'late the carrier is called the ANS: base &. The Aob of the carrier is to get the infor$ation thro'gh the ANS: channel ). The bandwidth of an 'n$od'lated carrier is ANS: ero . . . band. . .

/. The BBB in HartleyBs Caw stands for ANS: bandwidth 1. The $ore infor$ation "er second yo' send( the ANS: greater larger wider 4. 3n $'lti"le signals. ANS: 6%M 5. 3n ANS: T%M 17. DH6 stands for the

the bandwidth re+'ired.

( yo' s"lit the bandwidth of a channel into s'b0channels to carry

( $'lti"le signal strea$s ta<e t'rns 'sing the channel.

fre+'ency band.

ANS: very high 11. The DH6 band starts at ANS: #7 1!. The EH6 band starts at ANS: #77 1#. A radio signalBs ANS: wavelength 1&. 3n free s"ace( radio signals travel at a""roxi$ately ANS: #77 $illion 1). The e+'i"$ent 'sed to show signals in the fre+'ency do$ain is the ANS: s"ectr'$ analy er 1/. Mathe$atically( a s"ectr'$ is re"resented by a ANS: 6o'rier 11. %isabling a receiver d'ring a b'rst of at$os"heric noise is called ANS: noise blan<ing blan<ing 14. 6or satellite co$$'nications( ANS: solar 15. Ther$al noise is ca'sed by the rando$ $otions of ANS: electrons SHORT NS!ER 1. Na$e the five ele$ents in a bloc< diagra$ of a co$$'nications syste$. ANS: So'rce( Trans$itter( Channel( *eceiver( %estination !. Na$e five ty"es of internal noise. in a cond'ctor. noise can be a serio's "roble$. . series. . $eters "er second. is the distance it travels in one cycle of the carrier. MH . MH .

ANS: Ther$al( Shot( >artition( 1=f( transit0ti$e #. 2hy is ther$al noise called 9white noise9F ANS: 2hite light is co$"osed of e+'al a$o'nts of light at all visible fre+'encies. Ci<ewise( ther$al noise has e+'al "ower density over a wide range of fre+'encies. &. 2hat is 9"in< noise9F ANS: Cight is "in< when it contains $ore red than it does other colors( and red is at the low end of the visible s"ectr'$. Ci<ewise( "in< noise has higher "ower density at lower fre+'encies. ). S'""ose there is #7 GD fro$ one noise so'rce that is co$bined with &7 GD fro$ another noise so'rce. Calc'late the total noise voltage. ANS: )7 GD /. 3f yo' have 177 $D of signal and 17 $D of noise( both across the sa$e 1770oh$ load( what is the signal0 to0noise ratio in dBF ANS: !7 dB 1. The in"'t to an a$"lifier has a signal0to0noise ratio of 177 dB and an o't"'t signal0to0noise ratio of 47 dB. 6ind N6( both in dB and as a ratio. ANS: !7 dB( N6 ? 177 4. A $icrowave receiver has a noise te$"erat're of 1&) H. 6ind its noise fig're. ANS: 1.) 5. Two cascaded a$"lifiers each have a noise fig're of ) and a gain of 17. 6ind the total N6 for the "air. ANS: ).& 17. Ix"lain why yo' co'ld 'se a diode as a noise so'rce with a s"ectr'$ close to that of "'re ther$al noise. How wo'ld yo' control the a$o'nt of noise generatedF ANS: 2hen c'rrent flows thro'gh a diode( it generates shot noise that can be re"resented as a c'rrent so'rce( the o't"'t of which is a noise c'rrent. The e+'ation for the noise c'rrent is very si$ilar to the e+'ation for ther$al noise voltage. Since the "ower in the shot noise is "ro"ortional to the diode c'rrent( controlling the diode c'rrent controls the noise "ower.

Chapter ": Radio#$re%uency Circuits

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The ti$e it ta<es a charge carrier to cross fro$ the e$itter to the collector is called: a. base ti$e c. charge ti$e b. transit ti$e d. Miller ti$e ANS: B !. A real ca"acitor act'ally contains: a. ca"acitance and resistance only b. ca"acitance and ind'ctance only ANS: C #. By"ass ca"acitors are 'sed to: a. re$ove *6 fro$ non0*6 circ'its b. co'"le *6 aro'nd an a$"lifier ANS: A &. A resonant circ'it is: a. a si$"le for$ of band"ass filter b. 'sed in narrowband *6 a$"lifiers ANS: C ). Coading down a t'ned0circ'it a$"lifier will: a. raise the J of the t'ned circ'it b. lower the J of the t'ned circ'it ANS: B /. The 9Miller Iffect9 can: a. ca'se an a$"lifier to oscillate b. ca'se an a$"lifier to lose gain ANS: % 1. The Miller Iffect can be avoided by: a. 'sing a co$$on0e$itter a$"lifier b. 'sing a co$$on0base a$"lifier ANS: B 4. 3n a BKT( the Miller Iffect is d'e to: a. ind'ctance of collector lead b. collector0to0e$itter ca"acitance ANS: % c. base0to0e$itter ca"acitance d. base0to0collector ca"acitance c. increasing the J of the t'ned circ'it d. it cannot be avoided c. red'ce the bandwidth of an a$"lifier d. all of the above c. 9$'lti"ly9 the J d. have no effect on J c. both a and b d. none of the above c. ne'trali e a$"lifiers d. red'ce the Miller effect c. ca"acitance( ind'ctance( and resistance d. reactance only

5. 3n *6 a$"lifiers( i$"edance $atching is 's'ally done with: a. *C co'"ling c. direct co'"ling b. transfor$er co'"ling d. l'$"ed reactance ANS: B 17. Ne'trali ation cancels 'nwanted feedbac< by: a. adding feedbac< o't of "hase with the 'nwanted feedbac< b. by"assing the feedbac< to the 9ne'tral9 or gro'nd "lane c. deco'"ling it d. none of the above ANS: A 11. 6or a 9fre+'ency $'lti"lier9 to wor<( it re+'ires: a. a nonlinear circ'it b. a linear a$"lifier c. a signal containing har$onics d. an in"'t signal that is an integer $'lti"le of the desired fre+'ency ANS: A 1!. A sin'soidal oscillation fro$ an a$"lifier re+'ires: a. loo" gain e+'al to 'nity b. "hase shift aro'nd loo" e+'al to 7 degrees c. both a and b( b't at A'st one fre+'ency d. none of the above ANS: C 1#. The conditions for sin'soidal oscillation fro$ an a$"lifier are called: a. the loo"0gain criteria c. the Bode criteria b. the Hartley criteria d. the Bar<ha'sen criteria ANS: % 1&. The Hartley oscillator 'ses: a. a ta""ed ind'ctor b. a two0ca"acitor divider ANS: A 1). The Col"itts D6L 'ses: a. a ta""ed ind'ctor b. a two0ca"acitor divider ANS: B 1/. The Cla"" oscillator is: a. a $odified Hartley oscillator b. a $odified Col"itts oscillator ANS: B c. a ty"e of crystal0controlled oscillator d. only b'ilt with 6ITs c. an *C ti$e constant d. a "ie oelectric crystal c. an *C ti$e constant d. a "ie oelectric crystal

11. A varactor is: a. a voltage0controlled ca"acitor b. a diode ANS: %

c. 'sed in t'ner circ'its d. all of the above

14. Crystal0Controlled oscillators are: a. 'sed for a "recise fre+'ency b. 'sed for very low fre+'ency drift :"arts "er $illion; c. $ade by grinding +'art to exact di$ensions d. all of the above ANS: % 15. 3f two signals( Va ? sin:Mat; and Vb ? sin:Mbt;( are fed to a $ixer( the o't"'t: a. will contain M1 ? Ma @ Mb and M! ? Ma N Mb b. will contain M1 ? Ma = Mb and M! ? Mb = Ma c. will contain M ? :Ma @ Mb ; = ! d. none of the above ANS: A !7. 3n a balanced $ixer( the o't"'t: a. contains e+'al :balanced; a$o'nts of all in"'t fre+'encies b. contains the in"'t fre+'encies c. does not contain the in"'t fre+'encies d. is a linear $ixt're of the in"'t signals ANS: C !1. 9D6L9 stands for: a. Doltage06ed Lscillator b. Dariable06re+'ency Lscillator ANS: B !!. A 9fre+'ency synthesi er9 is: a. a DCL "hase0loc<ed to a reference fre+'ency b. a D6L with selectable crystals to change fre+'ency c. a fixed0fre+'ency *6 generator d. sa$e as a $ixer ANS: A COMPLETION 1. Oenerally( cond'ctor lengths in *6 circ'its sho'ld be ANS: short !. At EH6 fre+'encies and above( ele$ents $'st be considered as being 9l'$"ed9. instead of as . c. Daractor06re+'ency Lscillator d. Doltage06eedbac< Lscillator

ANS: distrib'ted #. 2hen one side of a do'ble0sided "c board is 'sed for gro'nd( it is called a ANS: gro'nd0"lane &. 3nteractions between "arts of an *6 circ'it can be red'ced by 'sing the$. ANS: shielding ). 3n high0fre+'ency *6 circ'its( the "lace$ent of wires and ANS: co$"onents /. A ANS: deco'"ling 1. A ANS: by"ass 4. The bandwidth of a t'ned0circ'it a$"lifier de"ends on the ANS: J 5. A val'e of to be valid. ANS: 17 17. 3n a class C *6 a$"lifier( the extracts one fre+'ency fro$ all the har$onics contained in the device c'rrent :e.g. collector c'rrent;. ANS: t'ned circ'it 11. Esing additional feedbac< to co$"ensate for 9stray9 feedbac< is called ANS: ne'trali ation 1!. A Col"itts oscillator 'ses a ANS: ca"acitive 1#. Ilectrically( a "ie oelectric crystal has both a resonant fre+'ency. ANS: series( "arallel and a voltage divider to "rovide feedbac<. . or $ore for J is re+'ired for the a""roxi$ate t'ned circ'it e+'ations of the t'ned circ'it. ca"acitor is 'sed to short 'nwanted *6 to gro'nd. circ'it is 'sed to re$ove *6 fro$ the %C voltage b's. can be critical. between .

1&. To "rod'ce s'$ and difference fre+'encies( a $ixer $'st be a non0 ANS: linear 1). At so$e bias "oint( a diode or a transistor can act as a ANS: s+'are SHORT NS!ER 1. 2hat ind'ctance wo'ld yo' 'se with a &10"6 ca"acitor to $a<e a t'ned circ'it for 17 MH F ANS: ).& GH !. 2hat val'e of J is re+'ired for a 170MH t'ned circ'it to have a bandwidth of 177 <H F ANS: 177 0law $ixer.


#. A t'ned0circ'it a$"lifier with a gain of 17 is being 'sed to $a<e an oscillator. 2hat sho'ld be the val'e of the feedbac< ratio to satisfy the Bar<ha'sen criteriaF ANS: 7.1 &. 2hat is the advantage of a Cla"" oscillator co$"ared to a Col"itts oscillatorF ANS: 3t is $ore stable beca'se it 9swa$"s9 the device ca"acitance with large val'e ca"acitors in the feedbac< divider. ). 3f a varactor has a ca"acitance of 57 "6 at ero volts( what will be the ca"acitance at & voltsF ANS: #7 "6 /. An oscillator has a fre+'ency of 177 MH at !7PC( and a te$"co of @17 ""$ "er degree Celsi's. 2hat will be the shift in fre+'ency at 17PCF 2hat "ercentage is thatF ANS: )7 <H ( 7.7)Q 1. Two sin'soidal signals( V1 and V!( are fed into an ideal balanced $ixer. V1 is a !70MH signalR V! is a )0 MH signal. 2hat fre+'encies wo'ld yo' ex"ect at the o't"'t of the $ixerF ANS: 1) MH and !) MH

4. S'""ose the "hase0loc<ed0loo" fre+'ency synthesi er of 6ig're !.#5 has a reference fre+'ency of 1 MH and a fixed0$od'l's divider of 17. 2hat sho'ld be the val'e of the "rogra$$able divider to get an o't"'t fre+'ency of 1!7 MH F ANS: 1!

Chapter &: mp'itude Modu'ation

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. AM stands for: a. A'dio Mod'lation b. A$"lit'de Mod'lation ANS: B !. The 9envelo"e9 of an AM signal is d'e to: a. the baseband signal b. the carrier signal ANS: A #. 3f the a'dio Va sin:Mat; $od'lates the carrier Vc sin:Mct;( then the $od'lation index( m( is: ! a. m ? Ma = Mc c. m ? :Va = Vc; b. m ? Va = Vc d. m ? Va = Ma ANS: B &. The e+'ation for f'll0carrier AM is: a. v(t) ? :Ec @ Em; - sin:Mct; b. v(t) ? :Ec @ Em; - sin:Mmt; @ sin:Mct; ANS: % ). Lver$od'lation ca'ses: a. distortion b. s"latter ANS: C /. The "ea< voltage of an AM signal goes fro$ Emax to Emin. The $od'lation index( m( is: a. m ? Emin = Emax c. m ? :Emax N Emin; = :Emax @ Emin; b. m ? Emax = Emin d. m ? :Emax @ Emin; = :Emax N Emin; ANS: C 1. 3f Va sin:Mat; a$"lit'de $od'lates the carrier Vc sin:Mct;( it will "rod'ce the fre+'encies: a. Mc @ Ma and Mc N Ma c. Mc @ Ma and !Mc @ !Ma b. :Mc @ Ma;=! and :Mc N Ma;=! d. none of the above ANS: A 4. At 177Q $od'lation( the total sideband "ower is: a. e+'al to the carrier "ower c. half the carrier "ower b. twice the carrier "ower d. 1.&1& - carrier "ower c. both a and b d. none of the above c. v(t) ? :Ec - Em; - sin:Mmt; - sin:Mct; d. v(t) ? :Ec @ Em sin:Mmt;; - sin:Mct; c. the a$"lit'de signal d. none of the above c. Angle Mod'lation d. Antenna Mod'lation

ANS: C 5. 3f a )0<H signal $od'lates a 10MH carrier( the bandwidth of the AM signal will be: a. ) <H c. 1.77) MH b. 17 <H d. none of the above ANS: B 17. 3f an AM radio station increases its $od'lation index( yo' wo'ld ex"ect: a. the a'dio to get lo'der at the receiver c. the signal0to0noise ratio to increase b. the received *6 signal to increase d. all of the above ANS: % 11. The $od'lation index can be derived fro$: a. the ti$e0do$ain signal b. the fre+'ency0do$ain signal ANS: C 1!. The $ain "roble$ in 'sing +'adrat're AM wo'ld be: a. re+'ires too $'ch bandwidth c. inco$"atibility with ordinary AM radios b. re+'ires too $'ch "ower d. all of the above ANS: C 1#. As co$"ared to "lain AM( SSB AM: a. is $ore efficient b. re+'ires a $ore co$"lex de$od'lator circ'it c. re+'ires less bandwidth d. all of the above ANS: % 1&. The SC in SSB SC stands for: a. single0carrier b. s'""ressed0carrier ANS: B 1). >I> stands for: a. >ea< Invelo"e >ower b. >ea< Ifficiency >ower ANS: A 1/. 3f an SSB trans$itter radiates 1777 watts at "ea< $od'lation( what will it radiate with no $od'lationF a. 1777 watts c. !)7 watts b. )77 watts d. 7 watts ANS: % 11. M'sic on AM radio stations is 9low0fidelity9 beca'se: a. AM is s'sce"tible to noise c. >ea< Invelo"e >rod'ct d. none of the above c. sideband0carrier d. none of the above c. both a and b d. none of the above

b. co$$ercial AM stations 'se low "ower c. co$$ercial AM stations have a narrow bandwidth d. all of the above ANS: C 14. The ty"e of infor$ation that can be sent 'sing AM is: a. a'dio c. digital data b. video d. all of the above ANS: % 15. Two tones $od'late an AM carrier. Lne tone ca'ses a $od'lation index of m1 and the other tone ca'ses a $od'lation index of m!. The total $od'lation index is: a. m1 @ m! c. s+rt:m1 - m! @ m! - m1; b. :m1 @ m!; = ! d. s+rt:m1 - m1 @ m! - m!; ANS: % !7. To de$od'late a ESB SSB signal( the receiver $'st: a. be set to ESB $ode c. both a and b b. reinsert the carrier d. none of the above ANS: C COMPLETION 1. An advantage of AM is that the receiver can be very ANS: si$"le !. A disadvantage of AM is its ANS: inefficient #. The ANS: envelo"e &. 3n AM( $od'lating with a single a'dio tone "rod'ces ANS: two ). Co$"ared to the ESB( the infor$ation in the CSB is ANS: the sa$e /. Co$"ared to the ESB( the "ower in the CSB is ANS: the sa$e . . sidebands. of an AM signal rese$bles the sha"e of the baseband signal. 'se of "ower. .

1. 3n AM( total sideband "ower is always ANS: less 4. 3n AM( as the $od'lation index increases( the carrier "ower ANS: re$ains constant

than the carrier "ower.

5. The "ower in an AM signal is $axi$'$ when the $od'lation index is ANS: one 17. 3n AM( a voice0band signal of #77 H to #777 H will re+'ire a bandwidth of ANS: /777 H 11. 2ith a 10MH carrier( if the CSB extends down to 557 <H ( then the ESB will extend '" to . ANS: 1717 <H 1!. 3f an AM trans$itter "'ts o't 177 watts with no $od'lation( it will "'t o't with 177Q $od'lation. ANS: 1)7 SHORT NS!ER


1. An AM trans$itter generates 177 watts with 7Q $od'lation. How $'ch "ower will it generate with !7Q $od'lationF ANS: 17! watts !. 3f the carrier "ower is 1777 watts( what is the "ower in the ESB at 17.1Q $od'lationF ANS: 1!) watts #. A carrier is $od'lated by three a'dio tones. 3f the $od'lation indexes for the tones are 7.#( 7.&( and 7.)( then what is the total $od'lation indexF ANS: 7.171 &. So' loo< at an AM signal with an oscillosco"e and see that the $axi$'$ Vpp is 177 volts and the $ini$'$ Vpp is !) volts. 2hat is the $od'lation indexF ANS: 7./

). A SSB trans$itter is connected to a )70oh$ antenna. 3f the "ea< o't"'t voltage of the trans$itter is !7 volts( what is the >I>F ANS: & watts

Chapter (: n)'e Modu'ation

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The 6M $od'lation index: a. increases with both deviation and $od'lation fre+'ency b. increases with deviation and decreases with $od'lation fre+'ency c. decreases with deviation and increases with $od'lation fre+'ency d. is e+'al to twice the deviation ANS: B !. Lne way to derive 6M fro$ >M is: a. integrate the $od'lating signal before a""lying to the >M oscillator b. integrate the signal o't of the >M oscillator c. differentiate the $od'lating signal before a""lying to the >M oscillator d. differentiate the signal o't of the >M oscillator ANS: A #. The bandwidth of an 6M signal is considered to be li$ited beca'se: a. there can only be a finite n'$ber of sidebands b. it is e+'al to the fre+'ency deviation c. it is band0li$ited at the receiver d. the "ower in the o'ter sidebands is negligible ANS: % &. Mathe$atically( the calc'lation of 6M bandwidth re+'ires the 'se of: a. ordinary trigono$etry and algebra c. Taylor series b. Bessel f'nctions d. fractals ANS: B ). 6M bandwidth can be a""roxi$ated by: a. Ar$strongBs *'le b. BesselBs *'le ANS: C /. NB6M stands for: a. National Broadcast 6M b. Non0Broadcast 6M ANS: % 1. 2hen 6M rece"tion deteriorates abr'"tly d'e to noise( it is called: a. the ca"t're effect c. the noise effect b. the threshold effect d. the li$it effect ANS: B c. Near Band 6M d. Narrowband 6M c. CarsonBs *'le d. none of the above

4. An 6M receiver switching s'ddenly between two stations on nearby fre+'encies is called: a. the ca"t're effect c. the 9two0station9 effect b. the threshold effect d. none of the above ANS: A 5. >re0e$"hasis is 'sed to: a. increase the signal to noise ratio for higher a'dio fre+'encies b. increase the signal to noise ratio for lower a'dio fre+'encies c. increase the signal to noise ratio for all a'dio fre+'encies d. allow stereo a'dio to be carried by 6M stations ANS: A 17. A "re0e$"hasis of 1) Gs refers to: a. the ti$e it ta<es for the circ'it to wor< b. the 9dead ti$e9 before de0e$"hasis occ'rs c. the ti$e delay between the C and * channels d. the ti$e0constant of the filter circ'its 'sed ANS: % 11. 6M stereo: a. 'ses %SBSC AM $od'lation b. is i$"le$ented 'sing an SCA signal ANS: A 1!. An SCA signal: a. can 'se a$"lit'de $od'lation b. can 'se 6M $od'lation ANS: % 1#. The $od'lation index of an 6M signal can be deter$ined readily: a. 'sing $eas're$ents at "oints where J7 e+'als one b. 'sing $eas're$ents at "oints where J7 e+'als ero c. 'sing $eas're$ents at "oints where the deviation e+'als ero d. only by 'sing Bessel f'nctions ANS: B COMPLETION 1. 6M and >M are two for$s of ANS: angle !. >M is extensively 'sed in ANS: data co$$'nication. $od'lation. c. is $ona'ral d. all of the above c. has a higher S=N than $ono 6M d. is not co$"atible with $ono 6M

#. Co$"ared to AM( the signal0to0noise ratio of 6M is 's'ally ANS: better &. Co$"ared to AM( the bandwidth of 6M is 's'ally ANS: wider greater ). 6M trans$itters can 'se Class i$"ortant. ANS: C /. Both the "ower and a$"lit'de of an 6M signal ANS: stay constant 1. 3n 6M( the fre+'ency deviation is "ro"ortional to the instantaneo's $od'lating signal. ANS: a$"lit'de 4. The fre+'ency deviation of an 6M signal occ'rs at a rate e+'al to the $od'lating signal. ANS: fre+'ency 5. Mathe$atically( the n'$ber of sidebands in an 6M signal is ANS: infinite 17. As 6M sidebands get farther fro$ the center fre+'ency( their "ower ANS: decreases 11. Mathe$atically( the val'e of an 6M $od'lation index can be as high as ANS: any n'$ber 1!. 3n 6M( as the $od'lating fre+'ency decreases( the $od'lation index ANS: increases 1#. 3n 6M( as the fre+'ency deviation decreases( the $od'lation index ANS: decreases 1&. As the 6M $od'lation index increases( the n'$ber of significant sidebands .

a$"lifiers since a$"lit'de linearity is not

as $od'lation is a""lied.

of the

of the

ANS: increases 1). 6or certain val'es of mf( s'ch as !.&( the a$"lit'de of the carrier fre+'ency ANS: disa""ears goes to ero 1/. The bandwidth of an 6M signal can be a""roxi$ated 'sing ANS: CarsonBs 11. 6M bandwidth can be calc'lated "recisely 'sing ANS: Bessel 14. The ANS: threshold 15. The effect is seen when an 6M receiver is ex"osed to two 6M signals that are close to each other in fre+'ency. ANS: ca"t're !7. *est fre+'ency is another na$e for an 6M ANS: carrier SHORT NS!ER 1. 3f a !0volt instantaneo's val'e of $od'lating signal a$"lit'de ca'ses a 170<H deviation in carrier fre+'ency( what is the deviation sensitivity of the $od'latorF ANS: ) <H = volt !. 3f a !0<H a'dio tone ca'ses a fre+'ency deviation of & <H ( what is the $od'lation indexF ANS: ! #. 2hat will be the deviation ca'sed by a #0<H tone if the $od'lation index is #F ANS: 5 <H &. 3f the deviation sensitivity of an 6M $od'lator is ! <H =D( what will be the $od'lation index ca'sed by a 10volt( 10<H a'dio signalF fre+'ency. effect is characteristic of 6M rece"tion in a noisy environ$ent. f'nctions. r'le. .

ANS: ! ). At a $od'lation index of !( how $'ch "ower is in the carrier of a 17770watt 6M trans$itterF ANS: &4.& watts /. At a $od'lation index of !( how $'ch "ower is in the first "air of sidebands of a 17770watt 6M trans$itterF ANS: /1# watts 1. At a $od'lation index of !( how $'ch "ower is in the fifth "air of sidebands of a 17770watt 6M trans$itterF ANS: !77 $2 :7.! watt; 4. Esing CarsonBs r'le( what is the a""roxi$ate bandwidth of an 6M signal with a $od'lation index of ! being $od'lated by a )0<H signalF ANS: #7 <H 5. Esing the Bessel chart of 6ig're &.1( what is the bandwidth of an 6M signal with a $od'lation index of ! being $od'lated by a )0<H signal if we ignore sidebands containing less than 1Q of the total "owerF ANS: #7 <H 17. How wo'ld yo' 'se the fact that J7 is ero for certain <nown val'es of mf :!.&( ).)( etc; to $eas're the fre+'ency deviation of an 6M $od'latorF ANS: Ese an a'dio fre+'ency generator to $od'late the 6M carrier. Esing a s"ectr'$ analy er( adA'st the a'dio fre+'ency 'ntil the carrier a$"lit'de vanishes. *ecord the a'dio fre+'ency. Then do the calc'lation: T ? fm - mf where mf will have one of the <nown val'es. 6or exa$"le( if fm is $eas'red to be ! <H when mf is ).)( then T is 11 <H .

Chapter *: Transmitters
MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The ability to change o"erating fre+'ency ra"idly witho't a lot of ret'ning is called: a. agility c. D6L b. ex"ansion d. s"read0s"ectr'$ ANS: A !. The difference between the %C "ower into a trans$itter and the *6 "ower co$ing o't: a. is a $eas're of efficiency c. $ay re+'ire water cooling b. heats the trans$itter d. all of the above ANS: % #. Baseband co$"ression "rod'ces: a. a s$aller range of fre+'encies fro$ low to high b. a s$aller range of a$"lit'de fro$ soft to lo'd c. a s$aller n'$ber of signals d. none of the above ANS: B &. ACC stands for: a. A$"lit'de Cevel Control b. A'to$atic Cevel Control ANS: B ). 3n an AM trans$itter( ACC is 'sed to: a. <ee" the $od'lation close to 177Q b. <ee" the $od'lation below 177Q ANS: % /. 2ith high0level AM: a. all *6 a$"lifiers can be nonlinear b. $ini$'$ $od'lation "ower is re+'ired ANS: A 1. 2ith high0level AM: a. the *6 a$"lifiers are ty"ically Class A b. the *6 a$"lifiers are ty"ically Class B ANS: C 4. 2ith low0level AM: a. the *6 a$"lifiers $'st be Class A b. the *6 a$"lifiers $'st be Class B c. the *6 a$"lifiers $'st be linear d. the *6 a$"lifiers $'st be low0"ower c. the *6 a$"lifiers are ty"ically Class C d. the *6 a$"lifiers are ty"ically Class AB c. $ini$'$ *6 "ower is re+'ired d. all of the above c. $axi$i e trans$itted "ower d. all of the above c. Acc'rate Cevel Control d. none of the above

ANS: C 5. >ower a$"lifiers $'st be linear for any signal that: a. is co$"lex c. has variable fre+'ency b. has variable a$"lit'de d. all of the above ANS: B 17. 3n high0level AM( 9high0level9 refers to: a. the "ower level of the carrier b. the "ower level of the $od'lation ANS: % 11. 3n high0level AM( the "ower in the sidebands co$es fro$: a. the $od'lating a$"lifier c. the driver stage b. the *6 a$"lifier d. the carrier ANS: A 1!. 3n an AM trans$itter with 177Q $od'lation( the voltage of the final *6 stage will be: a. a""roxi$ately half the %C s'""ly voltage b. a""roxi$ately twice the %C s'""ly voltage c. a""roxi$ately fo'r ti$es the %C s'""ly voltage d. none of the above ANS: C 1#. >ractical trans$itters are 's'ally designed to drive a load i$"edance of: a. )7 oh$s resistive c. #77 oh$s resistive b. 1) oh$s resistive d. /77 oh$s resistive ANS: A 1&. 2hich of the following can be 'sed for i$"edance $atchingF a. "i networ< c. both a and b b. T networ< d. a bridge circ'it ANS: C 1). 2hen a trans$itter is connected to a resistor instead of an antenna( the resistor is called: a. a heavy load c. a te$"orary load b. a d'$$y load d. a test load ANS: B 1/. 2hen a trans$itter is connected to a resistor instead of an antenna( the resistor $'st be: a. wire0wo'nd c. 1Q tolerance or better b. nonind'ctive d. all of the above ANS: B 11. A Class % a$"lifier is: a. very efficient c. essentially "'lse0d'ration $od'lation c. the "ower level of the final *6 a$"lifier d. none of the above

b. essentially "'lse0width $od'lation ANS: % 14. To generate a SSB signal: a. start with f'll0carrier AM b. start with %SBSC ANS: B 15. The carrier is s'""ressed in: a. a balanced $od'lator b. a $ixer ANS: A

d. all of the above

c. start with a +'adrat're signal d. all of the above

c. a fre+'ency $'lti"lier d. none of the above

!7. To re$ove one AM sideband and leave the other yo' co'ld 'se: a. a $echanical filter c. both a and b b. a crystal filter d. none of the above ANS: C !1. A direct 6M $od'lator: a. varies the fre+'ency of the carrier oscillator b. integrates the $od'lating signal c. both a and b d. none of the above ANS: A !!. An indirect 6M $od'lator: a. re+'ires a varactor in the carrier oscillator b. varies the "hase of the carrier oscillator c. both a and b d. none of the above ANS: B !#. A6C stands for: a. A$"lit'de to 6re+'ency Conversion b. A'to$atic 6re+'ency Centering ANS: C !&. 6re+'ency $'lti"liers are: a. essentially balanced $od'lators b. essentially Class C a$"lifiers ANS: B !). 2ith $ixing: a. the carrier fre+'ency can be raised b. the carrier fre+'ency can be lowered c. the carrier fre+'ency can be changed to any re+'ired val'e c. essentially $ixers d. none of the above c. A'to$atic 6re+'ency Control d. A'dio 6re+'ency Control

d. the deviation is altered ANS: C COMPLETION 1. The acc'racy and stability of a trans$itter fre+'ency is fixed by the ANS: carrier !. 3n the ESA( the fre+'ency. ANS: 6CC #. 3n Canada( trans$itterBs fre+'ency. ANS: 3nd'stry Canada &. 6re+'ency ret'ning. ANS: agility ). >ower o't"'t of SSB trans$itters is rated by ANS: >I> /. *ed'cing the dyna$ic range of a $od'lating signal is called ANS: co$"ression 1. The o""osite of co$"ression is called ANS: ex"ansion 4. ACC is a for$ of ANS: co$"ression 5. High0level $od'lation allows the *6 a$"lifiers to o"erate $ore ANS: efficiently 17. Cow0level $od'lation re+'ires the *6 a$"lifiers to be ANS: linear 11. To isolate the oscillator fro$ load changes( a stage is 'sed. . . . . . . is the ability of a trans$itter to change fre+'ency witho't a lot of sets re+'ire$ents for acc'racy and stability of a sets re+'ire$ents for acc'racy and stability of a trans$itterBs oscillator.

ANS: b'ffer 1!. The "ea< collector voltage in a Class C *6 a$"lifier is voltage. ANS: higher 1#. Most "ractical trans$itters are designed to o"erate into a ANS: )7 1&. Trans$itters b'ilt with transistor *6 a$"lifiers often 'se a i$"edance $atching. ANS: T 1). Matching networ<s also act as filters to hel" red'ce ANS: har$onic 1/. Severe i$"edance ANS: $is$atch 11. Transceivers co$bine a trans$itter and a ANS: receiver 14. To allow a high $od'lation "ercentage( it is co$$on to $od'late the the "ower a$"lifier in transistor $od'lators. ANS: driver 15. >'lse0width $od'lation is the sa$e as "'lse0 ANS: d'ration !7. Switching a$"lifiers are so$eti$es called Class ANS: % !1. Beca'se the sideband filter in a SSB trans$itter is fixed( $ore than one fre+'ency. ANS: $ixing !!. To generate a SSB signal( it is co$$on to start with a ANS: %SBSC signal. is 'sed to o"erate at a$"lifiers. $od'lation. as well as into one 9box9. can destroy a trans$itterBs o't"'t stage. levels. networ< for 0oh$ load. than the %C s'""ly

!#. 3ndirect 6M is derived fro$ ANS: "hase !&. Esing a varactor to generate 6M is an exa$"le of a ANS: reactance



!). The $odern way to $a<e a stable D6L is to $a<e it "art of a ANS: "hase0loc<ed SHORT NS!ER


1. 3f a )70MH oscillator is acc'rate to within 7.771Q( what is the range of "ossible fre+'enciesF ANS: )7 MH U )77 hert !. 2hat is the efficiency of a 1770watt $obile trans$itter if it draws 11 a$"s fro$ a 1!0volt car batteryF ANS: 1).4Q #. The "ower a$"lifier of an AM trans$itter draws 177 watts fro$ the "ower s'""ly with no $od'lation. Ass'$ing high0level $od'lation( how $'ch "ower does the $od'lation a$"lifier deliver for 177Q $od'lationF ANS: )7 watts &. 3f the final *6 a$"lifier of an AM trans$itter is "owered by 177 volts %C( what is the $axi$'$ collector voltage at 177Q $od'lationF ANS: &77 volts ). S'""ose the o't"'t of a balanced $od'lator has a center fre+'ency of 17 MH . The a'dio $od'lation fre+'ency range is 1 <H to 17 <H . To "ass the ESB( what sho'ld be the center fre+'ency of an ideal crystal filterF ANS: 17.77) MH /. S'""ose yo' have generated a ESB SSB signal with a no$inal carrier fre+'ency of 17 MH . 2hat is the $ini$'$ fre+'ency the SSB signal can be $ixed with so that the o't"'t signal has a no$inal carrier fre+'ency of )7 MH F ANS: &7 MH

1. S'""ose yo' have an 6M $od'lator that "'ts o't 1 MH carrier with a 1770hert deviation. 3f fre+'ency $'lti"lication is 'sed to increase the deviation to &77 hert ( what will be the new carrier fre+'encyF ANS: & MH 4. S'""ose yo' had an 6M signal with a carrier of 17 MH and a deviation of 17 <H . Ix"lain how yo' co'ld 'se it to get an 6M signal at 177 MH with a deviation of !7 <H . ANS: 6irst( "'t the signal thro'gh a fre+'ency do'bler to get a !70MH carrier with a !70<H deviation. Then $ix that signal with an 470MH carrier to generate a 1770MH carrier with !70<H deviation.

Chapter +: Recei,ers
MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The two basic s"ecifications for a receiver are: a. the sensitivity and the selectivity b. the n'$ber of converters and the n'$ber of 36s c. the s"'rio's res"onse and the trac<ing d. the signal and the noise ANS: A !. The s'"erheterodyne receiver was invented by: a. 6oster c. Ar$strong b. Seeley d. Hert ANS: C #. Tri$$ers and "adders are: a. two ty"es of adA'sting tools b. s$all adA'stable resistors ANS: % &. 9S<in effect9 refers to: a. the way radio signals travel across a flat s'rface b. the tiss'e0b'rning effect of a strong *6 signal c. the increase of wire resistance with fre+'ency d. none of the above ANS: C ). The 9front end9 of a receiver can incl'de: a. the t'ner b. the *6 a$"lifier ANS: % /. 9369 stands for: a. inter$ediate fre+'ency b. inter$od'lation fre+'ency ANS: A 1. AOC stands for: a. A'dio Oain Control b. A'to$atic Oain Control ANS: B 4. The fre+'ency of the local oscillator: a. is above the *6 fre+'ency c. Active Oain Control d. Active Oain Conversion c. indeter$inate fre+'ency d. i$age fre+'ency c. the $ixer d. all of the above c. s$all adA'stable ind'ctors d. s$all adA'stable ca"acitors

b. is below the *6 fre+'ency c. can be either above of below the *6 fre+'ency d. is fixed( ty"ically at &)) <H . ANS: C 5. The local oscillator and $ixer are co$bined in one device beca'se: a. it gives a greater red'ction of s"'rio's res"onses b. it increases sensitivity c. it increases selectivity d. it is chea"er ANS: % 17. Basically( sensitivity $eas'res: a. the wea<est signal that can be 'sef'lly received b. the highest0fre+'ency signal that can be 'sef'lly received c. the dyna$ic range of the a'dio a$"lifier d. none of the above ANS: A 11. Basically( selectivity $eas'res: a. the range of fre+'encies that the receiver can select b. with two signals close in fre+'ency( the ability to receive one and reAect the other c. how well adAacent fre+'encies are se"arated by the de$od'lator d. how well the adAacent fre+'encies are se"arated in the $ixer ANS: B 1!. 2hen co$"aring val'es for sha"e factor: a. a val'e of 1.&1& dB is ideal b. a val'e of 7.171 is ideal ANS: C 1#. 2hen co$"aring val'es for sha"e factor: a. a val'e of ! is better than a val'e of & b. a val'e of & is better than a val'e of ! ANS: A 1&. %istortion in a receiver can occ'r in: a. the $ixer b. the detector ANS: % 1). >hase distortion is i$"ortant in: a. voice co$$'nications syste$s b. color video receivers ANS: B c. $onochro$e video receivers d. all of the above c. the 36 a$"lifiers d. all of the above c. both val'es are basically e+'ivalent d. none of the above c. a val'e of 1.7 is ideal d. there is no ideal val'e

1/. The res"onse of a receiver to wea< signals is 's'ally li$ited by: a. the AOC c. the dyna$ic range of the receiver b. noise generated in the receiver d. the ty"e of detector circ'it being 'sed ANS: B 11. 3$age fre+'encies occ'r when two signals: a. are trans$itted on the sa$e fre+'ency b. enter the $ixer( with one being a reflected signal e+'al to the 36 fre+'ency c. enter the $ixer( one below and one above the local oscillator by a difference e+'al to the 36 d. enter the $ixer( and the difference between the two signals is e+'al to twice the 36 ANS: C 14. An i$age $'st be reAected: a. "rior to $ixing b. "rior to 36 a$"lification ANS: A 15. 3$age fre+'ency "roble$s wo'ld be red'ced by: a. having an 36 a$"lifier with the "ro"er sha"e factor b. having a wideband *6 a$"lifier after the $ixer c. having a narrowband *6 a$"lifier before the $ixer d. none of the above ANS: C !7. A co$$on AM detector is the: a. >CC b. envelo"e detector ANS: B !1. An 6M detector is the: a. >CC b. ratio detector ANS: % !!. Oer$ani'$ diodes are 'sed in AM detectors beca'se: a. they are faster than silicon diodes b. they are chea"er than silicon diodes c. they $ini$i e distortion fro$ nonlinearity d. all of the above ANS: C !#. A co$$on SSB detector is: a. a >CC b. a diode ANS: % c. a B6L d. a "rod'ct detector c. +'adrat're detector d. all of the above c. ratio detector d. all of the above c. "rior to detection d. i$ages cannot be reAected

!&. B6L stands for: a. Beat 6re+'ency Lscillator b. Barrier 6re+'ency Lscillator ANS: A

c. Bi"olar 6re+'ency Lscillator d. Bistable 6re+'ency Lscillator

!). To de$od'late both SSB and %SBSC( yo' need to: a. 'se a 6oster0Seeley discri$inator b. reinAect the carrier c. 'se do'ble conversion d. 'se one diode for SSB and two diodes for %SBSC ANS: B !/. 2hich wo'ld be best for %SBSC: a. carrier detection b. coherent detection ANS: B !1. An 6M detector that is not sensitive to a$"lit'de variations is: a. 6oster0Seeley detector c. a >CC detector b. a +'adrat're detector d. all of the above ANS: C !4. The f'nction of a li$iter is: a. to re$ove a$"lit'de variations b. to li$it s"'rio's res"onses ANS: A !5. S'""ressing the a'dio when no signal is "resent is called: a. AOC c. A6C b. s+'elch d. li$iting ANS: B #7. CNA stands for: a. Ci$ited0Noise A$"lifier b. Cow0Noise A$"lifier ANS: B #1. A6C stands for: a. A'dio 6re+'ency Co$"ensator b. A'todyne 6re+'ency Co$"ensation ANS: C #!. The f'nction of A6C is: a. $aintain a constant 36 fre+'ency b. $atch the local oscillator to the received signal c. A'to$atic 6re+'ency Control d. A'tono$o's 6re+'ency Control c. Cow0Noise A'dio d. Cogarith$ic Noise A$"lification c. to li$it dyna$ic range d. to li$it noise res"onse c. envelo"e detection d. ratio detection

c. loc< the discri$inator to the 36 fre+'ency d. none of the above ANS: B ##. SA2 stands for: a. Sy$$etrical A'dio 2ave b. S'rface Aco'stic 2ave ANS: B #&. The i$"ortant "ro"erty of a SA2 is: a. it stabili es the a'dio in a receiver b. it allows software radios to be b'ilt ANS: C #). The $ain f'nction of the AOC is to: a. <ee" the gain of the receiver constant b. <ee" the gain of the 36 a$"lifiers constant c. <ee" the in"'t to the detector at a constant a$"lit'de d. all of the above ANS: C #/. %S> stands for: a. %yna$ic Signal >ro"erties b. %irect Signal >hase ANS: % #1. S3NA% stands for: a. Sin'soidal A$"lit'de %istortion b. Signal and Noise A$"lit'de %istortion c. Signal0"l's0Noise0to0Noise *atio d. Signal0"l's0Noise and %istortion0to0Noise and %istortion *atio ANS: % #4. T*6 stands for: a. T'ned *adio 6re+'ency b. Trac<ing *adio 6re+'ency ANS: A COMPLETION 1. Al$ost all $odern receivers 'se the ANS: s'"erheterodyne !. The first radio receiver of any <ind was b'ilt in the year . "rinci"le. c. Trans$itted *adio 6re+'ency d. T'ned *eceiver 6'nction c. %istorted Signal >ac<et d. %igital Signal >rocessor c. it is a stable band"ass filter d. none of the above c. Silicon0Activated 2afer d. Software0Activated 2ave

ANS: 1441 #. 2hen two t'ned circ'its adA'sted( the other changes with it. ANS: trac< &. The ANS: s<in ). The s'"erhet was invented in the year ANS: 1514 /. 3n a receiver( the ANS: front end 1. 3n a s'"erhet( the o't"'t of the ANS: $ixer 4. 3n a s'"erhet( the fre+'ency is the difference between the local oscillator fre+'ency and the received signal fre+'ency. ANS: inter$ediate 36 5. The ANS: AOC 17. An ANS: a'todyne 11. 3n low0side inAection( the local oscillator is ANS: lower 1!. fre+'ency. ANS: Selectivity 1#. signal. ANS: Sensitivity is the ability of a receiver to receive and s'ccessf'lly de$od'late a very wea< is the ability of a receiver to se"arate two signals that are close to each other in than the received signal fre+'ency. converter 'ses the sa$e transistor for both the local oscillator and the $ixer. circ'it adA'sts the gain of the 36 a$"lifiers in res"onse to signal strength. goes to the 36 a$"lifiers. refers to the in"'t filter and *6 stage. . effect ca'ses the resistance of wire to increase with fre+'ency. each other( it $eans that when the fre+'ency of one is

1&. A receiver with two different 36 fre+'encies is called a do'ble0 ANS: conversion 1). A $'lti"le0conversion receiver will have better reAection of ANS: i$age 1/. A de$od'lator is also called a ANS: detector 11. An ANS: envelo"e 14. A ANS: "rod'ct 15. A B6L "rod'ces a locally generated ANS: carrier !7. A %SBSC signal re+'ires a ANS: coherent !1. 6M detectors have a characteristic ANS: S !!. 2hile still co$$only fo'nd( the 6oster0Seeley and ratio detectors are ANS: obsolescent !#. Enli<e the >CC detector( the +'adrat're detector is sensitive to changes in in"'t signal. ANS: a$"lit'de !&. A d'al0 ANS: gate !). %iode $ixers are too ANS: noisy !/. The 36 a$"lifiers in an AM receiver $'st be Class . to be "ractical in $ost a""lications. MLS6IT is 'sef'l for AOC. 0sha"ed c'rve. detection circ'it. . detector is 'sed for SSB signals. detector 'ses a diode to half0wave rectify an AM signal. .



of the

ANS: A !1. A do'ble0t'ned 36 transfor$er is 's'ally to" and stee" sides. ANS: over !4. M'lti"le 36 stages can be ANS: stagger !5. Co$"ared to t'ned circ'its( cera$ic and crystal 36 filters do not re+'ire ANS: adA'st$ent #7. E"0conversion is when the o't"'t of the $ixer is a signal. ANS: higher #1. 3n a bloc< converter( the fre+'ency of the first local oscillator is ANS: fixed constant #!. Ty"ically( AOC red'ces the gain of the ANS: 36 ##. An receivers. ANS: S #&. The effectiveness of 6M ANS: li$iting #). A ANS: discri$inator SHORT NS!ER 1. S'""ose the bandwidth of a t'ned circ'it is 17 <H at 1 MH . A""roxi$ately what bandwidth wo'ld yo' ex"ect it to have at & MH F ANS: refers to any <ind of 6M or >M detector. is $eas'red by a receiverVs +'ieting sensitivity. 0$eter is designed to indicate signal strength in $any co$$'nications a$"lifiers. . fre+'ency than the inco$ing . 0t'ned to increase the bandwidth. co'"led for the res"onse to have a flat

!7 <H !. Esing high0side inAection for a 10MH 36( what is the fre+'ency of the local oscillator when the receiver is t'ned to ) MH F ANS: / MH #. An 36 filter has a N/7 dB bandwidth of !) <H and a N/ dB bandwidth of !7 <H . 2hat is the sha"e factor val'eF ANS: 1.!) &. S'""ose a receiver 'ses a )0MH 36 fre+'ency. Ass'$ing high0side inAection( what wo'ld be the i$age fre+'ency if the receiver was t'ned to )7 MH F ANS: /7 MH ). S'""ose a SSB receiver re+'ires an inAected fre+'ency of 1.) MH . 2hat wo'ld be the acce"table fre+'ency range of the B6L if the $axi$'$ acce"table baseband shift is 177 hert F ANS: 1.) MH U 177 hert /. The transfor$er of a do'ble0t'ned 36 a$"lifier has a Q of !) for both "ri$ary and secondary. 2hat val'e of kc do yo' need to achieve o"ti$al co'"lingF ANS: 7.7/ 1. 2hat val'e of transfor$er co'"ling wo'ld a do'ble0t'ned 170MH 36 a$"lifier with o"ti$al co'"ling need to get a bandwidth of 177 <H F ANS: 7.71

Chapter -: .i)ita' Communications

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The first digital code was the: a. ASC33 code b. Ba'dot code ANS: C !. 3n digital trans$ission( signal degradation can be re$oved 'sing: a. an a$"lifier c. a regenerative re"eater b. a filter d. all of the above ANS: C #. T%M stands for: a. Ti$e0%ivision M'lti"lexing b. Ti$e0%o$ain M'lti"lexing ANS: A &. HartleyBs Caw is: a. I ? ktB b. C ? !B log!M ANS: A ). The Shannon0Hartley theore$ is: a. I ? ktB b. C ? !B log!M ANS: B /. The Shannon Ci$it is given by: a. I ? ktB b. C ? !B log!M ANS: C 1. The Ny+'ist *ate can be ex"ressed as: a. I ? ktB b. C ? !B log!M ANS: % 4. Nat'ral Sa$"ling does not 'se: a. a sa$"le0and0hold circ'it b. tr'e binary n'$bers ANS: A c. a fixed sa$"le rate d. an analog0to0digital converter c. C ? B log!:1 @ S=N; d. SR ? !fmax c. C ? B log!:1 @ S=N; d. SR ? !fmax c. C ? B log!:1 @ S=N; d. SR ? !fmax c. C ? B log!:1 @ S=N; d. SR ? !fmax c. Ten0%igital Manchester d. Ten %'al0Manchester c. Morse code d. none of the above

5. 2hich is tr'e abo't aliasing and foldover distortionF a. They are two ty"es of sa$"ling error. b. So' can have one or the other( b't not both. c. Aliasing is a techni+'e to "revent foldover distortion. d. They are the sa$e thing. ANS: % 17. 6oldover distortion is ca'sed by: a. noise b. too $any sa$"les "er second ANS: C 11. The i$$ediate res'lt of sa$"ling is: a. a sa$"le alias b. >AM ANS: B 1!. 2hich of these is not a "'lse0$od'lation techni+'e: a. >%M c. >>M b. >2M d. >>S ANS: % 1#. J'anti ing noise :+'anti ation noise;: a. decreases as the sa$"le rate increases b. decreases as the sa$"le rate decreases c. decreases as the bits "er sa$"le increases d. decreases as the bits "er sa$"le decreases ANS: C 1&. The dyna$ic range of a syste$ is the ratio of: a. the strongest trans$ittable signal to the wea<est discernible signal b. the $axi$'$ rate of conversion to the $ini$'$ rate of conversion c. the $axi$'$ bits "er sa$"le to the $ini$'$ bits "er sa$"le d. none of the above ANS: A 1). Co$"anding is 'sed to: a. co$"ress the range of base0band fre+'encies b. red'ce dyna$ic range at higher bit0rates c. "reserve dyna$ic range while <ee"ing bit0rate low d. $axi$i e the 'seable bandwidth in digital trans$ission ANS: C 1/. 3n North A$erica( co$"anding 'ses: a. the Cogarith$ic Caw b. the A Caw c. the W Caw :al"ha law; d. the G Caw :$' law; c. >CM d. >%M c. too few sa$"les "er second d. all of the above

ANS: % 11. 3n I'ro"e( co$"anding 'ses: a. the Cogarith$ic Caw b. the A Caw ANS: B 14. Codec stands for: a. Coder0%ecoder b. Coded0Carrier ANS: A 15. A ty"ical codec in a tele"hone syste$ sends and receives: a. &0bit n'$bers c. 1!0bit n'$bers b. 40bit n'$bers d. 1/0bit n'$bers ANS: B !7. Co$"ared to >CM( delta $od'lation: a. trans$its fewer bits "er sa$"le b. re+'ires a $'ch higher sa$"ling rate ANS: % !1. 3n delta $od'lation( 9gran'lar noise9 is "rod'ced when: a. the signal changes too ra"idly c. the bit rate is too high b. the signal does not change d. the sa$"le is too large ANS: B !!. Co$"ared to >CM( ada"tive delta $od'lation can trans$it voice: a. with a lower bit rate b't red'ced +'ality c. only over shorter distances b. with a lower bit rate b't the sa$e +'ality d. only if the voice is band0li$ited ANS: B !#. 2hich coding sche$e re+'ires %C contin'ity: a. AM3 c. 'ni"olar N*X b. Manchester d. bi"olar *X ANS: C !&. Manchester coding: a. is a bi"hase code b. has a level transition in the $iddle of every bit "eriod c. "rovides strong ti$ing infor$ation d. all of the above ANS: % !). The n'$ber of fra$ing bits in %S01 is: c. can s'ffer slo"e overload d. all of the above c. Code0Co$"ression d. none of the above c. the W Caw :al"ha law; d. the G Caw :$' law;

a. 1 b. ! ANS: A !/. 6ra$ing bits in %S01 are 'sed to: a. detect errors b. carry signaling ANS: C !1. So0called 9stolen9 bits in %S01 are 'sed to: a. detect errors b. carry signaling ANS: B !4. The n'$ber of bits "er sa$"le in %S01 is: a. 1 b. ! ANS: %

c. & d. 4

c. synchroni e the trans$itter and receiver d. all of the above

c. synchroni e the trans$itter and receiver d. all of the above

c. & d. 4

!5. The n'$ber of sa$"les "er second in %S01 is: a. 4 < c. /& < b. )/ < d. 1.)&& - 17/ ANS: A #7. The bit rate for each channel in %S01 is: a. 1.)&& Mb=s b. /& <b=s ANS: B #1. 3n %S01( bits are trans$itted over a T01 cable at: a. 1.)&& MB=s c. )/ <b=s b. /& <b=s d. 4 <b=s ANS: A #!. A T01 cable 'ses: a. Manchester coding b. bi"olar *X AM3 coding ANS: B ##. The n'$ber of fra$es in a s'"erfra$e is: a. / b. 1! ANS: B #&. A ty"ical T01 line 'ses: c. !& d. &4 c. N*X coding d. "'lse0width coding c. )/ <b=s d. 4 <b=s

a. twisted0"air wire b. coaxial cable ANS: A #). 9Signaling9 is 'sed to indicate: a. on0hoo<=off0hoo< condition b. b'sy signal ANS: %

c. fiber0o"tic cable d. $icrowave

c. ringing d. all of the above

#/. A vocoder i$"le$ents co$"ression by: a. constr'cting a $odel of the trans$ission $edi'$ b. constr'cting a $odel of the h'$an vocal syste$ c. finding red'ndancies in the digiti ed data d. 'sing lossless techni+'es ANS: B #1. Co$"ared to standard >CM syste$s( the +'ality of the o't"'t of a vocoder is: a. $'ch better c. abo't the sa$e b. so$ewhat better d. not as good ANS: % COMPLETION 1. %igiti ing a signal often res'lts in ANS: i$"roved better !. To send it over an analog channel( a digital signal $'st be ANS: $od'lated #. To send it over a digital channel( an analog signal $'st first be ANS: digiti ed &. 3n analog channels( the signal0to0noise ratio of an analog signal grad'ally length of the channel increases. ANS: decreases gets worse ). The ANS: binary val'e of a "'lse is the only infor$ation it carries on a digital channel. as the . onto a carrier. trans$ission +'ality.

/. A ANS: regenerative

re"eater is 'sed to restore the sha"e of "'lses on a digital cable.

1. There are techni+'es to detect and ANS: correct

so$e errors in digital trans$ission.

4. Converting an analog signal to digital for$ is another so'rce of trans$ission syste$s. ANS: error noise 5. ANS: Ti$e 17. All "ractical co$$'nications channels are band0 ANS: li$ited 11. ANS: HartleyBs 1!. 3gnoring noise( the for a given bandwidth. ANS: Shannon0Hartley . 0division $'lti"lexing is easily done in digital trans$ission.

in digital

Caw gives the relationshi" between ti$e( infor$ation ca"acity( and bandwidth.

theore$ gives the $axi$'$ rate of data trans$ission

1#. The li$it gives the $axi$'$ rate of data trans$ission for a given bandwidth and a given signal0to0noise ratio. ANS: Shannon 1&. ANS: Nat'ral 1). The for$at. ANS: Ny+'ist 1/. ANS: 6oldover distortion occ'rs when an analog signal is sa$"led at too slow a rate. *ate is the $ini$'$ sa$"ling rate for converting analog signals to digital sa$"ling is done witho't a sa$"le0and0hold circ'it.


$eans that higher fre+'ency baseband signals fro$ the trans$itter 9ass'$e the identity9 of low0fre+'ency baseband signals at the receiver when sent digitally. ANS: Aliasing

14. The o't"'t of a sa$"le0and0hold circ'it is a "'lse0 ANS: a$"lit'de 15. ANS: >'lse0code !7. ANS: J'anti ing !1. ANS: Co$"anding !!. 3n North A$erica( co$"ression is done 'sing the ANS: G $' !#. 3n I'ro"e( co$"ression is done 'sing the ANS: A !&. A ANS: codec !). 3n a >CM syste$( the sa$"les of the analog signal are first converted to before being co$"ressed to 4 bits. ANS: 1! !/. The n'$ber of bits "er sa$"le trans$itted in delta $od'lation is ANS: 1 one !1. %elta $od'lation re+'ires a re"rod'ction. ANS: higher

$od'lated signal.

$od'lation is the $ost co$$only 'sed digital $od'lation sche$e.

noise res'lts fro$ the "rocess of converting an analog signal into digital for$at.

is 'sed to "reserve dyna$ic range 'sing a reasonable bandwidth.

0law e+'ation.

0law e+'ation.

is an 3C that converts a voice signal to >CM and vice versa.


sa$"ling rate than >CM for the sa$e +'ality of

!4. ANS: Oran'lar !5. 3n delta $od'lation( ANS: slo"e #7. The ANS: ste"

noise is "rod'ced by a delta $od'lator if the analog signal doesnBt change.

overload can occ'r if the analog signal changes too fast.

si e varies in ada"tive delta $od'lation.

#1. Ada"tive delta $od'lation can trans$it >CM0+'ality voice at abo't of >CM. ANS: half #!. Eni"olar N*X is not "ractical beca'se $ost channels do not have ANS: %C ##. 3n AM3( binary ones are re"resented by a voltage that alternates in ANS: "olarity #&. Cong strings of ANS: eros in the center of each bit "eriod. sho'ld be avoided in AM3. .

the bit rate


#). Manchester code has a level ANS: transition #/. Manchester coding "rovides eros. ANS: ti$ing #1. There are ANS: !& #4. %S01 'ses a ANS: fra$ing #5. 3n %S01( each channel is sa$"led ANS: 4777 &7. %ata is carried over a T01 line at a rate of

infor$ation regardless of the "attern of ones and

channels in a %S01 fra$e.

bit to synchroni e the trans$itter and receiver.

ti$es "er second.

bits "er second.

ANS: 1.)&& - 17

&1. A gro'" of 1! %S01 fra$es is called a ANS: s'"erfra$e

&!. 6ro$ a gro'" of twelve fra$es( signaling bits are 9stolen9 fro$ every ANS: sixth &#. it. ANS: Cossless SHORT NS!ER


co$"ression trans$its all the data in the original signal b't 'ses fewer bits to do

1. Ese HartleyBs Caw to find how $'ch ti$e it wo'ld ta<e to send 177(777 bits over a channel with a bandwidth of !(777 hert and a channel constant of k ? 17. ANS: ) seconds !. Ese the Shannon0Hartley theore$ to find the bandwidth re+'ired to send 1!(777 bits "er second if the n'$ber of levels trans$itted is 4. ANS: !777 hert #. 2hat is the Shannon Ci$it of a channel that has a bandwidth of &777 hert and a signal0to0noise ratio of 1)F ANS: 1/ <b"s &. 2hat is the $ini$'$ re+'ired n'$ber of sa$"les "er second to digiti e an analog signal with fre+'ency co$"onents ranging fro$ #77 hert to ##77 hert F ANS: //77 sa$"les=second ). 2hat is the a""roxi$ate dyna$ic range( in dB( of a linear >CM syste$ that 'ses 1! bits "er sa$"leF ANS: 1& dB /. 2hat is the a""roxi$ate data rate for a syste$ 'sing 4 bits "er sa$"le and r'nning at 4777 sa$"les "er secondF

ANS: /& <b"s 1. 3f bits were 9stolen9 fro$ every %S01 fra$e( what wo'ld the 'seable data0rate be for each channel in the fra$eF ANS: )/ <b"s 4. Ass'$ing $axi$'$ in"'t and o't"'t voltages of 1 volt( what is the o't"'t voltage of a G0law co$"ressor if the in"'t voltage is 7.#44 voltF ANS: 7.4## volt

Chapter /: The Te'ephone System

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. %TM6 stands for: a. %igital Tele"hony M'lti"le 6re+'ency b. %ial Tone Master 6re+'ency ANS: C !. >STN stands for: a. >'blic Switched Tele"hone Networ< b. >rivate Switched Tele"hone Networ< ANS: A #. >LTS stands for: a. >rivate Lffice Tele"hone Syste$ b. >ri$ary Lffice Tele"hone Service ANS: % &. CATA stands for: a. Cocal Access and Trans"ort Area b. Cocal Access Tele"hone Area ANS: A ). A CATA is a: a. a local calling area b. a ty"e of digital local networ< ANS: A /. Central offices are connected by: a. local loo"s b. tr'n< lines ANS: B 1. Cocal loo"s ter$inate at: a. a tande$ office b. a toll station ANS: C 4. Call bloc<ing: a. cannot occ'r in the "'blic tele"hone networ< b. occ'rs on the local loo" when there is an electrical "ower fail're c. occ'rs only on long0distance cables d. occ'rs when the central office ca"acity is exceeded c. a central office d. an interexchange office c. both a and b d. none of the above c. a way of accessing a tande$ office d. a way of accessing a central office c. Cocal Area Tele"hone Access d. Cocal Area Trans"ort Access c. >ri$ary L"erational Test Syste$ d. >lain Lld Tele"hone Service c. >ri$ary Service Tele"hone Networ< d. >ri$ary Service Tele"hone N'$bers c. %'al0Tone M'ltifre+'ency d. %igital Tr'n< Master 6re+'ency

ANS: % 5. 3n tele"hony( >L> stands for: a. >ost Lffice >rotocol b. >oint Lf >resence ANS: B 17. The cable 'sed for local loo"s is $ainly: a. twisted0"air co""er wire b. shielded twisted0"air co""er wire ANS: A 11. 63TC stands for: a. 6ra$ing 3nfor$ation for Toll Coo"s b. 6iber 3n the Toll Coo" ANS: % 1!. Coading coils were 'sed to: a. increase the s"eed of the local loo" for digital data b. red'ce the atten'ation of voice signals c. red'ce crosstal< d. "rovide C0ty"e conditioning to a local loo" ANS: B 1#. %C c'rrent flows thro'gh a tele"hone: a. when it is on hoo< b. when it is off hoo< ANS: B 1&. The range of %C c'rrent that flows thro'gh a tele"hone is: a. !7 GA to 47 GA c. ! $A to 4 $A b. !77 GA to 477 GA d. !7 $A to 47 $A ANS: % 1). The se"aration of control f'nctions fro$ signal switching is <nown as: a. ste"0by0ste" switching control c. co$$on control b. crossbar control d. ISS ANS: C 1/. The ty"ical voltage across a tele"hone when on0hoo< is: a. &4 volts %C c. 57 volts %C b. &4 volts( !7 hert AC d. 57 volts( !7 hert AC ANS: A 11. The ty"ical voltage needed to 9ring9 a tele"hone is: c. as long as it is attached to a local loo" d. only when it is ringing c. 6ra$ing 3n The Coo" d. 6iber03n0The0Coo" c. coaxial cable d. fiber0o"tic c. >ower0Ln >rotocol d. none of the above

a. &4 volts %C b. &4 volts( !7 hert AC ANS: %

c. 57 volts %C d. 57 volts( !7 hert AC

14. The bandwidth of voice0grade signals on a tele"hone syste$ is restricted in order to: a. allow lines to be 9conditioned9 c. allow signals to be $'lti"lexed b. "revent 9singing9 d. all of the above ANS: C 15. DNC stands for: a. voltage net loss b. vol'$e net loss ANS: C !7. Signal loss is designed into a tele"hone syste$ to: a. eli$inate reflections c. i$"rove signal0to0noise ratio b. "revent oscillation d. red'ce "ower cons'$"tion ANS: B !1. The reference noise level for tele"hony is: a. 1 $2 b. 7 dB$ ANS: C !!. The n'$ber of voice channels in a basic 6%M gro'" is: a. / c. !& b. 1! d. /7 ANS: B !#. Basic 6%M gro'"s can be co$bined into: a. s'"ergro'"s b. $astergro'"s ANS: % !&. 3n tele"hone syste$ 6%M( voice is "'t on a carrier 'sing: a. SSB c. >%M b. %SBSC d. >CM ANS: A !). >ABY stands for: a. >ower A$"lification Before Trans$ission b. >rivate A'to$atic Branch Ixchange c. >'blic A'to$ated Branch Ixchange d. >'blic Access Branch Ixchange ANS: B c. A'$bogro'"s d. all of the above c. 1 "2 d. 7 dBr c. via net loss d. voice noise level

!/. SC3C stands for: a. Single0Cine 3nterface Circ'it b. Standard Cine 3nterface Card ANS: C !1. 3n %S01( bits are 9robbed9 in order to: a. "rovide synchroni ation b. carry signaling ANS: B !4. 9Bit0st'ffing9 is $ore for$ally called: a. co$"ensation b. rectification ANS: C !5. 3S%N stands for: a. 3ntegrated Services %igital Networ< b. 3nfor$ation Services %igital Networ< ANS: A

c. S'bscriber Cine 3nterface Card d. Standard Cocal 3nterface Circ'it

c. cancel echoes d. chec< for errors

c. A'stification d. fra$e align$ent

c. 3ntegrated Services %ata Networ< d. 3nfor$ation Syste$s %igital Networ<

#7. Basic 3S%N has not been widely ado"ted beca'se: a. it too< to long to develo" b. it is too slow c. it has been s'r"assed by newer technologies d. all of the above ANS: % #1. A%SC stands for: a. All0%igital S'bscriber Cine b. Asy$$etrical %igital S'bscriber Cine ANS: B #!. Co$"ared to 3S%N( internet access 'sing A%SC is ty"ically: a. $'ch faster c. $'ch $ore ex"ensive b. abo't the sa$e s"eed d. none of the above ANS: A COMPLETION 1. A ANS: CATA !. Central offices are connected together by lines. is a local calling area. c. Allocated %igital Service Cine d. Access to %ata Services Cine

ANS: tr'n< #. Lne central office can be connected to another thro'gh a ANS: tande$ &. 2ith 10digit "hone n'$bers( office. ANS: ten ). Call is when it beco$es i$"ossible for a s'bscriber to "lace a call d'e to an overload of lines being 'sed. ANS: bloc<ing /. New ANS: digital 1. Most local loo"s still 'se ANS: twisted0"air 4. As co$"ared to a hierarchical networ<( a inter$ediate switch. ANS: flat 5. ANS: Coading 17. 3n a twisted0"air tele"hone cable( the red wire is called ANS: ring 11. 3n a twisted0"air tele"hone cable( the green wire is called ANS: ti" 1!. Lf the red and green B"hone wires( the ANS: green 1#. A tele"hone is said to have ANS: sei ed 1&. The f'nctions are "rovided by a SC3C. the line when the central office sends it dial tone. wire is "ositive with res"ect to the other. . . coils were 'sed to red'ce the atten'ation of voice fre+'encies. networ< never needs $ore than one co""er wire. switching e+'i"$ent 'ses T%M to co$bine signals. tho'sand tele"hones can connect to a central office.

ANS: BL*SCHT 1). A coil "revents loss of signal energy within a tele"hone while allowing f'll0 d'"lex o"eration over a single "air of wires. ANS: hybrid 1/. 3n a cross"oint switch( not all ANS: lines 11. The old carbon trans$itters generated a relatively ANS: large 14. The generic ter$ for To'ch0Tone signaling is ANS: %TM6 15. A ANS: conditioned !7. 3n the tele"hone syste$( a$"lifiers are called ANS: re"eaters !1. An echo ANS: s'""ressor !!. weighting is an atte$"t to adA'st the noise or signal level to the res"onse of a ty"ical tele"hone receiver. ANS: C0$essage !#. 3n 6%M tele"hony( the $od'lation is 's'ally ANS: SSB SSBSC !&. 3n 6%M tele"hony( ANS: g'ard !). Beca'se of 9bit robbing9( a channel in a %S01 fra$e allows only 'sed to send digital data. ANS: )/ <b"s when bands se"arate the channels in a gro'". . converts a long0distance line fro$ f'll0d'"lex to half0d'"lex o"eration. . line "rovides $ore bandwidth than a standard line.

can be in 'se at the sa$e ti$e.

signal voltage.

!/. A twelfth fra$es. ANS: s'"erfra$e !1. 3n %S01C( ANS: st'ff

is a gro'" of 1! %S01 fra$es with signaling infor$ation in the sixth and

bits are 'sed to co$"ensate for differences between cloc< rates.

!4. B'sy and dial tone are referred to as wires as the voice signal. ANS: in0channel !5. SS1 is the c'rrent version of ANS: co$$on0channel #7. SS1 is a ANS: "ac<et #1. 3n 3S%N( the ANS: % #!. 3n 3S%N( the ANS: B 0switched data networ<.

signals beca'se they 'se the sa$e "air of


channel is 'sed for co$$on0channel signaling.

channels are 'sed for voice or data.

##. Ter$inal e+'i"$ent es"ecially designed for 3S%N is designated ANS: TI1 #&. The A in A%SC stands for ANS: asy$$etrical #). 3n A%SC( the s"eed fro$ the networ< to the s'bscriber is o""osite direction. ANS: greater faster SHORT NS!ER .


than the s"eed in the

1. 6or a certain tele"hone( the %C loo" voltage is &4 D on hoo< and 4 D off hoo<. 3f the loo" c'rrent is &7 $A( what is the %C resistance of the local loo"F

ANS: 1777 oh$s !. 6or a certain tele"hone( the %C loo" voltage is &4 D on hoo< and 4 D off hoo<. 3f the loo" c'rrent is &7 $A( what is the %C resistance of the tele"honeF ANS: !77 oh$s #. 2hich two %TM6 tones corres"ond to the digit 919F :Ese the table in the text.; ANS: /51 H and 1!75 H &. Calc'late the dB of DNC re+'ired for a channel with a # $s delay. ANS: 1 dB ). 3f a tele"hone voice signal has a level of 7 dB$( what is its level in dBrnF ANS: 57 dBrn /. A tele"hone test0tone has a level of 47 dBrn at a "oint where the level is @)dB TC>. 3f C0weighting "rod'ces a 170dB loss( what wo'ld the signal level be in dBrnc7F ANS: /) dBrnc TC>

Chapter 0: .ata Transmission

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 3n "ractical ter$s( "arallel data trans$ission is sent: a. over short distances only c. over any distance b. 's'ally over long distances d. 's'ally over a coaxial cable ANS: A !. The five0level telety"e code was invented by: a. the Mor<'$ Co$"any c. 2estern Enion b. the Telety"e Co$"any d. I$ile Ba'dot ANS: % #. %ata codes are also called: a. character codes b. character sets ANS: C &. %igital data that is not being 'sed to carry characters is called: a. 63OS data c. n'$erical data b. binary data d. all of the above ANS: B ). Character codes incl'de: a. al"han'$eric characters b. data lin< control characters ANS: % /. ASC33 stands for: a. A$erican Standard Character0set ! b. A$erican Standard Code for 3nfor$ation 3nterchange c. A$erican Standard Code ! d. Al"han'$eric Standard Code for 3nfor$ation 3nterchange ANS: B 1. BS( 66( and C* are exa$"les of: a. nonstandard character codes b. esca"e characters ANS: C 4. C6 stands for: a. Cine 6eed c. Cine 6orward c. control characters d. none of the above c. gra"hic control characters d. all of the above c. they do not have any other na$e d. both a and b

b. Cin< 6eed ANS: A

d. Cin< 6orward

5. EA*T stands for: a. Eniversal Asynchrono's *eceiver0Trans$itter b. Enidirectional Asynchrono's *eceiver0Trans$itter c. Enaltered *eceived Text d. Eniversal A'to$atic *eceiver for Text ANS: A 17. 3n asynchrono's trans$ission( the trans$itter and receiver are: a. fra$e0by0fra$e synchroni ed 'sing the data bits b. fra$e0by0fra$e synchroni ed 'sing a co$$on cloc< c. fra$e0by0fra$e synchroni ed 'sing the start and sto" bits d. not synchroni ed at all( hence the na$e 9asynchrono's9 ANS: C 11. 3n asynchrono's trans$ission( the ti$e between consec'tive fra$es is: a. e+'al to ero c. e+'al to the start and sto" bit0ti$es b. e+'al to one bit0ti$e d. not a set length ANS: % 1!. 3n synchrono's trans$ission( the fra$es are: a. abo't the sa$e length as ten asynchrono's fra$es b. $'ch longer than asynchrono's fra$es c. 1!4 bytes long d. 17!& bytes long ANS: B 1#. Synchrono's trans$ission is 'sed beca'se: a. no start and sto" bits $eans higher efficiency b. it is chea"er than asynchrono's since no EA*TS are re+'ired c. it is easier to i$"le$ent than asynchrono's d. all of the above ANS: A 1&. 3n synchrono's trans$ission( the receiver 9syncs0'"9 with the trans$itter by 'sing: a. the cloc< bits c. the C*C bits b. the data bits d. a se"arate cloc< line ANS: B 1). To $aintain synchroni ation in synchrono's trans$ission: a. long strings of 1s and 7s $'st not be allowed b. trans$ission $'st sto" "eriodically for resynchroni ation c. the cloc< circ'its $'st be "recisely adA'sted d. the channel $'st be noise0free

ANS: A 1/. B3SSNC: a. is an 3BM "rod'ct b. is a character0oriented "rotocol ANS: % 11. H%CC: a. is an 3BM "rod'ct b. is a bit0oriented "rotocol ANS: B 14. The 'se of flags in S%CC re+'ires: a. 9bit0st'ffing9 b. different flags at either end of a fra$e ANS: A 15. The initials A*J are 'sed to designate: a. a'to$atic re+'est for resynchroni ation b. a'to$atic re+'est for retrans$ission ANS: B !7. A*J is 'sed to: a. correct bit errors b. correct synchroni ation "roble$s ANS: A !1. 6IC stands for: a. 6ixed Irror Control b. 6orward Irror Control ANS: C !!. D*C is another na$e for: a. 6IC b. A*J ANS: % !#. C*C stands for: a. Control *eceiver Code b. Correct *eceived Character ANS: C !&. H'ff$an codes: a. allow errors to be detected b't not corrected b. allow errors to be detected and corrected c. allow al"han'$eric data to be corrected c. Cyclic *ed'ndancy Chec< d. Cycle *e"eat Character c. C*C d. "arity c. 6orward Irror Correction d. 6alse Irror Condition c. "'t data into a te$"orary b'ffer d. none of the above c. a'to$atic receiver +'e'e d. a'to$atic re+'est for +'e'e c. 6IC d. A*J c. is identical to S%CC d. all of the above c. re+'ires the 'se of %CI d. all of the above

d. allow al"han'$eric data to be co$"ressed ANS: % !). *'n0length encoding is 'sed to: a. encry"t data b. co$"ress data ANS: B !/. >'blic0<ey encry"tion: a. allows the 'se of digital signat'res b. is 'sed to convey sy$$etric <eys ANS: % !1. S%CC stands for: a. Synchrono's %ata Cin< Control b. Synchrono's %ata Cine Control ANS: A !4. H%CC is: a. a bit0oriented "rotocol b. based on S%CC ANS: % COMPLETION 1. >arallel trans$ission can be 'sed only for ANS: short !. The ter$ 9ba'd9 was na$ed after I$il ANS: Ba'dot #. %ata codes are also called ANS: character &. The co$"'ters. ANS: ASC33 ). The two letters "age. ANS: 66 designate the code character 'sed to advance a "rinter to the next code is a 10bit code co$$only 'sed in co$$'nication between "ersonal codes. . distances. c. an 3SL standard d. all of the above c. Synchrono's %ata Cin< Character d. Synchrono's %ata Cine Character c. avoids the 9"assword "roble$9 d. all of the above c. correct data d. none of the above

/. An asynchrono's fra$e begins with the ANS: start 1. An asynchrono's fra$e ends with the ANS: sto" 4. At the end of an asynchrono's fra$e( the line will be at the ANS: $ar< binary 1 5. An integrated circ'it called a to convert between "arallel and serial data. ANS: EA*T 17. 2hen receiving digital data( ANS: b'ffers 11. Synchrono's co$$'nication is $ore 9overhead9 bits. ANS: efficient 1!. There $'st be s'fficient 10to07 trans$ission. ANS: transitions 1#. Cloc< sync is derived fro$ the strea$ of ANS: data 1&. 3n the ANS: B3SSNC 1). 3n H%CC( each fra$e starts with an 40bit ANS: flag 1/. The first eight bits of an S%CC fra$e are ANS: 71111117 11. BCC stands for chec< character.




is 'sed in an asynchrono's co$$'nication syste$

are 'sed to hold data 'ntil they can be read.

than asynchrono's since there are fewer

to $aintain synchroni ation in synchrono's

bits in synchrono's trans$ission.

"rotocol( each fra$e begins with at least two SSN characters.

ANS: bloc< 14. %CI stands for data lin< ANS: esca"e 15. H%CC 'ses bit0 ANS: st'ffing !7. ANS: B'rst !1. 6IC stands for ANS: forward !!. An ANS: A*J !#. >arity fails when an ANS: even !&. C*C codes are "artic'larly good at detecting ANS: b'rst !). H'ff$an coding and r'n0length encoding are exa$"les of data ANS: co$"ression !/. A ANS: ci"her !1. A ANS: "assword !4. 3f the <ey is ANS: long !5. Messages cannot be ANS: decry"ted #7. Beca'se it is 0intensive( "'blic0<ey encry"tion can be slow. 'sing a "'blic <ey. eno'gh( "rivate0<ey encry"tion can be +'ite sec're. is often 'sed to generate an encry"tion <ey beca'se it is easier to re$e$ber. is an encoding sche$e that is not "'blic in order to "rotect data. . errors. n'$ber of bits are in error. sche$e corrects errors by re+'iring the retrans$ission of bad bloc<s. error correction. errors ca'se $any consec'tive bits to be bad. to "revent accidental flags. .

ANS: co$"'tation SHORT NS!ER 1. How $any different characters co'ld be encoded 'sing a six0bit codeF ANS: /& !. 2hat is the n'$erical difference between ASC33 BaB and ASC33 BAB if yo' treat the$ as hexadeci$al :hex; n'$bersF ANS: !7 hex :#! deci$al; #. The ASC33 codes for the characters B7B thro'gh B5B are what hex n'$bersF ANS: #7H to #5H &. 3f an asynchrono's fra$e is 'sed to send ASC33 characters in the for$ of bytes :4 bits;( what is the shortest ti$e it co'ld ta<e to send 1777 characters if each bit in a fra$e is 1 $sec longF ANS: 17 seconds ). S'""ose an asynchrono's fra$e holds 4 bits of data( a "arity bit( and two sto" bits :it co'ld ha""en;. Calc'late the efficiency of the co$$'nication syste$. ANS: //.1Q /. S'""ose a synchrono's fra$e has 1/ bits of non0data in the front and a 1/0bit BCC at the end. The fra$e carries 17!& bytes of act'al data. Calc'late the efficiency of the co$$'nication syste$. ANS: 51.7Q

Chapter 11: Loca' rea Net2or3s

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. CSMA stands for: a. Client0Server M'lti0Access b. Carrier Sense M'lti"le Access ANS: B !. The C% in CSMA=C% stands for: a. Carrier %etection b. Carrier %elay ANS: C #. The 3nternet is: a. a networ< of networ<s b. a very large client0server networ< ANS: A &. Most CANs: a. are based on Ithernet b. 'se CSMA=C% ANS: % ). %'$b ter$inals are still 'sed: a. in to<en0"assing networ<s b. in networ<s re+'iring central $onitoring c. in networ<s that cannot "rovide central $onitoring d. none of the above ANS: B /. 3n a circ'it0switched networ<: a. co$$'nication is half0d'"lex only b. each channel carries only one data strea$ c. connection is 's'ally done 'sing a b's to"ology d. all of the above ANS: B 1. Iach co$"'ter on a networ< is called a: a. h'b b. to<en ANS: C 4. Co$"ared to CSMA=C% syste$s( to<en0"assing rings are: a. slower c. not as widely 'sed c. node d. circ'it c. 'se ET> cable d. all of the above c. a very large CSMA=C% networ< d. not really a networ< at all c. Collision %etection d. Collision %elay c. Carrier Server Master A""lication d. none of the above

b. $ore ex"ensive ANS: %

d. all of the above

5. The <ey feat're of a star networ< is that individ'al wor<stations are connected to: a. a central ring c. a node b. a central b's d. none of the above ANS: % 17. Ln networ<s( long $essages are divided into 9ch'n<s9 called: a. "ac<ets c. carriers b. nodes d. to<ens ANS: A 11. 2hen two or $ore >Cs try to access a baseband networ< cable at the sa$e ti$e( it is called: a. a collision c. excess traffic b. contention d. $'lti"le access ANS: B 1!. 2hen two >Cs send data over a baseband networ< cable at the sa$e ti$e( it is called: a. a collision c. excess traffic b. contention d. $'lti"le access ANS: A 1#. Lne ty"e of networ< that never has a collision is: a. CSMA c. to<en0"assing b. Ithernet d. all networ<s have collisions ANS: C 1&. 3n an Ithernet0based networ<( a switch can be 'sed to red'ce the n'$ber of: a. nodes c. "ac<ets b. 'sers d. collisions ANS: % 1). The effect of too $any collisions is: a. the networ< goes down b. the networ< slows down ANS: B 1/. MAE stands for: a. M'ltistation Access Enit b. M'lti"le Access Enit ANS: A 11. The standard that describes Ithernet0ty"e networ<s is: a. I3A !#! c. 3III 47!.# c. M'lti"le A'xiliary Enits d. none of the above c. the cable overheats d. data is lost

b. 3III &44.1 ANS: C 14. Ithernet was invented by: a. 3BM b. 3NTIC ANS: C

d. CC3TT 3TE0I

c. Yerox d. %igital I+'i"$ent Cor"oration

15. An Ithernet r'nning at 17 Mbits = second 'ses: a. Manchester encoding c. N*X encoding b. Three0Cevel encoding d. AM3 encoding ANS: A !7. A 177BaseT cable 'ses: a. fiber0o"tic cable b. twisted0"air co""er wires ANS: B !1. The word 9Base9 in 17BaseT $eans: a. the cable carries baseband signals b. the cable has a base s"eed of 17 Mb"s c. it can be 'sed as the base for a bac<bone cable syste$ d. none of the above ANS: A !!. The reason a CSMA=C% networ< has a $ini$'$ length for "ac<ets is: a. to increase the data rate b. to "revent "ac<ets fro$ reaching all other nodes d'ring trans$ission c. to $a<e s're all other nodes hear a collision in "rogress d. all of the above ANS: C !#. The reason a CSMA=C% networ< has a $axi$'$ length for cables is: a. to increase the data rate b. to "revent "ac<ets fro$ reaching all other nodes d'ring trans$ission c. to $a<e s're all other nodes hear a collision in "rogress d. all of the above ANS: C !&. N3C stands for: a. Networ< 3nterface Card b. Networ< 3nterface Cable ANS: A !). 17BaseT cable ty"ically 'ses: a. a BNC connector c. an *K&) connector c. Networ< 3nterface Code d. Networ< 3nternal Code c. *O0)4E coaxial cable d. )70oh$ coaxial cable

b. a T connector ANS: C !/. ET> stands for: a. Entwisted0>air co""er wire b. Enshielded Twisted0>air co""er wire ANS: B

d. an *S11 connector

c. Eninterr'"tible Ter$inal >ac<et d. Enicode Text >ac<et

!1. Co$"ared to twisted0"air tele"hone cables( CAT0) cables: a. are chea"er c. allow faster bit rates b. are easier to cri$" connectors onto d. all of the above ANS: C !4. A h'b: a. sends inco$ing "ac<ets o't to all other ter$inals connected to it b. sends inco$ing "ac<ets o't to s"ecific "orts c. cannot be 'sed in an Ithernet0ty"e networ< d. are $ore co$$on in to<en0"assing networ<s ANS: A !5. A switch: a. sends inco$ing "ac<ets o't to all other ter$inals connected to it b. sends inco$ing "ac<ets o't to s"ecific "orts c. cannot be 'sed in an Ithernet0ty"e networ< d. are $ore co$$on in to<en0"assing networ<s ANS: B #7. An advantage of 'sing a switch instead of a h'b is: a. it is chea"er when 'sed in large networ<s b. it is faster when 'sed in large networ<s c. it red'ces the n'$ber of collisions in large networ<s d. all of the above ANS: C #1. Broadband CANs: a. $od'late the data onto a carrier b. 'se coaxial cables c. are "rovided by cable TD co$"anies for 3nternet access d. all of the above ANS: % #!. Esing one node in the networ< to hold all the a""lication software is done in: a. "eer0to0"eer networ<s c. both a and b b. client0server networ<s d. none of the above ANS: B

##. *ecord loc<ing is 'sed to: a. store records sec'rely on a server b. "revent $'lti"le 'sers fro$ loo<ing at a doc'$ent si$'ltaneo'sly c. "revent one 'ser fro$ reading a record that another 'ser is writing to d. none of the above ANS: C #&. The software that r'ns a client0server networ< $'st be: a. EN3Y0based c. $'ltitas<ing b. 23N%L2S0based d. Novell certified ANS: C #). A 9thin9 client is: a. basically( a >C with no dis< drives b. a node that rarely sends data ANS: A COMPLETION 1. A CAN is a ANS: Cocal !. The 3nternet is a networ< of ANS: networ<s #. 3n a ANS: star &. 3n a of co$$'nications. ANS: circ'it ). The ANS: to"ology /. *ing networ<s often 'se ANS: to<en 1. A ANS: "ac<et is a short section of a $essage in digital for$. 0"assing. of a networ< describes how it is "hysically connected together. 0switched networ<( 'sers have a dedicated channel for the d'ration networ<( all nodes are connected to a central co$"'ter. . Area Networ<. c. sa$e as a 9d'$b9 ter$inal d. all of the above

4. ANS: Contention 5. A ANS: collision

is when two nodes try to sei e the sa$e cable at the sa$e ti$e.

occ'rs when two nodes trans$it si$'ltaneo'sly on the sa$e baseband cable.

17. 3n CSMA=C% networ<s( all collisions $'st be ANS: detected 11. Carrier0Sense $eans that a node 9listens9 for the cable to be ANS: +'iet free 'n'sed available 1!. A 9 ANS: bac<bone 1#. 177BaseT cables can reliably carry '" to ANS: 177 $ega 1&. 3n CSMA=C%( "ac<ets $'st have a ANS: $ini$'$ 1). 3n CSMA=C%( the ANS: length 1/. A 'ni+'e n'$erical address is "rovided to a node by its ANS: N3C 11. A 177BaseTY cable is a ANS: fiber0o"tic 14. H'bs can be ANS: stac<ed 15. A switch loo<s at the ANS: address to for$( in effect( one big h'b. cable. 9 cable lin<s cl'sters of co$"'ters together.

before 'sing it.

bits "er second.

length to ens're that collisions are detected.

of a cable is li$ited to ens're that collisions are detected.

of each inco$ing "ac<et.

!7. The effect of a switch is to greatly red'ce ANS: contention SHORT NS!ER 1. Ix"lain how a networ< can be a "hysical b's b't a logical ring.

ANS: A to<en0"assing networ< sends the to<en fro$ node to node in a "rescribed order. So it doesnBt $atter how the "hysical connection is $ade. 3t still wor<s li<e a to<en0"assing ring. !. 2hat is the <ey difference between a h'b and a switchF ANS: A h'b sends inco$ing "ac<ets o't to all other "orts on the h'b. A switch sends a "ac<et to a s"ecific "ort based on the address in the "ac<et. #. 2hat is the advantage of a CSMA=C% networ< over a basic star networ<F ANS: 3f the central co$"'ter in a star networ< fails( the entire networ< is ino"erative. 3f a node fails in a CSMA=C% networ<( it can be disconnected and the networ< still f'nctions. &. 2hy do CSMA=C% "ac<ets have a $ini$'$ si e li$itF ANS: 3f a "ac<et is too short( nodes at either end of a cable co'ld get on( send a "ac<et( and get off before the "ac<ets travel far eno'gh to collide. The collision wo'ld not be detected. ). 2hat is a N3C address( and why is it 'ni+'eF ANS: The address is a long binary n'$ber 9b'rned9 into a N3CBs $e$ory chi" at the factory. Iach factory 'ses a different se+'ence of n'$bers( so the chances of two N3Cs on the sa$e networ< having the sa$e address is extre$ely s$all.

Chapter 11: !ide# rea Net2or3s and the Internet

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. MAN stands for: a. Manchester Access Networ< b. M'lti"le0Area Networ< ANS: C !. >ac<et switching is based on: a. store0and0forward b. switched circ'its ANS: A #. SNA stands for: a. Standard Networ< Access b. S$all Networ< Access ANS: % &. The n'$ber of layers in 3SL LS3 is: a. # b. ) ANS: C ). The lowest0level layer in 3SL LS3 is called the: a. "hysical layer c. cable layer b. lin< layer d. trans"ort layer ANS: A /. Bad fra$es are 's'ally detected by the: a. fra$e layer b. "hysical layer ANS: % 1. A virt'al circ'it is set '" by the: a. 'ser b. lin< layer ANS: C 4. 6ra$e *elay: a. is faster than Y.!) b. does less error chec<ing than Y.!) ANS: % c. allows for variable length "ac<ets d. all of the above c. networ< d. fra$e c. error0chec< layer d. lin< layer c. 1 d. 4 c. Standard Networ< Architect're d. Syste$s Networ< Architect're c. real0ti$e delivery d. all of the above c. Metro"olitan0Area Networ< d. M'lti"le Access Networ<

5. ATM stands for: a. Asynchrono's Transfer Mode b. Asynchrono's Trans$ission Mode ANS: A

c. Asynchrono's Trans$ission Model d. A'to$atic Test Mode

17. A bridge: a. se"arates a networ< into 9collision do$ains9 b. loo<s at the address of each "ac<et c. o"erate at the data0lin< level d. all of the above ANS: % 11. 3> stands for: a. 3nternet >rocess b. 3nternet >rotocol ANS: B 1!. TC> stands for: a. Trans$ission Control >rocess b. Trans$ission Control >rotocol ANS: B 1#. Together( TC>=3> consists of: a. ) layers b. 1 layers ANS: A 1&. 3> is a: a. connection0oriented "rotocol b. virt'al circ'it ANS: C 1). The 9lifeti$e9 of a "ac<et in an 3> networ<: a. is essentially forever b. de"ends on ela"sed ti$e since trans$ission c. de"ends on n'$ber of 9ho"s9 between nodes d. is a""roxi$ately !77 $illiseconds ANS: C 1/. E%> stands for: a. Eser %atagra$ >rotocol b. Eser %ata >rotocol ANS: A 11. HTT> stands for: a. High0s"eed Trans$ission Test >roced're c. Eser %ata >ac<et d. Eniversal %ata >ac<et c. connectionless "rotocol d. non0rob'st "rotocol c. an a""lication and a "rocess d. datagra$s c. Transfer Connection >rotocol d. none of the above c. 3nterconnect >rotocol d. 3nterconnect >roced're

b. High0Cevel Transfer Test >roced're c. Hy"ertext Trans$ission and Trans"ort >roced're d. Hy"ertext Trans"ort >rotocol ANS: % 14. HTT> allows the 'se of: a. d'$b ter$inals b. file trans"ort ANS: C 15. HTMC stands for: a. Hy"ertext Mar<'" Cang'age b. Hy"ertext Transfer0Mode Cevel ANS: A !7. HTMC allows: a. telneting b. high0s"eed file transfer ANS: C !1. 6T> stands for: a. 6ile Transfer >rotocol b. 6ile Trans"ort >rotocol ANS: A !!. 6T> is 'sed to: a. transfer files between a server on the networ< and a 'ser b. test files to see if their data has been 9corr'"ted9 c. trans"ort "ac<ets at $axi$'$ s"eed thro'gh the networ< d. none of the above ANS: A !#. SMT> stands for: a. Short Message Trans"ort >rotocol b. Si$"le Message Trans"ort >rotocol ANS: C !&. 3S> stands for: a. 3nternet Service >rotocol b. 3nternet Service >rovider ANS: B !). The standard 3nternet address :or E*C; is: a. a #!0bit binary n'$ber b. fo'r gro'"s of base0ten n'$bers c. r'nning o't of available val'es d. all of the above c. 3nternet Service >roced're d. none of the above c. Si$"le Mail Trans"ort >rotocol d. Secondary Mail Transfer >roced're c. 6ile Test >roced're d. 6ast Trans"ort >ac<et c. web "age layo't d. all of the above c. Hy"ertext Transfer0Mode Cayer d. High0s"eed Transfer0Mode Cang'age c. browsers d. none of the above

ANS: % !/. %NS stands for: a. %o$ain Na$e Server b. %o$ain Na$e Syste$ ANS: A !1. A %NS: a. has beco$e obsolete on the 3nternet b. translates words to n'$bers c. stores all do$ain addresses d. describes the 3nternet address0na$ing "roced're ANS: B !4. An intranet connected to the 3nternet is often "rotected by: a. a %NS c. a 9firewall9 b. a 9bric< wall9 d. the 'se of 9s"oofing9 "rotocols ANS: C !5. LS3 stands for: a. L"en Syste$s 3nterconnection b. L"en Standard 3nterconnection ANS: A COMPLETION 1. A ANS: Metro"olitan !. A ANS: 2ide #. A dedicated tele"hone line can be ANS: leased &. The 'se of digital circ'it0 ANS: switched ). >ac<et switching is done on a store0and0 ANS: forward /. A is a hierarchy of "roced'res for i$"le$enting digital co$$'nications. networ<. lines is chea"er than dedicated lines. on a $onthly basis. 0Area Networ< co'ld extend across a nation. 0Area Networ< wo'ld extend ty"ically across a city. c. L"en Syste$s 3nternet d. none of the above c. %o$ain N'$bering Syste$ d. %o$ain Na$ing Syste$

ANS: "rotocol 1. Doltage levels on a cable are s"ecified at the ANS: "hysical 4. Bad fra$es are 's'ally detected at the ANS: data0lin< 5. Setting '" a "ath thro'gh the networ< is done by the ANS: networ< 17. The Y.!) "rotocol was develo"ed by the ANS: CC3TT 11. 3n Y.!)( the data0lin< layer is called the ANS: fra$e 1!. 3n Y.!)( the networ< layer is called the ANS: "ac<et 1#. The "hysical ro'te of a ANS: virt'al 1&. 6ra$e *elay re+'ires channels with low ANS: bit0error 1). Co$"ared to Y.!)( 6ra$e *elay does ANS: less 1/. All ATM fra$es contain A'st ANS: )# 11. S$all fra$e si e and a high0s"eed channel allow ANS: real 14. ANS: *e"eaters si$"ly regenerate and retrans$it "ac<ets in a networ<. 0ti$e co$$'nications. bytes. error chec<ing. rates. circ'it changes each ti$e it is 'sed. layer. layer. . layer. layer. layer.

15. ANS: Bridges !7. ANS: *o'ters !1. TC>=3> goes bac< to the ANS: A*>ANIT %A*>ANIT

loo< at the address inside a "ac<et to decide whether or not to retrans$it it.

decide the best networ< "ath on which to forward a "ac<et.

of the 1517s.

!!. Between 3SL LS3 and TC>=3>( ANS: TC>=3> !#. A ANS: connectionless !&. HTT> allows the 'se of ANS: hy"erlin<s !). The 3nternet 9bac<bone9 $ostly 'ses high0s"eed ANS: fiber0o"tic !/. A ANS: %NS !1. 3ntranets 's'ally connect to the 3nternet thro'gh a ANS: firewall !4. Doice over ANS: 3> !5. 9 ANS: Strea$ing

was 'sed first.

"rotocol does not trac< "ac<ets after they are sent.

that A'$" to other "ages on the web.


translates words in an 3nternet address to n'$bers.

for sec'rity.

is tele"hony done over the 3nternet.

9 is another ter$ for real0ti$e trans$ission over the 3nternet.

#7. Most "eo"le gain access to the 3nternet by s'bscribing to an ANS: 3S>

SHORT NS!ER 1. Na$e the three "arts of an 3> address as 'sed on the 3nternet. ANS: Networ< n'$ber( S'bnet n'$ber( Host n'$ber !. 2hy is a logical channel called a 9virt'al9 circ'itF ANS: A logical channel is a way of <ee"ing trac< of which two nodes on the networ< have $essages for each other. The act'al "hysical "ath can change while "ac<ets are being sent. Dirt'al $eans it behaves li<e direct circ'it between BAB and BBB( b't it is not a direct circ'it. #. 2hy is it faster to send "ac<ets of a fixed si e co$"ared to "ac<ets of variable si eF ANS: The "rocessing re+'ired to store and forward "ac<ets of different lengths is greater than that re+'ired for "ac<ets of a fixed length. More "rocessing i$"lies $ore ti$e "er "ac<et( which i$"lies fewer "ac<ets "er second thro'gh the networ<. &. 2hy are the tas<s involved in digital co$$'nications divided into layers in a "rotocol stac<F 2hy not A'st have one layer that does it allF ANS: %ivide and con+'er: it red'ces co$"lexity to a $anageable Aob. Lne big layer co'ld not be ada"ted to newer $edia etc as easily as a syste$ of inde"endent layers. Thin< of s'bro'tines in a co$"'ter "rogra$. ). 2hat is a 9ho"9F ANS: Ivery ti$e a "ac<et is forwarded on to the next store0and0forward node in the networ<( it is considered to be one 9ho"9. /. 2hat does it $ean to say a "ac<et has a lifeti$e $eas'red in ho"sF ANS: Iach "ac<et contains a n'$ber re"resenting the $axi$'$ n'$ber of allowed ho"s. At each ho"( this n'$ber is red'ced by one. 2hen it gets to ero( the "ac<et is deleted fro$ the networ<. 1. 2hy sho'ld "ac<ets have a lifeti$eF ANS: 3f they didnBt( then the n'$ber of 9lost9 "ac<ets traveling aro'nd the networ< wo'ld contin'o'sly increase. At so$e "oint( there wo'ld be no bandwidth left to carry real traffic.

Chapter 1": .i)ita' Modu'ation and Modems

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 6SH stands for: a. 6'll0Shift Heying b. 6re+'ency0Shift Heying ANS: B !. >SH stands for: a. >'lse0Signal Heying b. >'lse0Shift Heying ANS: % #. JAM stands for: a. J'adrat're A$"lit'de Mod'lation b. J'adrat're A$"lit'de Mas<ing ANS: A &. 3n the e+'ation I ? ktB( I is $eas'red in: a. a$"eres b. a$"eres "er second ANS: C ). 3n the e+'ation C ? !Blog!M( M is the: a. $argin of noise b. $od'lation index ANS: C /. An 9eye "attern9 shows a good channel when: a. the eye is $axi$ally o"en c. the eye is half o"en b. the eye is $axi$ally closed d. the eye alternately o"ens and closes ANS: A 1. 2hat yo' see in an eye "attern is the effect of: a. too $any bits high c. inter$od'lation distortion b. too $any bits low d. intersy$bol interference ANS: % 4. High0fre+'ency radiotelety"e syste$s co$$only 'se: a. 6SH c. >SH b. A6SH d. JAM ANS: A c. n'$ber of "ossible states "er sy$bol d. $axi$'$ n'$ber of sy$bols "er second c. bits d. bits "er second c. J'adrat're A$"lit'de Mar<ing d. none of the above c. >hase0Signal Heying d. >hase0Shift Heying c. 6'll0Signal Heying d. none of the above

5. 3nstead of a single bit( a J>SH sy$bol contains: a. a byte c. a dibit b. & bits d. a J0bit ANS: C 17. To red'ce the need for linearity( ,=& %J>SH 'ses: a. angles of 7( 57( 147( and !17 degrees c. angles of ,=&( !,=&( #,=&( and &,=& b. angles of &)( 1#)( !!)( and #1) degrees d. do'ble "hase0shift angles ANS: B 11. 6or JAM( a 9constellation diagra$9 shows: a. location of sy$bols in 9sy$bol s"ace9 b. se"aration of sy$bols in 9sy$bol s"ace9 ANS: % 1!. 6or JAM( the two di$ensions of its sy$bol s"ace are: a. a$"lit'de and fre+'ency c. fre+'ency and "hase angle b. a$"lit'de and "hase angle d. 30bits and J0bits ANS: B 1#. The s"ecs of the old Bell ty"e 17# $ode$ were: a. #77 b"s( f'll0d'"lex( 6SH c. 1!77 b"s( f'll0d'"lex( 6SH b. /77 b"s( f'll0d'"lex( 6SH d. 1!77 b"s( half0d'"lex( 6SH ANS: A 1&. 3TE is an abbreviation for: a. 3nternational Tele"hony Enit b. 3nternational Tele"hony Enion ANS: C 1). The 3TE is 'nder the a's"ices of: a. CC3TT b. the E.N. ANS: B 1/. High0s"eed $ode$s e+'ali e the line to co$"ensate for: a. noise and interference b. 'neven "hase and fre+'ency res"onse c. low SN* d. inconsistent bit rates at either end of channel ANS: B 11. The bits sent to allow e+'ali ation are called: a. Oa'ssian bits b. rando$ bits c. a training se+'ence d. a rando$ se+'ence c. 3III d. ANS3 c. 3nternational Teleco$$'nications Enion d. 3nternational Teleco$$'nications Enits c. effects of noise on sy$bols d. all of the above

ANS: C 14. The D.57 standard is iss'ed by: a. the I3A b. the T3A ANS: C 15. MN>!( MN>#( MN>&( and MN>17 are all: a. data0co$"ression sche$es b. error0correction "rotocols ANS: B !7. MN>) and D.&! bis are both: a. data0co$"ression sche$es b. error0correction "rotocols ANS: A !1. 3n *S0!#!( flow control is done 'sing: a. *TS=CTS handsha<e b. YLN=YL66 characters ANS: C !!. The official na$e for *S0!#!C is: a. *S0!#!C b. I3A0!#!% ANS: B !#. 3n *S0!#!( a $ode$ wo'ld be: a. a %T* b. a %S* ANS: C !&. 3n *S0!#!( a "ersonal co$"'ter wo'ld be: a. a %T* b. a %S* ANS: % !). Ln a %B05 *S0!#! connector( signal gro'nd is "in: a. 1 c. ) b. # d. 1 ANS: C !/. Ln a %B0!) *S0!#! connector( signal gro'nd is "in: a. 1 c. ) b. # d. 1 c. a %CI d. a %TI c. a %CI d. a %TI c. 3SL0!#!C=% d. ANS30!#!C c. both a and b d. none of the above c. both a and b d. none of the above c. both a and b d. none of the above c. the 3TE d. the 3SL

ANS: % !1. The $ini$'$ lines re+'ired for *S0!#! are: a. T% and *% b. T%( *%( and signal gro'nd ANS: B !4. Hardware flow control 'ses: a. YLN and YL66 b. T% and *% ANS: C !5. Software flow control 'ses: a. YLN and YL66 b. T% and *% ANS: A #7. 2hich voltage re"resents a binary ero on an *S0!#! data "in: a. @1) volts c. @5 volts b. @1! volts d. all of the above ANS: % #1. %SC stands for: a. %ata Signal Cine b. %igital Signal Cine ANS: C #!. A%SC stands for: a. Asynchrono's %SC b. Asy$$etrical %SC ANS: B ##. 3n a CATD syste$( H6C stands for: a. Head 6re+'ency Control b. Hybrid 6re+'ency Control ANS: C #&. 3n a CATD syste$( CMTS stands for: a. Cable Mode$ Ter$inal Server b. Cable Mode$ Trans$ission Syste$ ANS: A #). A 9s"litter9 at the s'bscriber end is not re+'ired for: a. Any %SC sche$e c. A%SC Cite b. A%SC d. none of the above c. Cable Mode$ Ter$inal Syste$ d. Cable Mode$ Trans$ission Server c. Hybrid 6iber0Coax d. Hybrid 6iber Control c. Analog %SC d. All %SC c. %igital S'bscriber Cine d. %o'ble0S"eed Coo" c. *TS and CTS d. %S* and %C% c. *TS and CTS d. %S* and %C% c. T%( *%( %S*( and signal gro'nd d. T%( *%( *TS( CTS( and signal gro'nd

ANS: C COMPLETION 1. *TS $eans *e+'est To ANS: Send !. The res"onse to *TS is ANS: CTS #. 6SH stands for 6re+'ency0Shift ANS: Heying &. %S* stands for ANS: %ata ). JAM stands for ANS: J'adrat're /. The n'$ber of sy$bols "er second is called the ANS: ba'd 1. The ! bits of infor$ation in a J>SH sy$bol is called a ANS: dibit 4. J>SH 'ses ANS: fo'r 5. %>SH stands for ANS: %elta 17. The JAM a$"lit'de0"hase co$binations are shown with a ANS: constellation 11. 3TE stands for 3nternational ANS: Teleco$$'nications 1!. 3n JAM $ode$s( line. coding adds extra bits to i$"rove "erfor$ance on a noisy Enion. diagra$. >SH. different "hase angles. . rate. A$"lit'de Mod'lation. Set *eady. . . .

ANS: Trellis 1#. res"onse on a line. ANS: I+'ali ation 1&. The $axi$'$ allowed s"eed for a $ode$ on a dial0'" line is abo't ANS: )&< 1). The no$inal $axi$'$ s"eed on an *S0!#! cable is ANS: !7< 1/. 3n *S0!#!( the being received. ANS: C% %C% *CS% 11. Between hardware flow control and software flow control( "referred. ANS: hardware 14. A voltage higher than ANS: # 15. A ANS: n'll !7. A%SC stands for ANS: Asy$$etrical !1. A ty"ical CATD syste$ is organi ed as a ANS: tree !!. 3n a CATD syste$ 'sing cable $ode$s( a onto a fiber0o"tic bac<bone. ANS: CMTS !#. is the "rocess of synchroni ing trans$itted data fro$ cable $ode$s to a CMTS. is 'sed to "'t several channels of data networ<. %SC. $ode$ cable is 'sed to connect two %TIs via their serial "orts. volts sho'ld be considered a high on an *S0!#! receiver. flow control is line is asserted when the analog carrier fro$ another $ode$ is b"s. b"s. is 'sed in a high0s"eed $ode$ to co$"ensate for 'neven fre+'ency and "hase

ANS: *anging !&. '" service. ANS: A%SC !). The ANS: lite !/. bins for A%SC. ANS: %MT !1. A %SCAM is a %SC Access ANS: M'lti"lexer SHORT NS!ER 1. Calc'late the bits "er second ca"acity of a syste$ sending 1777 sy$bols "er second with 1/ "ossible states "er sy$bol. ANS: &777 !. How $any "oints will be on the constellation diagra$ of a JAM syste$ 'sing 4 "hase angles and ! a$"lit'de levelsF ANS: 1/ #. A CATD syste$ has 177 cable0$ode$ c'sto$ers sharing a single channel with a data rate of #/ Mb"s. 3f half the $ode$s are active at any given ti$e( what bit rate can a c'sto$er ex"ectF ANS: 1!7 <b"s &. A %MT syste$ 'ses &.#0<H bins on a 10MH cable. A""roxi$ately how $any bins are thereF ANS: !#7 ). Ass'$ing a $axi$'$ sy$bol rate of &77 "er second( how $any "ossible states $'st a sy$bol have to achieve a data rate of 1!77 b"sF ANS: . $od'lation divides the line bandwidth into $any narrow bands called tones or version of A%SC does not re+'ire a s"litter at the s'bscriber end. syste$s send high0s"eed data over a >LTS line while sharing the line with dial0

Chapter 1&: Mu'tip'e4in) and Mu'tip'e# ccess Techni%ues

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. T%MA stands for: a. Ti$e %o$ain M'lti"le Access b. Ti$e0%ivision M'lti"le Access ANS: B !. C%MA stands for: a. Code0%ivision M'lti"le Access b. Carrier %ivision M'lti"le Access ANS: A #. T%MA is 'sed instead of T%M when: a. all the signals co$e fro$ the sa$e so'rce b. the signals co$e fro$ different so'rces c. T%M is 'sed in *6 co$$'nications d. they $ean the sa$e thing ANS: B &. 2hen calc'lating the $axi$'$ n'$ber of 'sers( a li$iting factor in 6%M is: a. the ty"e of $edia 'sed c. the bandwidth of each signal b. the length of the channel d. all of the above ANS: C ). A %S01 signal contains: a. 1! channels b. !& channels ANS: B /. The bit0rate of a %S01 signal over a T01 line is: a. /& <b"s c. 1.)#/ Mb"s b. !)/ <b"s d. 1.)&& Mb"s ANS: % 1. Besides data bits( a %S01 fra$e contains a: a. ti$ing bit b. T0bit ANS: % 4. 3n %S01( a bit is 9stolen9 o't of each channel: a. every fra$e b. every other fra$e c. every sixth fra$e d. every twelfth fra$e c. signaling bit d. fra$ing bit c. #! channels d. /& channels c. Co$"act %igital M'lti"lex Arrange$ent d. none of the above c. Tone %ivision M'lti"le Access d. none of the above

ANS: C 5. Moving signals fro$ one line to another is called: a. ti$e switching c. line switching b. s"ace switching d. cross0"oint switching ANS: B 17. Moving >CM sa$"les fro$ one ti$e0slot to another is called: a. ti$e switching c. signal switching b. s"ace switching d. cross"oint switching ANS: A 11. A digital s"ace switch is a: a. $'lti"lexer b. T%M switch ANS: % 1!. S"read0s"ectr'$ can be done by 'sing: a. co$"'ter0controlled fre+'ency re'se b. fre+'ency0ho""ing ANS: % 1#. The ter$ 9chi" rate9 is 'sed in describing: a. co$"'ter0controlled fre+'ency re'se b. fre+'ency0ho""ing ANS: C 1&. 6or a given data rate( direct0se+'ence syste$s( co$"ared to standard *6 syste$s( 'se: a. abo't the sa$e bandwidth c. $'ch less bandwidth b. $'ch $ore bandwidth d. a""roxi$ately do'ble the bandwidth ANS: B 1). 9>rocessing gain9 is another ter$ for: a. *6 gain b. co$"'ter s"eed ANS: C 1/. To calc'late "rocessing gain( divide the trans$itted *6 bandwidth by: a. the digital data bit rate c. the S=N ratio b. bandwidth of original baseband d. the chi" si e ANS: B 11. A receiver for fre+'ency0ho""ing s"read0s"ectr'$ wo'ld be: a. a narrowband receiver c. a direct0conversion receiver b. a wideband receiver d. a C%MA receiver c. s"reading gain d. i$"roved signal0to0noise ratio c. direct0se+'ence $ethod d. all of the above c. direct0se+'ence $ethod d. all of the above c. co$"'teri ed Strowger switch d. cross"oint switch

ANS: A 14. A receiver for direct0se+'ence s"read0s"ectr'$ wo'ld be: a. a narrowband receiver c. a direct0conversion receiver b. a wideband receiver d. a 9chi"0rate9 receiver ANS: B 15. C%MA: a. cannot be 'sed with fre+'ency0ho""ing s"read0s"ectr'$ b. cannot be 'sed with direct0se+'ence s"read0s"ectr'$ c. cannot be 'sed on an *6 channel d. allows $any trans$itters to 'se a band si$'ltaneo'sly ANS: % !7. 6or o"ti$al "erfor$ance( C%MA re+'ires the 'se of: a. orthogonal >N se+'ences c. tr'e0rando$ >N se+'ences b. non0orthogonal >N se+'ences d. none of the above ANS: A COMPLETION 1. M'lti"lexing allows $any signals to ANS: share !. Three $ethods of $'lti"le access are 6%MA( T%MA( and ANS: C%MA #. 3n 6%M( each signal 'ses "art of the bandwidth ANS: all &. 3n T%M( each signal 'ses all of the bandwidth ANS: "art ). Esing C%MA on a radio channel( all signals can trans$it ANS: all /. %S01 is an exa$"le of ANS: ti$e 1. The AM radio band is an exa$"le of ANS: fre+'ency 0division $'lti"lexing. 0division $'lti"lexing. of the ti$e. of the ti$e. of the ti$e. . a channel.

4. A %S01 fra$e contains one sa$"le fro$ each of ANS: !& 5. T1 'ses the ANS: AM3 17. Iach %S01 fra$e contains a total of ANS: 15# 11. A %S01 fra$e is trans$itted at a rate of ANS: 1.)&& Meg 1!. Iach sa$"le in a %S01 fra$e contains ANS: 4 1#. A gro'" of twelve %S01 fra$es is called a ANS: s'"erfra$e 1&. Switching signals fro$ one line to another is called ANS: s"ace 1). Moving >CM sa$"les fro$ one ti$e slot to another is called ANS: ti$e 1/. The dee" fades ca'sed by signal0cancellation d'e to reflection are called ANS: *ayleigh 11. A >N se+'ence is a ANS: "se'do 14. Lne $ethod of s"read0s"ectr'$ is fre+'ency ANS: ho""ing 15. 3t is ANS: diffic'lt !7. 3t is to eavesdro" on a s"read0s"ectr'$ signal. to Aa$ a s"read0s"ectr'$ signal. . 0rando$ noise se+'ence. . bits. bits. line code.


bits "er second.




ANS: diffic'lt !1. The extra bits added to the data in direct0se+'ence s"read0s"ectr'$ are called ANS: chi"s !!. A chi""ing0rate of at least ANS: ten !#. The BCB in C%MA stands for ANS: code !&. 3n a fre+'ency0ho""ing C%MA syste$( when no two trans$itters 'se the sa$e fre+'ency at the sa$e ti$e the >N se+'ences are said to be . ANS: orthogonal SHORT NS!ER 1. 2hat does HartleyBs Caw tell 's abo't the relationshi" between ti$e and bandwidth for digital trans$issionF ANS: The $ore bandwidth( the less ti$e it ta<es to send a given a$o'nt of infor$ation. So the $ore bandwidth available( the higher the "ossible bit rate. !. How $any signals co'ld fit into 1 MH of bandwidth if each signal re+'ired 177 <H of bandwidth and the se"aration between adAacent channels was 17 <H F ANS: 5 #. 2hy is it diffic'lt to Aa$ a s"read0s"ectr'$ signalF ANS: Ka$$ing re+'ires an interference signal of s'fficient "ower in the sa$e "art of the s"ectr'$ the infor$ation signal occ'"ies. Beca'se a s"read0s"ectr'$ signal is( by definition( s"read o't over a very wide bandwidth( Aa$$ing can interfere with only a s$all fraction of the total signal. &. 2hy is it diffic'lt to eavesdro" on a s"read0s"ectr'$ signalF ANS: 3n a s"read0s"ectr'$ trans$ission( the signal "ower at any given fre+'ency in its band is so low that it is virt'ally indisting'ishable fro$ noise. An eavesdro""er wo'ld not <now a signal was being sent. And witho't <nowing the exact se+'ence being 'sed( it is virt'ally i$"ossible to 9de0s"read9 the signal. ). 2hy is a'tocorrelation 'sed to receive direct0se+'ence s"read0s"ectr'$ signalsF . ti$es the bit rate of the data is co$$on. .

ANS: A'tocorrelation allows a signal to be 9"'lled o't of9 the noise even when the signal0to0noise ratio is less than one( as it is in s"read0s"ectr'$. /. 2hat is $eant by 9orthogonal se+'ences9 in C%MAF ANS: %'ring trans$ission( the >N se+'ences deter$ine which "arts of the available bandwidth the s"read0 s"ectr'$ signal will occ'"y. Ass'$e yo' have two >N se+'ences: >N1 and >N!. At so$e "oint in ti$e( s'""ose >N1 wo'ld ca'se a trans$ission to occ'"y fre+'encies f11( f1!( f1#( and so forth. Now s'""ose >N! wo'ld ca'se the trans$ission to occ'"y fre+'encies f!1( f!!( f!#( and so forth. 3f the two sets of fre+'encies( :f11( f1!( f1#( ...; and :f!1( f!!( f!#( ...;( have no fre+'encies in co$$on( then the two >N se+'ences are said to be orthogonal.

Chapter 1(: Transmission Lines

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. S2* stands for: a. Shorted 2ave *adiation b. Sine 2ave *es"onse ANS: % !. T%* stands for: a. Total %istance of *eflection b. Ti$e0%o$ain *eflecto$eter ANS: B #. An exa$"le of an 'nbalanced line is: a. a coaxial cable b. #770oh$ twin0lead TD cable ANS: A &. 2hen analy ing a trans$ission line( its ind'ctance and ca"acitance are considered to be: a. l'$"ed c. e+'al reactances b. distrib'ted d. ideal ele$ents ANS: B ). As fre+'ency increases( the resistance of a wire: a. increases c. stays the sa$e b. decreases d. changes "eriodically ANS: A /. The effect of fre+'ency on the resistance of a wire is called: ! a. I R loss c. the s<in effect b. the Lh$ic effect d. there is no s'ch effect ANS: C 1. As fre+'ency increases( the loss in a cableBs dielectric: a. increases c. stays the sa$e b. decreases d. there is no loss in a dielectric ANS: A 4. The characteristic i$"edance of a cable de"ends on: a. the resistance "er foot of the wire 'sed b. the resistance "er foot and the ind'ctance "er foot c. the resistance "er foot and the ca"acitance "er foot d. the ind'ctance "er foot and the ca"acitance "er foot c. an o"en0wire0line cable d. all of the above c. Ti$e0%o$ain *es"onse d. Trans$ission %elay *atio c. Shorted 2ire *egion d. none of the above

ANS: % 5. 6or best $atching( the load on a cable sho'ld be: a. lower than Z7 c. e+'al to Z7 b. higher than Z7 d. )7 oh$s ANS: C 17. The characteristic i$"edance of a cable: a. increases with length b. increases with fre+'ency ANS: % 11. The velocity factor of a cable de"ends $ostly on: a. the wire resistance c. the ind'ctance "er foot b. the dielectric constant d. all of the above ANS: B 1!. A "ositive voltage "'lse sent down a trans$ission line ter$inated in a short0circ'it: a. wo'ld reflect as a "ositive "'lse b. wo'ld reflect as a negative "'lse c. wo'ld reflect as a "ositive "'lse followed by a negative "'lse d. wo'ld not reflect at all ANS: B 1#. A "ositive voltage "'lse sent down a trans$ission line ter$inated with its characteristic i$"edance: a. wo'ld reflect as a "ositive "'lse b. wo'ld reflect as a negative "'lse c. wo'ld reflect as a "ositive "'lse followed by a negative "'lse d. wo'ld not reflect at all ANS: % 1&. A "ositive voltage0"'lse sent down a trans$ission line ter$inated in an o"en0circ'it: a. wo'ld reflect as a "ositive "'lse b. wo'ld reflect as a negative "'lse c. wo'ld reflect as a "ositive "'lse followed by a negative "'lse d. wo'ld not reflect at all ANS: A 1). The o"ti$'$ val'e for S2* is: a. ero b. one ANS: B 1/. A non0o"ti$'$ val'e for S2* will ca'se: a. standing waves b. loss of "ower to load c. higher voltage "ea<s on cable d. all of the above c. as large as "ossible d. there is no o"ti$'$ val'e c. increases with voltage d. none of the above

ANS: % 11. DS2* stands for: a. variable S2* b. vac''$ S2* ANS: C 14. The i$"edance 9loo<ing into9 a $atched line: a. is infinite c. is the characteristic i$"edance b. is ero d. )7 oh$s ANS: C 15. A S$ith Chart is 'sed to calc'late: a. trans$ission line i$"edances b. "ro"agation velocity ANS: A !7. Co$"ared to a #770oh$ line( the loss of a )70oh$ cable carrying the sa$e "ower: a. wo'ld be less c. wo'ld be the sa$e b. wo'ld be $ore d. cannot be co$"ared ANS: B !1. A balanced load can be connected to an 'nbalanced cable: a. directly c. by 'sing a 9bal'n9 b. by 'sing a filter d. cannot be connected ANS: C !!. Ln a S$ith Chart( yo' 9nor$ali e9 the i$"edance by: a. ass'$ing it to be ero c. $'lti"lying it by it by Z7 b. dividing it by ! d. dividing ! ANS: % !#. The radi's of the circle yo' draw on a S$ith Chart re"resents: a. the voltage c. the i$"edance b. the c'rrent d. none of the above ANS: % !&. The center of the S$ith Chart always re"resents: a. ero c. the characteristic i$"edance b. one d. none of the above ANS: C !). A T%* is co$$only 'sed to: a. $eas're the characteristic i$"edance of a cable b. find the "osition of a defect in a cable c. o"ti$'$ length of a trans$ission line d. trans$ission line losses c. voltage S2* d. none of the above

c. re"lace a slotted0line d. all of the above ANS: B COMPLETION 1. A cable that lac<s sy$$etry with res"ect to gro'nd is called ANS: 'nbalanced !. >arallel lines are 's'ally o"erated as res"ect to gro'nd. ANS: balanced #. Nor$ally( a trans$ission line is ter$inated with a load e+'al to its ANS: characteristic &. Twisted0"air cables are trans$ission lines for relatively ANS: low ). To analy e a trans$ission line( it is necessary to 'se l'$"ed ones. ANS: distrib'ted /. The increase of a wireBs resistance with fre+'ency is called the ANS: s<in 1. The increase of a wireBs resistance with fre+'ency is ca'sed by the the wire. ANS: $agnetic 4. %ielectrics beco$e $ore ANS: lossy 5. The ind'ctance and ca"acitance of a cable are given "er 'nit ANS: length 17. Characteristic i$"edance is so$eti$es called ANS: s'rge i$"edance. . as the fre+'ency increases. field inside effect. "ara$eters instead of fre+'encies. i$"edance. lines since both wires are sy$$etrical with .

11. A cable that is ter$inated in its characteristic i$"edance is called a ANS: $atched 1!. A "'lse sent down a cable ter$inated in a short0circ'it will reflect with the "olarity. ANS: o""osite 1#. The a""arently stationary "attern of waves on a $is$atched cable is called a wave. ANS: standing 1&. S2* stands for ANS: standing 1). The ideal val'e for S2* is ANS: one 1/. Trans$ission line i$"edances can be fo'nd 'sing a ANS: S$ith 11. Short trans$ission0line sections called ANS: st'bs 14. Any cable that radiates energy can also ANS: absorb 15. A ANS: # !7. 3t is often best to $eas're S2* at the ANS: load !1. Besides heat fro$ I R( the "ower a cable can carry is li$ited by the its dielectric. ANS: brea<down !!. To nor$ali e an i$"edance on a S$ith Chart( yo' divide it by ANS: Z7 .


0wave ratio.


can be 'sed as ca"acitors or ind'ctors.


0dB loss in a cable $eans only half the "ower sent reaches the load.

end of a cable.

voltage of

!#. The ANS: center !&. A ANS: one0+'arter

of a S$ith Chart always re"resents the characteristic i$"edance.

wavelength trans$ission line can be 'sed a transfor$er.

!). A slotted line is 'sed to $a<e $eas're$ents in the ANS: fre+'ency SHORT NS!ER


1. A trans$ission line has !.) "6 of ca"acitance "er foot and 177 nH of ind'ctance "er foot. Calc'late its characteristic i$"edance. ANS: Z7 ? !77 oh$s !. Two wires with air as a dielectric are one inch a"art. The dia$eter of the wire is .7& inch. Calc'late( a""roxi$ately( its characteristic i$"edance. ANS: #4/ oh$s #. 3f a coaxial cable 'ses "lastic ins'lation with a dielectric constant ? !./ ( what is the velocity factor for the cableF ANS: 7./! &. 3f a cable has a velocity factor of 7.4( how long wo'ld it ta<e a signal to travel #777 <ilo$eters along the cableF ANS: 1!.) $s ). 3f a cable has a velocity factor of 7.4( what length of cable is re+'ired for a 57P "hase shift at 177 MH F ANS: 7./ $eters /. A cable has a DS2* of 17. 3f the $ini$'$ voltage along the cable is !7 volts( what is the $axi$'$ voltage along the cableF ANS: !77 volts

1. A lossless line has a characteristic i$"edance of )7 oh$s( b't is ter$inated with a 1)0oh$ resistive load. 2hat S2* do yo' ex"ect to $eas'reF ANS: 1.) 4. 3f a cable has an S2* of 1.)( what will be the absol'te val'e of its voltage coefficient of reflectionF ANS: 7.! 5. A generator $atched to a line with a voltage coefficient of reflection e+'al to 7.! trans$its 177 watts into the line. How $'ch "ower is act'ally absorbed by the loadF ANS: 5/ watts 17. Esing a S$ith Chart to analy e a )70oh$ cable( what wo'ld be the nor$ali ed val'e of an i$"edance e+'al to !77 @ !)7 oh$sF ANS: & @ !1

Chapter 1*: Radio#!a,e Propa)ation

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. *adio waves were first "redicted $athe$atically by: a. Ar$strong c. Maxwell b. Hert d. Marconi ANS: C !. *adio waves were first de$onstrated ex"eri$entally by: a. Ar$strong c. Maxwell b. Hert d. Marconi ANS: B #. The technology that $ade cell "hones "ractical was: a. the $icro"rocessor chi" c. high0"ower $icrowave trans$itters b. the $iniat're cell0site d. all of the above ANS: A &. Cell "hones red'ce $'ch of the "roble$s of $obile co$$'nications with: a. high "ower levels c. re'se of fre+'encies b. high antennas d. all of the above ANS: C ). 2hich of the following are electro$agnetic: a. radio waves b. light ANS: % /. The electric and $agnetic fields of a radio wave are: a. "er"endic'lar to each other c. both a and b b. "er"endic'lar to the direction of travel d. none of the above ANS: C 1. TIM stands for: a. Transverse Ilectro$agnetic b. Trans$itted Ilectro$agnetic ANS: A 4. 3n free s"ace( radio waves travel at a s"eed of: a. # - 17/ $eters "er second c. # - 17/ $iles "er second / d. #77 - 17/ $iles "er second b. #77 - 17 $eters "er second ANS: B c. Tr'e Ilectro$agnetic d. none of the above c. ga$$a waves d. all of the above

5. 2hich is a "ossible "olari ation for an electro$agnetic wave: a. vertical c. circ'lar b. hori ontal d. all of the above ANS: % 17. 2hich "olari ation can be reasonably well received by a circ'larly "olari ed antenna: a. vertical c. circ'lar b. hori ontal d. all of the above ANS: % 11. The n'$ber of circ'lar "olari ation $odes :directions; is: a. 1 c. # b. ! d. $any ANS: B 1!. An antenna has 9gain9 as co$"ared to: a. an isotro"ic radiator b. a vertically "olari ed radiator ANS: A 1#. I3*> stands for: a. the I and 3 fields of the *adiated >ower b. the Iffective 3sotro"ic *adiated >ower c. the Iffective 3nternal *eflected >ower d. the Ilectric0field 3ntensity of the *adiated >ower ANS: B 1&. The 9atten'ation of free s"ace9 is d'e to: a. losses in the characteristic i$"edance of free s"ace b. losses d'e to absor"tion in the '""er at$os"here c. the decrease in energy "er s+'are $eter d'e to ex"ansion of the wavefront d. the decrease in energy "er s+'are $eter d'e to absor"tion of the wavefront ANS: C 1). Oro'nd waves are $ost effective: a. below abo't ! MH b. above abo't !7 MH ANS: A 1/. *adio waves wo'ld $ost strongly reflect off: a. a flat ins'lating s'rface of the right si e b. a flat dielectric s'rface of the right si e ANS: C 11. *adio waves so$eti$es 9bend9 aro'nd a corner beca'se of: a. reflection c. refraction c. a flat $etallic s'rface of the right si e d. a flat body of water c. at $icrowave fre+'encies d. when 'sing hori ontally "olari ed waves c. a gro'nd0wave antenna d. none of the above

b. diff'sion ANS: %

d. diffraction

14. S"ace waves are: a. line0of0sight b. reflected off the ionos"here c. sa$e as s<y waves d. radio waves 'sed for satellite co$$'nications ANS: A 15. S<y waves: a. are line0of0sight b. 9bo'nce9 off the ionos"here c. are sa$e as s"ace waves d. are radio waves 'sed for satellite co$$'nications ANS: B !7. S<y waves cannot be 9heard9: a. close to the trans$itter b. far fro$ the trans$itter ANS: % !1. A !70dB red'ction in the strength of a radio wave d'e to reflection is called: a. fading c. fre+'ency diversity b. diffraction d. s"atial diversity ANS: A !!. 9Ohosts9 on a TD screen are an exa$"le of: a. fading b. diffraction ANS: C !#. A 9re"eater9 is 'sed to: a. send a $essage $'lti"le ti$es over a channel b. send a $essage over $'lti"le channels at the sa$e ti$e c. extend the range of a radio co$$'nications syste$ d. cancel the effects of fading ANS: C !&. Cell'lar "hone syste$s rely on: a. high "ower b. re"eaters ANS: % !). 3f the n'$ber of cell0"hone 'sers within a cell increases above so$e li$it: a. the cell area is increased c. the "ower levels are increased c. the radio hori on d. the re'se of fre+'encies c. $'lti"ath distortion d. cancellation d'e to reflection c. in the 9silent9 one d. in the 9s<i"9 one

b. the cell area is s"lit ANS: B

d. the n'$ber of channels is red'ced

!/. As a cell0"hone 'ser "asses fro$ one cell to another: a. a 9handoff9 "rocess occ'rs c. both cells will handle the call b. a 9sectoring9 "rocess occ'rs d. nothing occ'rs ANS: A !1. To receive several data strea$s at once( a C%MA s"read0s"ectr'$ syste$ 'ses: a. a 9f'nnel9 receiver c. $'lti"le receivers b. a 9ra<e9 receiver d. none of the above ANS: B !4. The tro"os"here is the: a. highest layer of the at$os"here b. $iddle layer of the at$os"here ANS: C !5. Meteor0trail "ro"agation is: a. 'sed for radio tele"hony b. 'sed to send data by radio ANS: B COMPLETION 1. *adio waves were $athe$atically "redicted by ANS: Maxwell !. *adio waves were first de$onstrated by ANS: Hert #. *adio waves are ANS: transverse &. The "ro"agation s"eed of radio waves in free s"ace is ANS: #77 - 17

c. lowest layer of the at$os"here d. the $ost ioni ed layer of the at$os"here

c. also called 9d'cting9 d. not "ossible

electro$agnetic waves.


). Ilectro$agnetic radiation can be tho'ght of as a strea$ of "articles called ANS: "hotons /. Enli<e so'nd or water waves( radio waves do not need a

to travel thro'gh.

ANS: $edi'$ 1. The dielectric strength of clean dry air is abo't ANS: # - 17

volts "er $eter.

4. 2aves fro$ an ANS: isotro"ic

so'rce radiate e+'ally in all directions.

5. The wavefront of a "oint so'rce wo'ld have the sha"e of a ANS: s"here 17. At a far distance fro$ the so'rce( a radio wavefront loo<s li<e a flat ANS: "lane 11. The "olari ation of a radio wave is the direction of its ANS: electric 1!. The electric field of a radio wave is ANS: "er"endic'lar 1#. Both the electric and $agnetic fields of a radio wave are direction. ANS: "er"endic'lar 1&. 2ith travels thro'gh s"ace. ANS: circ'lar 1). An antenna is said to have direction than in other directions. ANS: gain 1/. The watts "er s+'are $eter of a radio wave s"ace. ANS: decrease 11. *eflection of "lane0waves fro$ a s$ooth s'rface is called ANS: s"ec'lar to its $agnetic field.



to its "ro"agation

"olari ation( the direction of a radio waveBs electric field rotates as it

in a certain direction if it radiates $ore "ower in that

as the wave0front $oves thro'gh


14. different dielectrics. ANS: *efraction 15. The "rocess of ANS: diffraction !7. ANS: S"ace !1. ANS: Oro'nd !!. ANS: S<y !#. The ANS: s<i"

is the 9bending9 of radio waves as they travel across the bo'ndary between two

$a<es radio waves a""ear to 9bend aro'nd a corner9.

waves travel fro$ trans$itter to receiver in a 9line0of0sight9 fashion.

waves are vertically "olari ed radio waves that travel along the earthBs s'rface.

waves are radio waves that 9bo'nce off9 the ionos"here d'e to refraction.

one is a region where s<y waves cannot be received.

!&. 9Ohosts9 on a TD screen are an exa$"le of ANS: $'lti"ath !). The 9fast fading9 seen in $obile co$$'nications is ca'sed by with direct waves. ANS: reflected !/. Cell "hones ty"ically o"erate at a ANS: low !1. The ANS: re'se !4.


waves interfering

"ower level.

of fre+'encies allows $any cell0"hone 'sers to share a geogra"hical area.

is when a cell0site 'ses three directional antennas( each covering a third of the cell area( to red'ce interference. ANS: Sectoring

!5. The 'se of ANS: $icro"rocessor

chi"s $a<es cell "hones a "ractical technology.

SHORT NS!ER 1. A certain dielectric has "er$ittivity of /.# - 17 the characteristic i$"edance of that dielectricF ANS: &) oh$s !. 3f a "oint so'rce of radio waves trans$its 1 watt( what is the "ower density 17(777 $eters fro$ the so'rceF ANS: ! 15/ "2=$ #. 2hat "ower $'st a "oint0so'rce of radio waves trans$it so that the "ower density at #777 $eters fro$ ! the so'rce is 1 G2=$ F ANS: 11# watts &. 3f a radio receiver needs 1 n2=$ of "ower density to f'nction( how far away fro$ a 10watt "oint so'rce will it contin'e to wor<F ANS: 4.5 <$ ). A line0of0sight radio lin< over flat terrain needs to 'se antenna towers )7 <$ a"art. 2hat( a""roxi$ately( is the $ini$'$ height for the towers ass'$ing all the towers are the sa$eF ANS: #1 $eters /. A $obile radio is being 'sed at 1 OH in an 'rban environ$ent with lots of reflecting str'ct'res. 3f the car is traveling #/ <$=ho'r( what is the ex"ected ti$e between fadesF ANS: 1) $sec
! N17

6=$ and the sa$e "er$eability as free s"ace. 2hat is

Chapter 1+: ntenna

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The real "art of an antennaBs in"'t i$"edance is d'e to: a. the radiated signal c. the S2* b. the reflected signal d. all of the above ANS: A !. A half0wave di"ole is so$eti$es called: a. a Marconi antenna b. a Hert antenna ANS: B #. The end0to0end length of a half0wave di"ole antenna is act'ally: a. one wavelength c. slightly longer than a half0wavelength b. one half0wavelength d. slightly shorter than a half0wavelength ANS: % &. The radiation of energy fro$ an antenna can be seen in the: a. standing wave "attern aro'nd the antenna c. radiation resistance of the antenna ! b. S2* along the feed cable d. I R loss of the antenna ANS: C ). Meas'red on the gro'nd( the field strength of a hori ontally "olari ed half0wave di"ole antenna is strongest: a. in one direction c. in all directions b. in two directions d. de"ends on the n'$ber of ele$ents ANS: B /. The ability of an antenna to radiate $ore energy in one direction than in other directions is called: a. directivity c. active antenna b. selectivity d. resonance ANS: A 1. The front0to0bac< ratio of a half0wave di"ole antenna is: a. 7 dB c. 17 dB b. # dB d. infinite ANS: A 4. An antennaBs bea$width is $eas'red: a. fro$ @57P to N57P b. fro$ front to bac< c. between half0"ower "oints d. between the $inor side0lobes c. a Sagi antenna d. none of the above

ANS: C 5. I*> stands for: a. I+'ivalent *adiation >attern b. Iffective *adiation >attern ANS: % 17. 9Oro'nd Iffects9 refers to the effects on an antennaBs radiation "attern ca'sed by: a. radio signals reflecting off the gro'nd b. b'ildings and other str'ct'res on the gro'nd c. fading d. fa'lty connection of the feed cable gro'nd ANS: A 11. A 10MH $ono"ole antenna $'st be: a. $o'nted vertically b. $o'nted hori ontally ANS: A 1!. The ty"ical antenna in an AM radio is a: a. di"ole b. folded di"ole ANS: C 1#. The "olari ation of "lane waves received fro$ a satellite is changed by: a. ga$$a rays c. helical rotation b. 6araday *otation d. the distance traveled ANS: B 1&. A nonresonant antenna: a. will not trans$it b. will not receive ANS: C 1). At resonance( the in"'t i$"edance to a lossless antenna sho'ld be: a. resistive c. ca"acitive b. ind'ctive d. infinite ANS: A 1/. An antenna can be $atched to a feed line 'sing: a. a shorted st'b c. an CC networ< b. a loading coil d. all of the above ANS: % 11. As the length of a 9long0wire9 antenna is increased: a. the n'$ber of lobes increases c. efficiency decreases c. will ca'se S2* on the feed cable d. all of the above c. ferrite 9loo"0stic<9 d. none of the above c. at least one half0wavelength long d. at least one wavelength long c. I+'ivalent *adiated >ower d. Iffective *adiated >ower

b. the n'$ber of nodes decreases ANS: A 14. Arrays can be: a. "hased b. driven ANS: %

d. none of the above

c. "arasitic d. all of the above

15. An array with one driven ele$ent( a reflector( and one or $ore directors is called a: a. Marconi c. Cog0>eriodic %i"ole b. Sagi d. stac<ed array ANS: B !7. C>%A stands for: a. Cow0>ower %i"ole Array b. Cow0>ower %irected Array ANS: C !1. The radiated bea$ fro$ a "arabolic 9dish9 trans$itting antenna is: a. colli$ated c. dis"ersed b. "hased d. none of the above ANS: A !!. The energy "ic<ed '" by a "arabolic antenna is concentrated at the: a. center c. foc's b. edges d. horn ANS: C !#. Antennas are often tested in: a. an echo cha$ber b. an anechoic cha$ber ANS: B !&. 6ield strength at a distance fro$ an antenna is $eas'red with: a. a slotted line c. an I3*> $eter b. a di"ole d. a field0strength $eter ANS: % COMPLETION 1. An antenna is the interface between the trans$ission line and ANS: s"ace !. Hert antenna is another na$e for a half0wave . . c. a vac''$ cha$ber d. an *6 reflective cha$ber c. Cog0>eriodic %i"ole Array d. Cog >ower %i"ole Array

ANS: di"ole #. The length of a half0wave di"ole is abo't ANS: 5) &. The resistance is the "ortion of an antennaBs in"'t i$"edance d'e to trans$itted radio waves leaving the antenna. ANS: radiation ). 3n"'t i$"edance at the center feed "oint of a resonant half0wave di"ole is abo't [. ANS: 17 /. 3n"'t i$"edance at the center feed "oint of a resonant folded di"ole is abo't ANS: !47 N #77 1. The vertical angle of radiation is called the angle of ANS: elevation 4. Antenna radiation "atterns are ty"ically drawn on gra"hs with ANS: "olar 5. As co$"ared to a ANS: "oint isotro"ic 17. Antenna gain $eas'red in ANS: dBd 11. ANS: %irectivity 1!. The front0to0bac< ratio of a half0wave di"ole is ANS: 7 1#. The ANS: bea$width of a directional antenna is the angle between its half0"ower "oints. dB. is the sa$e as the gain for a lossless antenna. is with reference to a half0wave di"ole. so'rce( a half0wave di"ole has a gain of abo't ! dBi. coordinates. . [. Q of a half0wave in free s"ace.

1&. I*> stands for ANS: effective

radiated "ower.

1). I*> is the "ower in"'t to the antenna $'lti"lied by the antennaBs ANS: gain 1/. A ANS: bal'n 11. A hori ontally $o'nted di"ole will radiate waves with ANS: hori ontal 14. A folded di"ole has ANS: wider greater $ore 15. A $ono"ole antenna is ty"ically $o'nted in the ANS: vertical !7. The length of a ty"ical $ono"ole antenna is ANS: one0+'arter 1=& !1. A $ono"ole antenna $o'nted high on a tower ty"ically 'ses a ANS: gro'nd !!. A vertical antenna has an ANS: o$nidirectional !#. The n'$ber of driven ele$ents in a Sagi antenna is ty"ically ANS: one !&. The reflector on a Sagi antenna is called a ANS: "arasitic !). An C>%A is a di"ole array. ele$ent. . wavelength. direction. bandwidth than a standard di"ole.

is re+'ired to connect a coaxial cable to a center0fed di"ole antenna.

"olari ation.


radiation "attern for gro'nd0based receivers.

ANS: log0"eriodic !/. 3f an C>%A had five ele$ents( the n'$ber of driven ele$ents it had wo'ld be ANS: five !1. All the waves that hit the s'rface of a "arabolic antenna $erge at the ANS: foc's !4. A ANS: colli$ated !5. A $icrowave ANS: horn #7. An ANS: anechoic SHORT NS!ER 1. Calc'late the "hysical length of a half0wave di"ole for 'se at #77 MH . ANS: &1) $illi$eters !. How $'ch "ower will a 5)Q efficient antenna radiate if driven with 177 wattsF ANS: 5) watts #. 3f an antenna has 17.1& dB of gain co$"ared to a "oint so'rce( how $'ch gain does it have co$"ared to a half0wave di"oleF ANS: 4 dB &. 2hat is the I*> of an antenna with 17 dBd of gain and driven by one wattF ANS: 17 watts ). A resonant antenna has an in"'t i$"edance of 177 oh$s and is driven by 177 watts. 2hat is the *MS c'rrent in the antennaF ANS: 1 a$"ere cha$ber is often 'sed to test $icrowave antennas. antenna is essentially an extension of a waveg'ide. bea$ has all its individ'al rays "arallel to each other. . .

/. A resonant antenna has an in"'t i$"edance of 177 oh$s and is driven by 177 watts. 2hat is the *MS voltage at the feed0"oint of the antennaF ANS: 177 volts

Chapter 1-: Micro2a,e .e,ices

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The $icrowave fre+'ency range is considered to start at: a. 177 MH c. 17 OH b. 1 OH d. 177 OH ANS: B !. The EH6 range is: a. below the $icrowave range b. inside the $icrowave range ANS: A #. The do$inant $ode of a waveg'ide de"ends on: a. the sha"e of the waveg'ide c. the "oint of signal inAection b. the "ower level of the signal d. none of the above ANS: A &. The do$inant $ode of a rectang'lar waveg'ide is: a. TI 71 c. TI 17 b. TM 71 d. TM17 ANS: C ). The do$inant $ode of a circ'lar waveg'ide is: a. TI 71 c. TI 11 b. TM 71 d. TM11 ANS: C /. Circ'lar waveg'ides 'se TM 71 $ode beca'se: a. it is do$inant c. it is the only $ode "ossible b. of its circ'lar sy$$etry d. it is $ore efficient ANS: B 1. The characteristic i$"edance of a waveg'ide: a. is fixed b. de"ends on the fre+'ency it carries c. de"ends on the longer di$ension of its cross section d. both b and c ANS: % 4. >ower can be co'"led into or o't of a waveg'ide: a. with a $agnetic field "robe c. thro'gh a hole in the waveg'ide b. with an electric field "robe d. all of the above c. above the $icrowave range d. sa$e as the $icrowave range

ANS: % 5. %irectional co'"lers for waveg'ides are characteri ed by: a. their insertion loss c. their directivity b. their co'"ling s"ecification d. all of the above ANS: % 17. Stri"lines and $icrostri"s are 'sed to: a. co'"le sections of waveg'ide b. co'"le waveg'ides to antennas ANS: C 11. A resonant cavity is a ty"e of: a. t'ned circ'it b. defect in a waveg'ide ANS: A 1!. A TII connector 'sed with waveg'ides is: a. an H0"lane TII b. an I0"lane TII ANS: % 1#. T2T stands for: a. Transverse 2ave Trans$ission b. Transverse02ave T'be ANS: C 1&. An 9isolator9 is a device that: a. isolates fre+'encies in a waveg'ide b. allows a signal to "ass in one direction only c. se"arates signals a$ong vario's "orts d. "revents $icrowaves fro$ lea<ing o't of a waveg'ide ANS: B 1). A 9circ'lator9 is a device that: a. rotates signal "olarity in a waveg'ide b. allows a signal to "ass in one direction only c. se"arates signals a$ong vario's "orts d. "revents $icrowaves fro$ being 9tra""ed9 in a waveg'ide ANS: C 1/. OaAs stands for: a. galli'$ arsenide b. galli'$ asse$bly ANS: A c. galli'$ astenite d. none of the above c. Traveling02ave T'be d. Traveling02ave Trans$ission c. a 9$agic9 TII d. all of the above c. antenna d. none of the above c. co'"le co$"onents on a circ'it board d. none of the above

11. 3M>ATT stands for: a. i$"act avalanche and transit ti$e b. ind'ced $obility at trans$ission ti$e ANS: A 14. S3O stands for: a. Sttri'$03ron0Oalli'$ b. Sttri'$03ron0Oer$ani'$ ANS: C 15. A S3O can be t'ned by a""lying: a. an electric field b. a $agnetic field ANS: B

c. i$"lied "ower at trans$ission ter$inal d. none of the above

c. Sttri'$03ron0Oarnet d. none of the above

c. $echanical "ress're d. an 9exciter9 signal

!7. The device co$$only 'sed in $icrowave ovens is the: a. T2T c. $agnetron b. <lystron d. S3O ANS: C !1. The device co$$only 'sed in satellite co$$'nications is the: a. T2T c. $agnetron b. <lystron d. S3O ANS: A !!. The device co$$only 'sed in EH6 trans$itters is the: a. T2T c. $agnetron b. <lystron d. S3O ANS: B !#. A $icrowave "hased array is often $ade 'sing: a. slots c. 6resnel lenses b. Sagis d. all of the above ANS: A !&. *A%A* stands for: a. radio ranging b. radio de"th and ranging ANS: C !). *A%A* 'ses: a. "'lsed trans$ission b. contin'o's trans$ission ANS: % c. the %o""ler effect d. all of the above c. radio detection and ranging d. re$ote detection and ranging

!/. The $axi$'$ effective range for "'lsed radar: a. increases with increasing re"etition rate c. decreases with increasing "'lse "eriod b. decreases with increasing re"etition rate d. none of the above ANS: B !1. The $ini$'$ effective range for "'lsed radar: a. increases with increasing "'lse d'ration c. is always a tenth of the $axi$'$ range b. decreases with increasing "'lse d'ration d. none of the above ANS: A COMPLETION 1. ANS: %is"ersion !. The electric field is ANS: ero $ode. along the walls of a rectang'lar waveg'ide. is the effect of a "'lse 9s"reading o't9 as it travels thro'gh a waveg'ide.

#. The waveg'ide $ode with the lowest c'toff fre+'ency is the ANS: do$inant &. 3n TI17 $ode( the ANS: electric ). 3n TI!7 $ode( the electric field has ANS: two /. 3n a circ'lar waveg'ide( ANS: TM71 1. A waveg'ide acts as a ANS: high 4. 3n a waveg'ide( gro'" velocity is always ANS: slower 5. 3n a waveg'ide( "hase velocity is always ANS: faster 17. 3n a waveg'ide( i$"edance as fre+'ency increases. 0"ass filter.

field "ea<s in the $iddle of the waveg'ide cross section.

"ea<s in the waveg'ide cross section.

$ode is 'sed beca'se of its circ'lar sy$$etry.

than the s"eed of light.

than the s"eed of light.

ANS: decreases 11. A ANS: hybrid 1!. The Q of a resonant cavity is very ANS: high 1#. A wave$eter is a resonant ANS: cavity 1&. A O'nn device oscillates beca'se of its negative ANS: resistance 1). Both $agnetrons and T2Ts are slow ANS: wave 1/. Both <lystrons and T2Ts are ANS: linear 11. A ANS: slot 14. A "lane on the other side. ANS: "atch 15. The radar cross section of a target is ty"ically ANS: s$aller !7. The fre+'ency of the ret'rned signal will be target is $oving toward the radar antenna. ANS: higher SHORT NS!ER 1. Calc'late the TI17 c'toff fre+'ency for a rectang'lar waveg'ide if the longer di$ension of its cross section is ) c$. than the trans$itted signal if the than its act'al si e. antenna is a flat "iece of co""er on an ins'lating s'bstrate with a gro'nd antenna is A'st a waveg'ide with a hole in it. 0bea$ t'bes. t'bes. . with an adA'stable "l'nger. co$"ared to l'$"ed CC circ'its. TII is a co$bination of I0"lane and H0"lane TIIS.

ANS: # OH !. Calc'late the gro'" velocity in a waveg'ide carrying a signal that is twice its c'toff fre+'ency. ANS: / !/7 - 17 $eters "er second #. Calc'late the "hase velocity in a waveg'ide carrying a signal that is twice its c'toff fre+'ency. ANS: / #&/ - 17 $eters "er second &. Calc'late the wavelength of a !0OH signal in a waveg'ide with a 10OH c'toff fre+'ency. ANS: 11# $illi$eters ). 6ind the gain in dBi of a 170OH horn antenna with "E ? "#? /7 $$. ANS: 1&.4 /. 6ind the $axi$'$ 'na$big'o's range for a "'lsed radar sending 17< "'lses "er second. ANS: 1) <$ 1. 6ind the $ini$'$ 'na$big'o's range for a "'lsed radar sending !0Gsec d'ration "'lses. ANS: #77 $eters

Chapter 1/: Terrestria' Micro2a,e Communication Systems

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Another ter$ for a single $icrowave lin< is a: a. section c. s<i" b. ho" d. A'$" ANS: B !. Microwave syste$s 'se: a. 6M b. SSB ANS: % #. The ty"ical reliability of a $icrowave syste$ is: a. 57Q c. 55.5Q b. 55Q d. 55.55Q ANS: % &. A ty"ical $icrowave syste$ 'ses a trans$itted "ower of abo't: a. ! watts c. !77 watts b. !7 watts d. none of the above ANS: A ). 3n analog $icrowave syste$s( additional re"eaters increase the: a. reliability c. Aitter b. noise level d. all of the above ANS: B /. 3n digital $icrowave syste$s( additional re"eaters increase the: a. reliability c. Aitter b. noise level d. all of the above ANS: C 1. CLS stands for: a. Coss Lf S<i" b. Coss Lf Signal ANS: C 4. Too $'ch antenna gain ca'ses: a. a very narrow $icrowave bea$ b. a very wide $icrowave bea$ ANS: A c. excessive noise d. Aitter c. Cine0Lf0Sight d. Cine0Lf0Signal c. JAM d. all of the above

5. The $icrowave signal "ath sho'ld clear obstacles by at least: a. /7Q of the 6araday one c. /7Q of the height of the antenna tower b. /7Q of the 6resnel one d. /7Q of the highest obstacle height ANS: B 17. Satisfactory "erfor$ance of an analog $icrowave syste$ is defined as: a. a carrier0to0noise ratio that exceeds a given val'e b. an I*> level that exceeds a given val'e c. an energy0"er0hert level that exceeds a given val'e d. none of the above ANS: A 11. Satisfactory "erfor$ance of a digital $icrowave syste$ re+'ires a: a. low level of trans$itted "ower b. high level of I*> c. good energy "er bit "er trans$itted 2att ratio d. good energy "er bit "er noise density ratio ANS: % 1!. 6ading is ca'sed by: a. $'lti"ath rece"tion b. atten'ation d'e to weather ANS: % 1#. The effects of fading d'e to $'lti"ath rece"tion are often red'ced 'sing: a. diversity c. high0gain antennas b. "ower d. all of the above ANS: A 1&. *e"eaters are 'sed in a $icrowave syste$: a. always b. when distance exceeds line0of0sight ANS: B 1). Microwave re"eaters can be: a. 36 ty"e b. baseband ty"e ANS: % 1/. An advantage of digital techni+'es over analog in a $icrowave syste$ is: a. less bandwidth is re+'ired c. it re+'ires less "ower b. acc'$'lation of noise is red'ced d. all of the above ANS: B 11. MM%S stands for: a. M'ltichannel Microwave %istrib'tion Syste$ c. regenerative ty"e d. all of the above c. above 17 OH d. below 17 OH c. d'cting d. all of the above

b. M'lti"oint Microwave %istrib'tion Syste$ c. M'ltichannel M'lti"oint %istrib'tion Syste$ d. M'lti"le Microwave %istrib'tion Syste$s ANS: C 14. CM%S stands for: a. Cocal Microwave %istrib'tion Syste$ b. Cocal M'lti"oint %istrib'tion Syste$ c. Cocal M'ltichannel %istrib'tion Syste$ d. Cow0"ower Microwave %istrib'tion Syste$ ANS: B 15. CM%S is: a. bidirectional b. 'nidirectional ANS: A COMPLETION 1. Lne $icrowave lin< is called a ANS: ho" !. STC stands for ANS: st'dio #. A ty"ical $icrowave syste$ has abo't one ho'r "er ANS: year &. Adding $ore lin<s ca'ses ANS: Aitter ). 3n $icrowave syste$s( it is $ore convenient to 'se noise calc'lations. ANS: te$"erat're /. 3n digital $icrowave syste$s( the energy "er bit "er ANS: noise density 1. M'lti"ath rece"tion can ca'se !7 dB or $ore of ANS: fading . is a <ey "ara$eter. than noise fig're in in a digital $icrowave syste$. or less of downti$e. 0to0trans$itter lin<s. . c. $'ltidirectional d. none of the above

4. Two antennas stac<ed one above the other on a tower is an exa$"le of in a $icrowave syste$. ANS: s"ace 5. The ability to 'se two fre+'encies si$'ltaneo'sly is an exa$"le of ANS: diversity 17. Microwave syste$s generally 'se less than ANS: ten 11. distance. ANS: *e"eaters 1!. Analog $icrowave syste$s 'se both 36 and ANS: baseband 1#. Microwave digital radio techni+'es red'ce the acc'$'lation of fro$ lin< to lin<. ANS: noise 1&. MM%S is 'nidirectional( b't ANS: CM%S SHORT NS!ER 1. 3f the line0of0sight distance for an o"tical bea$ is 1! <$( what wo'ld it be( a""roxi$ately( for a $icrowave bea$F ANS: 1/ <$ is bidirectional. re"eaters. watts of "ower. .


are necessary in a $icrowave syste$ that extends beyond the line0of0sight

as a signal goes

!. A line0of0sight $icrowave lin< o"erating at & OH has a se"aration of &7 <$ between antennas. An obstacle in the "ath is located $idway between the two antennas. By how $'ch $'st the bea$ clear the obstacleF ANS: 1/.& $eters #. A trans$itter and receiver o"erating at 1 OH are se"arated by 17 <$. How $any dB$ of "ower gets to the receiver if the trans$itter "'ts o't 1 2att( and both the sending and receiving antennas have a gain of !7 dBiF

ANS: N&!.& dB$ &. A $icrowave syste$ has a feed0line loss of ! dB and sees a s<y te$"erat're of 1)7 H. Calc'late the noise te$"erat're of the antenna=feed0line syste$ referenced to the receiver in"'t. ANS: !71 H ). A $icrowave receiver receives N/7 dB$ of signal. The noise "ower is N177 dB$. 2hat is the carrier0 to0 noise "ower ratioF ANS: &7 dB

Chapter 10: Te'e,ision

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. NTSC stands for: a. National Television Syste$s Co$$ission b. National Television Syste$s Co$$ittee c. National Television Syste$s Co'ncil d. Ni""on Television Syste$s Co$$ission ANS: B !. The NTSC s"ecification was drawn '" by the: a. 6CC c. I3A b. 3*I d. 3III ANS: C #. *OB stands for: a. *ed0Oreen B'rst b. *ed0Oreen Brightness ANS: % &. The n'$ber of scan lines in an NTSC signal is: a. )!) c. 17!& b. /!) d. 1!)7 ANS: A ). The n'$ber of NTSC fra$es sent "er second is: a. !) c. )7 b. #7 d. /7 ANS: B /. The n'$ber of NTSC fields sent "er second is: a. !) c. )7 b. #7 d. /7 ANS: % 1. The as"ect ratio of a standard TD receiver is: a. # : & b. & : # ANS: B 4. C'$inance refers to: a. brightness b. contrast c. chro$a d. raster c. )!) : /!) d. /!) : )!) c. *ed0Oreen Bandwidth d. *ed0Oreen0Bl'e

ANS: A 5. C'$inance is $eas'red in: a. foot0candles b. l'$ins ANS: C 17. The $axi$'$ l'$inance level is called: a. $ax white b. "ea< white ANS: B 11. The blan<ing level corres"onds to a l'$inance of: a. white c. whiter than white b. blac< d. blac<er than blac< ANS: B 1!. The sync "'lse level corres"onds to a l'$inance of: a. white c. whiter than white b. blac< d. blac<er than blac< ANS: % 1#. The vertical blan<ing "'lse is serrated to: a. $aintain hori ontal sync b. $aintain vertical sync ANS: A 1&. 2hen $eas'red in lines( hori ontal resol'tion: a. is greater than vertical resol'tion b. is abo't the sa$e as vertical resol'tion c. is less than vertical resol'tion d. hori ontal resol'tion is not $eas'red in lines ANS: B 1). The s$allest "ict're ele$ent is called a: a. dot b. "ic ANS: C 1/. 3n a color TD receiver( S 3 J refers to: a. l'$inance signal( in0"hase color co$"onent( +'adrat're "hase color co$"onent b. co$"osite color signal( in0"hase color co$"onent( +'adrat're "hase color co$"onent c. co$"osite video signal( in0"hase video co$"onent( +'adrat're video color co$"onent d. a $ethod of de$od'lating stereo so'nd ANS: A c. "ixel d. none of the above c. e+'ali e the %C level d. all of the above c. all white d. whiter than white c. 3*I 'nits d. NTSC 'nits

11. Co$"ared to the l'$inance signal( the hori ontal resol'tion for color is: a. $'ch greater c. $'ch less b. abo't the sa$e d. resol'tion does not a""ly to color ANS: C 14. The $od'lation 'sed for the video signal in a standard NTSC color TD receiver is: a. SSB c. s'""ressed0carrier AM b. vestigial sideband AM d. 6M ANS: B 15. The $od'lation 'sed for the a'dio signal in a standard NTSC color TD receiver is: a. SSB c. s'""ressed0carrier AM b. vestigial sideband AM d. 6M ANS: % !7. The $od'lation 'sed for the chro$a signal in a standard NTSC color TD receiver is: a. SSB c. s'""ressed0carrier AM b. vestigial sideband AM d. 6M ANS: C !1. The f'nction of the 9color b'rst9 is to: a. detect the "resence of a color video signal b. regenerate the color s'b0carrier c. to synchroni e the color de$od'lation line by line d. all of the above ANS: % !!. SA> stands for: a. se"arate a'dio "rogra$ b. se"arate a'dio "'lse ANS: A !#. The hori ontal o't"'t transfor$er is also called: a. the isolation transfor$er c. the flybac< transfor$er b. the video transfor$er d. the yo<e ANS: C !&. Co$"ared to a $onochro$e C*T( the accelerating voltage on a color C*T is: a. abo't the sa$e c. $'ch lower b. $'ch higher d. color C*Ts 'se $agnetic acceleration ANS: B !). %eflection in C*Ts 'sed in TD receivers is done: a. $agnetically for both vertical and hori ontal b. electrostatically for both vertical and hori ontal c. electrostatically for vertical and $agnetically for hori ontal c. sync a$"lit'de "'lse d. sync a'dio "'lse

d. $agnetically for vertical and electrostatically for hori ontal ANS: A !/. A6>C stands for: a. allowed f'll "ict're chro$a b. a'to$atic fre+'ency and "hase control ANS: B COMPLETION 1. ANS: A+'adag !. The ANS: NTSC #. Dideo syste$s for$ "ict'res by a ANS: scanning &. %'ring the hori ontal blan<ing interval( the electron bea$ ANS: retraces ). The NTSC s"ecifies a ANS: co$"osite /. The ANS: as"ect 1. Brightness infor$ation is called ANS: l'$a l'$inance 4. Color infor$ation is called ANS: chro$a chro$inance 5. The blan<ing "eriod before the sync "'lse is called the front ANS: "orch . . . ratio of a C*T screen is the ratio of width to height. video signal. fro$ right to left. "rocess. standard for TD has been in 'se since 15)#. is a cond'ctive coating on both the inside and o'tside of the C*T in a TD. c. a'to$atic fre+'ency and "ict're control d. none of the above

17. Ldd and even fields are identified by the ANS: "osition 11. Iach hori ontal scan line ta<es ANS: /!.) 1!. Hori ontal blan<ing lasts ANS: 17 1#. Dertical blan<ing lasts abo't ANS: 1.# 1&. >ict're ele$ents are called ANS: "ixels 1). The $axi$'$ n'$ber of scan lines 'nder NTSC is ANS: )!) 1/. The h'$an eye is $ost sensitive to the color ANS: green 11. The color s'b0carrier fre+'ency is a""roxi$ately ANS: #.)4 14. SA> stands for ANS: se"arate 15. The second anode of a C*T is often called the ANS: 'ltor !7. The accelerating voltage for a color C*T is abo't ANS: !7 to #7 !1. The inside of a C*TBs face0"late is coated with ANS: "hos"hor !!. The hori ontal o't"'t transfor$er is called the a'dio "rogra$. . $icroseconds.

of the vertical sync "'lse.

$icroseconds( not incl'ding blan<ing.


MH .


to generate the "ict're.


ANS: flybac< !#. A good way to se"arate l'$a fro$ chro$a is to 'se a ANS: co$b !&. The color $onochro$e signal. ANS: <iller !). Signal levels in cable TD syste$s are 's'ally $eas'red in ANS: dB$D !/. The antenna for a CATD syste$ is located at the ANS: head !1. A ANS: vectorsco"e !4. Color intensity is called ANS: sat'ration !5. The ANS: "hase #7. The "hos"hor dots. ANS: "'rity #1. The "hos"hor dots. ANS: convergence controls in a color TD adA'st the electron bea$s to stri<e the correct triad of controls in a color TD adA'st the electron bea$s to stri<e the correct color of the chro$a signal re"resents the color h'e. . shows a color0bar signal with "redeter$ined levels and "hases. end. . t'rns off the color circ'itry when a color TD is receiving a filter.

Chapter "1: Sate''ite Communications

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The height of the geosynchrono's orbit above the e+'ator is abo't: a. #()14 <$ c. #)1(477 <$ b. #)(147 <$ d. de"ends on satellite velocity ANS: B !. The high and low "oints of a satelliteBs orbit are called( res"ectively(: a. a"ogee and "erigee c. '"lin< and downlin< b. "erigee and a"ogee d. downlin< and '"lin< ANS: A #. The area on the earth that is 9covered9 by a satellite is called its: a. earth station c. foot"rint b. downlin< d. "late ANS: C &. The velocity re+'ired to stay in orbit: a. is constant b. is ero :freefall; c. is lower close to the earth than far fro$ the earth d. is higher close to the earth than far fro$ the earth ANS: % ). An antenna is ai$ed by adA'sting the two 9loo< angles9 called: a. a i$'th and elevation c. declination and elevation b. a i$'th and declination d. a"ogee and "erigee ANS: A /. The "ower "er trans"onder of a ty"ical H'0band satellite is in the range: a. ) to !) watts c. )77 to !)77 watts b. )7 to !)7 watts d. de"ends on its orbit ANS: B 1. The "ower level for an earth station to trans$it to a satellite is on the order of: 1 # a. 17 watts c. 17 watts ! & b. 17 watts d. 17 watts ANS: C 4. The 9"ayload9 on a co$$'nications satellite consists of: a. trans"onders c. solar cells b. batteries d. all of the above

ANS: A 5. 9Station0<ee"ing9 refers to: a. antenna $aintenance b. "ower0level adA'st$ents ANS: C 17. %BS stands for: a. decibels of signal b. down0bea$ signal ANS: % 11. CNA stands for: a. low0noise a$"lifier b. low north angle ANS: A 1!. A red'ction in T2T "ower for linearity is called: a. bac<down c. "ower0down b. bac<off d. I3*> dro" ANS: B 1#. TD*L stands for: a. television receive only b. television re"eater only ANS: A 1&. T%MA stands for: a. trans"onder0directed $'lti"le antennas b. television distrib'tion $aster antenna ANS: C 1). DSAT stands for: a. video satellite b. video signal antenna ter$inal ANS: % 1/. Ln the '"lin< fro$ a ter$inal( a DSAT syste$ 'ses: a. high "ower to a s$all antenna c. low "ower to a large antenna b. low "ower to a s$all antenna d. CIL satellites ANS: B 11. A ty"ical DSAT syste$ is config'red as a: a. star b. $esh c. ring d. re"eater c. very s$all antenna ter$inal d. very s$all a"ert're ter$inal c. ti$e0division $'lti"le access d. trans$it delay $ini$'$ a"ert're c. television re$ote origin d. none of the above c. low0noise a$"lit'de d. low0noise array c. direct0broadcast syste$ d. direct0broadcast satellite c. orbital adA'st$ents d. none of the above

ANS: A 14. CIL stands for: a. long elli"tic orbit b. low0earth orbit ANS: B 15. 6or real0ti$e co$$'nication( CIL syste$s re+'ire: a. a constellation of satellites c. very high "ower b. trac<ing dish antennas d. all of the above ANS: A !7. The fre+'ency bands 'sed by H'0band satellites are: a. & OH and / OH c. !7 OH and #7 OH b. 1! OH and 1& OH d. none of the above ANS: B COMPLETION 1. A satellite in geosynchrono's orbit ta<es ANS: !& !. The ANS: '"lin< #. The ANS: downlin< &. A satellite in a ANS: geostationary ). Non0geostationary satellites are so$eti$es called ANS: orbital /. A geosynchrono's orbit is abo't ANS: #)(147 1. A ANS: foot"rint 4. All satellite orbits are in sha"e. is an o'tline of the area on the earthBs s'rface that a satellite broadcasts to. <$ above the earth. satellites. orbit a""ears to stay directly above one s"ot on the e+'ator. is the signal "ath fro$ the satellite to the earth station. is the signal "ath fro$ the earth station to the satellite. ho'rs to co$"lete one orbit. c. lateral earth orbit d. longit'dinal earth orbit

ANS: elli"tical 5. The ANS: "erigee 17. The ANS: a"ogee 11. An antennaBs ANS: a i$'th 1!. An antennaBs ANS: elevation 1#. An antennaBs ANS: declination 1&. Satellites 'sing the ANS: H' 1). The ti$e for a signal to $a<e a ro'nd tri" via satellite is abo't ANS: )77 1/. A ANS: trans"onder 11. Both the gain and the bea$width of a dish antenna de"end on its ANS: dia$eter 14. DSAT syste$s co$$only 'se a ANS: star 15. To date( CIL satellite syste$s have been a financial ANS: fail're !7. C0band antennas are ANS: larger than H'0band antennas. . networ< config'ration. . is a ty"e of re"eater 'sed on co$$'nications satellites. $illiseconds. band o"erate on 1! OH . is the angle by which it is offset fro$ the earthBs axis. is its vertical angle with res"ect to the earthBs s'rface. is its ang'lar direction between east and west. is a satelliteBs farthest distance fro$ the earth. is the distance of a satelliteBs closest a""roach to the earth.

SHORT NS!ER 1. A receiving antenna with a gain of &&.& dBi loo<s at a s<y with a noise te$"erat're of 1) H. The loss between the o't"'t of the antenna and the in"'t of the CNA is 7.& dB( and the CNA has a noise te$"erat're of &7 H. Calc'late the O=T. ANS: !) dB !. A receiver has a noise fig're of 1.1 dB. 6ind its e+'ivalent noise te$"erat're. ANS: 1#5 H. #. A receiving antenna with a O=T of !) dB is 'sed to receive signals fro$ a satellite #4(777 <$ away. The satellite has a 1770watt trans$itter and an antenna with a gain of #7 dBi. The signal has a bandwidth of 1 MH at a fre+'ency of 1! OH . Calc'late the C=N at the receiver. ANS: #4 dB

Chapter "1: Ce''u'ar Radio

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. AM>S stand for: a. A$erican Mobile >hone Syste$ b. Analog Mobile >hone Service ANS: % !. >CS stands for: a. >ersonal Co$$'nications Service b. >ersonal Co$$'nications Syste$s ANS: B #. *CC stands for: a. *adio Co$$on Carrier b. *adio Cell'lar Carrier ANS: A &. MSC stands for: a. Mobile Switching Center b. Mobile Service Cell'lar ANS: A ). MTSL stands for: a. Mini$'$ Trans$itted Signal L't"'t b. Maxi$'$ Trans$itted Signal L't"'t ANS: C /. M3N stands for: a. Man'al 3dentification N'$ber b. Mobile 3dentification N'$ber ANS: B 1. NAM stands for: a. N'$erical Access Mode b. N'$erical Assign$ent Mode ANS: % 4. ISN stands for: a. Ilectronic Serial N'$ber b. I$itted Signal N'$ber ANS: A c. I$ission Strength N'$ber d. none of the above c. N'$ber Access Mod'le d. N'$ber Assign$ent Mod'le c. Maxi$'$ 3n0band Noise d. Mini$'$ 3n0band Noise c. Mobile Tele"hone Switching Lffice d. Mobile Trans$ission Ti$e0L't c. Maxi$'$ Signal Carrier d. Mini$'$ Signal Carrier c. *egional Cell'lar Carrier d. none of the above c. >ersonal Cell "hone Service d. >ortable Co$$'nications Syste$s c. Advanced Mobile >hone Syste$ d. Advanced Mobile >hone Service

5. SCM stands for: a. Service Class Mar< b. Station Class Mar< ANS: B 17. SCM identifies the: a. code n'$ber of a cell "hone b. base0station class ANS: % 11. S3% stands for: a. Se+'ential 3nterr'"t %e$and b. Standard 3dentification N'$ber ANS: C

c. Signal Class Mar< d. Serial0Code Mode

c. signal classification :analog or digital; d. $axi$'$ "ower level of a cell "hone

c. Syste$ 3dentification N'$ber d. Signal 3ntensity %escri"tor

1!. The S3% is 'sed by a cell "hone to: a. identify the ty"e of syste$ :analog or digital; b. recogni e an AM>S syste$ c. set its trans$itted "ower level d. recogni e that it is 9roa$ing9 ANS: % 1#. %CC stands for: a. %igital Color Code b. %igital Co$$'nications Code ANS: A 1&. SAT stands for: a. Station Antenna Tower b. S'"ervisory A'dio Tone ANS: B 1). CMAC stands for: a. Control Mobile Atten'ation Code b. Control Mobile Access Code ANS: A 1/. The CMAC is 'sed to: a. control access to the cell site b. set the access code of the cell "hone c. set the trans$it "ower of the cell "hone d. select the trans$it channel for the cell "hone ANS: C 11. 3n an AM>S syste$( voice is sent 'sing: a. AM c. 6SH c. Central Mobile Access Control d. Carrier Mode Atten'ation Control c. S'"ervisory Access Tone d. none of the above c. %igital Co$$'nications Carrier d. %irect Channel Code

b. 6M ANS: B

d. C%MA

14. 3n an AM>S syste$( control0channel signals are sent 'sing: a. AM c. 6SH b. 6M d. C%MA ANS: C 15. The I*> of a ty"ical handheld AM>S cell "hone is: a. less than /77 G2. c. between 1 and ! watts b. less than /77 $2. d. & watts ANS: B !7. BSC stands for: a. Base Station Controller b. Base Signal Controller ANS: A !1. The co$bination of the $obile cell "hone and the cell site radio e+'i"$ent is called the: a. BSC c. *6 interface b. MTSL d. air interface ANS: % !!. The o"ti$'$ cell0site radi's is: a. ! <$ b. 7.) <$ ANS: % !#. >hone traffic is $eas'red in: a. calls b. erlangs ANS: B !&. Lne way to increase the ca"acity of a cell "hone syste$ is: a. increase the n'$ber of cells c. increase the I*> b. decrease the n'$ber of cells d. decrease the I*> ANS: A !). C%>% stands for: a. Code0%ivision >ac<et %ata b. Cell'lar %igital >ac<et %ata ANS: B COMPLETION c. Coded %igital >ac<et %ata d. Cell'lar %igital >'lse %ata c. n'$ber of 'sers d. n'$ber of bloc<ed calls c. as s$all as "ossible d. none of the above c. Basic Service Contract d. Basic Service Code

1. AM>S 'ses the ANS: 477 !. ANS: AM>S #. 6re+'ency ANS: re'se &. A ANS: handoff ). 3f a cell0site radi's dro"s below ANS: 7.) /. The n'$ber of I*> classes in AM>S is ANS: three

0MH band.

is still the $ost co$$on cell'lar "hone syste$ in North A$erica.

is what $a<es cell'lar "hone syste$s co$"lex.

occ'rs when an in0'se cell0"hone $oves fro$ one cell site to another.

<$( handoffs will occ'r too fre+'ently.

1. A cell "hone "er$anently installed in a car wo'ld be I*> class ANS: 3 one 4. The $axi$'$ I*> of class 333 cell "hones is ANS: /77 $2 5. A "ortable( handheld cell "hone wo'ld be I*> class ANS: 333 three 17. Mobile trans$itter "ower is controlled by the ANS: land station 11. A MAC is a $obile ANS: atten'ation 1!. 6or sec'rity( yo' sho'ld always ass'$e that AM>S trans$issions are code. . . .

ANS: "'blic 1#. A $obile switching center is also called an ANS: MTSL 1&. The o"ti$'$ si e of a cell site de"ends on the a$o'nt of ANS: traffic 1). Tele"hone call traffic is $eas'red in ANS: erlangs 1/. A cell "hone $oving into a site with no available fre+'encies will have a ANS: dro""ed 11. The red'ction in cell si e to increase traffic is called cell ANS: s"litting 14. A ANS: $icrocell 15. Dery s$all cells called ANS: "icocells !7. Co$"ared with AM>S( digital cell'lar "hones re+'ire ANS: less SHORT NS!ER 1. Oive two reasons why digital cell "hone syste$s are $ore sec're than analog cell "hone syste$s. ANS: 1. %igital is inherently $ore sec're beca'se of its for$at. !. %igiti ed voice signals are easily encry"ted. !. 3f a !4.40<b"s $ode$ is being 'sed over a cell "hone( how $any words of text wo'ld be lost d'ring a 1770$sec handoff interr'"tion ass'$ing 17 bits "er letter and ) letters "er wordF ANS: )1./ #. A certain cell site contains !77 cell "hones. The "robability that a given cell "hone is being 'sed is 1)Q. 2hat is the traffic in erlangsF bandwidth. are 'sed for reliable indoor rece"tion. site is a very s$all 'nit that can $o'nt on a streetlight "ole. . call. . . .

ANS: #7 &. 2hat is 9tr'n<ing gain9F ANS: 6or a given "robability of being bloc<ed( the $axi$'$ allowable traffic "er channel increases as the n'$ber of channels increases.

Chapter "": Persona' Communications Systems

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. C'rrent >CS syste$s are referred to as: a. first0generation b. second0generation ANS: B !. The fre+'ency band designated for >CS in North A$erica is: a. 477 MH c. 1.5 OH b. 577 MH d. 1! OH ANS: C #. The 9forward9 >CS channel is: a. fro$ the base to the $obile b. fro$ the $obile to the base ANS: A &. Co$"ared to AM>S( >CS cell sites are: a. bigger b. s$aller ANS: B ). AM>S was designed for: a. >LTS b. voice ANS: % /. The n'$ber of co$"eting >CS syste$s in North A$erica is: a. ! c. & b. # d. $any ANS: B 1. C%MA technology was invented by: a. AT\T b. C'cent ANS: % 4. OSM is 'sed in: a. Asia b. I'ro"e ANS: % c. North A$erica d. all of the above c. Bell Cabs d. J'alco$$ c. 'se b'ilt into an a'to$obile d. all of the above c. distrib'ted d. higher0"ower c. fro$ $obile to $obile d. sa$e as the '"lin< c. third0generation d. digital0generation

5. 3n OSM( voice channels are called: a. traffic channels b. voice channels ANS: A 17. AM>S 'ses: a. C%MA b. T%MA ANS: %

c. bearer channels d. tal<ing channels

c. s"read0s"ectr'$ d. none of the above

11. Lther things being e+'al( battery life in a OSM "hone sho'ld be: a. less than in a T%MA "hone c. greater than in a T%MA "hone b. no better than in an AM>S "hone d. no better than a T%MA "hone ANS: C 1!. 3t is necessary to send control infor$ation on traffic channels in: a. no >CS syste$ c. T%MA only b. OSM only d. both OSM and T%MA ANS: % 1#. OSM 'ses: a. fre+'ency ho""ing b. direct0se+'ence $od'lation ANS: A 1&. 3n OSM( S3M stands for: a. Short 3nbo'nd Message b. S'bscriber03nitiated Message ANS: C 1). 3MS3 stands for: a. 3ntegrated Mobile S'bscriber 3dentification b. 3nternational Mobile S'bscriber 3dentification c. 3nteri$ Mobile S'bscriber 3dentification d. 3nter$od'lation Syste$ 3nterference ANS: B 1/. 3S05) 'ses: a. fre+'ency ho""ing b. T%MA ANS: C 11. 3S01#/ 'ses: a. fre+'ency ho""ing b. T%MA c. C%MA d. all of the above c. C%MA d. all of the above c. S'bscriber 3% Mod'le d. S'bscriber 3% Method c. C%MA d. all of the above

ANS: B 14. 3n C%MA: a. all fre+'encies are 'sed in all cells b. each cell 'ses half the available fre+'encies c. each cell is assigned a fre+'ency by the base d. the fre+'ency is selected by the $obile "hone ANS: A 15. C%MA 'ses a set of >N se+'ences that are: a. co$$on b. 'ni+'e ANS: % !7. The next generation of >CS is ex"ected to have: a. faster data rates c. wider roa$ing area b. 3nternet access d. all of the above ANS: % COMPLETION 1. >CS stands for ANS: >ersonal !. C'rrent >CS syste$s are called ANS: second #. 3n North A$erica( >CS is assigned the ANS: 1577 &. Co$"ared to AM>S( >CS cells are ANS: s$aller ). Besides T%MA and C%MA( ANS: OSM /. The s"read0s"ectr'$ techni+'e 'sed in 3S05) >CS is ANS: C%MA direct se+'ence . is also 'sed in North A$erica for >CS. in si e. 0MH band. 0generation syste$s. Co$$'nications Syste$. c. rotating d. orthogonal

1. The s"read0s"ectr'$ techni+'e 'sed in OSM is ANS: fre+'ency ho""ing 4. Enli<e AM>S( C%MA allows for a ANS: soft 5. The orthogonal >N se+'ences 'sed in C%MA are called a ANS: 2alsh 17. Enli<e other syste$s( in C%MA ANS: all 11. >N stands for >se'do0 ANS: rando$ 1!. ANS: 6re+'ency 1#. *6 channel S=N ratios ANS: less 1&. C%MA 'ses a ANS: variable 1). A "hone 'ser ty"ically tal<s less than ANS: )7 1/. C%MA re+'ires ANS: closed 11. O>*S stands for Oeneral ANS: >ac<et 14. 3MT stands for 3nternational ANS: Mobile 15. E>T stands for ANS: Eniversal >ersonal Teleco$$'nications. Teleco$$'nications. *adio Service. 0rate vocoder. diversity is inherent in any s"read0s"ectr'$ syste$. Noise. handoff.


fre+'encies are 'sed in all cells.

than ero are ty"ical in C%MA syste$s.

Q of the ti$e d'ring a conversation.

0loo" "ower control to wor< "ro"erly.

!7. E2T stands for Eniversal ANS: 2ireless !1. 20C%MA stands for ANS: 2ideband SHORT NS!ER 1. 2hat is the advantage of a 9soft9 handoffF ANS: No calls are dro""ed.



!. 3f C%MA receivers hear all fre+'encies all the ti$e( how do they "ic< a s"ecific fre+'encyF ANS: Iach fre+'ency is $od'lated 'sing a se"arate orthogonal >N se+'ence. To de$od'late( the receiver 'ses the >N se+'ence s"ecific to the channel it wants. #. 2hat is the effect of cochannel interference in C%MAF ANS: 3t increases the bac<gro'nd noise level( b't C%MA can tolerate a lot of s'ch noise. &. How does OSM achieve fre+'ency diversityF ANS: 3t 'ses li$ited fre+'ency ho""ing. ). 2hy was >CS assigned to 1.5 OH instead of the 4770MH band 'sed for AM>SF ANS: The 477 MH band was already overcrowded. /. 2hy wo'ld a battery in a OSM "hone be ex"ected to last longer than a battery in a T%MA "honeF ANS: A T%MA "hone is active d'ring one o't of every three ti$e slots. A OSM "hone is active d'ring one o't of every eight. 1. 2hat is the advantage of 'sing offset J>SH over standard J>SHF ANS: 2ith standard J>SH( the trans$itted "ower re"eatedly goes to ero. 2ith offset J>SH( it never goes to ero. Cinearity re+'ire$ents are less strict for offset J>SH trans$itters. 4. 2hat is the 9near=far9 effect in C%MA( and what ca'ses itF

ANS: A stronger station farther away can 9drown o't9 a wea<er station that is near. This ha""ens when the "ower trans$itted by $obile 'nits is not well controlled by the base.

Chapter "&: Pa)in) and !ire'ess .ata Net2or3in)

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. >agers 'se: a. the DH6 band only b. the EH6 band only c. both the DH6 and EH6 bands d. the DH6 band( the EH6 band( and the 3SM band ANS: C !. 3SM stands for: a. 3III Standard Message b. 3III Sec're Message ANS: % #. CA>CL%I is: a. an encry"tion sche$e 'sed for "agers b. an addressing sche$e 'sed for "agers c. an error0detection sche$e 'sed for "agers d. a digital $od'lation sche$e 'sed for "agers ANS: B &. 3n a one0way "ager syste$: a. all "ages are sent fro$ all trans$itters b. each trans$itting antenna covers a wide area c. trans$itters 'se relatively high "ower d. all of the above ANS: % ). >LCSAO stands for: a. >ager L"erations Co$$on Standards Advisory Oro'" b. >ager L"erations Code Standardi ation Advisory Oro'" c. >ost Lffice Code Standardi ation Advisory Oro'" d. >ost Lffice Co$$on Standards Advisory Oro'" ANS: C /. A ty"ical "ager syste$ does not: a. re+'ire 9handoffs9 b. allow 9roa$ing9 ANS: A 1. The 3III s"ecification covering wireless CANs is: a. 47!.17 c. 47!.1! c. re+'ire error detection d. all of the above c. 3nd'strial( Scientific( and Messaging d. 3nd'strial( Scientific( and Medical

b. 47!.11 ANS: B

d. 47!.1#

4. The 3III 47! s"ec for wireless CANs 'ses the: a. DH6 band c. 3SM band b. EH6 band d. infrared band ANS: C 5. The 3III 47! doc'$ent for wireless CANs s"ecifies the 'se of: a. CSMA=CA c. C%MA b. CSMA=C% d. all of the above ANS: A 17. BSS stands for: a. Basic Service Set b. Basic Service Syste$ ANS: A 11. Bl'etooth 'ses: a. C%MA b. fre+'ency ho""ing ANS: B 1!. Bl'etooth 'ses the: a. DH6 band b. EH6 band ANS: C 1#. T%% stands for: a. Ti$e0%ivision %'"lex b. Ti$e0%elayed %'"lex ANS: A 1&. A Bl'etooth 9"iconet9 has: a. ! nodes b. ! to & nodes ANS: C 1). Two or $ore connected "iconets for$s a: a. $icronet b. $'ltinet ANS: % 1/. The basic range of a Bl'etooth device is: a. 17 c$ to 1 $eter c. 17 c$ to 177 $eters c. T%% net d. scatternet c. ! to 4 nodes d. ! to 1/ nodes c. Ti$e %elay %ifference d. Total %istance %elay c. 3SM band d. infrared band c. J>SH d. all of the above c. Bl'etooth Service Syste$ d. none of the above

b. 17 c$ to 17 $eters ANS: B 11. 3*%A stands for: a. 3nfrared %ata Association b. 3nfrared %igital Association ANS: A 14. The range of an 3*%A syste$ is: a. 1 $eter b. 17 $eters ANS: A 15. 3nfrared networ<s: a. cannot "enetrate walls b. can 'se diff'sed infrared bea$s ANS: %

d. within 17 feet

c. 3nfrared *estricted %ata Area d. 3nfrared *oa$ing %ata Area

c. 1 foot d. 17 feet

c. can 'se reflected infrared bea$s d. all of the above

!7. The $axi$'$ range of a ty"ical wireless $ode$ is: a. 1 $eter c. several h'ndred $eters b. several $eters d. several tho'sand $eters. ANS: % COMPLETION 1. Iach "ager has a 'ni+'e address called a ANS: ca"code !. Many "agers can share a fre+'ency 'sing ANS: T%MA #. The >LCSAO was devised by the British ANS: >ost &. A >LCSAO $essage 'ses a ANS: 17 ). 3III ANS: 47!.11 /. The 3III doc'$ent s"ecifies a $axi$'$ "ower of for wireless CANs. covers wireless CANs. 0bit error correction code. Lffice. . .

ANS: 1 watt 1. Bl'etooth 'ses the ANS: 3SM 4. A networ< of ! to 4 Bl'etooth devices is called a ANS: "iconet 5. A Bl'etooth scatternet consists of ! or $ore ANS: "iconets 17. An 3*%A syste$ is deliberately restricted to a range of ANS: 1 $eter . . . band.

Chapter "(: $i5er Optics

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Co$"ared to the core( the index of refraction of the cladding $'st be: a. the sa$e c. less b. greater d. doesnBt have an index of refraction ANS: C !. 6iber0o"tic cables do not: a. carry c'rrent b. ca'se crosstal< ANS: % #. Single0$ode fiber is $ade fro$: a. glass b. "lastic ANS: A &. 6iber0o"tic cable cannot be 'sed: a. in an ex"losive environ$ent b. to connect a trans$itter to an antenna c. to isolate a $edical "atient fro$ a shoc< ha ard d. none of the above ANS: B ). A single0$ode cable does not s'ffer fro$: a. $odal dis"ersion b. chro$atic dis"ersion ANS: A /. Scattering ca'ses: a. loss b. dis"ersion ANS: A 1. The loss in single0$ode fiber0o"tic cable d'e to the glass is abo't: a. &7 dB "er <$ c. 7.& dB "er <$ b. & db "er <$ d. ero loss ANS: C 4. The loss in single0$ode fiber0o"tic cable d'e to a s"lice is abo't: a. 7.7! dB c. 1 dB c. intersy$bol interference d. all of the above c. waveg'ide dis"ersion d. all of the above c. both a and b d. none of the above c. generate IM3 d. all of the above

b. 7.! db ANS: A

d. # dB

5. The loss in single0$ode fiber0o"tic cable d'e to a connector is abo't: a. 7.7! dB c. 1 dB b. 7.! db d. # dB ANS: B 17. 2hich of the following is a ty"e of fiber connector: a. ST c. SMA b. SC d. all of the above ANS: % 11. The +'ant'$ of light is called: a. an erg b. an e0v ANS: C 1!. CASI* stands for: a. Cight A$"lification by Si$'lated I$ission of *adiation b. Cight A$"lification by Sti$'lated I$ission of *adiation c. Cight A$"lification by Si$'lated I$itted *ays d. Cight A$"lification by Sti$'lated I$itted *ays ANS: B 1#. A>% stands for: a. Avalanche >hotodiode b. Advanced >hotodiode ANS: A 1&. 3n a >3N diode( lea<age c'rrent in the absence of light is called: a. baseline c'rrent c. dar< c'rrent b. ero0"oint c'rrent d. I0H c'rrent ANS: C 1). 6or a light detector( res"onsivity is $eas'red in: a. a$"s "er watt c. $A "er Ao'le b. G2 "er a$" d. Gsec "er G2 ANS: A COMPLETION 1. 3n the core( the angle of incidence e+'als the angle of ANS: reflection . c. Avalanche >hoto %etector d. Advanced >hoto %etector c. a "hoton d. a "honon

!. The core is s'rro'nded by the ANS: cladding #. The ANS: critical &. An electron0volt is a $eas're of ANS: energy ). The n'$erical a"ert're is the ANS: sine /. L"tical fiber relies on total ANS: internal 1. Chro$atic dis"ersion is also called ANS: intra$odal 4. 2ith o"tical fiber( ANS: infrared 5. 3n $'lti$ode fiber( ANS: graded 17. 6or laser diodes( the ter$ ANS: linewidth 11. %is"ersion can be ex"ressed in 'nits of ANS: ti$e 1!. ANS: 3ntersy$bol 1#. The o"tical fiber is free to $ove aro'nd in a ANS: loose0t'be 1&. The o"tical fiber is not free to $ove aro'nd in a

angle is where refraction changes to reflection.

of the angle of acce"tance.



light is $ore co$$on than visible light.

index has less dis"ersion than ste" index.

is 'sed instead of bandwidth.

rather than bandwidth.

interference is when one "'lse $erges with the next "'lse.



ANS: tight0b'ffer 1). A ANS: "igtail 1/. Oood connections are $ore critical with ANS: single 11. A ANS: laser 14. The +'ant'$ of light is called the ANS: "hoton 15. A ANS: >3N !7. 6or safety( yo' sho'ld never not connected to a light so'rce. ANS: loo< at the end of an o"tical fiber 'nless yo' <now it is diode is the 's'al light detector for single0$ode cable. . diode is the 's'al light so'rce for single0$ode cable. 0$ode fiber. is a short length of fiber that carries the light away fro$ the so'rce.

Chapter "*: $i5er#Optic Systems

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 6%%3 stands for: a. 6iber %igital %ata 3nterface b. 6iber %istrib'ted %ata 3nterface ANS: B !. 63TC stands for: a. 6iber 3n The Coo" b. 6iber 3n"'t Ti$ing Coss ANS: A #. 6TTC stands for: a. 6iber Trans$ission Ti$ing Constraint b. 6iber Trans$ission Technology Co$$ittee c. 6iber Tele"hone Trans$ission Cable d. 6iber To The C'rb ANS: % &. SLNIT stands for: a. Si$"le L"tical Networ< b. Standard L"tical Networ< ANS: C ). %2%M stands for: a. %igital 2avelength0%ivision Mod'lation b. %ense 2avelength0%ivision Mod'lation c. %o'ble 2avelength0%ivision Mod'lation d. %ense 2avelength0%ivision M'lti"lexing ANS: % /. A Soliton is a: a. defect in the glass b. ty"e of "article ANS: C 1. Adding bits to synchroni e one digital signal to another is called: a. bit st'ffing c. S%H b. bit0synch d. 2%M ANS: A 4. >ower above the $ini$'$ re+'ired by an o"tical receiver is called: a. gain $argin c. excess gain c. ty"e of "'lse d. ty"e of o"tical networ< c. Synchrono's L"tical Networ< d. none of the above c. 6re+'ency 3n"'t to The Coo" d. 6iber 3n"'t Ti$ing Coo" c. 6iber %istrib'tion %elay 3nterface d. 6re+'ency0%ivision %ata 3nterface

b. syste$ $argin ANS: B

d. overdrive

5. Ty"ically( re"eaters are not re+'ired for fiber0o"tic cable lengths '" to: a. 1777 $iles c. 177 <$ b. 177 $iles d. 17 <$ ANS: C 17. 3n SLNIT( LC01 stands for: a. L"tical Carrier level one b. L"tical Co'"ler 'nidirectional ANS: A 11. 3n SLNIT( STS stands for: a. Synchrono's Trans"ort Signal b. Synchrono's Trans"ort Syste$ ANS: A 1!. A co$$only 'sed fiber0based syste$ for CANs is: a. 6%%3 c. gigabit Ithernet b. high0s"eed Ithernet d. all of the above ANS: % 1#. The 'se of solitons on fiber0o"tic cables is: a. co$$on b. ex"eri$ental ANS: B 1&. LT%* stands for: a. L"tical Ti$e0%elay *es"onse b. L"tical Ti$ing %elay *e+'ire$ent ANS: C 1). Esing fiber0o"tic cable in a tele"hone syste$ exce"t for the connection to the s'bscriberBs "hone is called: a. 6%%3 c. 63TC b. 6TTC d. SLNIT ANS: B COMPLETION 1. 6TTC stands for 6iber To The ANS: C'rb !. 63TC stands for 6iber 3n The . . c. L"tical Ti$e0%o$ain *eflecto$eter d. L"tical Ti$e0%ivision *elay c. obsolete d. not "ossible c. Synchrono's Trans$ission Signal d. Synchrono's Trans$ission Syste$ c. L"tical Channel one d. L"tical Cable ty"e 1

ANS: Coo" #. S%H stands for Synchrono's %ata ANS: Hierarchy &. 2%M stands for ANS: 2avelength ). SLNIT stands for ANS: Synchrono's /. 6%%3 stands for 6iber ANS: %istrib'ted 1. L"tical a$"lifiers 'se ANS: erbi'$ 4. L"tical a$"lifiers 'se a ANS: "'$" 5. %ense ANS: 2%M 17. The LC01 line rate is ANS: )1.4& 11. SLNIT does not 'se bit ANS: st'ffing 1!. SLNIT 'ses a ANS: "ointer 1#. 6%%3 syste$s 'se two ANS: to<en 1&. The two rings of an 6%%3 syste$ carry data in ANS: o""osite directions. rings to carry signals. to denote the starting "osition of an infor$ation fra$e. to synchroni e two digital signals. Mb"s. allows $any different wavelengths of light to share a cable. laser. 0do"ed glass. %ata 3nterface. L"tical Networ<. 0division $'lti"lexing. .

1). Iach ANS: node 1/. 6%%3 'ses ANS: $'lti

in an 6%%3 syste$ acts as a regenerative re"eater.

$ode cables.

11. The data rate of an 6%%3 syste$ is ANS: 177 M 14. SLNIT fra$es have considerably $ore abo't signal ro'ting and set'". ANS: overhead 15. The n'$ber of bytes in a SLNIT fra$e is ANS: 417 !7. The n'$ber of bytes in the "ayload of a SLNIT fra$e is ANS: 11& !1. The n'$ber of rows in a SLNIT fra$e is ANS: 5


than do %S fra$es for infor$ation

!!. The total n'$ber of overhead bytes in a SLNIT fra$e row is ANS: & !#. The n'$ber of "ath overhead bytes in a SLNIT fra$e row is ANS: 1 !&. SLNIT fra$e rows contain "ath overhead and ANS: trans"ort !). 3n SLNIT( S>I stands for synchrono's "ayload ANS: envelo"e SHORT NS!ER 1. 2hat is the bandwidth of a first0order C>6 with a rise ti$e of #)7 nanosecondsF ANS: . overhead.

1 MH !. Calc'late the total rise ti$e for a fiber0o"tic syste$ if the trans$itter( receiver( and cable each have a rise ti$e of )7 nanoseconds. ANS: 4/./ nanoseconds