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9 (de) vizualizări32 paginiReinforced and prestressed concrete

Jan 23, 2014

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Reinforced and prestressed concrete

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

9 (de) vizualizări

Reinforced and prestressed concrete

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 32

2010

Reinforcing provisions

1. Beams

The transversal shape of monolith beams is generally T section. For prefabricated

beams the transversal section can be realized in a big variation that monolith ones, Fig.

16.7.

Fig. 16.7. Shape of beams

Once the section dimensions of a beam or slab are fixed and the grade of concrete

has been decided pon, the steel reinforcement is the only remaining design variable. The

!antity of flexral reinforcement re!ired follo"s directly from the moment capacity

re!ired in the member to resist moments de to applied loads.

#inimm diameter of longitdinal steel is$

% for beams of slab 1& mm'

% for beams ribbed slab ( mm.

For light"eight concrete the reinforcements bigger than 1) mm "ill be realized of

die%rolled steel.

#aximm diameter of resistant steel can be *& mm for straight steel, and )+ mm

for bent%p bars.

The position of the reinforcement along the beam depends on the shape of

diagram ,bending and shear- the spport type, the type of the steel, the ratio h . . /t

least 1.0 from the tensioned reinforcement and minimm t"o bars "ill be contined on

spport.

To beams hardly loaded, it is rational a gradation of longitdinal reinforcement fnction

of the shape of bending diagram, fig.1

2. Reinforcing provision for slabs

For resistant steel there are sed$

% 12 +), 12 6&

% "elded mesh

% O3 07

The minimm diameter can be$

% for the bottom part in monolith slab

% for top ,in spports- in monolith slab$

% O3 07 ( mm

% 12 +) 6 mm

% for beamless slab$

% in the center strip ( mm

% in the spport strip 1& mm

% for precast slab reinforced "ith "elded "ire mesh * mm

% for monolith slab reinforced "ith "elded "ire mesh + mm

% for fondation$ 1& mm

( mm ,for "elded mesh-

#aximm diameter is$

mm ) h 1 , &

p

+

The maximm distance bet"een steels is$

% )&& mm ,at least + bars.meter- for slabs "ith

mm 0&& h

p

% )+& mm ,at leats * bars.meter- for slabs "ith

mm *&& h 0&&

p

<

% 00& mm ,at least 0 bars.meter- for

mm *&& h

p

>

% )&&mm for "elded meshes ,hollo" plan4-

The minimm distance bet"een bars is$

% (& mm ,maximm 1) bars.meter- for reinforcement in the span and spports

% +& mm for "elded meshes.

Repartition steel

For slabs "ith )

1 )

> "ith resistant steel on one direction, perpendiclar a

repartition steel is provided, representing at least 1+5 from the area of the resistant steel,

bt minimm

m . mm 6 *

for independent bars, and

m . mm + +

for "elded mesh.

6n fig. 16.17 there are presented some possibilities for reinforcing of monolith

slab.

a- slab "ith e!al openings

( )

span port sp

# #

a- reinforcing "ith independent bars

c- reinforcing "hen

( )

span port sp

# # >>

d- reinforcing in span "ith negative ending moment

Fig. 16.17 7einforcing types of slabs

a- One 8"ay spanning slabs

- & , ) l ,

oy ox

>

The main reinforcement is placed parallel "ith the small span of the slab.

1erpendiclar is placed constrctive reinforcement, Fig. 16.1(.

For ta4ing over the local bending moments on spport from the big span, there are

placed riders, that are

m . 6 +

,12 +), 12 6&- or

m . ( +

,O3 07-' they are prolonged

oter the spport "ith ox

)+ , &

.

b- T"o 8"ay spanning slabs

The reinforcement is placed respecting on every direction the provisions, Fig.

16.1(.b

a- One%"ay spanning slab b- T"o%"ay spanning slab

c- T"o%"ay spanning slab

Fig. 16.18. 7einforcement arrangement

9hen the reinforcement is realized of "elded meshes, it mst respect the same

rles as in the case of independent bars.

6n fig. ....there are presented some examples of reinforcing "ith "elded meshes.

a

1

- span reinforcing a

)

- spport reinforcing

b

1

- span reinforcing sperposed meshes b

)

- spport reinforcing

Fig.. Slab reinforcing "ith "elded meshes

Rectangular cross-section of beams

2.1. Singl reinforce! concrete sections

For a rectanglar section, the geometrical characteristic is, Fig.11.1).

Fig. 11.12. Singly reinforced rectanglar section

6t is convenient to define a non%dimensional constant, , as$

ck

u

sd

f bd

M

)

6f lim

sd the section is singly reinforced, on contrary being necessary the

doble reinforcing.

lim

is fnction of

lim

"here

yd

d

x

+

&&0+ . &

&&0+ . &

lim

lim and is given

in Table in :ides for designing.

1.2. "oubl reinforce! rectangular section

;obly reinforced is necessary "hen

lim

>

# the steel areas are determined "ith

the relations$

( )

) )

)

lim

)

d d

f d b M

A

s

cd Eds

s

,7-

( )

) ) lim 1

1

s s cd

y

s

A d b f

f

A +

,(-

6f yd s

>

) it can consider yd s

f

)

as$

yd

cd

s

f

f

bd

d d

A

)

)

lim

)

) lim 1 s

yd

cd

s

A

f

f

bd A +

S$%&'()' *) F+R,- "$ .

;ac<

+

w

b

b

=n general axa netr< trece prin plac<, f

h x

sa dac< este satisf<ct<

condi>ia$

,

_

d

h

d

h

b

b

f d b

M

f f

w cd w

Eds

+ . & 1

)

?n aceast< sita>ie dimensionarea sec>inilor =n form< de T se face c rela>iile de la

sec>inile dreptnghilare, =nlocind l<>imea grinzii c l<>imea pl<cii, fig.1

Fig.1 Sec>inea T simpl armat<

;ac< axa netr< este =n inim< ,grind<- , f

h x

- se determin< momentl reds c rela>ia$

,

_

,

_

d

h

b

b

d

h

f

w

f

s

+ . & 1 1

1

/ceast< valoare este apoi comparat< c valoarea limit< din Tabell 0.0 din 6ndrmar prof.

@iss

;ac< lim 1

s sec>inea este simpl armat<' din Tabell 0.+ se ob>in

coeficien>ii A Bi C iar aria de arm<tr< se determin< c rela>ia$

yd

cd

f

w

s

f

f

bd

d

h

b

b

A

1

]

1

,

_

+ 1

1entr cazl =n care$

( )

yd s

1 &&0+ . &

1

;ac< lim 1

s este necesar< dbla armare$

yd

cd

w

f

w

f

s

f

f

d b

d d

d

h

b

b

d

h

A

)

)

lim

)

+ . & 1 1

,

_

,

_

( ) [ ]

) lim 1 s

yd

cd

f w w s

A

f

f

h b b d b A +

"eterminarea l/0imii efective a pl/cii

;etrminarea l<>imii efective a pl<cii =n calcll la toate st<rile limit< se face pe

baza distan>ei l

&

dintre pnctele de efort nl din diagrama de momente =ncovoietoare.

D<>imea efectiv< rezlt< din rela>ia$

b b b b b

w eff eff eff

+ +

) , 1

Ende$

'

+ +

+

b

b i eff

eff

b b b

b b

b

) 1

,

min

Ende $ & & ) , 1 ) , 1

) , & 1 . & ) . & l l b b

eff

< +

/ctive "idth of the flange

The comptation of effective "idth of the flange is determined fnction of l

o

bet"een the

points of zero moment from the bending moment diagram. This is valid if the ratio of t"o

adFacent spans is bet"een ).0 and 0.), and in the case of cantilever its length does not

exceed the a half of the adFacent span.

1 , &1

(+ . &

eff

l l

( )

) , 1 , &)

1+ . &

eff eff

l l l +

0 &0

7 . & l l

( )

0 , ) , &*

1+ . &

eff eff

l l l +

Gffective "idth of the flange is$

b b b b b

eff eff w eff

< + +

) , 1 ,

9here$ o i i eff

l l b b ) . & 1 . & ) . &

& ,

+

9ith $

b b

i eff

,

"$S'1) F+R S2$3R

6n addition to meeting flexral re!irement, beams mst be safe against prematre

failre de to diagonal tension in the concrete, reslting from combined shear and

longitdinal flexral stress.

6n the zones near spports, for redced vales of the loading, the beam behaves

elastically and the shear stresses$

bi

bi

b

bI

VS

,11.H+-

act in any section in addition to the bending stresses$

y

6

#

bi

b

,11.H6-

"here I

b

J shear stresses at a point located at a distance y from the centroid of the

section

K J shear force acting on the section

S

bi

J first moment of area of the portion of the section lying beyond the

point "here the shear stress is measred

6

bi

J second moment of area of the section

b J breadth of the member at the point "here the shear stress is calclated

and L

b

J normal stress

# J bending moment

M J distance from the netral axis to the section "here is determined the

normal stress

S2$3R S.R$)1.2 +F ,$,B$RS 4'.2+(. S2$3R R$')F+R%$,$).

Recommen!e! !esign formula for s5ear strengt5

G2) ses a parameter, 4, to allo" for the scale effect. 2ommonly in beams, longitdinal

bottom reinforcement, re!ired at mid%span to resist sag moment is not re!ired near the

spport and some of the bars are crtailed' that is they do not extend all of the "ay into

the spport. 9here +& per cent or more of sch reinforcement is crtailed, @J1.

Other"ise, 4 is given by$

k greater of ,1.6%d- and 1

9here d is the effective depth in meters.

The expression for the design shear strength of members "ithot shear reinforcement

recommended by G2) is$

( )

cp l rd

k 1+ . & *& ) . 1 v +

9here$ I

rd

is basic design shear strength. The vale of I

rd

shold be ta4en as )+5 of a

conservatively lo" vale of the tensile strength of concrete, that is$

c ct rd

f . )+ . &

&+ . & ,

9here N

c

J1.+

f

ct,0.05

is the tensile strength "ith a + per cent probability of not being exceeded.

G2) gives$

0 . )

&+ . & ,

)1 . &

ck ct

f f

l

lesser of the longitdinal tension reinforcement ratio, A

s

b

w

d and &.&). The

vale for /

s

shold be ta4en as the smallest vale in a region "ithin a length of ,dO

re!ired anchorage length- on both sides of the section considered.

!

cp

A

"

"here P is the factored design axial force either from an external

force or from a prestress force and /

g

is the gross area of the cross section.

7ecall that the average shear stress at a section is given by e!ation$

d b

V

w

v

Fig. 1&.1&

The maximm capacity to resist shear force Q

c

"hich can be applied to members

"ithot shear reinforcement is given by$

d b V

w c

v

( ) [ ] d b k V

w cp l rd c

+ + 1+ . & *& ) . 1

SRG/7 ST7GP:TR OF #G#3G7S 96TR SRG/7 7G6PFO72G#GPT

The minimm !antities of reinforcement are specified in terms of shear reinforcement

ratio, S

"

. For vertical stirrps in prismatic members, this is the ratio of cross sectional

area of stirrps to the area of concrete in plan 8Fig.1&.0&

a-

b-

Fig. 10.60 ;efinition of S

"

$ ,a- pictorial vie"' ,b- section T%T ,plan vie"-

w

sw

w

b s

A

9here$ A

sw

is the area of shear reinforcement "ithin length s' for stirrps "ith

t"o legs each, the combined area from both legs is sed in the calclation of A

sw

s is the spacing of shear reinforcement

b

w

is the "eb breadth or in the case of rectanglar sections, actal breadth

.R(SS ,+"$7 F+R ,$,B$RS 4'.2 S2$3R R$')F+R%$,$).

Fig.8.29 .russ :it5 struts at various angles ;

Fig.....russ :it5 struts at various angles

To determine the capacity of the reinforcement to resist shear force Q

s

, consider the

analogos trss of fig. +.0&a, having constant concrete strt inclinations. The forces

acting on a portion of the trss to the left of section T%T ,a section ta4en parallel to the

concrete strt- are illstrated in fig. +.0&b. for the prpose of clarity, the trss illstrated

in Fig. +.0& is simplified to sho" only one stirrp Foining adFacent compression strts. 6n

reality, the spacing of stirrps is typically less than the spacing of the compression strts

and there are a nmber of stirrps crossing a section sch as T%T. Rence the total tensile

force that can safely be carried by the shear reinforcement crossing this section is$

,

_

s

y

sw s

f

#A V

9here n is the total nmber of stirrps or bent p bars crossing the section, /

s"

is the

cross sectional area of each stirrp, f

y

is the characteristic stirrp yield strength and N

s

the

material factor of safety for steel ,N

s

J1.1+-.

6f the spacing of the stirrps is given by s, the total nmber of bars crossing section T%T

and the total nmber of compression strts is$

( ) s $ # . cot

9here z is the lever arm bet"een the tensile force in the longitdinal bottom

reinforcement and the horizontal compression force in the concrete. Ths e!ation

becomes$

( )

s

$ f A

V

s

y sw

s

cot

The compressive force acting on the concrete strts is assmed to generate a niform

stress distribtion in each strt. This "ill case compression failre in the strt "hen the

applied stress e!als the compressive strength of the concrete. The maximm force that

can be ta4en by each strt is$

strut w

c

ck

strut

d b

f

% &

9here ( )

c

ck

f

%

is the compressive strength of the concrete strts and d

strut

is the depth, as

in Fig. +.0&.b. .5e effectiveness factor# v reflects the difference bet"een the

compressive strength of a cylinder tested in laboratory and the actal compressive

strength of a strt.

The shear force re!ired to case failre of the compressive strts, V

w

is the vertical

component of &

strut

mltiplied by the nmber of strts and is given by$

( ) ( ) # d b

f

% # & V

strut w

c

ck

strut w

sin sin

From Fig. +.0&b, the effective depth of the strts, d

strut

is given by$

( ) sin s d

strut

Ths e!ation ... becomes$

( ) ( )

( )

s

$

s b

f

% # s b

f

% V

w

c

ck

w

c

ck

w

cot

sin sin

) )

( )( )

sin cos

w

c

ck

w

b

f

% V

7egarless the magnitde of V

c

and V

s

the applied shear force mst clearly never exceed

V

w .

<. "$S'1) F+R S2$3R

6n addition to meeting flexral re!irement, beams mst be safe against prematre

failre de to diagonal tension in the concrete, reslting from combined shear and

longitdinal flexral stress.

6n the zones near spports, for redced vales of the loading, the beam behaves

elastically and the shear stresses$

bi

bi

b

b6

KS

,11.H+-

act in any section in addition to the bending stresses$

y

6

#

bi

b

,11.H6-

"here I

b

J shear stresses at a point located at a distance y from the centroid of the

section

K J shear force acting on the section

S

bi

J first moment of area of the portion of the section lying beyond the

point "here the shear stress is measred

6

bi

J second moment of area of the section

b J breadth of the member at the point "here the shear stress is calclated

and L

b

J normal stress

# J bending moment

M J distance from the netral axis to the section "here is determined the

normal stress

6f a small s!are element located at the netral axis of sch beam is isolated as in

Fig. 11.)&b, the vertical shear stresses on it, e!al and opposite on the t"o faces for

reason of e!ilibrim, act as sho"n. Ro"ever, if these "ere the only stresses present, the

element "old not be in e!ilibrim' it "old spin. Therefore, on the t"o horizontal

faces there exist e!ilibrating horizontal shear stresses of the same magnitde.

Fig. 11.20 Stress traFectories in homogeneos rectanglar beam

6t is provided in any strength%of%materials text that on an element ct at *+

&

these shear stresses combine in sch a manner that their effect is as sho"n in Fig.11.)&c.

That is, the action of the t"o pairs of normal stresses, one tension and one compression,

acting on the *+

&

faces and of nmerical vale e!al to that of the shear stresses. 6f an

element of the beam is considered located neither at the netral axis nor at the oter

edges, its vertical faces are sbFected not only to the shear stresses bt also to the familiar

bending stresses "hose magnitde is given by G!. ,11.H6- ,Fig.11.)&d-.The six stresses

"hich no" act on the element can be combined into a pair of inclined compression

stresses and a pair of inclined tension stresses "hich act at right angles to each other.

They are 4no"n as pri#cip'l stresses ,Fig.11.)&e.-. Their vale is given by$

)

b

)

b b

) , 1

* )

+

,11.H7-

and their inclination U by tan )U J )I

b

.L

b

Since the magnitdes of the shear stresses I and the bending stresses L change

both along the beam and vertically "ith distance from the netral axis, the inclinations as

"ell as the magnitdes of the reslting principal stresses L

b1,)

also vary from one place to

the another. Fig.11.)&f sho"s the inclinations of these principal stresses for a rectanglar

beam niformly loaded. That is, these traFectories are lines that, at any point, are dra"n in

that direction in "hich the principal stress, tension or compression, acts at that point. 6t is

seen that at the netral axis the principal stresses in a beam are al"ays inclined at *+

&

to

the axis. 6n the vicinity of the oter fibers they are horizontal near mid span.

/n important point follo"s from this discssion. Tension stresses, "hich are

particlar concern in vie" of the lo" tensile strength of the concrete, are not confined to

the horizontal bending stress L

b

that are cased by bending alone. Tension stresses of

varios inclinations and magnitdes, reslting from shear alone ,at the netral axis- or

from the combined of shear and bending, exists in all parts of the beam and can impair its

integrity if not ade!ately provided for. 6t is for this reason that the inclined tension

stresses, 4no"n as di'!o#'l te#sio#, mst be careflly considered in reinforced%concrete

design.

6n the netral axis the axial stress is, by definition, of zero magnitde. Sections

"here shear stress predominates throghot the depth are not common bt do occr in

some cases "here the bending moment is negligible or "here the "eb "idth of the

member is small. 6n sch sitations, crac4ing, 4no"n as shear%"eb%crac4ing, occrs, as

illstrated in Fig.11.)1.

Fig.11.21. Shear "eb crac4ing

6n the sections "ith shear and bending, the crac4s tend to be crved and to vary in

slope from H&

&

at the extreme fiber ,point of pre bending- to *+

&

at the netral axis ,point

of pre shear-. This form of crac4ing is commonly 4no"n as shear%flexre%crac4ing. 6n

most reinforced concrete members, flexral crac4s form before the principal stresses at

the netral axis are large enogh for shear%"eb crac4ing to occr. Ths, shear%flexre

crac4ing is generally the most common type of failre.

11.2.<.6. S5ear strengt5 of members :it5 s5ear reinforcement

9hen the applied shear force, K, exceeds the shear capacity of the concrete, K

b

,

shear reinforcement mst be provided to resist the difference, K 8 K

b

. Gven "hen the

applied shear in beams is less then the shear capacity, a minimm !antity of shear

reinforcement mst be provided.

Stirrps ,also 4no"n as lin4s-, sch as those illstrated in Fig. 11.0,a-, are the

most common form of shear reinforcement. Stirrps are generally placed vertically in the

"eb of the member as illstrated and shold be fixed arond the longitdinal

reinforcement. For variable depth members, vertical stirrps are no longer perpendiclar

to the longitdinal axis of the beam and special care mst be ta4en in their design.

/nother form of shear reinforcement are bent%p bars Fig. 11.0c, "hich are bars

of bottom longitdinal reinforcement bent p at their ends so as to cross the crac4s

developed by shear stresses. 3ent%p bars, "hile effective in terms of material, have a

high associated labor cost and tend to add to the overall cost of constrction.

S5ear strengt5 of members :it5 s5ear reinforcement

For slabs, it is not necessary to provide any shear reinforcement provided K V K

b.

Ro"ever, "here lin4s are to be provided, a minimm !antity shold be sed. The

minimm !antity of reinforcement are specified in terms of the shear reinforcement

ratio, S

"

. For vertical stirrps in prismatic members, this is the ratio of the cross%sectional

area of stirrp to the area of concrete in plan see Fig.11.)7, that is$

a-

b-

Fig. 11.27 ;efinition of S

"

$ ,a- pictorial vie"' ,b- section T%T ,plan vie"-

"here /

e

J area of shear reinforcement "ithin length, a

e

( for stirrps "ith t"o

legs each, the combined area from both legs is sed in the calclation of /

et

'

a

e

J spacing of shear reinforcement'

b J "eb breadth or, in the case of rectanglar sections, actal breadth.

,ec5anisms of s5ear transfer

2onsider a typical member inn bending and shear, "hich is reinforced "ith

longitdinal steel against bending. Ender its applied loads, the member "ill crac4 in one

of the characteristic manners, sch as that illstrated in Fig. +.)*

The shear force is transmitted throgh the crac4ed member by a combination of three

mechanisms. The first is do"el action of the reinforcement ,ordinary reinforcements-.

This reslt from the resistance of the reinforcement to local bending as illstrated in Fig.

+.)+a and the resistance of the concrete to localized crshing near the reinforcement. The

second mechanism by "hich crac4ed members resist shear is 4no"n as aggregate

interloc4 and reslts from the forces transmitted across the crac4 by interloc4ing pieces

of aggregate Fig. +.)+b. The third mechanism by "hich crac4ed members resist shear is

throgh the resistance of the concrete in the ncrac4ed portion of the beam "here the

axial stress is compressive. The free body diagram for the portion of the member bet"een

the left%hand spport and the first inclined crac4 is illstrated in Fig. +.)6 the total

capacity to resist shear force, K is the reslt of the combined effects of the three

mechanisms illstrated inn that figre.

6t has been fond that do"el action is generally first to reach its capacity,

follo"ed by failre of the aggregate interloc4 mechanism follo"ed by shear failre of the

concrete in the compression zone. Ro"ever, the precise proportion of the total shear

force carried by each mechanism is difficlt to establish and, conse!ently, the shear

strength of the concrete is most often represented by a single expression "hich acconts

for all three mechanisms acting together.

Shear reinforcement, li4e flexral reinforcement, does not prevent crac4s

from forming in a member. 6ts prpose is to ensre that the member "ill not ndergo

shear failre before the fll bending capacity of the member is reached. 9hen inclined

crac4s form in a member "ith shear reinforcement, the bars "hich cross the crac4s

contribte to the shear resistance of the member, as illstrated in Fig.11.)(. The total

shear capacity provided by the section can be considered as a combination of the capacity

of the reinforcement and that of the concrete as illstrated in Fig. 11.)(.

Fig.11.28. Shear resistance of member "ith stirrps$

,a- elevation sho"ing' ,b- reinforcement' ,c- transfer of shear force throgh member

6f the applied shear force is sfficiently large, the shear reinforcement "ill reach

its yield strength. 3eyond this point, the reinforcement behaves plastically and the crac4s

open more rapidly. /s the crac4s "iden, the proportion of the shear resisted by aggregate

interloc4 is redced forcing an increase in do"el action and shear stress in the ncrac4ed

portion of the section. Failre finally occrs by do"el splitting or by crshing of the

concrete in the compression zone.

a-

b-

c-

Fig....#echanism of shear transfer$,a-do"el action',b-aggregate interloc4',c-shear

stresses in ncrac4ed concrete

.russ mo!el for members :it5 s5ear reinforcement

6n order to !antify the behavior and strength of members "ith shear

reinforcement, an e!ivalent trss model is fre!ently sed to represent the behavior of

members in shear.

9hen sbFected to combined moment and shear, a member "ith shear

reinforcement, sch as the illstrated in Fig.11.)Ha, develops inclined crac4s in the same

"ay as a member "ithot shear reinforcement. For the crac4ed member illstrated,

compressive stress develops in the concrete at the top of the section and tensile stress

develops in the longitdinal reinforcement at the bottom of the section as illstrated in

Fig.11.)Hb in addition, compressive forces are developed along inclined paths bet"een

the crac4s and tensile forces are developed in each of the stirrps crossing the crac4s. /ll

of these internal forces are illstrated in Fig.11.)Hb, and together they are similar in

pattern to the forces generated in a trss sch as that illstrated in Fig.11.)Hc.

Fig.11.29. Trss model for reinforced beam$

,a- crac4ing in reinforced beam' ,b- zones of compression bet"een crac4s'

,c- trss model.

For the general trss analogy, the tension members corresponding to the shear

reinforcement are inclined at an angle, U, to the horizontal e!al to the inclination of the

shear reinforcement. For vertical stirrps, this angle, U, is H&

&

as illstrated inn Fig.11.)Hc

in a similar manner, the compression members are inclined at an angle, W, to the

horizontal "here &

&

X W X H&

&

. 6n the simplest of the trss models, the inclination of the

concrete YstrtsZ is assmed to be constant, generally "ith W J *+

&

as illstrated in

Fig.11.)Hc. 6n more complex models, the inclination of the concrete strts is assmed to

vary along the length of the member. This later is considered to be more accrate and its

se can reslt in significant savings in shear reinforcement. /n example of sch a model

is illstrated in Fig.11.0&.

Fig.11.60. Trss "ith strts at varios angles

.pes of s5ear failure$shear bond failre, do"el failre, shear compression failre,

diagonal tension failre, flexral failre

1 1

*+

Shear bond failre

do"el action

;o"el failre

1 1

crshing concrete

Shear compression failre

1 1

;iagonal tension failre

1 1

Flexral failre

Fig.11.26. Types of shear failre

,ec5anism of s5ear transfer$

Shear reinforcement, li4e flexral reinforcement, does not prevent crac4s from forming in

a member. 6ts prpose is to ensre that the member "ill not ndergo shear failre before

the fll bending capacity of the member is reached. 9hen inclined crac4s form in a

member "ith shear reinforcement, the bars "hich cross the crac4s contribte to the shear

resistance of the member, as illstrated in Fig.11.)(. The total shear capacity provided by

the section can be considered as a combination of the capacity of the reinforcement and

that of the concrete as illstrated in Fig. 11.)(. Ths$

K

cap

J K

e

O K

b

,11.HH-

"here K

e

is the contribtion of the shear reinforcement and K

b

is the contribtion

from do"el action, aggregate interloc4 and the shear stress in the ncrac4ed concrete

' 't e e e

) * A # +

,11.1&&-

.5e e=uivalent truss mo!el is sed to represent the behavior of members in

shear.

45en sub>ecte! to combine! moment an! s5ear# a member :it5 s5ear

reinforcement# suc5 as t5e illustrate! in Fig. 8.28a# !evelops incline! crac?s in

t5e same :a as a member :it5out s5ear reinforcement. For t5e crac?e!

member illustrate!# compressive stress !evelops in t5e concrete at t5e top of t5e

section an! tensile stress !evelops in t5e longitu!inal reinforcement at t5e

bottom of t5e section as illustrate! in Fig. 8.28b in a!!ition# compressive forces

are !evelope! along incline! pat5s bet:een t5e crac?s an! tensile forces are

!evelope! in eac5 of t5e stirrups crossing t5e crac?s. 3ll of t5ese internal forces

are illustrate! in Fig. 8.28b# an! toget5er t5e are similar in pattern to t5e forces

generate! in a truss suc5 as t5at illustrate! in Fig. 8.28c.

$=uilibrium torsion an! compatibilit torsion

$=uilibrium torsion 8 is that "hich is re!ired to maintain e!ilibrim of the member.

6n sch sitation, the external load has no other option bt to be carried by torsion.

Gxamples of e!ilibrim torsion, illstrated in Fig. 6.)a are an eccentrical loaded beam

and a beam in "hich there is a change in the direction of its longitdinal axis Fig. 6.)b.

G!ilibrim torsion is of primary interest in design becase failre of the member is

inevitable if it has insfficient torsional strength.

Fig.12.2. G!ilibrim torsion

%ompatibilit torsion occrs in strctres having rigidly connected

members Fig. 6.0

Fig. 12.6 2ompatibility torsion

6t reslts from the compatibility of deformations of members meeting at a Foint.

O"ing to the monolithic natre of their constrction, most members in concrete

strctres ndergo a certain degree of compatibility torsion. 6n the example given in

Fig. 6.0, bending de to applied loads cases rotation at the edges of the slab, "hich

in trn cases rotation of the edge beam. 6f the edge beam "ere free to rotate, no

torsion "old reslt. Ro"ever, if ,becase it is attached to colmns at its ends- it

resists rotation, torsion does reslt

The compatibility torsion can be ignored if sfficient steel is provided to ensre dctile

behavior and the spacing of stirrps is sfficiently small to control crac4ing at the

serviceability limit state.

The torsional strength of a concrete member can be significantly increased by

providing sitable torsion reinforcement across the crac4s. This is sally provided in the

form of [closed\ for%sided stirrps, as illstrated in Fig. 6.7, in combination "ith

longitdinal bars distribted arond the periphery of the section. This reinforcement

controls the propagation of crac4s and ensres that "hen failre occrs de to yielding of

the reinforcement, it is not sdden.

@rovisions for beams sub>ecte! to ben!ing an! torsion

Torsional reinforcement is composed of bars of t"o types$ transverse stirrps and

additional longitdinal reinforcement or spiral.

The transverse stirrps sed for torsional reinforcement mst be of closed form,

since principal tensile stress reslts on each of the form faces of a beam in torsion

Fig.16.16. :ood anchorage is provided by hoo4ing the stirrps bar ends arond the

longitdinal reinforcement.

6n order to control spiral crac4ing properly, the maximm spacing of torsional

stirrps shold not exceed

*

th b

a

s s

l

< .

The spacing of the longitdinal bars shold not exceed

b

0

1

a

l

<

, and they shold

be "ell distribted arond the perimeter of the cross%section to control crac4ing' at least

one bar mst be placed in each corner of the stirrps fig. 16.16. 2arefl attention mst be

paid to the anchorage of longitdinal torsional reinforcement so that it is able to develop

its yield strength at the face of the spporting colmns, "here torsional moments are

often maximm.

Fig. 16.16. 7einforcing of beams sbFected to bending and torsion

%+7(,)SA Be5avior un!er loa!s

The behavior is dependent by the initial eccentricity vale, given by

"

M

e

o

, and

by the vale of axial force P, respectively, Fig. 1*.)

Fig.1<.2 Failre of member sbFected to compression pls bending.

For eccentrically compression, the dominant loading inflences the behavior of

the members. For instance the limit shortening of compressed concrete for an axial force

is &,)5, bt for bending it is &,0+5. For eccentrically compression, the deformations "ill

be smaller if the bending "ill be secondary load reported to the axial force, or "ill be

near the maximm deformation ,&,0+5- if bending is principal. The deformation of the

tension steel "ill be in plastic domain, if bending moment is dominant and the steel

percentage does not exceed the maximm vale or they can be nder the yielding level, if

bending moment is secondary.

6f the failre ta4es place "ith plastic deformation in the tension reinforcement,

follo"ed by the crshing of compressed concrete one considers that is the 1

st

case of

eccentrically compression.

6f the reinforcement has only compression stresses or, being tensioned it is elastic

domain, the failre ta4es place by the crshing of compressed concrete that is the 66

nd

case.

1<.2. Slen!erBs5ort columns

9hen an nbalanced moment or a moment de to eccentric loading, Fig. 1*.1, is

applied to a colmn, the member responds by bending.

9hether a colmn is short or slender is normally defined by a sle#der#ess r'tio,

"hich is fnction of the parameters "hich determine the lateral deflection of the colmn.

The slenderness ratio is defined by$

r

l

f

o

,1*.1-

f

l % is the effective length of the member

r 8 is the radis of gyration

/

6

r

6 8 is the second moment of the section area

/ 8 is the cross%sectional area

/nd

o

f

)(( , &

h

l

for rectanglar section ,1*.)-

9here h$ side of the section on the direction of the force P eccentricity.

Fnction of slenderness ratio "e have$

- for

1&

,short colmns-, the second%order moments can be ignored

- for

0& 1& <

,slender colmns-, it is necessary to consider the second%order

moments

- for 0& > ,very slender colmns- the failre of colmns, nder an continos

increasing of the axial force "ill ta4e place by loosing the stability ,bc4ling-.

The basic information on the behavior of straight, concentrically loaded slender

colmns "as developed by Gler more than )&& years ago. 6n generalized form, it states

that member "ill fail by bc4ling at the critical load.

)

f

)

cr

l

G6

P

,1*.0-

6t seen that the bc4ling load decreases rapidly "ith increasing slenderness ratio

- r . l ,

f

.

The inflence of slenderness on the carrying capacity is ta4en into accont by the

coefficient ]$

6

66

#

#

,1*.*-

6

# % 6

st

order moment determined on the ndeformed strctre

66

# % 66

nd

order moment, determined on the deformed strctre.

6n members "hich sstain chiefly or exclsively axial compression loads, sch as

bilding colmns, it is economical to ma4e the concrete carry most of the load. Still,

some steel reinforcement is al"ays provided for varios reasons. For one, very fe"

members are trly axially loaded' steel is essential for resisting any bending that may

exist' For another, if part of the total load is carried by steel "ith its mch greater

strength, the cross%sectional dimensions of the member can be redced, the more so the

larger the amont of reinforcement.

The t"o chief forms of reinforced%concrete colmns are sho"n in Fig. 1*.+

,1- ,)- ,0-

Fig.1<.8 7einforced concrete colmns$ ,1- % longitdinal rods and spiral

hooping' ,)- 8 longitdinal rods and lateral ties' ,0- 8 strctral steel.

There are also composite compression members ,0- reinforced longitdinally "ith

strctral%steel shapes, pipe or tbing, "ith or "ithot additional longitdinal bars.

Types ,1- and ,)- are by far the most common, and most of the discssion "ill

refer to them.

6n the s!are colmn, the for longitdinal bars serve as main reinforcement.

They are held in place by transverse small diameter steel ties, "hich prevent

displacement of the main bars dring constrction operations and conteract any

tendency of the compression%loaded bars to bc4le ot of the concrete by brsting the

thin oter cover. On the left is sho"n a rond colmn "ith eight main reinforcing bars.

These are srronded by a closely spaced spiral, "hich serves the same prpose as the

more "idely spaced ties, bt also acts to confine the concrete "ithin it, thereby increasing

its resistance to axial compression.

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