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Suport curs pt. intrebari examen febr.

2010
Reinforcing provisions
1. Beams
The transversal shape of monolith beams is generally T section. For prefabricated
beams the transversal section can be realized in a big variation that monolith ones, Fig.
16.7.
Fig. 16.7. Shape of beams
Once the section dimensions of a beam or slab are fixed and the grade of concrete
has been decided pon, the steel reinforcement is the only remaining design variable. The
!antity of flexral reinforcement re!ired follo"s directly from the moment capacity
re!ired in the member to resist moments de to applied loads.
#inimm diameter of longitdinal steel is$
% for beams of slab 1& mm'
% for beams ribbed slab ( mm.
For light"eight concrete the reinforcements bigger than 1) mm "ill be realized of
die%rolled steel.
#aximm diameter of resistant steel can be *& mm for straight steel, and )+ mm
for bent%p bars.
The position of the reinforcement along the beam depends on the shape of
diagram ,bending and shear- the spport type, the type of the steel, the ratio h . . /t
least 1.0 from the tensioned reinforcement and minimm t"o bars "ill be contined on
spport.
To beams hardly loaded, it is rational a gradation of longitdinal reinforcement fnction
of the shape of bending diagram, fig.1
2. Reinforcing provision for slabs
For resistant steel there are sed$
% 12 +), 12 6&
% "elded mesh
% O3 07
The minimm diameter can be$
% for the bottom part in monolith slab
% for top ,in spports- in monolith slab$
% O3 07 ( mm
% 12 +) 6 mm
% for beamless slab$
% in the center strip ( mm
% in the spport strip 1& mm
% for precast slab reinforced "ith "elded "ire mesh * mm
% for monolith slab reinforced "ith "elded "ire mesh + mm
% for fondation$ 1& mm
( mm ,for "elded mesh-
#aximm diameter is$
mm ) h 1 , &
p
+
The maximm distance bet"een steels is$
% )&& mm ,at least + bars.meter- for slabs "ith
mm 0&& h
p

% )+& mm ,at leats * bars.meter- for slabs "ith
mm *&& h 0&&
p
<
% 00& mm ,at least 0 bars.meter- for
mm *&& h
p
>
% )&&mm for "elded meshes ,hollo" plan4-
The minimm distance bet"een bars is$
% (& mm ,maximm 1) bars.meter- for reinforcement in the span and spports
% +& mm for "elded meshes.
Repartition steel
For slabs "ith )
1 )
> "ith resistant steel on one direction, perpendiclar a
repartition steel is provided, representing at least 1+5 from the area of the resistant steel,
bt minimm
m . mm 6 *
for independent bars, and
m . mm + +
for "elded mesh.
6n fig. 16.17 there are presented some possibilities for reinforcing of monolith
slab.
a- slab "ith e!al openings
( )
span port sp
# #
a- reinforcing "ith independent bars
c- reinforcing "hen
( )
span port sp
# # >>
d- reinforcing in span "ith negative ending moment
Fig. 16.17 7einforcing types of slabs
a- One 8"ay spanning slabs
- & , ) l ,
oy ox
>
The main reinforcement is placed parallel "ith the small span of the slab.
1erpendiclar is placed constrctive reinforcement, Fig. 16.1(.
For ta4ing over the local bending moments on spport from the big span, there are
placed riders, that are
m . 6 +
,12 +), 12 6&- or
m . ( +
,O3 07-' they are prolonged
oter the spport "ith ox
)+ , &
.
b- T"o 8"ay spanning slabs
The reinforcement is placed respecting on every direction the provisions, Fig.
16.1(.b

a- One%"ay spanning slab b- T"o%"ay spanning slab
c- T"o%"ay spanning slab
Fig. 16.18. 7einforcement arrangement
9hen the reinforcement is realized of "elded meshes, it mst respect the same
rles as in the case of independent bars.
6n fig. ....there are presented some examples of reinforcing "ith "elded meshes.
a
1
- span reinforcing a
)
- spport reinforcing
b
1
- span reinforcing sperposed meshes b
)
- spport reinforcing
Fig.. Slab reinforcing "ith "elded meshes
Rectangular cross-section of beams
2.1. Singl reinforce! concrete sections
For a rectanglar section, the geometrical characteristic is, Fig.11.1).
Fig. 11.12. Singly reinforced rectanglar section
6t is convenient to define a non%dimensional constant, , as$
ck
u
sd
f bd
M
)

6f lim

sd the section is singly reinforced, on contrary being necessary the
doble reinforcing.
lim
is fnction of
lim
"here
yd
d
x

+

&&0+ . &
&&0+ . &
lim
lim and is given
in Table in :ides for designing.
1.2. "oubl reinforce! rectangular section
;obly reinforced is necessary "hen
lim
>
# the steel areas are determined "ith
the relations$
( )
) )
)
lim
)
d d
f d b M
A
s
cd Eds
s

,7-
( )
) ) lim 1
1
s s cd
y
s
A d b f
f
A +
,(-
6f yd s
>
) it can consider yd s
f
)

and relations ,7- and ,(- can be "ritten


as$
yd
cd
s
f
f
bd
d d
A
)
)
lim
)


) lim 1 s
yd
cd
s
A
f
f
bd A +
S$%&'()' *) F+R,- "$ .
;ac<
+
w
b
b
=n general axa netr< trece prin plac<, f
h x
sa dac< este satisf<ct<
condi>ia$

,
_


d
h
d
h
b
b
f d b
M
f f
w cd w
Eds
+ . & 1
)

?n aceast< sita>ie dimensionarea sec>inilor =n form< de T se face c rela>iile de la
sec>inile dreptnghilare, =nlocind l<>imea grinzii c l<>imea pl<cii, fig.1
Fig.1 Sec>inea T simpl armat<
;ac< axa netr< este =n inim< ,grind<- , f
h x
- se determin< momentl reds c rela>ia$

,
_

,
_


d
h
b
b
d
h
f
w
f
s
+ . & 1 1
1

/ceast< valoare este apoi comparat< c valoarea limit< din Tabell 0.0 din 6ndrmar prof.
@iss
;ac< lim 1

s sec>inea este simpl armat<' din Tabell 0.+ se ob>in
coeficien>ii A Bi C iar aria de arm<tr< se determin< c rela>ia$
yd
cd
f
w
s
f
f
bd
d
h
b
b
A
1
]
1

,
_

+ 1
1entr cazl =n care$
( )
yd s

1 &&0+ . &
1
;ac< lim 1

s este necesar< dbla armare$
yd
cd
w
f
w
f
s
f
f
d b
d d
d
h
b
b
d
h
A
)
)
lim
)
+ . & 1 1

,
_

,
_


( ) [ ]
) lim 1 s
yd
cd
f w w s
A
f
f
h b b d b A +

Fig. ). Sec>inea T dbl armat<


"eterminarea l/0imii efective a pl/cii
;etrminarea l<>imii efective a pl<cii =n calcll la toate st<rile limit< se face pe
baza distan>ei l
&
dintre pnctele de efort nl din diagrama de momente =ncovoietoare.
D<>imea efectiv< rezlt< din rela>ia$
b b b b b
w eff eff eff
+ +
) , 1
Ende$

'

+ +
+

b
b i eff
eff
b b b
b b
b
) 1
,
min
Ende $ & & ) , 1 ) , 1
) , & 1 . & ) . & l l b b
eff
< +
/ctive "idth of the flange
The comptation of effective "idth of the flange is determined fnction of l
o
bet"een the
points of zero moment from the bending moment diagram. This is valid if the ratio of t"o
adFacent spans is bet"een ).0 and 0.), and in the case of cantilever its length does not
exceed the a half of the adFacent span.
1 , &1
(+ . &
eff
l l
( )
) , 1 , &)
1+ . &
eff eff
l l l +
0 &0
7 . & l l
( )
0 , ) , &*
1+ . &
eff eff
l l l +
Gffective "idth of the flange is$
b b b b b
eff eff w eff
< + +
) , 1 ,
9here$ o i i eff
l l b b ) . & 1 . & ) . &
& ,
+

9ith $
b b
i eff

,
"$S'1) F+R S2$3R
6n addition to meeting flexral re!irement, beams mst be safe against prematre
failre de to diagonal tension in the concrete, reslting from combined shear and
longitdinal flexral stress.
6n the zones near spports, for redced vales of the loading, the beam behaves
elastically and the shear stresses$
bi
bi
b
bI
VS

,11.H+-
act in any section in addition to the bending stresses$
y
6
#
bi
b

,11.H6-
"here I
b
J shear stresses at a point located at a distance y from the centroid of the
section
K J shear force acting on the section
S
bi
J first moment of area of the portion of the section lying beyond the
point "here the shear stress is measred
6
bi
J second moment of area of the section
b J breadth of the member at the point "here the shear stress is calclated
and L
b
J normal stress
# J bending moment
M J distance from the netral axis to the section "here is determined the
normal stress
S2$3R S.R$)1.2 +F ,$,B$RS 4'.2+(. S2$3R R$')F+R%$,$).
Recommen!e! !esign formula for s5ear strengt5
G2) ses a parameter, 4, to allo" for the scale effect. 2ommonly in beams, longitdinal
bottom reinforcement, re!ired at mid%span to resist sag moment is not re!ired near the
spport and some of the bars are crtailed' that is they do not extend all of the "ay into
the spport. 9here +& per cent or more of sch reinforcement is crtailed, @J1.
Other"ise, 4 is given by$
k greater of ,1.6%d- and 1
9here d is the effective depth in meters.
The expression for the design shear strength of members "ithot shear reinforcement
recommended by G2) is$
( )
cp l rd
k 1+ . & *& ) . 1 v +
9here$ I
rd
is basic design shear strength. The vale of I
rd
shold be ta4en as )+5 of a
conservatively lo" vale of the tensile strength of concrete, that is$
c ct rd
f . )+ . &
&+ . & ,

9here N
c
J1.+
f
ct,0.05
is the tensile strength "ith a + per cent probability of not being exceeded.
G2) gives$
0 . )
&+ . & ,
)1 . &
ck ct
f f

l
lesser of the longitdinal tension reinforcement ratio, A
s
b
w
d and &.&). The
vale for /
s
shold be ta4en as the smallest vale in a region "ithin a length of ,dO
re!ired anchorage length- on both sides of the section considered.
!
cp
A
"

"here P is the factored design axial force either from an external
force or from a prestress force and /
g
is the gross area of the cross section.
7ecall that the average shear stress at a section is given by e!ation$
d b
V
w

v
Fig. 1&.1&
The maximm capacity to resist shear force Q
c
"hich can be applied to members
"ithot shear reinforcement is given by$
d b V
w c
v

( ) [ ] d b k V
w cp l rd c
+ + 1+ . & *& ) . 1
SRG/7 ST7GP:TR OF #G#3G7S 96TR SRG/7 7G6PFO72G#GPT
The minimm !antities of reinforcement are specified in terms of shear reinforcement
ratio, S
"
. For vertical stirrps in prismatic members, this is the ratio of cross sectional
area of stirrps to the area of concrete in plan 8Fig.1&.0&
a-
b-
Fig. 10.60 ;efinition of S
"
$ ,a- pictorial vie"' ,b- section T%T ,plan vie"-
w
sw
w
b s
A


9here$ A
sw
is the area of shear reinforcement "ithin length s' for stirrps "ith
t"o legs each, the combined area from both legs is sed in the calclation of A
sw
s is the spacing of shear reinforcement
b
w
is the "eb breadth or in the case of rectanglar sections, actal breadth
.R(SS ,+"$7 F+R ,$,B$RS 4'.2 S2$3R R$')F+R%$,$).
Fig.8.29 .russ :it5 struts at various angles ;
Fig.....russ :it5 struts at various angles
To determine the capacity of the reinforcement to resist shear force Q
s
, consider the
analogos trss of fig. +.0&a, having constant concrete strt inclinations. The forces
acting on a portion of the trss to the left of section T%T ,a section ta4en parallel to the
concrete strt- are illstrated in fig. +.0&b. for the prpose of clarity, the trss illstrated
in Fig. +.0& is simplified to sho" only one stirrp Foining adFacent compression strts. 6n
reality, the spacing of stirrps is typically less than the spacing of the compression strts
and there are a nmber of stirrps crossing a section sch as T%T. Rence the total tensile
force that can safely be carried by the shear reinforcement crossing this section is$

,
_

s
y
sw s
f
#A V


9here n is the total nmber of stirrps or bent p bars crossing the section, /
s"
is the
cross sectional area of each stirrp, f
y
is the characteristic stirrp yield strength and N
s
the
material factor of safety for steel ,N
s
J1.1+-.
6f the spacing of the stirrps is given by s, the total nmber of bars crossing section T%T
and the total nmber of compression strts is$
( ) s $ # . cot
9here z is the lever arm bet"een the tensile force in the longitdinal bottom
reinforcement and the horizontal compression force in the concrete. Ths e!ation
becomes$
( )
s
$ f A
V
s
y sw
s

cot
The compressive force acting on the concrete strts is assmed to generate a niform
stress distribtion in each strt. This "ill case compression failre in the strt "hen the
applied stress e!als the compressive strength of the concrete. The maximm force that
can be ta4en by each strt is$
strut w
c
ck
strut
d b
f
% &

9here ( )
c
ck
f
%

is the compressive strength of the concrete strts and d
strut
is the depth, as
in Fig. +.0&.b. .5e effectiveness factor# v reflects the difference bet"een the
compressive strength of a cylinder tested in laboratory and the actal compressive
strength of a strt.
The shear force re!ired to case failre of the compressive strts, V
w
is the vertical
component of &
strut
mltiplied by the nmber of strts and is given by$
( ) ( ) # d b
f
% # & V
strut w
c
ck
strut w

sin sin
From Fig. +.0&b, the effective depth of the strts, d
strut
is given by$
( ) sin s d
strut

Ths e!ation ... becomes$
( ) ( )
( )
s
$
s b
f
% # s b
f
% V
w
c
ck
w
c
ck
w

cot
sin sin
) )

( )( )

sin cos
w
c
ck
w
b
f
% V
7egarless the magnitde of V
c
and V
s
the applied shear force mst clearly never exceed
V
w .
<. "$S'1) F+R S2$3R
6n addition to meeting flexral re!irement, beams mst be safe against prematre
failre de to diagonal tension in the concrete, reslting from combined shear and
longitdinal flexral stress.
6n the zones near spports, for redced vales of the loading, the beam behaves
elastically and the shear stresses$
bi
bi
b
b6
KS

,11.H+-
act in any section in addition to the bending stresses$
y
6
#
bi
b

,11.H6-
"here I
b
J shear stresses at a point located at a distance y from the centroid of the
section
K J shear force acting on the section
S
bi
J first moment of area of the portion of the section lying beyond the
point "here the shear stress is measred
6
bi
J second moment of area of the section
b J breadth of the member at the point "here the shear stress is calclated
and L
b
J normal stress
# J bending moment
M J distance from the netral axis to the section "here is determined the
normal stress
6f a small s!are element located at the netral axis of sch beam is isolated as in
Fig. 11.)&b, the vertical shear stresses on it, e!al and opposite on the t"o faces for
reason of e!ilibrim, act as sho"n. Ro"ever, if these "ere the only stresses present, the
element "old not be in e!ilibrim' it "old spin. Therefore, on the t"o horizontal
faces there exist e!ilibrating horizontal shear stresses of the same magnitde.
Fig. 11.20 Stress traFectories in homogeneos rectanglar beam
6t is provided in any strength%of%materials text that on an element ct at *+
&
these shear stresses combine in sch a manner that their effect is as sho"n in Fig.11.)&c.
That is, the action of the t"o pairs of normal stresses, one tension and one compression,
acting on the *+
&
faces and of nmerical vale e!al to that of the shear stresses. 6f an
element of the beam is considered located neither at the netral axis nor at the oter
edges, its vertical faces are sbFected not only to the shear stresses bt also to the familiar
bending stresses "hose magnitde is given by G!. ,11.H6- ,Fig.11.)&d-.The six stresses
"hich no" act on the element can be combined into a pair of inclined compression
stresses and a pair of inclined tension stresses "hich act at right angles to each other.
They are 4no"n as pri#cip'l stresses ,Fig.11.)&e.-. Their vale is given by$
)
b
)
b b
) , 1
* )
+

,11.H7-
and their inclination U by tan )U J )I
b
.L
b

Since the magnitdes of the shear stresses I and the bending stresses L change
both along the beam and vertically "ith distance from the netral axis, the inclinations as
"ell as the magnitdes of the reslting principal stresses L
b1,)
also vary from one place to
the another. Fig.11.)&f sho"s the inclinations of these principal stresses for a rectanglar
beam niformly loaded. That is, these traFectories are lines that, at any point, are dra"n in
that direction in "hich the principal stress, tension or compression, acts at that point. 6t is
seen that at the netral axis the principal stresses in a beam are al"ays inclined at *+
&
to
the axis. 6n the vicinity of the oter fibers they are horizontal near mid span.
/n important point follo"s from this discssion. Tension stresses, "hich are
particlar concern in vie" of the lo" tensile strength of the concrete, are not confined to
the horizontal bending stress L
b
that are cased by bending alone. Tension stresses of
varios inclinations and magnitdes, reslting from shear alone ,at the netral axis- or
from the combined of shear and bending, exists in all parts of the beam and can impair its
integrity if not ade!ately provided for. 6t is for this reason that the inclined tension
stresses, 4no"n as di'!o#'l te#sio#, mst be careflly considered in reinforced%concrete
design.
6n the netral axis the axial stress is, by definition, of zero magnitde. Sections
"here shear stress predominates throghot the depth are not common bt do occr in
some cases "here the bending moment is negligible or "here the "eb "idth of the
member is small. 6n sch sitations, crac4ing, 4no"n as shear%"eb%crac4ing, occrs, as
illstrated in Fig.11.)1.
Fig.11.21. Shear "eb crac4ing
6n the sections "ith shear and bending, the crac4s tend to be crved and to vary in
slope from H&
&
at the extreme fiber ,point of pre bending- to *+
&
at the netral axis ,point
of pre shear-. This form of crac4ing is commonly 4no"n as shear%flexre%crac4ing. 6n
most reinforced concrete members, flexral crac4s form before the principal stresses at
the netral axis are large enogh for shear%"eb crac4ing to occr. Ths, shear%flexre
crac4ing is generally the most common type of failre.
11.2.<.6. S5ear strengt5 of members :it5 s5ear reinforcement
9hen the applied shear force, K, exceeds the shear capacity of the concrete, K
b
,
shear reinforcement mst be provided to resist the difference, K 8 K
b
. Gven "hen the
applied shear in beams is less then the shear capacity, a minimm !antity of shear
reinforcement mst be provided.
Stirrps ,also 4no"n as lin4s-, sch as those illstrated in Fig. 11.0,a-, are the
most common form of shear reinforcement. Stirrps are generally placed vertically in the
"eb of the member as illstrated and shold be fixed arond the longitdinal
reinforcement. For variable depth members, vertical stirrps are no longer perpendiclar
to the longitdinal axis of the beam and special care mst be ta4en in their design.
/nother form of shear reinforcement are bent%p bars Fig. 11.0c, "hich are bars
of bottom longitdinal reinforcement bent p at their ends so as to cross the crac4s
developed by shear stresses. 3ent%p bars, "hile effective in terms of material, have a
high associated labor cost and tend to add to the overall cost of constrction.
S5ear strengt5 of members :it5 s5ear reinforcement
For slabs, it is not necessary to provide any shear reinforcement provided K V K
b.
Ro"ever, "here lin4s are to be provided, a minimm !antity shold be sed. The
minimm !antity of reinforcement are specified in terms of the shear reinforcement
ratio, S
"
. For vertical stirrps in prismatic members, this is the ratio of the cross%sectional
area of stirrp to the area of concrete in plan see Fig.11.)7, that is$
a-
b-
Fig. 11.27 ;efinition of S
"
$ ,a- pictorial vie"' ,b- section T%T ,plan vie"-
"here /
e
J area of shear reinforcement "ithin length, a
e
( for stirrps "ith t"o
legs each, the combined area from both legs is sed in the calclation of /
et
'
a
e
J spacing of shear reinforcement'
b J "eb breadth or, in the case of rectanglar sections, actal breadth.
,ec5anisms of s5ear transfer
2onsider a typical member inn bending and shear, "hich is reinforced "ith
longitdinal steel against bending. Ender its applied loads, the member "ill crac4 in one
of the characteristic manners, sch as that illstrated in Fig. +.)*
The shear force is transmitted throgh the crac4ed member by a combination of three
mechanisms. The first is do"el action of the reinforcement ,ordinary reinforcements-.
This reslt from the resistance of the reinforcement to local bending as illstrated in Fig.
+.)+a and the resistance of the concrete to localized crshing near the reinforcement. The
second mechanism by "hich crac4ed members resist shear is 4no"n as aggregate
interloc4 and reslts from the forces transmitted across the crac4 by interloc4ing pieces
of aggregate Fig. +.)+b. The third mechanism by "hich crac4ed members resist shear is
throgh the resistance of the concrete in the ncrac4ed portion of the beam "here the
axial stress is compressive. The free body diagram for the portion of the member bet"een
the left%hand spport and the first inclined crac4 is illstrated in Fig. +.)6 the total
capacity to resist shear force, K is the reslt of the combined effects of the three
mechanisms illstrated inn that figre.
6t has been fond that do"el action is generally first to reach its capacity,
follo"ed by failre of the aggregate interloc4 mechanism follo"ed by shear failre of the
concrete in the compression zone. Ro"ever, the precise proportion of the total shear
force carried by each mechanism is difficlt to establish and, conse!ently, the shear
strength of the concrete is most often represented by a single expression "hich acconts
for all three mechanisms acting together.
Shear reinforcement, li4e flexral reinforcement, does not prevent crac4s
from forming in a member. 6ts prpose is to ensre that the member "ill not ndergo
shear failre before the fll bending capacity of the member is reached. 9hen inclined
crac4s form in a member "ith shear reinforcement, the bars "hich cross the crac4s
contribte to the shear resistance of the member, as illstrated in Fig.11.)(. The total
shear capacity provided by the section can be considered as a combination of the capacity
of the reinforcement and that of the concrete as illstrated in Fig. 11.)(.

Fig.11.28. Shear resistance of member "ith stirrps$
,a- elevation sho"ing' ,b- reinforcement' ,c- transfer of shear force throgh member
6f the applied shear force is sfficiently large, the shear reinforcement "ill reach
its yield strength. 3eyond this point, the reinforcement behaves plastically and the crac4s
open more rapidly. /s the crac4s "iden, the proportion of the shear resisted by aggregate
interloc4 is redced forcing an increase in do"el action and shear stress in the ncrac4ed
portion of the section. Failre finally occrs by do"el splitting or by crshing of the
concrete in the compression zone.
a-
b-
c-
Fig....#echanism of shear transfer$,a-do"el action',b-aggregate interloc4',c-shear
stresses in ncrac4ed concrete
.russ mo!el for members :it5 s5ear reinforcement
6n order to !antify the behavior and strength of members "ith shear
reinforcement, an e!ivalent trss model is fre!ently sed to represent the behavior of
members in shear.
9hen sbFected to combined moment and shear, a member "ith shear
reinforcement, sch as the illstrated in Fig.11.)Ha, develops inclined crac4s in the same
"ay as a member "ithot shear reinforcement. For the crac4ed member illstrated,
compressive stress develops in the concrete at the top of the section and tensile stress
develops in the longitdinal reinforcement at the bottom of the section as illstrated in
Fig.11.)Hb in addition, compressive forces are developed along inclined paths bet"een
the crac4s and tensile forces are developed in each of the stirrps crossing the crac4s. /ll
of these internal forces are illstrated in Fig.11.)Hb, and together they are similar in
pattern to the forces generated in a trss sch as that illstrated in Fig.11.)Hc.
Fig.11.29. Trss model for reinforced beam$
,a- crac4ing in reinforced beam' ,b- zones of compression bet"een crac4s'
,c- trss model.
For the general trss analogy, the tension members corresponding to the shear
reinforcement are inclined at an angle, U, to the horizontal e!al to the inclination of the
shear reinforcement. For vertical stirrps, this angle, U, is H&
&
as illstrated inn Fig.11.)Hc
in a similar manner, the compression members are inclined at an angle, W, to the
horizontal "here &
&
X W X H&
&
. 6n the simplest of the trss models, the inclination of the
concrete YstrtsZ is assmed to be constant, generally "ith W J *+
&
as illstrated in
Fig.11.)Hc. 6n more complex models, the inclination of the concrete strts is assmed to
vary along the length of the member. This later is considered to be more accrate and its
se can reslt in significant savings in shear reinforcement. /n example of sch a model
is illstrated in Fig.11.0&.
Fig.11.60. Trss "ith strts at varios angles
.pes of s5ear failure$shear bond failre, do"el failre, shear compression failre,
diagonal tension failre, flexral failre

1 1
*+

Shear bond failre


do"el action
;o"el failre

1 1
crshing concrete
Shear compression failre

1 1
;iagonal tension failre

1 1
Flexral failre
Fig.11.26. Types of shear failre
,ec5anism of s5ear transfer$
Shear reinforcement, li4e flexral reinforcement, does not prevent crac4s from forming in
a member. 6ts prpose is to ensre that the member "ill not ndergo shear failre before
the fll bending capacity of the member is reached. 9hen inclined crac4s form in a
member "ith shear reinforcement, the bars "hich cross the crac4s contribte to the shear
resistance of the member, as illstrated in Fig.11.)(. The total shear capacity provided by
the section can be considered as a combination of the capacity of the reinforcement and
that of the concrete as illstrated in Fig. 11.)(. Ths$
K
cap
J K
e
O K
b
,11.HH-
"here K
e
is the contribtion of the shear reinforcement and K
b
is the contribtion
from do"el action, aggregate interloc4 and the shear stress in the ncrac4ed concrete
' 't e e e
) * A # +
,11.1&&-
.5e e=uivalent truss mo!el is sed to represent the behavior of members in
shear.
45en sub>ecte! to combine! moment an! s5ear# a member :it5 s5ear
reinforcement# suc5 as t5e illustrate! in Fig. 8.28a# !evelops incline! crac?s in
t5e same :a as a member :it5out s5ear reinforcement. For t5e crac?e!
member illustrate!# compressive stress !evelops in t5e concrete at t5e top of t5e
section an! tensile stress !evelops in t5e longitu!inal reinforcement at t5e
bottom of t5e section as illustrate! in Fig. 8.28b in a!!ition# compressive forces
are !evelope! along incline! pat5s bet:een t5e crac?s an! tensile forces are
!evelope! in eac5 of t5e stirrups crossing t5e crac?s. 3ll of t5ese internal forces
are illustrate! in Fig. 8.28b# an! toget5er t5e are similar in pattern to t5e forces
generate! in a truss suc5 as t5at illustrate! in Fig. 8.28c.
$=uilibrium torsion an! compatibilit torsion
$=uilibrium torsion 8 is that "hich is re!ired to maintain e!ilibrim of the member.
6n sch sitation, the external load has no other option bt to be carried by torsion.
Gxamples of e!ilibrim torsion, illstrated in Fig. 6.)a are an eccentrical loaded beam
and a beam in "hich there is a change in the direction of its longitdinal axis Fig. 6.)b.
G!ilibrim torsion is of primary interest in design becase failre of the member is
inevitable if it has insfficient torsional strength.
Fig.12.2. G!ilibrim torsion
%ompatibilit torsion occrs in strctres having rigidly connected
members Fig. 6.0
Fig. 12.6 2ompatibility torsion
6t reslts from the compatibility of deformations of members meeting at a Foint.
O"ing to the monolithic natre of their constrction, most members in concrete
strctres ndergo a certain degree of compatibility torsion. 6n the example given in
Fig. 6.0, bending de to applied loads cases rotation at the edges of the slab, "hich
in trn cases rotation of the edge beam. 6f the edge beam "ere free to rotate, no
torsion "old reslt. Ro"ever, if ,becase it is attached to colmns at its ends- it
resists rotation, torsion does reslt
The compatibility torsion can be ignored if sfficient steel is provided to ensre dctile
behavior and the spacing of stirrps is sfficiently small to control crac4ing at the
serviceability limit state.
The torsional strength of a concrete member can be significantly increased by
providing sitable torsion reinforcement across the crac4s. This is sally provided in the
form of [closed\ for%sided stirrps, as illstrated in Fig. 6.7, in combination "ith
longitdinal bars distribted arond the periphery of the section. This reinforcement
controls the propagation of crac4s and ensres that "hen failre occrs de to yielding of
the reinforcement, it is not sdden.
@rovisions for beams sub>ecte! to ben!ing an! torsion
Torsional reinforcement is composed of bars of t"o types$ transverse stirrps and
additional longitdinal reinforcement or spiral.
The transverse stirrps sed for torsional reinforcement mst be of closed form,
since principal tensile stress reslts on each of the form faces of a beam in torsion
Fig.16.16. :ood anchorage is provided by hoo4ing the stirrps bar ends arond the
longitdinal reinforcement.
6n order to control spiral crac4ing properly, the maximm spacing of torsional
stirrps shold not exceed
*
th b
a
s s
l
< .
The spacing of the longitdinal bars shold not exceed
b
0
1
a
l
<
, and they shold
be "ell distribted arond the perimeter of the cross%section to control crac4ing' at least
one bar mst be placed in each corner of the stirrps fig. 16.16. 2arefl attention mst be
paid to the anchorage of longitdinal torsional reinforcement so that it is able to develop
its yield strength at the face of the spporting colmns, "here torsional moments are
often maximm.
Fig. 16.16. 7einforcing of beams sbFected to bending and torsion
%+7(,)SA Be5avior un!er loa!s
The behavior is dependent by the initial eccentricity vale, given by
"
M
e
o

, and
by the vale of axial force P, respectively, Fig. 1*.)
Fig.1<.2 Failre of member sbFected to compression pls bending.
For eccentrically compression, the dominant loading inflences the behavior of
the members. For instance the limit shortening of compressed concrete for an axial force
is &,)5, bt for bending it is &,0+5. For eccentrically compression, the deformations "ill
be smaller if the bending "ill be secondary load reported to the axial force, or "ill be
near the maximm deformation ,&,0+5- if bending is principal. The deformation of the
tension steel "ill be in plastic domain, if bending moment is dominant and the steel
percentage does not exceed the maximm vale or they can be nder the yielding level, if
bending moment is secondary.
6f the failre ta4es place "ith plastic deformation in the tension reinforcement,
follo"ed by the crshing of compressed concrete one considers that is the 1
st
case of
eccentrically compression.
6f the reinforcement has only compression stresses or, being tensioned it is elastic
domain, the failre ta4es place by the crshing of compressed concrete that is the 66
nd
case.
1<.2. Slen!erBs5ort columns
9hen an nbalanced moment or a moment de to eccentric loading, Fig. 1*.1, is
applied to a colmn, the member responds by bending.
9hether a colmn is short or slender is normally defined by a sle#der#ess r'tio,
"hich is fnction of the parameters "hich determine the lateral deflection of the colmn.
The slenderness ratio is defined by$
r
l
f
o
,1*.1-
f
l % is the effective length of the member
r 8 is the radis of gyration
/
6
r
6 8 is the second moment of the section area
/ 8 is the cross%sectional area
/nd
o
f
)(( , &
h
l
for rectanglar section ,1*.)-
9here h$ side of the section on the direction of the force P eccentricity.
Fnction of slenderness ratio "e have$
- for
1&
,short colmns-, the second%order moments can be ignored
- for
0& 1& <
,slender colmns-, it is necessary to consider the second%order
moments
- for 0& > ,very slender colmns- the failre of colmns, nder an continos
increasing of the axial force "ill ta4e place by loosing the stability ,bc4ling-.
The basic information on the behavior of straight, concentrically loaded slender
colmns "as developed by Gler more than )&& years ago. 6n generalized form, it states
that member "ill fail by bc4ling at the critical load.
)
f
)
cr
l
G6
P

,1*.0-
6t seen that the bc4ling load decreases rapidly "ith increasing slenderness ratio
- r . l ,
f
.
The inflence of slenderness on the carrying capacity is ta4en into accont by the
coefficient ]$
6
66
#
#

,1*.*-
6
# % 6
st
order moment determined on the ndeformed strctre
66
# % 66
nd
order moment, determined on the deformed strctre.
6n members "hich sstain chiefly or exclsively axial compression loads, sch as
bilding colmns, it is economical to ma4e the concrete carry most of the load. Still,
some steel reinforcement is al"ays provided for varios reasons. For one, very fe"
members are trly axially loaded' steel is essential for resisting any bending that may
exist' For another, if part of the total load is carried by steel "ith its mch greater
strength, the cross%sectional dimensions of the member can be redced, the more so the
larger the amont of reinforcement.
The t"o chief forms of reinforced%concrete colmns are sho"n in Fig. 1*.+

,1- ,)- ,0-
Fig.1<.8 7einforced concrete colmns$ ,1- % longitdinal rods and spiral
hooping' ,)- 8 longitdinal rods and lateral ties' ,0- 8 strctral steel.
There are also composite compression members ,0- reinforced longitdinally "ith
strctral%steel shapes, pipe or tbing, "ith or "ithot additional longitdinal bars.
Types ,1- and ,)- are by far the most common, and most of the discssion "ill
refer to them.
6n the s!are colmn, the for longitdinal bars serve as main reinforcement.
They are held in place by transverse small diameter steel ties, "hich prevent
displacement of the main bars dring constrction operations and conteract any
tendency of the compression%loaded bars to bc4le ot of the concrete by brsting the
thin oter cover. On the left is sho"n a rond colmn "ith eight main reinforcing bars.
These are srronded by a closely spaced spiral, "hich serves the same prpose as the
more "idely spaced ties, bt also acts to confine the concrete "ithin it, thereby increasing
its resistance to axial compression.