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Turn into the passive

CEPT formed a study group in 1982. This group studied and developed a pan-European system. They marketed the digital phone in 1991. efore this date! in"ompati#ility had limited the development of net$orks. Today! a user "an re"eive or send data. %ou may use &'& to send private or "olle"tive messages. The system does not re(uire a modem #et$eeen the user and )& net$ork. &oon! "ell-phones $ill provide ne$ servi"es* These ne$ servi"es $ill attra"t more su#s"ri#ers. 1.The study group $as formed #y CEPT in 1982. 2.The pan-European system $as studied and developed #y this group. +.The digital phone $as marketed in 1991. ,. efore this date!the development of net$orks had #een limited #y in"ompati#ility. -.Today!data "an #e re"eived or sent #y the user. ..&'& may #e used to send private or "olle"tive messages. /.The modem #et$een the user and )& net$ork is not re(uired #y the system. 8.&oon!ne$ servi"es $ill #e provided #y "ell-phones. 9.The more su#s"ri#ers $oll #e attra"ted #y these ne$ servi"es.

"ompound nouns.

hat name is given to:

1. a unit $hi"h gives a visual display of information on a s"reenD 25isual display unit 22 2. a devi"e that reads magneti" "ardsD 2'agneti" "ard reader 22 +. a devi"e that plots graphsD )raf ploter ,. a devi"e that prints using a laser as the light sour"eD 2Easer printer -. a unit that holds magneti" disksD 2'agneti" disk holder 2 .. a devi"e that prints using a >et of inkD 22?nk->et printer 2 /. the rate of transmission of dataD 26ata transmition rate 8. a pa"kage for making presentations using multimediaD 2'ultimedia presentation maker 2 9. a program $hi"h pro"esses data in #at"hesD at"hes pro"essing data program 2 1:. the pro"ess for the "onversion of disks for "omputersD Converting disk pro"ess

#ink these pairs of sentences that e!plain the process of heating system to show the relationship depending on time se$uence:
1. The system is s$it"hed on. Cold $ater passes through a heat e1"hanger in the #oiler. 2. The $ater passes through the heat e1"hanger. The $ater #e"omes hotter and hotter. The $ater rea"hes the pre-set level. +. The $ater temperature rea"hes the pre-set level. 3 thermostat "auses the gas "ontrol valve to shut off. ,. The $ater is pumped to a diverted valve. The $ater goes to the hot $ater "ylinder or the radiators. -. <ot $ater passes through the inside of the hot $ater storage "ylinder in a "oil arrangement. <eat is transferred to the surrounding $ater. .. The hot $ater flo$s through the radiators. The hot $ater loses heat. /. The $ater passes through the radiators. The $ater returns to the #oiler. 1.;hen the system is s$it"hed on!"old $ater passes through a heat e1"hanger in the #oiler. 2.;hile the $ater passes through the heat e1"hanger!it #e"omes hotter and hotter until it rea"hes the pre-set level. +.;hen the $ater temperature rea"hes the pre-set level !a thermostat "auses the gas "ontrol valve to shut off. ,.3fter the $ater is pumped to a diverted valve!it goes to the hot $ater "ylinder or the radiators. -.;hen hot $ater passes through the inside of the hot $ater storage "ylinder in a "oil arrangement! heat is transferred to the surrounding $ater. ..;hen the hot $ater flo$s through the radiators!the hot $ater loses heat. /.3fter the $ater passes through the radiators!the $ater returns to the #oiler.

Put these sentences into passive voice0


The "ompany ships "omputers into many foreign "ountries. Computers are shiped into many foreign "ountries #y the "ompany . They are preparing the entran"e e1am. 2The entran"e e1am is #eing prepared . 2 The delivery man delivered the pa"kage yesterday. 22The pa"kage $as delivered #y the delivery man yesterday .2 The produ"er $as making an announ"ement. 223n announ"ement $as #eing prepared. 2 4ur representative $ill pi"k up the e(uipment. 2The e(uipment $ill #e pi"ked up #y our representative. 2 &omeone has made the arrangements for us. 22The arrangements $ere made for us. 2 %ou "an use the "omputer. The "omputer "an #e used . .2222

Rewrite the following sentences into the passive voice:


1. %ou have sent us the $rong items. 2 The $rong items have #een sent to us again. 22222222 2. %ou should have delivered this "onsignment last $eek. 222 This "onsignment have #een delivered last $eek.2222 +. &omeone #roke t$o of the 567s during transportation. T$o of the 567s $ere #roken . . ,. &omeone sent the order #y sea mail instead of air mail. 2 The order $as sent #y sea mail instead of air mail.22222222 -. Please let me kno$ $hen you think you "an sort this matter out. 22 Please let me kno$ $hen you think this matter "an #e sorted out. .. %ou should send the do"uments #y registered post. 2 The do"ument have #een sent #y registered posted. 8da li #y ili $ith9 /. 3 faulty "onne"tion "aused the pro#lems $ith the hard disk. The pro#lems $ith the hard disk have #een "aused #y a faulty "onne"tion. 8sat sa "ould9 8. %ou omitted the manuals from the order. 2 The manuals $ere omitted from the order . . 9. %ou delivered the printers over three $eeks late. 2 The printers $ere delivered over three $eeks late . 1:. ;e $ill not pay the invoi"e until this pro#lem is re"tified. 2 The invoi"e $ill not #e paid until this pro#lem is re"tified .

%ake sentences from the following notes0


1. tensile for"eF appliedF metal $ireF lengthF in"rease ?f ten"ile for"e is applied!metal $ire length in"rease. 2. re"tangular metal #lo"kF heatedF volume F in"rease ;hen re"tangular metal #lo"k is heated!volume in"reases. +. north poleF magnetF #roughtF nearF south poleF another magnetF polesF attra"t F ea"h other ;hen north pole of one magnet is #rought near the south pole of another magnet!poles attra"ts ea"h other. ,. end ofF "opper #arF heatedF heatF travelF along #ar ?f the end of "ooper #ar is heated!heat travels along #ar. -. ele"tri" "urrentF passedF alongF "ondu"torF "ondu"torF #e"omeF hot ;hen ele"tri" "urrent is passed along "ondu"tor!"ondu"tor #e"omes hot..

%aking comparisons 0
1. <ere! the term Gpro"essorCis the same as 8the same9 the CP7. 2. Eaptops are e(ually po$erful 8the same9 as mi"ro"omputers. +. &ome "ompanies use #oth disks and "onventional filling systems for storing data. ,. 3 "omputer virus is like a virus in human #ody. -. 'any $ord-pro"essing programs are similar in that they share "ertain "ommon fun"tions. .. 3 mainframe is more po$erful and more 8e1pensive9 then a mi"ro"omputer. /. Eearning to use a "omputer is less diffi"ult then learning to program. 8. 3 fa1 #oard "osts less then a fa1 ma"hine. 9. 7nlike fa"tory-sealed soft$are! pirated versions may "ontain viruses. 1:. 6esktop pu#lishing is the same as ele"troni" pu#lishing. 11. %ou "an save money $ith a net$ork #e"ause you $ill need mu"h less printers. 12. This is the most 8popular9 pa"kage on the market today. 1+. 3&?C is pro#a#ly the less 8diffi"ult9 programming language to learn. 1,. The #est programs are those adapted spe"ifi"ally to your o$n needs.

Put the following sentences into the passive voice:


1. %ou insert the paper into printer $ith a smoother side fa"ing up. Paper is inserted into the printer $ith a smoother side fa"ing up. 2. The managing dire"tor from the head offi"e in <alifa1 #riefed the staff a#out "ompany reorgani=ation. The staff $as #riefed a#out "ompany reorgani=ation #y the managing dire"tor. +. The ne$ "ompany se"retary has made a very serious error. 3 very seriuos error has #een made #y the ne$ "ompany se"retary. ,. ;e are going to update all the offi"e e(uipment early ne1t year. 3ll the offi"e e(uipment is going to #e updated early ne1t year . -. The lo"al inha#itants on a remote island in the Pa"ifi" make this >e$ellery. This >e$elery is made #y the lo"al inha#itants on a remote island in the Pa"ifi". ..The "ollege authorities a$arded every student a "ertifi"ate on "ompletion of the "ourse. Every student $as a$arded #y the "ollege authorities. /. &omeone has attended to the matter. The matter has #enn attended. 8. 3 "omputer marks the e1am papers. The e1am papers are marked #y a "omputer. 9.They say the "ompany is on the verge of #an"rupt"y. ?t is said that the "ompany is on the verge of #an"rupt"y.

Put the verbs into the correct tense.


1. ill has #een $orked 8$ork9 for the "ompany for the last 2- years. 2. <e graduated 8graduate9 in #usiness studies and took 8take9 a >o# in Eondon. +. <e $as trained 8train9 as a systems analyst $hile he $as $orking 8$ork9 in Eondon. ,. Ao$ he looks after 8look after9 all the systems used #y the Te"hni"al &ervi"es 6ivision. -. 3t the moment he is developing 8develop9 a system for handling repairs. .. ;hen something goes 8go9 $rong in a pu#! a servi"e engineer is sent 8send9 to fi1 it. /. 6etails of every repair are do$nloaded 8do$nload9 to the "ompany@s mainframe ea"h night. 8. Ao "hanges "an #e made 8make9 until the system is tested 8test9. 9. ill thinks that "ommuni"ations $ill get 8get9 faster and faster in the future. 1:. <e thinks that a paper-free offi"e $ill not happen 8not happen9.

Turn the following sentences into the passive voice:


1. ?@ll defrost the free=er ne1t $eek. 2The free=er $ill #e defrosted2ne1t $eek . 2. They are doing nothing a#out it. 222Aothing a#out it are #eing done . +. %ou must develop this film as soon as possi#le. 2This film must #e developed as soon as possi#le . ,. <e is fi1ing his "ar. 222<is "ar is #eing fi1ed . -. They are >ust serving lun"h. 222The lun"h is >ust #eing served . .. They "an@t speak ?talian during the "onferen"e. ?talian "an@t #e spoken during the "onferen"e . /. ?f there $ere time! $e $ould finish the >o#. 2The >o# $ill #e finished if there $ere time . 8. ;e are introdu"ing a ne$ pro"ess of tea"hing. 23 ne$ pro"ess of tea"hing is #eing introdu"ed . 9. They make the #est $at"hes in the $orld in &$it=erland. 2The #est $at"hes in the $orld are made in &$it=erland . 1:. ;e should do something a#out this. 2&omething a#out this should #e done .

Recast with compound nouns &and ad'ectives(


a) They have developed soft$are that gives you an e1ploded vie$ of the produ"t H1 "ompound $ordI an e1ploded produ"t vie$ soft$are.22222 #9 They have developed soft$are that analyses finite elements 8use GanalysisC9 H1 "ompound $ordI c) They have developed tools that give information about a product and these tools are mow ready for the Web H1 "ompound $ordI ;e# ready produ"t information tools.22222 d9 Traditional net$orks of distri#utirs are threastened by dire"t sales through the ?nternet H2 "ompound $ordI Traditional distri#utors net$orks are threatened #y dire"t ?nternet sales.

Describe the operation of the new speed trap by converting each of these statements into passive voice. Add information on the agent where you think it is necessary.
1. The first unit re"ords the time ea"h vehi"le passes. 2. ?t identifies ea"h vehi"le #y its num#er plates using 4CB soft$are. +. ?t relays the information to the se"ond unit. ,. The se"ond unit also re"ords the time ea"h vehi"le passes. -. The mi"ropro"essor "al"ulates the time taken to travel #et$een the units. .. ?t relays the registration num#ers of speeding vehi"les to poli"e head(uarters. /. 3 "omputer mat"hes ea"h vehi"le $ith the data#ase. Ea"h vehi"le passed is re"orded #y the first unit and then indentified #y itCs num#er plates using 4CB soft$are. The "olle"ted information is then relayed and re"orded #y the se"ond unit.The time taken to travel #et$een these t$o units is then "al"ulated #y a mi"ropro"essor and if nessesary relayed along $ith the rest information dire"tly to poli"e head(uarters $here it is mat"hed $ith the vehi"le data#ase.

#ink each pair of sentences to indicate contrast.


1. 6ot matri1 printers are noisy. Easer printers are (uiet. 2. Jloppy disks store small amounts of data. <ard disks store large amounts of data. +. <andheld "omputers fit into your po"ket. &uper"omputers o""upy a $hole room. ,. <igh-level languages are easy to understand. 'a"hine "ode is very diffi"ult to understand. -. asi" is simple language. CKK is "omple1. .. 'odern "omputers are po$erful and relatively "heap. 4lder "omputers $ere less po$erful and (uite e1pensive. /. 3n analyst analyses pro#lems and finds solution. 3 programmer turns these solutions into "omputer programs. 8. 3 graphi" pa"kage produ"es images and designs. 3 $ord pro"essor produ"es te1ts. 1.6ot matri1 printers are noisly!$hereas laser printers are (uiet. 2.Jloppty dis"s store small amounts of data!$hile hard dis"s store the large ones. +.7nlike handheld "omputers!$hi"h fit into your po"ket!super"omputers o""upy a $hole room. ,.7nlike high-level languages!ma"hine "ode is very diffi"ult to understand. -. asi" is simple language!$hereas CKK is "omple1. ..'odern "omputers are po$erful and relatively "heap!$hile older ones $ere less po$erful and (uite e1pensive.

Describe the operation of the new speed trap by converting each of these statements into passive voice. Add information on the agent where you think it is necessary.
1. The first unit re"ords the time ea"h vehi"le passes. 2. ?t identifies ea"h vehi"le #y its num#er plates using 4CB soft$are. +. ?t relays the information to the se"ond unit. ,. The se"ond unit aslo re"ords the time ea"h vehi"le passes. -. The mi"ropro"essor "al"ulates the time taken to travel #et$een the units. .. ?t relays the registration num#ers of speeding vehi"les to poli"e head(uarters. /. 3 "omputer mat"hes ea"h vehi"le $ith the data#ase. 1.The time ! $hen the ea"h vehi"le passes!is re"orded#y the first unit 2.Ea"h vehi"le is indentified #y its num#er plates using 4CB soft$are. +.The information is relaied to the se"ond unit ,.The time!$hen ea"h vehi"le passes! is also re"orded to the se"ond unit. -.The time taken to travel #et$een the units is "al"ulated #y the mi"ropro"essor. ..The registration nu#ers of speeding vehi"les are relaied to poli"ehead(uarters. /.Ea"h vehi"les is mat"hed $ith the data#ase #y the "omputer

%ake appropriate if clauses of the given parts 0


1. a li(uid is heated-it "hanges to a gas 2. a gas is "ooled-it "hanges to a li(uid +. a "urrent passes through a $ire-it sets up a magneti" field around the $ire ,. a for"e is applied to a #ody-there is an e(ual and opposite rea"tion -. a $ire "utFs a magneti" field-it is transmitted e(ually throughout the fluid .. a ele"tri" "urrentFpassedFalongF"ondu"torF"ondu"torF#e"ome hot 1.?f a li(uid is heated !it "hanges to a gas. 2.?f a gas is "ooled it "hanges to a li(uid. +.?f a "urrent passes through a $ire! it $ill set up a magneti" field around the $ire. ,.?f a for"e is applied to a #ody!there is an e(ual and opposite rea"tion. -.?f a $ire "utFs a magneti" field!it $ouldF$ill #e transmitted e(ually throughout the fluid. ..?f a ele"tri" "urrent is passed to along "ondu"tor!"ondu"tor #e"omes hot.

Turn into passive:


?f t$o for"es a"t on #ody! ea"h for"e e1erts an influen"e on it. Ea"h separate effe"t produ"es a total effe"t $hi"h $e "an represent as a ve"tor0 $e "all this ve"tor the@resultant@. Thus $e "an dra$ a parallelogram! in $hi"h the diagonal represents the resultant of the t$o for"es. ?f $e add E to the system! it produ"es e(uili#rium! so that $e say E is the e(uili#rant. ?f #ody is a"ted #y t$o for"es!an influen"e on it is e1ered #y ea"h for"e .3 total effe"t is produ"ed #y ea"h separate effe"t and represented as a ve"tor0this ve"tor is "alled the @resultant@.3 parallelogram in $hi"h the resultant of the t$o for"es is represented #y diagonal "an #e dra$n .?f E is added to the system!e(uili#rium is produ"ed so that E is said to #e the e(uili#rant.

)ill in the gaps with the correct prefi!:


1. 'ost people prefer a "olour s"reen to a mono "hrome s"reen. 2. &u# s"ript is a "hara"ter or sym#ol $ritten #elo$ and to the right of a num#er or a letter! often used in s"ien"e. +. 3 mega #yte e(uals appro1imately one million #ytes. ,. 4n"e you finish this program! you $ill have to test it and de #ug it to remove all the mistakes. -. The introdu"tion of semi "ondu"tor te"hnology revolutioni=ed the "omputer industry. .. ?f a "omputer system has t$o or more "entral pro"essors $hi"h are under "ommon "ontrol! it is "alled a multi pro"essor system. /. The de" imal system is a num#er system $ith a #ase of 1:. 8. ;hen user and the "omputer are in a"tive "ommuni"ation on graphi"s system! $e refer to this as inter a"tive graphi"s.

Identify each of these electronic components:


1. ?t@s used to "hange 3C voltages from small to large or from large to small. 22transformator22 2. ?t@s used for measuring very small "urrents. 2ammeter 8mili-ampermeter9222 +. ?t@s used to "he"k the logi" levels in the pins of ?C&. 2logi" pro#e2 ,. ?t@s used as part of a #urglar alarm to dete"t movement. 2movment sensor2 -. ?t@s used for the transmission of B) signals. 2aerial 8anntena92 .. ?t@s used for prote"ting "ir"uits from a surge in voltage. 2fuse22 /. ?t@s used to master do$n different re"ordings to make a master tape. 2mi1ing desk 8. ?t@s used to find #uried metal. 2metal dete"tor

#ink the following pairs of sentences. *mit unnecessary words and make any other changes re$uired:
1. 3utomati" doors are used in pla"es su"h as airports! supermarkets! and hospitals. Traditional doors $ould #e a nuisan"e in these pla"es. 2. 3utomati" doors are fitted $ith a mi"ro$ave sensor. The sensor dete"ts movement. +. The doors are s$it"hed on. 3 mi"ro$ave transmitter sends out a mi"ro$ave #eam. ,. The #eam is in a semi"ir"ular pattern. The doors open $hen you approa"h from any angle. -. The mi"ro$aves are refle"ted #a"k to the sensor. The refle"ted mi"ro$aves are analy=ed #y a mi"ropro"essor. .. 3 person or o#>e"t moves to$ards the doors. The $aves are refle"ted #a"k to the sensor at a different fre(uen"y. /. The mi"ropro"essor dete"ts this "hange. The mi"ropro"essor instru"ts the motor to open the doors. 8. The doors are fitted $ith a time-delay me"hanism. The doors remain open for a#out four se"onds #efore "losing again. 9. 3 person remains standing in the door$ay. 3 safety #eam prevents the doors from "losing. 1.3utomati" doors are used in pla"es su"h as airports! supermarkets! and hospitals instead of traditional doors $hi"h $ould #e a nuisan"e in these pla"es. 2. 3utomati" doors are fitted $ith a mi"ro$ave sensor! $hi"h dete"ts movement. +.;hen the doors are s$it"hed on! a mi"ro$ave transmitter sends out a mi"ro$ave #eam. ,.The #eam is in a semi"ir"ular pattern! so the doors are open $hen you approa"h from any angle. -.The mi"ro$aves are refle"ted #a"k to the sensor! and analy=ed #y a mi"ropro"essor. ..;hen a person or o#>e"t moves to$ards the doors! the $aves are refle"ted #a"k to the sensor at a different fre(uen"y. /.;hen dete"ting this "hange! the mi"ropro"essor instru"ts the motor to open the doors. 8.The doors are fitted $ith a time-delay me"hanism in order to remaind open for a#out four se"onds #efore "losing again. 9.;hile a person remains standing in the door$ay!a safety #eam prevents the doors from "losing.

rite short simple e!planations of the following items:


1. an input devi"e 2a devi"e for data input 2. an opti"al "hara"ter reader 2a devi"e $hi"h has opti"s for reading "hara"ters2 +. a graphi" stylus 2graf ploter - a stylus for dra$ing graphi"s2 ,. a do"ument sorter 2a program for sorting do"uments 2 -. a fi#re opti"s transmission system 2a system for transmitting data via fi#re opti"s .. a se(uen"e "ontrol register 2a register for "ontrolinga se(uen"e2 /. a li(uid "rystal display 2a display made of li(uid "rystal 8. net$ork "onfiguration information 2?nformation a#out net$ork "onfiguration2 9. a desktop management manager 2a program that arranges the "ontent of the deskto 1:. a multimedia editing soft$are pa"kage 3 soft$are pa"kage for editing multimedia "ontent

#ink these pairs of sentences .+se short ways when this is possible .
1.The s$it"h is "losed. Current flo$s through the primary of the transformer. 1.;hen the s$it"h is "losed!"urrent flo$s through the primary of the transrormer. 2.The radar signal strikes the plane. The radar signal is refle"ted. 2.4n striking the plane!the radar signal is refle"ted. +.3 "ell dis"harges (ui"kly. 3 "ell may #e"ome hot. +.;hen a "ell dis"harges (ui"kly!it #e"omes hot. ,.The T5 re"eives signals from the remote "ontrol. The T5 follo$s your instru"tions. ,.;hen T5 re"eives signals from remote "ontrol!it follo$s your instru"tions. -.The radar re"eiver re"eives the refle"ted signal. The signal is "ompared $ith the transmitted signal. -.;hen the radar re"eiver re"eives the refle"ted signal!the signal is "ompared $ith the transmitted signal.

0tudy these steps in the production of a desktop1published student maga2ine and link them using time words. 3ou should also connect it into a paragraph as short as possible4 yet convey all the information .
1. Te1t is typed in using a $ord pro"essor. 2. The te1t is edited. +. The te1t is spell"he"ked. ,. Eine dra$ings are made using a graphi" pa"kage. -. Photographs are s"anned in $ith a s"anner. .. The first draft is "ompleted. /. The first draft is transferred to a page-makeup program. 8. Te1t and graphi"s are ad>usted on s"reen. 9. They all fit together $ell. 1:. The finished do"ument is printed on a laser printer. Jirstly !te1t is typed in using a $ord pro"essor .3fter that !it is edited and spell"he"ked.Then !line dra$ings are made using a graphi" pa"kage.?n ne1t step! photographs are s"anned in $ith a s"anner.;hen a first draft is "ompleted it is transfered to a page-makeup program.3fter that!te1t and graphi"s are ad>usted on s"reen and they all fit together $ell.Jinally the finished do"ument is printed on a laser printer.

"onnect these pairs of sentences to indicate a cause and effect relationship 0


1. Computers $ith '?6? interfa"e #oards "an #e "onne"ted to '?6? instruments. This allo$s the musi" #eing played to #e stored #y the "omputer and displayed on the monitor. Computers $ith '?6? interfa"e #oards "an #e "onne"ted to '?6? instruments $hi"h allo$s the musi" #eing played to #e stored #y the "omputer and displayed on the monitor. 2. Ea"h side of a 656 "an have t$o layers. This gives an enormous storage "apa"ity. Ea"h side of a 656 "an have t$o layers! $hi"h gives an enormous storage "apa"ity. +. 'P+ removes sounds $e "an@t hear. This produ"es mu"h smaller files. 'P+ removes sounds $e "an@t hear!so mu"h smaller files are produ"ed. ,. %ou "an do$nload single tra"ks. %ou "an "reate your o$n "ompilation. %ou "an do$nload single tra"ks helping you in "reation your o$n "ompilation. -. Ea"h 'P+ file has a tag. This permits e1tra information to #e stored on the performer and other tra"k details. Ea"h 'P+ file has a tag $hi"h permits e1tra information to #e stored on the performer and other tra"k details. .. 'P+ players "ontain several devi"es. These allo$ you to "ontrol the $ay the musi" sounds. 'P+ players "ontain several devi"es that allo$ you to "ontrol the $ay the musi" sounds. /. %ou "an do$nload a skin program. This ena#les you to "hange the appearan"e of your player. %ou "an do$nload a skin program! $hi"h ena#les you to "hange the appearan"e of your player. 8. %ou "an legally do$nload some musi". This allo$s you to sample a ne$ group #efore #uying their C6. %ou "an legally do$nload some musi" $hi"h allo$s you to sample a ne$ group #efore #uying their C6.

"omplete each sentence using the correct prepostition:


1. The CP7 is a large "hip of the "omputer. 2. 6ata al$ays flo$ from the CP7 to the address #us. +. The CP7 "an #e divided into three parts. ,. Peripherals are devi"es of the "omputer #ut linked out it. -. The signal moves a"ross the 567 s"reen from one side to the other. .. 6ata flo$s to the CP7 and memory. /. The CP7 puts the address into the address #us. 8. The CP7 "an fet"h data from memory to the data #us.

The computer designer is being interviewed. %ake $uestions to match his answers .
1. ;hat did you design D ;orked on a C6 of my designs. 2. <o$ many years have you $orked on them D 3#out a third. +. ;hat heppend $ith them D ? destroyed them. ,. <o$ did you distroy them D ?Cve s"anned them. -. <o$ you have organi=ed them D ?Cve organised them into themes. .. <ave you added a sound tra"k D %es! ?Cve added a sound tra"k. /. <o$ long have you $orked on that D ?tCs taken me a#out a $eek. 8. ;hen did you start D ? started a#out ten years ago. 9. ;hat have you do #efore that D efore ? had a "omputer! ? had to use slides. 1:. <ave you ever sold one of your C6s D %es! ?Cve sold a fe$.

"omplete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets .
1. 3 gate$ay is an interfa"e 8ena#le9 ena#ling dissimilar net$orks to "ommuni"ate. 2. 3 #ridge is a hard$are and soft$are "om#ination 8use9 used to "onne"t the same type of net$orks. +. 3 #a"k#one is a net$ork transmission path 8handle9 handling ma>or data traffi". ,. 3 router is a spe"ial "omputer 8dire"t9 dire"ting messages $hen several net$orks are linked. -. 3 net$ork is a num#er of "omputers and peripherals 8link9 linked together. .. 3 E3A is a net$ork 8"onne"t9 "onne"ting "omputers over a small distan"e su"h as $ithin a "ompany. /. 3 server is a po$erful "omputer 8store9 storing many programs 8share9 shared #y all the "lients in the net$ork. 8. 3 "lient is a net$ork "omputer 8use9 2used for a""essing a servi"e on a server. 9. 3 thin "lient is a simple "omputer 8"omprise9 "omprising a pro"essor and memory! display! key#oard! mouse and hard drives only. 1:. 3 hu# is an ele"troni" devi"e 8"onne"t9 "onne"ting all the data "a#ling in a net$ork. )ill in the sentences with appropriate verbs: 1. Computers 2pro"ess data. 2. %ou "an 2re"ord 2 sound on tape or dis". +. 3 #ridge "ir"uit is used to 2re"tify 2 alternating "urrent to produ"e dire"t "urrent. ,. 3ll metals! some non-metals su"h as "ar#on! 2"ondu"t 22 ele"tri"ity. -. To prevent radio interferen"e! you must 2supress Fremove2 any sour"es of interferen"e su"h as "ar ignition systems. .. Po$er transistors 2dissipate 2heat. Therefore they must #e mounted on a heatsink. /. The ele"tron gun in a CBT 2emits 2 a stream of ele"trons. 8. ;hen re"ording a C6! sound is 22sampled 22 ,,1:: times every se"ond.

5oin the following groups of sentences to make longer sentences. 3ou may make whatever changes you think necessary. Then connect them into a paragraph.
1. The temperature sensor measures the $ater temperature. The temperature sensor is a type of thermometer. 2. The temperature sensor fits inside the $asher drum. The temperature sensor signals the $ater temperature to the "ontrol unit. +. The "ontrol unit "ompares the $ater temperature $ith the temperature. The temperature is needed for the programme #eing used. ,. The $ater temperature is lo$. The "ontrol unit $ill s$it"h on the heater. -. The temperature sensor "ontinues to "he"k the temperature. The temperature sensor keeps the "ontrol unit informed. .. The "orre"t temperature is rea"hed. The "ontrol unit s$it"hes off the heater. The "ontrol unit moves on to the ne1t stage of the programme. The temperature sensor is a type of thermometar !#e"ause it measures the $ater temperature.?t fits inside the $asher drum and signals the $ater temperature to the "ontrol unit.Then tne "ontrol unit "ompares the $ater temperature $ith the temperature $hi"h is needed for the programme #eing used.;hen the $ater temperature is lo$ the "ontrol unit $ill s$it"h on the heater .3fter that the temperature sensor "ontinues to "he"k the temperature and keeps the "ontrol unit informed .Jinally!$hen the "orre"t temperature is rea"hed !the "ontrol unit s$it"hes off the heater and it moves on to the ne1t stage of the programme.

"hoose the appropriate form of the word to fit the meaning of the sentence 0
Corre"t 1. ?f an error o""urs! it is important to take 22"orre"tive22 a"tion immediately. 2. The Gspell "he"kC fa"ility "he"ks the 22"orre"tness222 of your spelling. +. The data $as entered 22"orre"tly222! so the result must #e a""urate. 6ete"t 1. There $ere 2dete"ta#le222 tra"es of radiation in the $ater sample. 2. The analyst "ould not 22dete"t 22 any errors in the system. +. &he tried to es"ape dete"tive #y disguising herself. &ense 1. 3n infra-red 22sensor222 dete"ts the presen"e of intruders in the #uilding. 2. The pro#e is 2sensitive 222 to heat and light. +. The ne$ system "aused a 2sensation 2 $hen it $as laun"hed last month. )enerate 1. E1er"ises "an #e (ui"kly 22generated 222 using this program. 2. 4ur "ompany is $orking on a ne$ 2generation22 of soft$are produ"ts. +. This development is sure to 22generate22 great interest.

%ake sentences from these notes:


1. #lo"k of i"eFheatedFa#ove :NCFmelt 2. north poleFmagnetF#rought nearFsouth poleFanother magnetFpolesFattra"tFea"h other +. end of "opper #arFheatedFheatFtravelFalongF#ar ,. ele"tri" "urrentFpassedFalongF"ondu"torF"ondu"torF#e"omeFhot 1.?f a #lo"k of i"e is heated a#ove :NC !it melts. 2.;hen the north pole of a magnet is #rought near south pole of another magnet !poles attra"t ea"h other . +.;hen the end of "opper #ar is heated !heat travels along #ar . ,.;hen the ele"tri" "urrent is passed along "ondu"tor!"ondu"tor #e"ames hot.

"omplete the sentences below with an appropriate word from the list with it,s correct prefi!:
1.The guarantee does not "over damage resulting from in"ompetent use. 2.The par"el $as not delivered on time and this "aused me great in"onvenien"e . +.3s a dire"t result of the dire"tors mismanagement the "ompany $ent #ankrupt. ,. e"ause the memo $as un"lear it $as open to misinterpretation . -.Tom $as "riti"i=ed for his in"orre"t handling of the pro#lem. ..? noti"ed a misprint $hen ? $as readind through the arti"le. /.They had the misfortune to #e hit #y a serve storm. 8.The manager is a$ay for an indefinite period. 9.<e hadCt #een driving very long so the a""ident $as largely due to his ine1perien"e. 1:.The $orkers $ent on strike #e"ause one of their "olleagues $as #eing mistreated .

)ill in the gap with an allowing or preventing verb. Also4 put each verb in the correct form .
1. 3 graphi" e(uali=er 2allo$s 22 the user to ad>ust the amplifi"ation of different fre(uen"y ranges. 2. 3 fuse 2prevents2 a sudden rise in "urrent from damaging e(uipment. +. 3 mi1ing desk 2allo$s 2 the sound engineer to improve the (uality of the sound re"ord. ,. 3 heatsink 2prevents22 output transistors from overheating. -. 3 surge suppressor prevents large "urrent flu"tuations from damaging "omputers. .. &pe"ial effe"ts like rever# 2allo$22 the engineer to alter the sound of the re"ording. /. 6ifferent inputs on the musi" "entre 222allo$22 the user to play C6s! "assettes! and '6s. 8. 3 safety ta# 2prevents22 the user from erasing the tape #y a""ident.

)ill in the gaps with the correct prefi! 0


1.Jloppy disks are in e1pensive and re usea#le. 2.?f a printer mal fun"tions!you should "he"k the inter fa"e "a#le. +.The multi ple1or $as not $orking #e"ause someone had dis "onne"ted it #y mistake. ,. ?m proper installation of the anti glare shield $ill make it impossi#le to read $hat is on the s"reen. -.3fter you transfer te1t using the G"ut and pasteC feature!you may have to re format the te1t you have in serted. ..%ou "an ma1 imi=e your "han"es of finding a >o# if you are #i lingular or even multi lingular.

"omplete the sentences below with an appropriate word from the list with its correct prefi! :
1. The guarantee does not "over damage resulting from in"orre"t use. 2. The par"el $as not delivered on time and this "aused me great in"onvenien"e. +. 3s a dire"t result of the dire"torCs mismanagement the "ompany $ent #ankrupt. ,. e"ause the memo $as un"lear it $as open to misinterpretation. -. Tom $as "riti"i=ed for his in"ompetent handling of the pro#lem. .. ? noti"ed a misprint $hen ? $as reading through the arti"le. /. They had the misfortune to #e hit #y a severe storm. 8. The manager is a$ay for an indefinite period. 9. <e hadnCt #een driving very long so the a""ident $as largely due to his ine1perien"e. 1:. The $orkers $ent on strike #e"ause one of their "olleagues $as #eing mistreated .

Put the verbs in the dialogue into the correct tense 0


30 ;hat have you #een doing todayD 0 ? have #een $orking on my pro>e"t. ? have #een sear"hing the ;e# for sites on digital "ameras. 30 <ave you found any good onesD 0 ? have found several "ompany sites L &ony! Canon!M #ut ? $ant one $hi"h "ompares all the models. 30 ;hi"h sear"h engine you have you used D 0 6ogpile mostly. <ave you ever used itD 30 %es! ? have tried it #ut ? have had more lu"k $ith 3sk>eeves. ;hy donCt you try itD 0 ? had enough for one night. ? spent hours on that pro>e"t. 30 ? havenCt started on mine yet. 0 %ehD ? #et you $ill do it all.

rite a brief description of a radar system. 3our description should answer the following $uestions &if you don,t know e!act answers make them general(. 3ou should divide the answers into three appropriate paragraphs.
1. ;hat does the radar system "onsist ofD 2. ;hat are the "omponents of the transmitterD +. ;hat does the re"eiver "onsist ofD ,. ;here is the signal generatedD -. ;hat happens to it afterD .. ?f a target is hit! $hat happens to the refle"ted signalD /. <o$ does the re"eiver pro"ess the signalD 8. ;hat happens to #oth signals finallyD ? - 1!2!+0 Badar is a tele"ommuni"ation devi"e used for lo"ating the o#>e"t and measuring its speed. ?ts "onsists of a transmitter and a re"eiver. The "omponents of the transmitter are0 a signal generator! amplifier and emiting anntena. The re"eiver "onsists of a re"eiving anntena!a amplifier and dete"tor. ?? - ,!-!.0 The signal is generated in signal dete"tor! amplified and emited in the air. ?f a target is hit! the signal is refle"ted and sent to the re"eiving anntena. ??? - /!80 ;hen the signal is re"eived $ith re"eiving anntena! it is amplified and pro"essed #y the re"eiver. The original and refle"ted signals are"ompared. The results of "omparation is used for "al"ulating the speed and lo"ation of the targets.

rite each of the following sentences as one &avoid -+T and A.D(:
1. The dry Ee"lan"he "ell is e1tremely useful. ?t@s "ompa"t and porta#le. Conse(uen"e0 it@s the most "ommonly used. The dry Ee"lan"he "ell $hi"h is most "ommonly used! is e1tremely usful #e"ause itCs "ompa"t and porta#le. 2. This type of "ell has an e.m.f. of 1.-5. ?t (ui"kly falls to 1.,5 and remains "onstant. ?t is the type $e use everyday. This type of "ell $hi"h $e usu every day has e.m.f. of 1.-5. $hi"h (ui"kly falls to 1.,5 and remains "onstant. +. 3 "ar#on rod is surrounded #y paste. The "ar#on rod a"ts as the positive element. The paste "ontains "ar#on po$der and manganese dio1yde. 3 "ar#on rod $hi"h is surrounded #y paste a"ts as the positive element $hile the past "ontains "ar#on po$der and manganese dio1yde. ,. This su#stan"e is a depolari=er. 3 depolari=er prevents hydrogen from #eing formed. Conse(uen"e0 it avoids redu"tion in potential differen"e. 3 depolari=er su#stran"e $hi"h prevents hydrogen from #eing formed avoids redu"tion in in potential differen"e. -. The "ontainer of the "ell is made of =in". ?t a"ts as a negative ele"trode. The "ontainer of the "ell! $hi"h a"ts as a negative ele"trode is made of =in". .. The ele"trolyte is #et$een the =in" "ase and the "ar#onF manganese mi1ture. This ele"trolyte is a paste. The ele"trolyte! $hi"h is a paste! is #et$een the =in" "ase and the "ar#onF manganese mi1ture. /. The ele"trolyte is not a li(uid. The "ell is said to #e dry. The "ell is said to #re dry #e"ause the ele"trolyte is niot a li(uid. 8. The ele"trolyte is "omposed of ammonium "hloride. ?t also "ontains =in" "hloride. The ele"trolyte $hi"h "ontains =in""hloride is also "omposed of ammonium "hloride. 9. The top of the "ell is "arefully sealed. This prevents the paste from drying. The top of the "ell is "arefully sealed for preventing the paste from drying.

#ink these sentences with suitable time words to make a description of the development of computers.
1. Ele"troni" "omputers $ere developed. They $ere me"hani"al "al"ulators similar in some $ay to "omputer. 2. ;orld ;ar 2 started. The first ele"trome"hani"al "omputer $as developed to de"ipher "odes. +. The $ar ended. ell la#oratories developed the transistor. ,. ut it took more then ten years. Transistors repla"ed valves in "omputers. -. ?ntegrated "ir"uits $ere introdu"ed in the mid-19.:s. 6evelopments happened (ui"kly. .. The first mi"ro"omputers "ame on to the market in the mid-19/:s. 6esktop "omputing #e"ame a reality. 1. efore ele"troni" "omputer $ere developed! there $ere me"hani"al "al"ulators similar in some $ay to "omputer. 2. ;hen the ;orld ;ar 2 started! the first ele"trome"hani"al "omputer $as developed to de"ipher "odes. +. 3fter the $ar ended! ell la#oratories developed the transistor. ,. ?t took more then ten years #efore the transistors repla"ed valves in "omputers. -. 3fter integrated "ir"uits $ere introdu"ed in the mid-19.:s! developments happened (ui"kly. .. ;hen the first mi"ro"omputers "ame to the market in the mid-19/:s! desktop "omputing #e"ame a reality

Describing a process. %ake a concise description of the process of receiving a fa!. +se these prompts 0
1. 3nalogue tones "onverted #a"k to digital. 2. 6igital information "onverted to #inary signals. +. inary signals sent to thermal head on the printer. ,. <eater elements turned on or off a""ording to the signal. -. ?mages printed on to heat-sensitive paper. Jirstly !analoge tones "onverted #a"k to digital.3fter that! digital information "onverted to #inary signals $hi"h sent to thermal head on the printer.?n ne1t step !heater elements turned off a""ording to the signal.Jinally images printed on to the heat-sensitive paper.

/!press the notion re$uired between brackets:


1. 'ore and more engineers use the ?nternet 8aim9222as 8if9 2 they $ant to o#tain produ"t information 2. 'ore and more engineers use the ?nternet 8 "ause9 22#e"ause22 it is an easy $ay to get produ"t information. +. 'ore and more engineers use the ?nternet 8 "onse(uen"e9 22sin"e22 "ompanies are developing their $e#sites! ,. 'ore and more engineers use the ?nternet for te"hni"al support* 8 add a ne$ idea9 for e1ample they use it to share ideas via forums. -. 'ore and more engineers use the ?nternet* 8 opposition9 22#ut222 it is still diffi"ult to deal $ith "ompli"ated "ustom solutions. .. 3n engineer $onCt return to a site 8 restri"tion9 2unless2 if it is not regularly updated. /. 'any firms provide do$nloada#le files 0 8introdu"e e1amples9 2for e1ample &outh"o! 3'P! Parker Compurnotor! Tur"k! and Jas"o.

Translate into 0erbian 0


Phosphor screen The O and % defle"tions of the ele"tron #eam "ause the signal #eing measured to #e displayed in the form of a $ave! $ith the magnitude of the signal #eing given on the verti"al a1is and the time variation on the hori=ontal a1is. 3 pie"e of transparent plasti" kno$n as grati"ule is atta"hed to the front of the s"reen. This has a grid of hori=ontal and verti"al lines marked on it and allo$s a""urate measurements of the signal to #e made. 3 large #uild-up of negative "harge "ould #e "aused #y the ele"tron #eam hitting the phosphor s"reen. To help prevent this! the inside of the CBT! #et$een the defle"tion system and the s"reen! is "oated $ith a "ar#on "ompound kno$n as 3(uadag. This is atta"hed to the high voltage anode to provide an es"ape path for the e1"ess ele"trons Fosforni ekran &kretan>e O i % elektronskog =raka omogu"ava da se signal ko>i se meri mo=e prika=ati u o#liku talasa! sa veli"inom na vertikalno> osi i vremenskim ra=ma"ima na hori=ontalno> osi. Par"e providne plastike po=nate kao )B3T?C7EE pri"vrs"eno >e na predn>o> strani ekrana. To >e mre=a hori=ontalnih i vertikalnih lini>a o#ele=anih na n>emu i omogu"ava>u"i ta"no meren>e proi=vedenog signala. 5elika nagomilavan>a negativnog naelektrisan>a mogu #iti i=a=vana udarom elektronskog mla=a u fosfor ekrana. Pao pomo" u preven"i>i! unutrasn>ost CBT-a! i=mad>u skretnog sistema i ekrana! >e prekrivena >edin>en>em ugl>enika po=natog kao 3Q7363). 4vo >e prikl>u"eno na visokonaponske anode da omogu"i i=la=ni put =a visak elektrona. III Translate the following e!cerpt: Spam ?n general spam "an #e defined as any unsoli"ited e-mail! usually in the form of advertising for a produ"t or servi"e. &pam $astes an enormous amount of peopleCs time. Even though you may think an e-mail is spam! you often have to read the first senten"e to #e sure #efore deleting it. ?f you get do=ens a day! the time $asted rapidly mounts up. 7nfortunately! there seem to #e enough people falling for the offers to make sending spam $orth$hile. ?n addition to lost time! spam also uses up "onsidera#le #and$idth on the ?nternet. 6espite #ans! #e"ause the ?nternet is pu#li"! itCs almost impossi#le to prevent spam. There are organisations $hi"h try to fight spam using various te"hni(ues! and filters are availa#le $hi"h re"ogni=e some spam algorithmi"ally! for e1ample! #y the su#>e"t line or sender. ut spammers kno$ all the tri"ks and are often ahead of the game. Spam &pam se mo=e definisati kao ne=el>eni e-mail!o#i"no u o#liku reklame =a produkt ili uslugu .spam odu=ima dosta vremena .?ako pomislis da >e e-mail spam !moras pro"itati prvu re"eni"u da #i se uverio u to pre #risan>a.3ko do#i>es veliki #ro> poruka dnevno !vreme =a #risan>e #r=o raste.Aa=alost!i=gleda da posto>i puno l>udi ko>i misle da >e vredno slati spam poruke.Pored toga sto se gu#i vreme !spam poruke takod>e =na"a>no su=ava>u propusni opseg na internetu.7prkos =a#ranama !s o#=irom da >e internet >avni!skoro >e nemogu"e spre"iti spam.Posto>e organi=a"i>e ko>e pokusava>u da se #ore sa spam-om koriste"i ra=ne tehnologi>e i dostupne filtre ko>i algoritamski prepo=na>u neke spam-ove!na primer po na=ivu ili posil>io"u.3li spameri =na>u sve trikove i uvek su korak ispred.

Parts of an electric motor


3n ele"ti" motor is a devi"e $hi"h "reates a turning motion using ele"tromagneti" field.?t "onsist of si1 parts0armature or rotor !"ommutator!#rushes !a1le!field magnet and 6C po$er supply.The #asi" part is a armature or rotor $hi"h is a pi"e of iron pla"ed #et$een north and south pole of a field magnet.;hen #attery is atta"hed !#rushes and "ommutator ena#le the "urrent to flo$ throught the "oils of armature $hi"h "reates magneti" field around the armature !and rotor turns around itCs a1le.3fter this !"ommutator "hanges the "urrent dire"ton and the $hole pro"ess repeats. 6C motor is $idely used in everyday ma"hines 8like $ashing ma"hines!mi1ers9and in industry.

0tudy this circuit4 which provides a means of monitoring pressure in a system. "hanges in pressure trigger a warning. To help of the circuit4 put these steps in the correci se$uence to from a cause and effect chain. Then link the steps to make a description of the chain.

II Translate the following te!t 0


Types of Infection ;hen you listen to the ne$s! you hear a#out many different forms of ele"troni" infe"tion. The most "ommon are0 6iruses - 3 virus is a small pie"e of soft$are that piggy#a"ks on real programs. Jor e1ample! a virus might atta"h itself to a program su"h as a spreadsheet program. Ea"h time the spreadsheet program runs! the virus runs! too! and it has the "han"e to reprodu"e 8#y atta"hing to other programs9 or $reak havo" /1mail viruses - 3n e-mail virus moves around in e-mail messages! and usually repli"ates itself #y automati"ally mailing itself to do=ens of people in the vi"tim@s e-mail address #ook. orms - 3 $orm is a small pie"e of soft$are that uses "omputer net$orks and se"urity holes to repli"ate itself. 3 "opy of the $orm s"ans the net$ork for another ma"hine that has a spe"ifi" se"urity hole. ?t "opies itself to the ne$ ma"hine using the se"urity hole! and then starts repli"ating from there! as $ell. Tro'an horses - 3 Tro>an horse is simply a "omputer program. The program "laims to do one thing 8it may "laim to #e a game9 #ut instead does damage $hen you run it 8it may erase your hard disk9. Tro>an horses have no $ay to repli"ate automati"ally. Tipovi infekci'a &vakodnevno na vestima slusaste o mnogim ra=li"itim o#li"ima elektronske G=ara=eC.Aa>po=nati>i su 0 -6irusi1 virus >e mali program Gprikop"anCna glavne programe.Aa primer !virus mo=e da se =aka"i na program =a o#radu podataka.Pad god se program =a o#radu podataka pokrene!virus se takod>e pokre"e i posto>i sansa =a umno=avan>e 8ka"en>em =a drugi program 9ili i=a=ivan>e haosa . -/1mail virusi Le-mail virusi se prenose putem e-mail poruka !o#i"no tako sto sami se#e sal>u na adrese l>udi ko>i se nala=e u imeniku =rtve . -"rvici-"rvi" >e mali program ko>i koristi kompi>utersku mre=u ? sigurnosne rupe da #i se sirio.Popi>a "rvi"a pretra=u>e mre=u tra=e"i drugu masinu ko>a posedu>e spe"ifi"nu sigurnosnu rupu.4n kopira se#e na drugu masinu koriste"i sigurnosnu rupu !a =atim =apo"in>e umno=avan>e sa te masine na isti na"in. -Tro'anci-tro>ana" >e prosto program.4n >e na i=gled napravl>en da radi >ednu stvar8npr .igri"a9ali i=a=iva stetu kada ga pokrenete8mo=e o#risati hard disk9.Tro>ana" ne mo=e sam se#e da umno=ava.

a9The diaphragm is pushed out. 7 #9The os"illator output fre(uen"y "hanges. 8 "9The pressure in"reases. 9 d9The ferrite "ore rises. : e9The fre(uen"y of the tuned "ir"uit "hanges. ; f9The indu"tan"e of E1 alters. < g9There is an audi#le $arning. =

Describe the following diagram as fully as possible. Take care of the te!t organisation.

Translate this e!cerpt ob the functioning of electric motor:


The attra"tion and repulsion #et$een the poles of the armature magnet and the poles of the field magnet make the armature turn. 3s a result! its north pole is "lose to the south pole of the field magnet. Then the "urrent is reversed so north pole of the armature magnet #e"omes the south pole. 4n"e again! the attra"tion and repulsion #et$een it and the field magnet make it run. The armature "ontinues turning as long as the dire"tion of the "urrent! and therefore its magneti" poles! keeps #eing reversed. Privla"en>e i od#i>an>e polova pokretnog i stalnog magneta u=roku>e okretan>e pokretnog magneta. Pao re=ultat toga! n>egov severni pol se nala=i #li=u >u=nog pola stalnog magneta. Ratim se men>a smer stru>e tako da severni pol pokretnog magneta posta>e >u=ni. Ponovno privla"en>e i od#i>an>e i=med>u n>ega i stalnog magneta "ine da se okre"e sve dok se smer stru>e a samim tim i n>egovi magnetni polovi smen>u>u.

Translate these simple $uestions into /nglish:


1.Poliko >e visok ta> predmetD <o$ high is that o#>e"tD 2.Poliko >e on sirokD <o$ $ide is itD +.Poliko >e duga"akD <o$ long is itD ,.Poliko >e te=akD <o$ $eight is itD -.Poliko kostaD <o$ mu"h does it "ostD

Trenslate into 0erbian following terms:


1.soft-mekFan 2.du"tile-rastegl>iv +.mallea#le-kovl>iv ,.tough-=ilav!i=dr=l>iv -.s"rat"h-resistant-otproran na gre#an>e .."ondu"tive and mallea#le-provodan i kovl>iv /.dura#le and hard- tra>an i "vrst 8.stiff and #rittle-tvrd 8nesavitl>iv9 i krt 8loml>iv9 9.du"tile and "orrosion-resistant- rastegl>iv i otporan na koro=i>u 1:.heat-resistant and "hemi"al-resistant- otporan na temperature i hemikali>e

Inside an /lectric %otor


Eook at the overall plan of a simple two1pole D" electric motor and des"ri#e its parts and fun"tioning. 3 simple motor has si1 parts! as sho$n in the diagram #elo$0

The E6B form a potential divider $ith the varia#le resistir B51. ;hen lights falls on the E6B! its resistan"e de"reases. This "auses the #ase voltage of the transistor and the #ias "urrent to in"rease. The transistor s$it"hes on and there is a rapid rise in the "olle"tor "urrent until the transistor goes into saturation. The in"reased "urrent "auses the relat to operate and s$it"h on the output "ir"uit. The sensitivity of the input "an #e ad>usted using B51. ?n a similar $ay! the relay is de-energi=ed $hen the light sour"e is removed from the E6B. 3 large #a"k E'J! $hi"h $ould destroy the transistor! "ould #e generated a"ross the relay. To prevent! a diode is "onne"ted in reverse #ias a"ross the relay.

0tudy this graph4 which compares the sales of #P,s4 cassettes4 "D,s and singles over the same seven1year period. rite ten sentences to describe sales. %ake comparison>contrasts of sales of different products for these products.

Armature or rotor "ommutator -rushes A!le )ield magnet D" power supply of some sort

-?n the early 8:Cs! EPCs and singles dominated the musi" market. -3fter the 198, sales of "assettes started to in"rease rapidly! $hile sales of singles started to de"rease slo$ly. -&ale of EPCs $as pretty mu"h "onstant until 1988! $hile C6Cs started slo$ly to take over the market. -?n 1988 sales of "assettes rea"hed the num#er of 8: millions! #ut during the 1989 that num#er de"reased to num#er of /: millions. -Compa"t disk sales almost triple from C8/ to C9:! $hile EPC s sales stroke itCs lo$est level in entire de"ade in 199:! appro1imately 2: millions. -&ingles remained on the market in the late 8:Cs and their sales $ere smaller !around .: millions! in "omparision to early 8:Cs.

hat is a block diagram?/!plane and give an e!ample.Illustrate it with a concrete drawing.

"hoose the correct word to complete each sentence. 3ou may have to change the words.
- electron, technology, identify, computer 1. 3 "omputer solves pro#lems ele"troni"ally. 2. ;e should #e a#le to "ompute our profit for ne1t year fairly a""urately $ith the ne$ program. +. 3 pass$ord is a me"hanism for identifying the "omputer-user and allo$ing a""ess. ,. 'any ele"troni" students go on to $ork as engineers. -. TodayCs "omputers are te"hnologi"ally far superior to those used a fe$ years ago. .. ? "ould tell from all the "omputers on the #oard that a maths lesson $as in progress. /. The "omputer is the greatest te"hnologi"al invention of the t$entieth "entury. 8. The "lip#oardCs pattern re"ognition soft$are immediately identifies the letters and num#ers $ritten #y the stylus.

"omplete each sentence with generate, induce, detect.


1. The magneti" field indu"es an ele"tri" "urrent in the metal o#>e"t. 2. 3 mi"rophone may #e used to dete"t sound. +. The os"illator generates pulses at a fi1ed fre(uen"y of +2/.8 <=. ,. The magneti" field indu"es a voltage in the sear"h "oil. -. Aoise is also generated #y the lo$-fre(uen"y mains supply. .. 'otion sensors may use mi"ro$ave energy to dete"t movement $ithin their range. /. Ele"tri"al pulses are first generated at a fre(uen"y in the upper audio range #y the audio os"illator. 8. The first stage is sensing devi"e that "hanges its resistan"e $hen it dete"ts a parti"ular form of energy. "omplete each gap wiyh the appropriate form of a verb from the list. -ack up become enter find keep up learn #ink receive select send use 1.Peeping up $ith the last ne$s on your favourite team is easy on the ;e#. 2.4ne of the most useful features of the ?nternet is re"eiving and sending email. +.The grandfather!father son method is one $ay of #a"king up your do"uments. ,.Ji#re-opti" "a#le "an #e used for linking "omputers in a net$ork. -.&ear"h engines are $ays of finding information on the ;e#. .. 7sing a key#oard is the "ommonest $ay of entering data into a "omputer. /. &ending audio and video atta"hments is possi#le $ith email. 8. e"oming a programmer means learning a num#er of programming languages. 9.The ;hite Pages are for finding email address. 1:.&ele"ting an option in a menu is easy $ith a mouse. I6 %atch the two halves of the sentences below4adding a suitable con'unction from the ones given: Although as despite even if so that whereas a9People $ill al$ays $ant to use #ooks #9Endos"opi" surgery is a radi"al development "9The ?nternet offers "hildren a huge store of information d9<otels "atering for the #usiness se"tor are for"ed to introdu"e ne$ fa"ilities e9Tele$orking seems to offer a more attra"tive lifestyle f9There is little eviden"e to suggest that people shop at only one supermarket 1.the fa"t that pornography "ould also #e assassed is of great "on"ern. 2.their having a loyality "ard. +.it allo$s operations to #e "arried out #y remote "ontrol. ,.in reality!many people miss the so"ial "onta"t of an offi"e. -.their "lients donCt "hoose to get else$here. ..the te"hnology to repla"e them is eventually perfe"ted. a9People $ill al$ays $ant to use #ooks despite the te"hnology to repla"e them is eventually perfe"ted. #9Endos"opi" surgery is a radi"al development $hereas it allo$s operations to #e "arried out #y remote "ontrol. "9The ?nternet offers "hildren a huge store of information even if the fa"t that pornography "ould also #e assassed is of great "on"ern. d9<otels "atering for the #usiness se"tor are for"ed to introdu"e ne$ fa"ilities as their having a loyality "ard. e9Tele$orking seems to offer a more attra"tive lifestyle although in reality!many people miss the so"ial "onta"t of an offi"e. f9There is little eviden"e to suggest that people shop at only one supermarket so that their "lients donCt "hoose to get else$here.

3 #lo"k diagram is a figure $hi"h sho$s the stru"ture of an ele"troni" devi"e or system. ?t is "omposed of "ommon #asi" units kno$n as #uilding #lo"k. ?t sho$s the fun"tion of ea"h of these unith and the path of the signal #et$een them. Jigure sho$s the #lo"k diagram of radio re"eiver. ?t "onsist of a tuner! BJ amplifier! a dete"tor! an 3J amplifier and loudspeakers. 3fter the signal is re"eived #y the aerial! the re(uired fre(uen"y is sele"ted #y the tunner and the signal is amplified. The dete"tor demodulutes the signal and separates $anted 3J signal from BJ "arrier. Jinally the 3J signal is amplified and led to the loudspeakers.

0imple radio diagrams


The pi"ture a#ove are sho$en t$o types of diagrams0#lo"k diagram and "ir"uit diagram. Jirst of them is a #lo"k diagram of simple radio.it "onsist of fun"tion units.Jun"tionaly units are "onne"ted "as"adly.&imple radio "onsist of aerial!tuner!dete"tor!3J amplifier!volume "ontrol!po$er amplifier and speakers. &e"ond pi"ture is "ir"uit diagram.?n "ir"uit diagram $e "an see ele"troni" "omponents of simple radio. Jirst stage !tuned "ir"uit! "onsist of a ,/: mi"rohenries indu"tor $hi"h is "onne"ted in parallel $ith a varia#le "apa"itor.The values "an #e varied #et$een --.- pi"ofaradas.The se"ond stage! dete"tor "onsist of 22: kilohms resistor $hi"h is "onne"ted in parallel $ith a 1:: pi"ofaradas "apa"itor.Third stage !3J amplifier!"onsist of operational amplifer and t$o resistors !B2 and B+ !$hi"h values are 1 kilohm and ,/ kiloohms.Jourth stage !volume "ontrol!"onsist of - kilohm potentiometer in series $ith 1: mi"rofaradas ele"trolyti" "apa"itor C+.Jifth stage !po$er amplifier !"onsist of operational amplifier and t$o transistors.&i1th stage is speaker.

0horten this te!t by reducing the relative clauses where possible:


The lines $hi"h "onne"t telephones $ithin a #uilding are the simplest type of transmission line!$hi"h "onsists of parallel $ires.Those $hi"h link telephones to a lo"al e1"hange may #e t$isted pairs!although these are #eing repla"ed.Coa1ial "a#le!$hi"h is formed from a "opper "ore $hi"h is surrounded #y a "opper #raid!is used to "arry a large num#er of signals over long distan"es.The "a#les $hi"h provide "onne"tions #et$een telephone e1"hanges are often "oa1ial.;aveguides!$hi"h are made of "opper!are used to "arry mi"ro$ave signals #et$een dish aerials and re"eivers.They are suita#le for fre(uen"ies $hi"h are #et$een 1)<= and +:: )<=.4pti"al fi#res!$hi"h are made from very pure sili"a fi#re!are the form of transmission line $hi"h is most often used these days. The lines "onne"ting telephones $ithin a #uilding are the simplest type of transmission line "onsisting of parallel $ires.Those linking telephones to a lo"al e1"hange may #e t$isted pairs!although these are #eing repla"ed.Coa1ial "a#le formed from a "opper "ore surrounded #y "opper #raid!is used to "arry a large num#er of signals over long distan"es.The "a#les providing "onne"tions #et$een telephone e1"hanges are often "oa1ial.;aveguides made of "opper are used to "arry mi"ro$ave signals #et$een dish aerials and re"eivers.They are suita#le for fre(uen"ies #et$een 1)<= and +::)<=.4pti"al fi#res made from very pure sili"a fi#re!are the form of transmission line used most often these days.

These two paragraphs contain similar information. rite one paragraph combining the information from them to give a short but complete description of the 6R visual system .
3 virtual reality system "onsists of a helmet $ith a "olour display in front of ea"h eye! and $ide-angle lenses to "over the entire field of vie$ and give a stereos"opi" effe"t. The helmet "ontains sensors! rather like ele"troni" "ompasses! to re"ord $here it is pointing. 3 "omputer "al"ulates $hat the $earer should #e seeing in that dire"tion and displays it on the s"reen. The helmet has a pair of liquid-crystal displays with wide-angle lenses giving a stereoscopic image, and a set of magnetic sensors to tell the computer what the helmet is looking at as it moves. 3 virtual reality sistems "onsist of a helmet $ith a li(uid-"rystal display in front of ea"h eye! and $ide-angle to "over the entire field of vie$ and give a stereos"opi" image. The helmet "ontains a set of magneti" sensors! rather like ele"troni" "ompasses! to tell the "omputer $hat th$ helmet is looking at as it moves.

Add this e!tra information to the following te!t about plastics.


1. Plasti"s "an #e moulded into plates! "ar "omponents! and medi"al aids. 2. Thermoplasti"s soften $hen heated again and again. +. Thermosetting plasti"s set hard and do not alter if heated again. ,. 3 & is used for safety helmets. -. Aylon is self-lu#ri"ating. .. Aylon is used for motori=ed drives in "ameras. /. 3"ryli" is a "lear thermoplasti". 8. 3"ryli" is used for air"raft "anopies and dou#le ga=ing. 9. Polyester resin is used for #oat and "ar #odies. 1:. Polyester resin is hard and has good "hemi"al and heat resistan"e. Plasti"s are syntheti" materials. They "an #e softened and moulded into useful arti"les. They have many appli"ations in engineering. There are t$o types of plasti"s0 thermoplasti"s and thermosetting plasti"s. 3 & is a thermoplasti" $hi"h is tough and dura#le. e"ause it has high impa"t strength! it has appli"ations $here sudden loads may o""ur. Aylon is a hard! tough thermoplasti". ?t is used $here silent! lo$-fri"tion operation is re(uired. 3"ryli" "an #e formed in several $ays. ?t is hard! dura#le! and has many uses. Polyester resin is a thermosetting plasti" used for "astings. ?t has a num#er of useful properties. Plasti"s are syntheti" materials. They "an #e softened and moulded into useful arti"les su"h as plates!"ar "omponents and medi"al aids. They have many appli"ations in engineering. There are t$o types of plasti"s0 thermoplasti"s!that soften $hen heated again and again!and thermosetting plasti"s $hi"h set hard and do not alter if heated again.3 &!$hi"h is used for safety helmets!is a thermoplasti" $hi"h is tough and dura#le. e"ause it has high impa"t strength!it has appli"ations $here sudden loads may o""ur.Aylon!$hi"h is self-lu#ri"ating!is a hard!tough thermoplasti".?t is used $here silent!lo$-fri"tion operation is re(uired!for e1ample-for motori=ed drives in "ameras.3"ryli" is a "lear thermoplasti" $hi"hn "an formed in several $ays.?t is hard!dura#le and has many uses!for e1ample-for air"raft "anopies and dou#le ga=ing.Polyester resin is a thermosetting plasti" used for "astings su"h as #oat and "ar #odies.?t has a num#er of useful properties0it is hard and has good "hemi"al and heat resistan"e.

0tudy these statements which illustrate how %IDI operates. Then link each set of sentences into one comple! sentence to form a continuous paragraph. 3ou may add4 omit and change words.
1 'ost modern musi" is mi1ed. This uses "omputers. 2 'usi"ians re"ord their musi" into a "omputer system. This system is "alled a 'usi"al ?nstrument 6igital ?nterfa"e 8'?6?9. + '?6? $as developed as a standard interfa"e. '?6? is for linking musi" synthesi=ers and instruments together. , Computers "an #e "onne"ted to '?6? instruments. These "omputers are fitted $ith '?6? interfa"e #oards. This allo$s the musi" to #e stored on "omputer. - The musi" "an #e displayed as a musi"al s"ore. The musi" "an #e edited. This uses all the features of a mi1ing desk. . The musi" "an also #e printed out from the "omputer. The musi" is #eing played. / '?6? doesnCt transmit any sound. ?t transmits simple #inary information. 8 The information is "alled a '?6? message. The message en"odes sound as 8-#it #ytes of digital information. 9 The most "ommon messages "onsist of instru"tions. These instru"tions tell the re"eiving instrument to play a note for a spe"ifi" duration of time. 1: The instru"tions also "ontain details of ho$ loud to play that note. The instru"tions "ontain a num#er. The num#er indi"ates $hi"h instrument to play. Aum#er ./ is a violin. 'ost modern musi" mi1ed #y the "omputers .'usi"ians re"ord their musi" into "omputer system $hi" is "alled a 'usi"al ?nstrument 6igital ?nterfa"e 8'?6?9 .'?6? $as developed as a standard interfa"e for linking musi" synthesi=ers and instruments together.Computers "an #e "onne"ted to '?6? interfa"e and they are for alloeing the musi" to #e stored on "omputer.The musi" "an #e displayed as a musi"al s"ore and "an #e edited #y using all the features of a mi1ing desk.The musi" "an also #e printed out from th e"omputer #eing played !#ut '?6? doesnCt transmit any sound #e"ause it transmits simple #inary information.This information is "alled '?6? message $hi"h en"odes sound as 8-#it #ytes of digital information.'essages "onsist of instru"tioons $hi"h tell the re"eiving instrument to play a note for a spe"ifi" duration of time.This instru"tions also "ontain details of ho$ loud to play that note and "ontain a num#er $hi"h indi"ates $hi"h instrument to play !for e1ample!num#er ./ is a violin

The operating system is a set of programs #et$een appli"ation soft$are and hard$are. ?t is also "alled Thidden soft$areU #e"ause the user is not a$are of its details. The operating system "onsists of a supervisor program stored in memory and nonresident programs. The main fun"tions of the operating system are0 managing the "omputer resour"es 8CP7! memory! printersM9! esta#lishing user interfa"e and e1e"uting appli"ation soft$are. 7ni1! Einu1 and ;indo$s are the most important e1amples of the operating systems. B7. The Internet The ?nternet is a "omputer system $hi"h allo$s people in different parts of the $orld to e1"hange information. The "omputers $hi"h are "onne"ted via modems and telephone $ires use spe"ial soft$are "alled TCPF?P proto"ol. This program routes information pa"kets from one ma"hine to another using ?nternet addresses $hi"h "onsist of num#ers that identify su#-net$orks and nodes to $hi"h the ma"hines are atta"hed. The #asi" ?nternet servi"es are e-mail! ne$sgroup and "ustomer support! #ut some internet providers offer free $e# spa"e for personal $e#sites. B:. /1mail protocol E-mail proto"ol is a set of programs $hi"h "ontrols the transmission of e-mail messages. The most important are &'TP and P4P proto"ols. &'TP is usually used to transfer information #et$een t$o servers and the pro"ess is initiated #y the sending server. 4n the other hand! P4P is used to get messages from a server and that pro"ess is initiated #y re"eiver. 3lso! messages are stored in a mail#o1 and "an #e do$nloaded from different ma"hines. ?'3P is similar to P4P! #ut allo$s you to do$nload only the messages you $ant to read. B<. AP ;ap is $ireless appli"ation proto"ol $hi"h allo$s user to a""ess information from the internet on a mo#ile phone. The most important servi"es are online ne$s! finan"ial servi"es! sport s"ores and entertainment! su"h as gam#ling and games. The main pro#lem $ith this te"hnology is the fa"t that $ap phone "an not deal $ith every $e#sites* it "an only read pages $ritten in $ml language. B8. The broadband communications The #road#and "ommuni"ations are te"hni(ues $hi"h allo$ the users to in"rease the speed of sending and re"eiving data. The most important are ?&6A! $ireless system 8su"h as satellite and "ellular9! "a#le "ommuni"ations and 6&E and 36&E. ?&6A servi"es are "arried over phone net$ork! #ut spe"ial adapters in userCs ma"hine are re(uired. Ca#le "ommuni"ations use "opper "oa1ial or fi#re infrastru"ture. 6&E uses digital signals $hi"h are transmitted over standard net$ork. Jinally! 36&E provides higher do$nload speeds using asymmetri" #and$idth. B;. The electric motor The ele"tri" motor is a devi"e $hi"h produ"es a turning movement in order to drive different ma"hines. ?t "onsists of a pie"e of iron $ith loops of $ire round it* "alled an armature! and a stationary magnet! "alled a field magnet. ;hen ele"tri"ity flo$s around the $ire! the iron #e"omes an ele"tromagnet. The intera"tion #et$een the poles of the armature and field magnet make the armature turn. Then! the "urrent reverse the dire"tion! and the $hole pro"ess repeats. ?n order to reverse the dire"tion of the "urrent! the $ire is "onne"ted to "ommuni"ator via small "ar#on #lo"ks "alled #rushes. 3s the armature turns! first one half of the "ommutator tou"hes the #rushes and then the other! so the dire"tion of the "urrent keeps #eing reversed. B=. The portable generator The porta#le generator is a small! mova#le devi"e $hi"h produ"es ele"tri"ity to po$er ma"hines far from the main sour"e of supply. ?t uses the prin"iple of turning the movement of the piston into ele"tri"al energy. The generator "onsists of t$o main parts0 an engine! $hi"h "reates a motion! and an alternator! $hi"h "onverts motion into ele"tri"ity. ;hen engine is s$it"hed on! the spark "auses an e1plosion $hi"h pushes a piston do$n. 3s it rises again! the fumes are for"ed out through e1haust valve. This "y"le repeats many times per se"ond and makes the "rankshaft rotate at great speed. The "rankshaft is atta"hed to the alternator $hi"h uses the pro"ess of ele"tromagneti" indu"tion the "onvert rotation into ele"tri"ity. This devi"e "an produ"e enough energy to po$er not only lights! television! domesti" apparatus! #ut hospitals and fa"tories as $ell. BC. "AD C36 stands for T"omputer aided designU. This is soft$are $hi"h simplify the pro"ess of designing ne$ devi"es and systems. The main advantages of C36 over traditional approa"hes! su"h as dra$ing and modeling! are0 the user "an see three dimensions immediately! the designer "an avoid using paper and pen"il and! finally the pro"ess is mu"h faster! "heaper and easer. BD. The engineering 'obs The engineering is a fle1i#le a"tivity $hi"h provides many >o# opportunities. The #asi" >o#s for professional engineers are0 design engineer! installation engineer and produ"tion engineer. 6esigning means "reating ne$ produ"t or improvement the old one #y finding ne$ appli"ations and materials. The aim is to make "heaper! stronger or lighter produ"t. ?nstallation engineers deal $ith installing e(uipment in userCs "ompany or home. Jinally! produ"tion engineer takes "are of effi"ien"y! safely and "orre"tness of the produ"tion. 9B. The fa! The fa1 is ma"hine $hi"h allo$s the user to sent do"ument via telephone net$ork. ;hen do"ument is fed into the fa1 ma"hine! it is led to the fluores"ent tu#e. Befle"ted light is passed to the mi"ropro"essor $hi"h "reates digital signal. 3t the re"eiving ma"hine! digital signal is "onverted #a"k into original image. The fa1 te"hnology allo$s the transmission of te1t! graphi"s and photographi" images. 99. The robotics The ro#oti"s is a s"ien"e of designing and #uilding ma"hines $hi"h "an automati"ally perform some a"tivities! "alled ro#ots. The #asi" parts of a ro#ot are0 mi"ropro"essor $ith appropriate interfa"e $hi"h "ontrols its fun"tions! po$er supply and manipulator $hi"h allo$s ro#ot to move in all three dimensions. 3""ording to the fle1i#ility! manipulators "an #e re"tilinear! "ylindri"al! spheri"al or anthropomorphi". Bo#ots are used for >o#s that are espe"ially diffi"ult for humans. Jor e1ample! melding parts of automo#iles or moving heavy "omponents. 4n the other land! they "an #e used in dangerous situations! like spray painting. Jinally! they are very important in resear"h pro>e"ts! espe"ially in #iology. 3""ording to their similarity to humans ro#ots "an #e "lassified into0 automation! fle1i#le ma"hine! humanoid and finally "y#org $hi"h has some physiologi"al similarities to humans. 97. Data transmission 6ata transmission "omprises different te"hni(ues for sending and re"eiving information! su"h as spee"h! pi"tures or musi". 6ata transmission is essentially the same thing as digital "ommuni"ations! and implies physi"al transmission of a message as a digital #it stream! represented as an ele"tro-magneti" signal! over a physi"al point-to-point or point-to-multipoint "ommuni"ation "hannel. E1amples of su"h "hannels are "opper $ires! opti"al fi#ers! $ireless "ommuni"ation "hannels! and storage media. 6ata transmission is a su#set of the field of data "ommuni"ations! $hi"h also in"ludes "omputer net$orking or "omputer "ommuni"ation appli"ations and net$orking proto"ols! for e1ample routing and s$it"hing. Types of data transmission -&erial transmission #its are sent over a single $ire individually. ;hilst only one #it is sent at a time! high transfer rates are possi#le. This "an #e used over longer distan"es as a "he"k digit or Parity #it "an #e sent along it easily. -Parallel transmission 'ultiple $ires are used $hi"h "an transmit multiple #its simultaneously! $hi"h allo$s for higher data transfer rates than "an a"hieved than $ith &erial transmission. This method is used internally $ithin the "omputer! for e1ample the internal #uses! and sometimes e1ternally for su"h things as printers. 9:. The materials used in engineering 3""ording to their "ondu"tivity the materials used in engineering "an #e "lassified into isolators! semi"ondu"tors and "ondu"tors. Typi"al "ondu"tors are metals! su"h as aluminium and "opper. They are #oth du"tile and "orrosion-resistant! #ut aluminum is mu"h lighter and softer then "opper. &ome alloys! like #rass and steel! "an #e good "ondu"tors! too. rass "onsists of "opper and Rink and "an #e used for ele"tri"al "ondu"tors. &teel is made of iron and "ar#on and not only that it has a high strength! and lo$ "ost #ut it is du"tile and tough as $ell. 4n the other hand! isolators are usually different kinds of plasti"s! for e1ample thermoplasti"s and thermosetting plasti"s. Typi"al plasti" materials in ele"troni" "omponents are 3 & $hi"h is very light and dura#le! and epo1y resin $hi"h has good "hemi"al resistan"e and therefore "an #e used in printed "ir"uits and mi"ro"hips. Jinally! semi"ondu"tors $idely used in ele"troni" devi"es! su"h as transistors and diodes! are sili"on and germanium. 9<. hat is engineering Engineering is a pra"ti"al a"tivity $hi"h deals $ith the design! manufa"ture and improvement of tools! ma"hines! "omponents and other e(uipment. The #asi" areas of interests engineering are0 transport! food pro"essing! medi"al engineering! #uilding servi"es! energy and po$er! et". it "omprises me"hani"al! "ivil! ele"tri"al and ele"troni" engineering. Ele"tri"al engineering deals $ith generation and distri#ution of energy! ele"tri"al installations and so one. 4n the other hand! ele"troni" engineering is "on"erned $ith developing "omponents and e(uipment for "ommuni"ation systems! "omputers! M Jinally! some pra"ti"al areas! su"h as food pro"essing or medi"al engineering! #elong partly to me"hani"al and partly to ele"tri"al engineering. 98. %echanism 'e"hanism is a ma"hine or a part of ma"hine $hi"h helps the user to do some #asi" a"tivity. Typi"al e1amples of me"hanisms are those in ele"tri"al lights! door lo"ks or "ars. 3lso! they "an #e used in industry! su"h as "ar fa"tories. 3ll me"hanisms use some kind of motion. There are for kinds of motion. Botary means that a devi"e goes round and round! for e1ample $heels or rollers. 4s"illating means that something s$ings #a"k$ards and for$ards! like pendulum. Einear means that me"hanism moves in line! like a paper trimmer. Be"ipro"ating means that something goes up and do$n! for e1ample a piston in "om#ustion. &ome me"hanisms "an "onvert one kind of motion into another one. Jor e1ample! re"ipro"ating motion of piston is "onverted into rotary of a "rankshaft in an ele"tri"al motor. 9;. 0ound recording The pro"ess #egins in the studio! $here ea"h instrument is re"ording #y a mi"rophone. The sound is then fed to the mi1ing desk $here the sound engineer "ontrols the level of the re"orded signal. 3fter that! the signal is re"orded on the multitra"k and remi1 again. Jinally! spe"ial effe"ts are added to the re"ording and master tape is produ"ed. 9=. Remote control Bemote "ontrol is a $ay of managing some a"tivity from distan"e. The remote "ontrol unit is devi"e $hi"h allo$s the user to "ontrol a pi"ture "ontrast! "olor! #rightness! to "hange the "hannel or ad>ust the sound $ithout tou"hing the T5 set. ?t "onsists of keys and digital ele"troni" "ir"uits. 3fter the key is pressed! signal is sent to the mi"ro"hip $hi"h s$it"hes on the EE6 diode. The EE6 flashes on and of and "reates opti"al signals $hi"h are sent to the spe"ial re"eiver on the T5 set. 9C. The alarm system The alarm system is a set of ele"troni" devi"es $hi"h $arns the user $hen a #urglar tries to enter the house. ?t "onsists of a sensor! an ele"troni" s$it"h and the indi"ator. 3 sensor dete"ts some form of energy and triggers the s$it"h. ;hen s$it"h is on! the indi"ator "reates a $arning signal! $hi"h "an #e either light or sound. Typi"al dete"tion devi"es in alarm systems are magneti" s$it"hes on the doors! #reak dete"tors in glass of the $indo$s! pressure mats under the "arpet and motion sensors! $hi"h use infra-red or mi"ro$ave energy to dete"t some movement. 9D. Radio waves Badio $aves are spe"ial forms of energy $hi"h allo$ the transmission of information $ithout $ires. 3""ording to their fre(uen"y and propagation! they "an #e "lassified into ground $aves! sky $aves and spa"e $aves. The ground $aves have lo$ fre(uen"y and they travel along the surfa"e of the earth. Their rage is limited #y the a#sorption of energy #y the ground. &ky $aves have typi"al fre(uen"y of +:'<=. This $ave is refle"ted #y the ionosphere and returned to the earth. 3fter #eing refle"ted from the ground! it is sent #a"k to the ionosphere and the pro"ess repeats. These $aves depend on the time of the day and the season. Jinally! sky $aves are 5<J! 7<J and mi"ro$aves. They are use in tele"ommuni"ation! for link and satellite "onne"tions. The only pro#lem is that a line of sight is re(uired.

0ome staff changes have taken place at a small +@ engineering company. "omplete the dialogue between a company employee and a friend who used to work there.
5ohn: 3re things different no$D 0ara: %es! $hat has happened is that the &ales and 'arketing 6epartment has #een turned 8turn9 into three separate divisions - there is no$ an ?nternational 6ivision! a 7P 6ivision! and a ne$ offi"e that has >ust #een set up8>ustFset up9 in the 7&. 5ohn: ?s Peter still in "hargeD 0ara: Ao! they made 8make9 him &enior 6ire"tor! so he doesn@t have mu"h to do $ith the department no$. Eaura has #een promoted 8promote9 to &ales 6ire"tor! so they all report dire"tly to her. en and Patie have #een put 8put9 in "harge of the ?nternational 6ivision and the 7P 6ivision. 5ohn: ?s Pen still there or did they send 8theyFsend9 him to the 7&D 0ara: Ao! he is still there - #ut he doesn@t get on $ith Eaura! #asi"ally! so he has #een demoted 8demote9 to 7P &ales 3ssistant! and no$ he $orks for Patie. 4#viously! he@s not very happy a#out it and he doesn@t think that the "ompany treats 8treat9 him fairly. ? don@t e1pe"t he@ll stay long.

"omplete the information about the business activities of the )innish com .okia4 using the verbs in the bo!es. 0ee the e!ample.
4riginally a paper-making #usiness! the Jinnish "ompany Aokia is no$ one of $orld@s largest mo#ile tele"ommuni"ations "ompanies. There are three main divisions S Aokia net$orks! Aokia 'o#ile Phones and Aokia 5entures 4rgani=ation. .*@IA %obile phones allo$ manufa"ture meet provide This division designs and 1 manufactures mo#ile phones for over 1+: "ountries no$. ?ts very $ide produ"t range 2 meets the different needs of different "ustomers* the simplest phones + allo$ "ustomers to make voi"e "alls! #ut others , provide video "apa#ility! ?nternet a""ess and other advan"ed features. .*@IA .etworks gro$ notFfun"tion offer $ork 4f "ourse! phones don!t function $ithout a net$ork! and this division "offers systems and infrastru"ture net$orks of all kinds. Aokia / $orks "losely $ith tele"om operators and ?nternet servi"e providers so that they "an serve their "ustomers #etter. The net$orks are modular! so they "an start small and then develop as the "ustomer #ase. .*@IA 6entures *rgani2ation help invest look notFseem The 5entures 4rgani=ation 9looks .. at ne$ #usiness areas and opportunities for the future - even if there 1:doesnCt seem . to #e a natural "onne"tion $ith the rest of the "ompany. The organi=ation also 11 invests in ne$ te"hnology #usinesses and the 7&-#ased ?nnovent team 12 helps inventors and entrepreneurs to develop their ideas.

"omplete this passage using the verbs in brackets in appropriate tenses 0


3dd a moderate (uantity of salt to a #eaker of $ater and stir the mi1ture vigorously until all the salt has #een dissolved 8dissolve9. Continue to add salt! still stirring the solution! until no more "an #e dissolved 8dissolve9 and a deposit of salt $ill #e o#served8o#serve9 in the #ottom of the #eaker. <eat the solution gently. ?t $ill #e noti"ed 8noti"e9 that the e1"ess salt #egins to dissolve. Continue heating gently until all the salt #egins to dissolve. Consider $hat is demonstrated 8demonstrate9 #y this pro"edure. Ao$ transfer the solution to an evaporating dish and heat it more strongly until it #oils 8#oil9. 3fter a $hile it $ill #e o#served 8o#serve9 that the li(uid level is redu"ed 8redu"e9 as the $ater evaporates 8evaporate9! #ut at the same time salt $ill #egin 8#egin9 to appear in solid form. Consider $hat "auses 8"ause9 salt to appear as the $ater evaporates 8evaporate9. Continue to #oil the solution until all the $ater has evaporated 8evaporate9.

"hoose the correct tense0


;hen ? 8go9 $ent to Paris last spring for a >o# intervie$!? 8not #e9 hadnCt #een there for five years.? 8arrive9 arrived the evening #efore the intervie$!and 8spend9 spent a happy hour $alking round thinking a#out the good times ? 8have9 had there as a student. 3s ? $as strolling #y the &eine!? suddenly 8see9 sa$ a familiar fa"e-it $as Aora!the $oman ? 8share9 had #een sharing a flat $ith $hen ? $as a student!and $hose address ? 8lose9 had lost after leaving Paris.? "ould tell she 8not see9 didnCt see !so ? 8"all9 "alled her name and she 8look up9 looked up .

"omplete the following paragraph with a most suitable transition word:


3 mi"ro$ave is a form of energy that travels in high fre(uen"y $aves. 3lthough $e "an not see mi"ro$aves! $e "an easily o#serve ho$ they affe"t o#>e"ts. Jor instan"e mi"ro$ave penetrate food in mi"ro$ave ovens.Then! the food is "ooked. 'i"ro$aves are used in #oth radar and tele"ommuni"ations too. 3lso 8therefore9! mi"ro$aves are a part of our everyday life.

Aere is a paragraph on operating a record1player. Re1write it so as to make the sentences a set of instructions:
3 re"ord is pla"ed on the turnta#le and the motor is started. The pi"k up head is then lifted and moved to$ards the edge of the re"ord. The head is positioned a#ove the #eginning of the re"ord and then lo$ered "arefully onto the re"ord. ;hen the pi"kup has traveled to the "entre of the re"ord! the head is lifted and returned to its original position. The turnta#le is then stopped and the re"ord removed.

Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form in this description of how smart cards work 0
&mart "ards prevent unauthorised users from a""essing 8a""ess9 systems and permit authori=ed users to have 8have9 a""ess to a $ide range of fa"ilities. &ome "omputers have smart "ards readers allo$ing 8allo$9 you to #uy 8#uy9 things on the ;e# easily and safely $ith digital "ash. 3 smart "ard "an also send data to a reader via an antenna "oiled 8"oil9 inside the "ard. ;hen the "ard "omes $ithin range! the readerCs radio signal "reates 8"reate9 a slight "urrent in the antenna "ausing 8"ause9 the "ard to #road"ast 8#road"ast9 information to the reader $hi"h allo$s 8allo$9 the user! for e1ample! to $ithdra$ 8$ithdra$9 money from an 3T' or to get 8get9 a""ess to a system.

)ill in the missing verbs 0


6uring the seventeenth and eighteenth "enturies!many easy $ays of "al"ulating $ere devised Eogarithm ta#les!"al"ulus!and the #asis for modern side rule $ere invented during this period.?t $as not until the early 18::s that the first "al"ulating ma"hine appeared and!not too long after!Charles a##age designed a ma"hine $hi"h #e"ame the #asis for #uilding todayCs "omputers.3 hundred years later !the first analog "omputer $as #uilt #ut yhe first digital "omputer $as not "omplited until 19,,.&in"e then!"omputers have gone through four generations0digital "omputers using va""umtu#es in 19-:Cs!transistors in the early 19.:Cs!integrated "ir"uits in the mid-.:s!and a single "hip in the 19/:s.?n the 198:s!$e sa$ "omputers #e"ome smaller!faster and "heaper.Earlier this de"ade!"omputers F #e"ame porta#le!from laptops to palmtops.3t the rate "omputer te"hnology is gro$ing no$!$e "an e1pe"t further dramati" developments #efore the end of the "entury.

"omplete the gaps in this summary of the te!t on operating systems using linking words and phrases:
The user is a$are of the effe"ts of different appli"ations programs 2#ut 2 operating systems are invisi#le to most users. They lie #et$een appli"ations programs! 22su"h as 22 $ordpro"essing! and the hard$are. The supervisor program is the most important. ?t remains in memory! 22therefore 2 it is referred to as resident. 4thers are "alled non-resident 2#e"ause 2 they are loaded into memory only $hen needed. 4perating systems manage the "omputerCs resour"es! 2su"h as 2 the CP7. 2?n addition 2! they esta#lish a user interfa"e! and e1e"ute and provide servi"es for appli"ations soft$are. 23lthough 2 input and output operations are invoked #y appli"ations programs! they are "arried out #y the operating system.

"omplete the following te!t with appropriate words:


Ele"troni" metal dete"tors use the prin"iple of ele"tromagneti" indu"tion. This means that! if on o#>e"t is pla"ed in a "hanging magneti" field! an ele"tri"al voltage is "reated in 2that 2 o#>e"t. ?n a metal dete"tor! an ele"tri"al "urrent is passed through a "oil of $ire! "alled the sear"h "oil! 2to 2 "reate a magneti" field. 23n 2 alternating "urrent 83C9 generator "onverts the dire"t "urrent 86C9 from the #attery into the 3C needed to drive the "oil. 23s 3C regularly reverses dire"tion! it produ"es the ne"essary ever-"hanging magneti" field. Currents are generated in a metal o#>e"t 2$hi"h 2 "omes $ithin the magneti" field #y a pro"ess kno$n as indu"tion. ;hen a "urrent is indu"ed in a metal o#>e"t 8for e1ample! a #uried "oin9! 2this 2 in turn produ"es its o$n magneti" fields. 2These 2 magneti" fields are "apa#le of indu"ing a small amount of ele"tri"ity in the dete"torCs sear"h "oil itself. The simplest kind of metal dete"tor is the pulse indu"tion type. 3 po$erful "urrent is passed from the #attery through the sear"h "oil and 2then 2 s$it"hed off. The pulse of magnetism "auses "urrents to flo$ in any target o#>e"ts #elo$ the ground. ut ! unlike the "urrent in the sear"h "oil! the "urrent in the o#>e"t "an not #e s$it"hed off* it 2has 2 to die a$ay naturally. 3s it fades! the "urrent in the o#>e"t rea"tivates the sear"h "oil. This voltage is 2than 22 amplified to indi"ate $ith a sound or a flashing light that an o#>e"t has #een found.

"omplete this summary of how to make a recording4 by putting each of the verbs in brackets in the correct form.
Ea"h instrument is re"orded 8re"ord9 using a mi"rophone. The sound is fed 8feed9 to a mi1ing desk. The re"ording level is "ontrolled 8"ontrol9 and the EQ has #een ad>usted 8ad>ust9 #y the sound engineer. The output is re"orded 8re"ord9 on a multitra"k. The sounds from the multitra"k are mastered 8master9 #a"k through the mi1er. The tape is remi1ed 8remi19 until the musi"ians are happy $ith the sound. &pe"ial effe"trs "an #e added 8add9 on the mi1ing desk. The remi1ed tape is mastered do$n 8master do$n9 to produ"e a master tape. This "an #e used 8use9 to produ"e "opies in many formats

B9. The operating system

7B. The radio The radio is an ele"troni" devi"e $hi"h re"eives the radio signal and a "onverts it to the audio signal. ?t "onsists of a tuner! a BJ amplifier! a dete"tor! an 3J amplifier and loudspeakers. 3fter the signal is re"eived #y the aerial! the re(uired fre(uen"y is sele"ted #y the tuner and the signal is amplified. The dete"tor demodulates the BJ signal and separates $anted 3J signal from BJ "arrier. Jinally! the 3J signal is amplified and fed to the loudspeakers. 79. %etal detector 3 metal dete"tor is an ele"troni" devi"e $hi"h uses the prin"iple of E' indu"tion for finding the hidden o#>e"ts. Jirst! 3C "urrent is applied to the sear"h "oil and the E' field is "reated around it. ;hen metal o#>e"t! like a "oin! is pla"ed in this field a "urrent is indu"ed in the "oin. This "reates a field around the "oin $hi"h "auses a voltage in a sear"h "oil of the metal dete"tor. Jinally! this voltage is "onverted in to the sound or light to indi"ate that a metal o#>e"t is found. 77. The music centre The musi" "entre is a devi"e $hi"h reprodu"es and re"ords sounds and musi". ?t "onsists of different audio devi"es! su"h as a C6 player! a radio and a "assette de"k. 3ll devi"es share a "ommand amplifier! speaker system and "ontrol #uttons. This system allo$s the user to deal $ith musi" re"orded in different formats and on different mediums. 7:. A drum machine 3 drum ma"hine is a devi"e $hi"h stores digitally re"orded sound. ?t "onsists of a read-only memory! "alled B4'! and "ontrol #uttons. The user "an "reated his o$n songs and rhythms #y pressing the #utton $hi"h "orresponds to parti"ular sound stored in B4'. <o$ hard the user presses the #uttons determents ho$ loud the sound $ill #e. 7<. 0ampling &ampling is one stage in the pro"ess of analogue-to-digital "onversion! kno$n as 36C. The magnitude of an analogue signal is taken at su""essive intervals of time. The higher the fre(uen"y of the analogue signal! the more often it must #e sampled. 3fter this! the sampled magnitudes are rounded to the nearest value $hi"h "an #e "oded. Ea"h rounded sample is represented $ith fe$ #its. The num#er of #its depends of the $anted a""ura"y of the 36C "onversion. 78. Audio recording system The first audio re"ording system $as gramophone. ?t $as analogue and the (uality of the re"orded sound $as very poor. Today! the audio systems are digital. Typi"al e1ample is a "ompa"t dis" system $hi"h uses a laser #eam to $rite and read marks on the surfa"e of the dis". The audio signal is represented #y the length of these marks and the distan"e #et$een them. C6s offer almost perfe"t (uality of sound and the total re"ording "apa"ity is more than /: mins. 7;. A graph 3 graph is a pi"ture $hi"h sho$s the relationship #et$een measured signal and some other signal! time or fre(uen"y. This is an easy-tounderstand! visual $ay of giving information and therefore it is very important in s"ien"e. 3 typi"al e1ample is a graph $hi"h sho$s ho$ the level of the output signal depends on time. This graph "onsists of a verti"al a1is $hi"h represents the values of measured signal! a hori=ontal a1is $hi"h represents the time and lines and "urves $hi"h sho$ ho$ the signal alters in time. 7=. Test and repair instruments The test and repair instruments are ele"troni" devi"es used for measuring different ele"tri"al (uantities in order to "he"k the fun"tion of the devi"es under test. There are some typi"al test and repair instruments. 'ultimeter is used for measuring a num#er of different (uantities! like voltage! "urrent or resistan"e. Eogi" pro#e is used for "he"king the level of the signal on the inputFoutput pins of a logi" "ir"uit. 4s"illos"ope monitors the time-altering signals! $hile fun"tion generator "reates sine or pulse test signals. 3ll these instruments are used to test the fun"tion of the "ir"uit or to repair it in the "ase of malfun"tion. 7C. The oscilloscope The os"illos"ope is an ele"troni" instrument for monitoring the time-altering signals. The main part of the os"illos"ope is a "athode ray tu#e. ?t "onsists of three parts. The ele"tron gun emits ele"trons $hi"h are then fo"used into narro$ ele"tron #eam. The defle"tion system moves it hori=ontally or verti"ally. Jinally! the s"reen $ith phosphor "oating is used for representing the pi"ture. 3lso! the os"illos"ope has a num#er of #uttons for pi"ture "ontrol. 7D. Aigh definition television <igh definition television is a ne$ generation of television sets. They are larger than standard models! #ut pi"ture and sound (uality is e1"ellent. The pi"ture has more lines and pi1els than on standard s"reens and therefore detail and "olor reprodu"tion is very good. Jinally! it gives mu"h #etter sense of reality sin"e it offers more loudspeakers than standard T5 sets in order to give +-dimensional effe"t. The only disadvantages are high "ost and ne$ transmission methods. 3lso! different "ountries have different <6T5 standards $hi"h $ill #e pro#lem in a future. I#I: <igh-definition television 8<6T59 is a digital television #road"asting system $ith higher resolution than traditional television systems 8&6T59 . <6T5 is digitally #road"ast #e"ause digital television 86T59 re(uires less #and$idth if suffi"ient video "ompression is used. To display a superior pi"ture! high definition televisions re(uire a <igh 6efinition 8<69 signal. :B. %icrocomputer system 'i"ro"omputer system is a set of devi"es $hi"h "an #e programmed to do some #asi" a"tivities. ?t "onsists of the CP7! memories! ?F4 devi"es and the #uses. The CP7 is a mi"ropro"essor $hi"h "ontrols the $hole system and performs all arithmeti"al and logi"al operation. 'emories store data and programs. Jinally! ?F4 units "ontrol the pro"ess of re"eiving input data and representing the output data. 3ll these devi"es are "onne"ted together via set of "onne"tors "alled #uses. The mi"ro"omputer systems are $idely used in homes as personal "omputers. :9. The forces in engineering There are four important for"es in engineering0 $eight! elasti"ity! #uoyan"y! and fri"tion. The #uoyan"y is the for"e $hi"h a"ts up$ards on all o#>e"ts pla"ed in $ater. ?ts magnitude depends on the volume of the o#>e"t. The $eight is the gravity for"e $hi"h a"ts do$n$ards on all o#>e"ts on the earth. ?ts magnitude depends on the mass of the o#>e"t. ;hen these t$o for"es are e(ual! the o#>e"t in $ater is in e(uili#rium. The elasti"ity is a for"e $hi"h o""urs in deforma#le o#>e"t! like a spring. ?t al$ays has an opposite dire"tion to the for"e $hi"h "auses the deformation. This "an #e used for measuring the $eight of the o#>e"t. The fri"tion is the for"e $hi"h o""urs #et$een the surfa"e of the o#>e"t in motion and the ground. Jri"tion in ma"hines is usually destru"tive and $asteful! sin"e it "an "ause overheating. Therefore materials must #e highly polished or lu#ri"ated. 3lso rollers "an #e used! sin"e rolling "auses less fri"tion than sliding. 4n the other hand! fri"tion "an #e a help in some "ir"umstan"es! for e1ample to prevent an o#>e"t from sliding do$n the slope. hat forces in engineering do you know of? Define them and give e!amples. -Ele"tromagneti" for"e is the result of #oth ele"tri"al and magneti" field that one present in and around devi"es using "urrent or voltage. ?t is present around $ires! s$it"hes! "a#les in the house! transformators and high voltage fa"ilities. -Au"lear for"e "onne"ts atoms and su#atom parts into sta#le system. Au"lear for"e provides the #iggest energy used for nu"lear #om#s! $eapons and nu"lear stations. -)raviti for"e a"ts as a result of a"tivity field around all spa"e #odies. ?t keeps o#>e"ts and people atta"hed to the earth so it must #e "al"ulated in pro>e"ting and laun"hinf airplanes and satelites. :7. "omponent values Component values are #asi" "hara"teristi"s of "omponents used in ele"troni" "ir"uits. These values are usually market on the "omponent #ody. ?n order to solve the pro#lem of marking su"h small "omponents! the values are usually "oded $ith "olor #ands. Jor e1ample! the resistor is "oded $ith four #ands. The first three are used to sho$ the resistan"e and the fourth is used for toleran"e. The same approa"h is used for marking the "apa"itor. 4n the other hand! diodes are marked $ith alphanumeri"al "ode! $hi"h means that #oth letters and num#ers are used to sho$ the material! toleran"e! appli"ation! et". ::. Preferred values Preferred values are a"tual values of the resistan"e $hi"h are produ"ed #y the manufa"tures. ?f $anted value is not on the list of preferred values! it "an still #e found! sin"e all preferred values have some toleran"e. ?n this $ay! the "omponents are mu"h "heaper and the $hole range of resistan"e is "overed $ithout overlapping. :<. -atteries atteries are sour"es of ele"tri"ity for ele"troni" devi"es. They "an #e primary or se"ondary. Typi"al e1ample of a primary #attery is a =in"-"ar#on "ell! used in tor"hes. ?t "onsists of a negative =in" ele"trode! a positive ele"trode and solution around them kno$n as ele"trolyte. 4n the other hand! a se"ondary #attery "an #e re"harged and! therefore! used many times ever. Typi"al e1ample is AiCad #attery in mo#ile phone. :8. A battery charger 3 #attery "harger is a devi"e $hi"h re"harges se"ondary #attery to its original voltage. ?n this $ay! the same #attery "an #e used many times over. ?t "onsists of a transformer $hi"h steps do$n the 3C voltage! a re"tifier $hi"h "onverts 3C to 6C voltage! a smoothing "ir"uit $hi"h removes the flu"tuations from 6C voltage! and sta#ili=ing "ir"uit $hi"h gives a "onstant "urrent output. 6uring this pro"ess! the "urrent is al$ays driven through the #attery in the opposite dire"tion to its normal output "urrent. :;. /lectronic in the home The first ele"troni" devi"es for everyday use in the home $ere radio! T5 players! re"ord players and tape re"orders. 3t the #eginning! they $ere e1pensive and #ig. The invention of mi"ro"hips and integrated "ir"uits made them "heaper! smaller and porta#le. Today! household items use mi"ropro"essors and digital ele"troni" "ir"uits. 3t the moment! everyday life "an not #e imagined $ithout automati" $ashing ma"hines! dish$ashers! "entral heating! mi"ro$ave ovens! $ater-heaters! ele"troni" "ookers! telephones $ith ans$er phone fa"ilities! et". 3lso! there are ne$ entertainment devi"es! like C6 and 656 players. :=. In the future ?n the future! multimedia entertainment systems are likely to #e"ome even more "ommon in the house. They $ill allo$ users to re"eive and reprodu"e different kinds of entertainment program using only one devi"e. 4n the other hands! household items! like $ashing ma"hines and "ookers! $ill #e"ome TsmartU- they $ill #e so automatised that they $ill #e a#le to do house $ork all #y themselves or #y "omputer"ontrolled ro#ots. Jinally! remote "ontrol $ill pro#a#ly #e"ome even more important. This $ill allo$ users to "ontrol the household items from distan"e! for e1ample from the offi"e. :C. An amplifier 3n amplifier is an ele"troni" devi"e $hi"h is used to in"rease the magnitude of the input signal $ithout "hanging its fre(uen"y or $ave form. There are t$o types of amplifiers0 a pre-amplifiers and po$er amplifiers. The most important "hara"teristi"s of amplifiers are signalto-noise ratio! $hi"h is used to measure the (uality of the amplifier! and its #and$idth! $hi"h determines the fre(uen"y range of the amplifier.

:D. A block diagram and a circuit diagram 3 #lo"k diagram is a figure $hi"h sho$s the stru"ture of an ele"troni" devi"e or system. ?t is "omposed of "ommon #asi" units kno$n as #uilding #lo"ks. ?t sho$s the fun"tion of ea"h of these units and the path of the signal #et$een them. This is used in a system approa"h to ele"troni"s! $here the fun"tion is more important then the stru"ture of a devi"e. 4n the other hand! a "ir"uit diagram sho$s the values and the "onne"tions #et$een the "omponents inside these #asi" units. ?t "onsists of standard ele"troni" sym#ols for ele"troni" "omponents! su"h as resistors! "apa"itors! diodes or transistors. oth #lo"k and "ir"uit diagrams are used to sho$ ho$ an ele"troni" devi"e $orks. <B. Transmission line Transmission line is a medium for transmission of information! su"h as voi"e data or radio signals! over long distan"e. The most important types are0 parallel $ires! "oa1ial "a#les! $aveguides and opti"al fi#res. Parallel $ires are made of t$o parallel insulated "opper $ires in the same >a"ket. They are used for small distan"e! #e"ause of interferen"e. Coa1 is a "opper $ire surrounded #y "opper >a"ket $hi"h are insulated from ea"h other. Therefore the interferen"e is redu"ed and it is used at high fre(uen"ies. ;aveguides are re"tangular "opper du"ts made for mi"ro$ave fre(uen"ies. The #est medium is opti"al "a#le. ?t "onsists of a sili"on fi#re "overed $ith glass >a"ket and plasti" prote"tion. ?t is used in tele"ommuni"ations for transmission of high fre(uen"y signals $ith no interferen"e. <9. "ell phone Cell phone is a light! small! porta#le radio trans"eiver. ?t re"eives and transmits telephone signal inside the net$ork area. This area is divided into a num#er of "ells and ea"h of them has a #ase station 8 &9. &even "ells form a "luster $hi"h has a main s$it"hing "enter 8'&C9. 'o#ile unit does not "ommuni"ate dire"tly $ith another one. The "all is sent to the &! $hi"h transmits it to the other & or '&C $hi"h relays it to the $anted mo#ile user. 3lso! mo#ile phones "an offer a num#er of other important fun"tions! su"h as sms messages! a "lo"k! an alarm! a "al"ulator! et". I#I: The mo#ile phone 8also "alled a $ireless phone or "ellular phone9 is a short-range! porta#le ele"troni" devi"e used for mo#ile voi"e or data "ommuni"ation over a net$ork of spe"iali=ed #ase stations kno$n as "ell sites. ?n addition to the standard voi"e fun"tion of a telephone! "urrent mo#ile phones may support many additional servi"es! and a""essories! su"h as &'& for te1t messaging! email! pa"ket s$it"hing for a""ess to the ?nternet! gaming! #luetooth! infrared! "amera $ith video re"order and ''& for sending and re"eiving photos and video. <7. Radar Badar is a tele"ommuni"ation devi"e used for lo"ating the o#>e"t and measuring its speed. ?t "onsists of a transmitting antenna! a re"eiving antenna and ele"troni" "ir"uits for signal pro"essing. The transmitting antenna emits ele"tri"al signals at radio fre(uen"ies. This signal is refle"ted from the target 8for e1ample an airplane or a "ar9! and sent #a"k to the re"eiving antenna. The time interval #et$een the moment $hen signal $as emitted and the moment $hen refle"ted signal $as re"eived is used for "al"ulating the lo"ation of the target and its speed. Badars systems $ere invented #y the 7& army! #ut today they are $idely used in everyday life. <:. :D ob'ect 1 cub described in terms of its dimensions

The pi"ture sho$s a "onve1! solid +-dimensionall o#>e"t "alled a "u#e. ?t "onsists of si1 s(uares! $hi"h means that its height! $idth and length are all e(ual. There are t$elve sides! eight "orners and four diagonals in the "u#e. ?ts volume! 5! and area! P! "an #e "al"ulated using these e1pressions0 5V a + 85 e(uals a to the po$er of +9 PV. a 2 8P e(uals . times a to the po$er of 29 $here a is its #asi" longitudinal dimension. Jinally! all diagonals in this o#>e"t are e(ual and they "an #e "al"ulated from0 +a#V 86 e(uals a times s(uare root from +9 <<. :1D ob'ect in classroom E the blackboard The #la"k#oard is a solid $ooden #la"k pla"ed on the $all of every "lassroom. ?ts length is appro1imately five meters! its height is a#out t$o meters! #ut the $idth is only fe$ "entimeters. The front side of the #la"k#oard is flat! smooth and green. The edges are "overed $ith thin narro$ metal ri##ons. This hard! strong and heavy o#>e"t is used #y tea"hers and students for $riting and dra$ing. <8. :1D ob'ect in classroom E the chair The "hair is used for sitting. ?t "onsists of t$o $ooden parts! one for sitting and one as a support for the userCs #a"k! and four metal legs. ;ooden parts are solid! #ro$n and slightly "urved. They are #oth re"tangular! #ut the part for sitting is #igger then the #a"k of the "hair. The legs are hollo$ re"tangular grey metal plates. The "hair in this "lassroom "an not #e move! sin"e the legs are nailed for the floor. <;. Aistory of telecommunication The first tele"ommuni"ation system $as designed in the middle of the 19 th "entury. ?t $as 'orseCs telephone system $hi"h used $ires in order to sent "oded messages over long distan"e. The ne1t step $as ellCs invention of telephone $hi"h allo$ed spee"h to #e transmitted using $ires. Jinally! the invention of television in 19+:s "losed the era of "lassi"al tele"ommuni"ation pi"ture-"ould #e easily transmitted. The ne$ stage of the history of tele"ommuni"ation starts $ith the introdu"tion of the digital systems. They allo$ "omputer data to #e "om#ined $ith phone signals and to #e transmitted via phone net$ork. The introdu"tion of pulse-"ode modulation 8PC'9! modems and opti"al fi#ers opened the era of information te"hnology $here telephone fa"ilities "an #e "om#ined $ith "omputer net$orks in order to in"rease the (uality of availa#le servi"es. The ne1t important step $as introdu"tion of satellites. 3lthough their development started during the ;orld ;ar ??! the first "ommer"ial satellite $as not laun"hed until 19/:s. The development of mo#ile telephone systems in 198:s started the Tglo#al "ommuni"ationU period L a "all "an #e made from almost any point at almost any moment. The future of tele"ommuni"ation $ill pro#a#ly #e digital high-(uality systems $hi"h integrate different servi"es in one net$ork making them "heaper and more interesting for different users. <=. 6irtual reality 5irtual reality 85B9 is a te"hnology $hi"h allo$s a user to intera"t $ith a "omputer-simulated environment! #e it a real or imagined one. 5irtual Beality is often used to des"ri#e a $ide variety of appli"ations! "ommonly asso"iated $ith its immersive! highly visual! +6 environments. 'ost "urrent virtual reality environments are primarily visual e1perien"es! displayed either on a "omputer s"reen or through spe"ial or stereos"opi" displays! #ut some simulations in"lude additional sensory information! su"h as sound through speakers or headphones. <C. /!plain friction and give e!amples Jri"tion is the for"e resisting the relative motion of t$o surfa"es in "onta"t or a surfa"e in "onta"t $ith a fluid. ?t is not a fundamental for"e! as it is derived from ele"tromagneti" for"es #et$een atoms and ele"trons! and so "annot #e "al"ulated from first prin"iples! #ut instead must #e found empiri"ally. ;hen "onta"ting surfa"es move relative to ea"h other! the fri"tion #et$een the t$o o#>e"ts "onverts kineti" energy into thermal energy! or heat. Jor e1ample! air on an air"raft or $ater in a pipe. <D. 6irtual reality 5irtual reality 85B9 is a te"hnology $hi"h allo$s a user to intera"t $ith a "omputer-simulated environment! #e it a real or imagined one. 5irtual Beality is often used to des"ri#e a $ide variety of appli"ations! "ommonly asso"iated $ith its immersive! highly visual! +6 environments. 'ost "urrent virtual reality environments are primarily visual e1perien"es! displayed either on a "omputer s"reen or through spe"ial or stereos"opi" displays! #ut some simulations in"lude additional sensory information! su"h as sound through speakers or headphones. 8B. "omputer graphics Computer graphi"s are graphi"s "reated $ith "omputers! and more general the representation and manipulation of pi"torial data #y a "omputer. The term "omputer graphi"s in"ludes almost everything on "omputers that is not te1t or sound. Ao$ almost every "omputer "an do some graphi"s! and people have even "ome to e1pe"t to "ontrol their "omputer through i"ons and pi"tures rather than >ust #y typing. ;e have +6 and 26 grapgi"s. +6 "omputer graphi"s in "ontrast to 26 "omputer graphi"s are graphi"s that use a three-dimensional representation of geometri" data. Today +6 is used in many dis"iplines mostly in designing and "omputer animation. 89. %ultimedia 'ultimedia is media that utili=es a "om#ination of different "ontent forms. ?n general! multimedia in"ludes a "om#ination of te1t! audio! still images! animation! video! and intera"tivity "ontent forms. 'ultimedia is usually re"orded and played! displayed or a""essed #y information "ontent pro"essing devi"es! su"h as "omputeri=ed and ele"troni" devi"es! also des"ri#es ele"troni" media devi"es used to store and e1perien"e multimedia "ontent. &o! multimedia may #e #roadly divided into linear and non-linear "ategories. Einear a"tive "ontent progresses $ithout any navigation "ontrol for the vie$er su"h as a "inema presentation. Aon-linear "ontent offers user intera"tivity to "ontrol progress as used $ith a "omputer game.