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The main aim of this project is to design a PLC System for controlling the network pressure control in Gas Flare stack of Blast Furnace. The control of pressure from PLC ased! on set pressure at the GCP"Gas cleaning plant# Control room through $%& "$'%() %(C$&)* &)T*+F(C*# The system is pro,ided for maintaining network pressure Primary purpose is to act as a safety de,ice to protect ,essels! pipes from o,er pressuring due to une-pected a normalities like power failures and sudden isolation of consumers due to their indi,idual pro lems.

Smooth +unning.

Burning off e-cess BF Gas.

(,oid Thermal Shocks and Chemical +eactions 'nder Control.

The way they ,isuali.e the alarm signals.

The PL/ pro application software is installed in Schneider Software Program. &t pro,ides a single programming interface to configure PLC hardware! create and edit PLC and monitor the e-ecution of PLC program.


Vizag Steel! also known as Visakhapatnam Steel Plant "Telugu0 #! is a steel company ased in the outskirts of 1isakhapatnam! &ndia. &ts main plant is located 23 kilometers from 1isakhapatnam! (ndhra Pradesh! it is among &ndia4s premier steel mills. &t has also een conferred the Mini Ratna status. &ts ,ision 5 &nfrastructuring &ndia. 6ith a ,iew to gi,e impetus to industrial growth and to meet the inspirations of the people from South &ndia! Go,ernment of &ndia decided to esta lish integrated Steel plant in pu lic sector at 1SP "(P# and $ospet "7arnataka# esides a special steel plant at Salem "Tamilnadu#. The prime minister of &ndia Late Smt. &ndira Gandhi made the announcement in the parliament on 8/th (pril 89/:. Smt.&ndira Gandhi laid the Foundation Stone for the plant on 2:5:8589/8. Seeds were thus sown for the construction of a modern and sophisticated steel plant ha,ing ;.3million tons annual capacity. (n arrangement was signed etween Go,ernment of &ndia and the erstwhile 'SS(+ on <une 82 th 89/9 for setting up of an integrated steel plant to produce structural and long products on the asis of detailed project report prepared y =r.m.n.=astur > Company. ( comprehensi,e re,ised =P+ jointly recei,ed so,iets and =r.m.n.=astur > Company was su mitted in )o,em er 89?: to Go,ernment of &ndia.

The construction of the plant started on 8st Fe 89?2. Go,ernment of &ndia on 8?th Fe 89?2 formed a new company called +astria &spat )igam Ltd.!"+&)L# and transferred the responsi ility of constructing! commissioning and operating the plant at 1isakhapatnam from Steel (uthority of &ndia Ltd.! to +&)L. The plant was formally dedicated to the nation on 8 st (ugust 8992 y The Prime %inister of &ndia Sri.P.1.)arasimha +ao. Since Commissioning 1SP has already crossed many milestones in the field of production! producti,ity and e-ports. Coke +ate of order of the @A; kgBton of hot metal! a,erage con,erter life of 3A9 heats an a,erage of 88.@ heats per seCuencing in continuous loom caster. Specific energy consumption of /.@8 GkalBton of lCuide steel! a specific refractor consumption of 8@.2kg and a la or producti,ity of 892 tonB man here are some of the peaks achie,ed"during the year 899952:::#in per suit of e-cellence. Process of Steel making ; 1SP has the distinction to e the 8 st integrated Steel Plant in &ndia to ecome an &SD59::8 &SD58A::8 > D$S(S58?::8 certified company. These certificates co,er Cuality systems of all operational! maintenance! ser,ices units esides purchase systems! *n,ironmental management systems! Dccupational health safety measures. Steel agged the first pri.e in *nergy Conser,ation constituted y %inistry Df Power! Go,ernment Df &ndia! consecuti,ely for the last two years primarily due to its focus on energy conser,ation! cost reduction and waste utili.ation. Steel Plant today is among the lowest cost steel producers in the world. The 1isakhapatnam Steel Plant has een awarded the Safety &nno,ation (ward 5 2::3 y the &nstitution Df *ngineers for its Eoutstanding contri utions in the field and adoption of the est and the most inno,ati,e safety practicesE. The plant was awarded the Prime %inister4s trophy for the est steel plant in the country! for the year 2::252::;. 1SP added another feather to its cap y agging si- Go,ernment of &ndia! 1ishwakarma +ashtriya Puraskar "1+P# (wards at national le,el out of total num er of 2? awards announced y %inistry of La our! Go,ernment of &ndia.

Functional histo !"

The 1isakhapatnam Steel Plant was designed way ack in late 893:s ut y the time its chief Consultants 5 %) =astur > Company4s 5 report and re,ised reports were accepted in 89?A to start construction! it had ecome the most e-pensi,e steel plant e,er to e constructed! deisigned to produce a out ; million tonnes "%t# of processed steel per year.

A#out th$ %lant"

The plant is spread across a sprawling 89!::: acres "// kmF# of which only @!::: acres "2: kmF# are used so far. The rest is still pristine shru forest land. The company also has a dolomite at %adharam! located in the state of Champa,athi. The Plant last furnace grade limestone capti,e mine at <aggayyapeta! a capti,e mine for a manganese ore capti,e mine at Cheepurupalli. (ll the capti,e mines are (ndhra Pradesh. &t has also got a mining lease for ri,er sand in +i,er has two main entrancesGthe first and the original Balacheru,u gate towards

the satellite ,illage of Gajuwaka! and the newer gate that opens to the Township and straight onto the )$@.

Coke ovens & Raw Material Handling Plant (COBPP and RMHP)
The Coke D,ens of 1SP are engineering feats y themsel,es. They are the tallest o,ens constructed thus reducing pollution considera ly. Besides a io5chemical plant separately undertakes the treatment of effluents. By5products like en.ene! toluene! -ylene! naphthalene! coal tar! creosote oil! pitch! ammonium sulphate and en.ol products are also reco,ered from the coke o,ens gas. Ben.ene and toluene are produced through hydro refining and e-tracti,e distillation process! a uniCue technology. The en.ene produced is of ,ery high purity "99.9;H#. 1SP produces! among other y5products! pushkala a prime ased on ammonium sulphate. M!"OR SO#RC$ %OR R!& M!'$R(!) &ron ore lumpus and fines BF lime stone S%S lime stone BF > S%S =olomite %anganese Dre Boiler coal Cooking coal Bailadilla! %.P <agayyapeta! (.P <aisalmer! +ajasthan %adaram! (.P Chipurupalli! (.P Talcher! Drissa (ustralia

&!'$R S#PP)* Dperational water reCuirement of ;@ %gd &s PO&$R S#PP)* Dperational power reCuirement of 8?: to 2:: %6 is eing met though capti,e power plant. The capacity power plant is 2?3.@ %6. 1SP is e-porting 3: %6 power to (PT+()SCD. eing met from the yeleru supply scheme

Sinter plant
&ron ore fines! coke ree.e! limestone and dolomite along with recycled metallurgical wastes are con,erted into agglomerated mass at the sinter plant! which forms ?:H of iron earing charge in the

last furnace. The sinter plant comprises two sinter machines each ha,ing ;82 sCuar8e metres of grate area with a total production capacity of @.2@3 million tonnes per annum.

Blast +,rna-es
1SP has two last furnaces EGoda,ariE and E7rishnaE with an effecti,e ,olume of ;2:: mI each of which are the largest in the country. The last furnace is charged with coke! iron ore and sinter from the top and produces a out 3::: tonnes of molten iron per day. &ts no,el circular cast house with four tap holes ensures continuous tapping of hot metal. The annual production capacity of these Blast Furnaces is ;.A million tonnes of liCuid iron. &n +ussia they produce ?::: tonnes of molten metal"iron#per day with the same last furnace which ha,e een used in our 1SP"Goda,ari > 7rishna#.They are the est in &ndia. Blast Furnace: An Overview(t present 1SP is ha,ing 2 )o Blast Furnace "BFJ8! BFJ2# of ;2:: m; each with A)o of Taphole > ;A )o of Tuyers and is operating at 82:H of rated capacity. These furnaces are ha,ing =ou le Bin Bell Less Top with con,eyor charging system! A )o of Sto,es! Slag Granulation with (ir lift system. The cast house is eCuipped with motori.ed Clay gun > =rilling machine. The slag is e,acuated to Slag Kard ,ia series of con,eyors. The (nnual production capacity of the e-isting furnaces is around A.2 %T of $ot metal.

Steel melt shop & Contin,o,s -asting

Three top5 lown L= con,erters! each of 8;; mI ,olume! produce a total of ;.3 million tonnes of liCuid steel per annum. This liCuid steel thus produced is cast in si-! A strand loom casters. ( special feature in energy conser,ation is the collection of con,erter gas to e used as a fuel in the plant. The entire molten steel at 1SP is continuously cast at the radial type continuous casting machines resulting in significant energy conser,ation and etter Cuality steel. 8::H continuous casting on such a large scale has een concei,ed for the first time in &ndia. Technology for Caster has een o tained from erstwhile 'SS+ while Technology in L= shop is a miof 'SS+ for mechanical eCuipment! (nsaldo &taly for *lectric =C dri,es! Brown Bo,eri 7ent 5'7! for =istri uted control systems and Clecim 5 France for Gas cleaning plant. Secondary facilities like &njection +efining 5 'P Temperature "&+'T#and Ladle furnace ha,e een added su seCuently.

Rolling mills
The cast looms from continuous casting department are heated and rolled in the three high speed and fully automated rolling mills namely

Light > %edium %erchant %ill "L%%%#! 6ire +od %ill "6+% & > &&#! and %edium %erchant > Structural %ill "%%S%#

to produce ,arious long products like reinforcement ars! rounds! sCuares! flats! angles! channels! illets! wire rods etc. Technologies adopted at rolling mills include world5class Stelmor and Tempcore processes.


Int o&uction
The purpose of a last furnace is to chemically reduce and physically con,ert iron o-ides into liCuid iron called Ehot metalE. The last furnace is a huge! steel stack lined with refractory rick! where iron ore! coke and limestone are dumped into the top! and preheated air is lown into the ottom. The

raw materials reCuire 3 to ? hours to descend to the ottom of the furnace where they ecome the final product of liCuid slag and liCuid iron. These liCuid products are drained from the furnace at regular inter,als. The hot air that was lown into the ottom of the furnace ascends to the top in 3 to ? seconds after going through numerous chemical reactions. Dnce a last furnace is started it will continuously run for four to ten years with only short stops to perform planned maintenance.

'he Pro-ess

&ron o-ides can come to the last furnace plant in the form of raw ore! pellets or sinter. The raw ore is remo,ed from the earth and si.ed into pieces that range from :.@ to 8.@ inches. This ore is either $ematite "Fe2D;# or %agnetite "Fe;DA# and the iron content ranges from @:H to /:H. This iron rich ore can e charged directly into a last furnace without any further processing. &ron ore that contains a lower iron content must e processed or eneficiated to increase its iron content. Pellets are produced from this lower iron content ore. This ore is crushed and ground into a powder so the waste material called gangue can e remo,ed.

The remaining iron5rich powder is rolled into alls and fired in a furnace to produce strong! mar le5si.ed pellets that contain 3:H to 3@H iron. Sinter is produced from fine raw ore! small coke! sand5si.ed limestone and numerous other steel plant waste materials that contain some iron. These fine materials are proportioned to o tain a desired product chemistry then mi-ed together. This raw material mi- is then placed on a sintering strand! which is similar to a steel con,eyor elt! where it is ignited y gas fired furnace and fused y the heat from the coke fines into larger si.e pieces that are from :.@ to 2.: inches. The iron ore! pellets and sinter then ecome the liCuid iron produced in the last furnace with any of their remaining impurities going to the liCuid slag. The coke is produced from a mi-ture of coals. The coal is crushed and ground into a powder and then charged into an o,en. (s the o,en is heated the coal is cooked so most of the ,olatile matter such as oil and tar are remo,ed. The cooked coal! called coke! is remo,ed from the o,en after 8? to 2A hours of reaction time. The coke is cooled and screened into pieces ranging from one inch to four inches. The coke contains 9: to 9;H car on! some ash and sulfur ut compared to raw coal is ,ery strong. The strong pieces of coke with a high energy ,alue pro,ide permea ility! heat and gases which are reCuired to reduce and melt the iron ore! pellets and sinter. The final raw material in the iron making process in limestone. The limestone is remo,ed from the earth y lasting with e-plosi,es. &t is then crushed and screened to a si.e that ranges from :.@ inch to 8.@ inch to ecome last furnace flu- . This flu- can e pure high calcium limestone! dolomite limestone containing magnesia or a lend of the two types of limestone. Since the limestone is melted to ecome the slag which remo,es sulfur and other impurities! the last furnace operator may lend the different stones to produce the desired slag chemistry and create optimum slag properties such as a low melting point and a high fluidity. (ll of the raw materials are stored in an ore field and transferred to the stock house efore charging. Dnce these materials are charged into the furnace top! they go through numerous chemical and physical reactions while descending to the ottom of the furnace. The iron ore! pellets and sinter are reduced which simply means the o-ygen in the iron o-ides is remo,ed y a series of chemical reactions. These reactions occur as follows0 8# ; Fe2D; L CD M CD2 L 2 Fe;DA 2# Fe;DA L CD M CD2 L ; FeD ;# FeD L CD M CD2 L Fe Begins at ?@:N F Begins at 88::N F Begins at 8;::N F

(t the same time the iron o-ides are going through these purifying reactions! they are also eginning to soften then melt and finally trickle as liCuid iron through the coke to the ottom of the furnace. The coke descends to the ottom of the furnace to the le,el where the preheated air or hot last enters the last furnace. The coke is ignited y this hot last and immediately reacts to generate heat as follows0 C L D2 M CD2 L $eat

Since the reaction takes place in the presence of e-cess car on at a high temperature the car on dio-ide is reduced to car on mono-ide as follows0 CD2L C M 2CD

The product of this reaction! car on mono-ide! is necessary to reduce the iron ore as seen in the pre,ious iron o-ide reactions. The limestone descends in the last furnace and remains a solid while going through its first reaction as follows0 CaCD; M CaD L CD2 This reaction reCuires energy and starts at a out 83::NF. The CaD formed from this reaction is used to remo,e sulfur from the iron which is necessary efore the hot metal ecomes steel. This sulfur remo,ing reaction is0 FeS L CaD L C M CaS L FeD L CD The CaS ecomes part of the slag. The slag is also formed from any remaining Silica "SiD 2#! (lumina "(l2D;#! %agnesia "%gD# or Calcia "CaD# that entered with the iron ore! pellets! sinter or coke. The liCuid slag then trickles through the coke ed to the ottom of the furnace where it floats on top of the liCuid iron since it is less dense. (nother product of the iron making process! in addition to molten iron and slag! is hot dirty gases. These gases e-it the top of the last furnace and proceed through gas cleaning eCuipment where particulate matter is remo,ed from the gas and the gas is cooled. This gas has a considera le energy ,alue so it is urned as a fuel in the Ehot last sto,esE which are used to preheat the air entering the last furnace to ecome Ehot lastE. (ny of the gas not urned in the sto,es is sent to the oiler house and is used to generate steam which turns a tur o lower that generates the compressed air known as Ecold lastE that comes to the sto,es. &n summary! the last furnace is a counter5current realtor where solids descend and gases ascend. &n this reactor there are numerous chemical and physical reactions that produce the desired final product which is hot metal. ( typical hot metal chemistry follows0 &ron "Fe# Silicon "Si# Sulfur "S# %anganese "%n# Phosphorus "P# Titanium "Ti# M M M M M M 9;.@ 5 9@.:H :.;: 5 :.9:H :.:2@ 5 :.:@:H :.@@ 5 :./@H :.:; 5 :.:9H :.:2 5 :.:3H

Car on "C#

A.8 5 A.AH

Th$ Blast Fu nac$ Plant

)ow that we ha,e completed a description of the iron making process! let s re,iew the physical eCuipment comprising the last furnace plant.

There is an ore storage yard that can also e an ore dock where oats and arges are unloaded. The raw materials stored in the ore yard are raw ore! se,eral types of pellets! sinter! limestone or flulend and possi ly coke. These materials are transferred to the Estockhouse B hilineE "8/# comple- y ore ridges eCuipped with gra uckets or y con,eyor elts. %aterials can also e rought to the stockhouse B hiline in rail hoppers or transferred from ore ridges to self5propelled rail cars called Eore transfer carsE. *ach type of ore! pellet! sinter! coke and limestone is dumped into separate Estorage insE "8?#. The ,arious raw materials are weighed according to a certain recipe designed to yield the desired hot metal and slag chemistry. This material weighing is done under the storage ins y a rail mounted scale car or computer controlled weigh hoppers that feed a con,eyor elt. The weighed materials are then dumped into a EskipE car "89# which rides on rails up the Einclined skip ridgeE to the Erecei,ing hopperE "3# at the top of the furnace. The ca les lifting the skip cars are powered from large winches located in the EhoistE house "2:#. Some modern last furnace accomplish the same jo with an automated con,eyor stretching from the stockhouse to the furnace top. (t the top of the furnace the materials are held until a EchargeE usually consisting of some type of metallic "ore! pellets or sinter#! coke and flu- "limestone# ha,e accumulated. The precise of conical E ellsE "@# which seal in the gases and distri ute the raw materials e,enly around filling order is de,eloped y the last furnace operators to carefully control gas flow and chemical reactions inside the furnace. The materials are charged into the last furnace through two stages the circumference of the furnace EthroatE. Some modern furnaces do not ha,e ells ut instead ha,e 2 or ; airlock type hoppers that discharge raw materials onto a rotating chute which can change angles allowing more fle-i ility in precise material placement inside the furnace. (lso at the top of the last furnace are four EuptakesE "8:# where the hot! dirty gas e-its the furnace dome. The gas flows up to where two uptakes merge into an EofftakeE "9#. The two offtakes then merge into the EdowncomerE "/#. (t the e-treme top of the uptakes there are E leeder ,al,esE "?# which may release gas and protect the top of the furnace from sudden gas pressure surges. The gas descends in the downcomer to the EdustcatcherE! where coarse particles settle out! accumulate and are dumped into a railroad car or truck for disposal. The gas then flows through a E1enturi Scru erE "A# which remo,es the finer particles and finally into a Egas coolerE "2# where water sprays reduce the temperature of the hot ut clean gas. Some modern furnaces are eCuipped with a com ined scru er and cooling unit. The cleaned and cooled gas is now ready for urning. The clean gas pipeline is directed to the hot last Esto,eE "82#. There are usually ; or A cylindrical shaped sto,es in a line adjacent to the last furnace. The gas is urned in the ottom of a sto,e and the heat rises and transfers to refractory rick inside the sto,e. The products of com ustion flow through passages in these ricks! out of the sto,e into a high EstackE "88# which is shared y all of the sto,es. Large ,olumes of air! from ?:!::: ft;Bmin to 2;:!::: ft;Bmin! are generated from a tur o lower and flow through the Ecold last mainE "8A# up to the sto,es. This cold last then enters the sto,e that has een pre,iously heated and the heat stored in the refractory rick inside the sto,e is transferred to the Ecold lastE to form Ehot lastE. The hot last temperature can e from 83::NF to 2;::NF depending on the sto,e design and condition. This heated air then e-its the sto,e into the Ehot last mainE "8;# which runs up to the furnace. There is a Emi-er lineE "8@# connecting the cold last main to the hot last

main that is eCuipped with a ,al,e used to control the last temperature and keep it constant. The hot last main enters into a doughnut shaped pipe that encircles the furnace! called the E ustle pipeE "8;#. From the ustle pipe! the hot last is directed into the furnace through no..les called EtuyeresE ";:# "pronounced EtweersE#. These tuyeres are eCually spaced around the circumference of the furnace. There may e fourteen tuyeres on a small last furnace and forty tuyeres on a large last furnace. These tuyeres are made of copper and are water cooled since the temperature directly in front of the them may e ;3::NF to A2::NF. Dil! tar! natural gas! powdered coal and o-ygen can also e injected into the furnace at tuyere le,el to com ine with the coke to release additional energy which is necessary to increase producti,ity. The molten iron and slag drip past the tuyeres on the way to the furnace hearth which starts immediately elow tuyere le,el. (round the ottom half of the last furnace the EcasthouseE "8# encloses the ustle pipe! tuyeres and the eCuipment for EcastingE the liCuid iron and slag. The opening in the furnace hearth for casting or draining the furnace is called the Eiron notchE "22#. ( large drill mounted on a pi,oting ase called the Etaphole drillE "2;# swings up to the iron notch and drills a hole through the refractory clay plug into the liCuid iron. (nother opening on the furnace called the Ecinder notchE "28# is used to draw off slag or iron in emergency situations. Dnce the taphole is drilled open! liCuid iron and slag flow down a deep trench called a EtroughE "2?#. Set across and into the trough is a lock of refractory! called a EskimmerE! which has a small opening underneath it. The hot metal flows through this skimmer opening! o,er the Eiron damE and down the Eiron runnersE "2/#. Since the slag is less dense than iron! it floats on top of the iron! down the trough! hits the skimmer and is di,erted into the Eslag runnersE "2A#. The liCuid slag flows into Eslag potsE "2@# or into slag pits "not shown# and the liCuid iron flows into refractory lined EladlesE "23# known as torpedo cars or su cars due to their shape. 6hen the liCuids in the furnace are drained down to taphole le,el! some of the last from the tuyeres causes the taphole to spit. This signals the end of the cast! so the EmudgunE "29# is swung into the iron notch. The mudgun cylinder! which was pre,iously filled with a refractory clay! is actuated and the cylinder ram pushes clay into the iron notch stopping the flow of liCuids. 6hen the cast is complete! the iron ladles are taken to the steel shops for processing into steel and the slag is taken to the slag dump where it is processed into roadfill or railroad allast. The casthouse is then cleaned and readied for the ne-t cast which may occur in A@ minutes to 2 hours. %odern! larger last furnaces may ha,e as many as four tapholes and two casthouses. &t is important to cast the furnace at the same rate that raw materials are charged and ironBslag produced so liCuid le,els can e maintained in the hearth and elow the tuyeres. LiCuid le,els a o,e the tuyeres can urn the copper casting and damage the furnace lining.

The gases emerging from a high5pressure gas furnace are su ject to coarse particle separation and then to washing and scru ing with water efore dri,ing an e-pansion tur ine which has a gas ypass so that the tur ine can e cut off. The scru ing water recycled to the scru er when the tur ine is cut off! is permitted to tra,erse a cooler of the washing5water reco,ery unit ut! when the tur ine is operati,e! the

scru ing water ypasses the cooler. The water introduced into the scru er can thus ha,e a temperature of a out 2@N C. when the tur ine is ypassed and a out @:N C. when it is effecti,e.


OPressureP in industry is used in a wide range from ,acuums to super high pressures "3:::: atm.# reCuired for the synthesis of diamond. $owe,er! pressures familiar to us are! for e-ample! atmospheric pressure or water pressure. Figure 8 shows the kinds of pressure. Gage pressure is pressure ased on atmospheric pressure! while pressure ased on an a solute ,acuum or a solute .ero pressure is called a solute pressure. (ccordingly! the following e-pression holds0 "Gage pressure# M "( solute pressure# 5 "(tmospheric pressure# &n order to distinguish a solute and gage pressures! a solute pressure is written with Oa s.P There are also many units of pressure! such as Pa! kgfBcm2! mm$2D! mm$g! ar! or atm. These units ha,e now een unified as Pa y changing to the &nternational System of 'nits. The con,ersion ,alues of Pa to other units are shown in Ta le 8. The representation of atmospheres in weather forecasting has also changed to hector Pascals "hPa# from milli5 ars "m ar#. Ta le 8 shows the con,ersions etween pressure units freCuently used for general purposes.

.eed o+ %)!R$ S'!C/

( gas +lare or +lare sta-k is an ele,ated ,ertical stack or chimney found on oil wells or oil rigs! and in refineries! chemical plants and landfills used for urning off unwanted gas or flamma le gas and liCuids released y pressure relief ,al,es during unplanned o,er5pressuring of plant eCuipment. &n landfills! the primary purpose of this de,ice is to ,ent andBor urn waste gas which results from the decomposition of materials in the dump.

Dn oil production rigs! in refineries and chemical plants! its primary purpose is to act as a safety de,ice to protect ,essels or pipes from o,er5pressuring due to unplanned upsets. This acts just like the spout on a tea kettle when it starts whistling as the water in it starts oiling. 6hene,er plant eCuipment items are o,er5pressured! the pressure relief ,al,es on the eCuipment automatically release gases "and sometimes liCuids as well# which are routed through large piping runs called +lare headers to the flare stacks. The released gases andBor liCuids are urned as they e-it the flare stacks. The si.e and rightness of the resulting flame depends upon how much flamma le material was released. Steam can e injected into the flame to reduce the formation of lack smoke. The injected steam does howe,er make the urning of gas sound louder! which can cause complaints from near y residents. Compared to the emission of lack smoke! it can e seen as a ,alid trade off. &n more ad,anced flare tip designs! if the steam used is too wet it can free.e just elow the tip! disrupting operations and causing the formation of large icicles. &n order to keep the flare system functional! a small amount of gas is continuously urned! like a pilot light! so that the system is always ready for its primary purpose as an o,er5pressure safety system. The

continuous gas source also helps diluted mi-tures achie,e complete com ustion. Some flares ha,e een used to urn flamma le EwasteE gases or y5products that are not economical to retain. D,er time! the industry is mo,ing to flare5gas reco,ery systems to decrease waste and reduce emissions.

Inst u'$ntation"
(nstr,mentation is the ranch of science that deals with measurement and control in order to increase efficiency and safety in the workplace. (n instrument is a de,ice placed in the field! or in the control room! to measure or manipulate flow! temperature! pressure and other ,aria les in a process. &nstruments include ut are not limited to ,al,es! transmitters! transducers! flame detectors and analy.ers. &nstruments send either pneumatic or electronic signals to controllers which manipulate final control elements "a ,al,e# in order to get the process to a set point! usually decided y an operator. Control instrumentation includes de,ices such as solenoids! *lectrically Dperated 1al,es! reakers! relays! etc. These de,ices are a le to change a field parameter! and pro,ide remote control capa ilities. Transmitters are de,ices which produce an analog signal! usually in the form of a A52: m( electrical current signal! although many other options are possi le using ,oltage! freCuency! or pressure. This signal can e used to directly control other instruments! or sent to a PLC! =CS! SC(=( system or other type of computeri.ed controller! where it can e interpreted into reada le ,alues! or used to control other de,ices and processes in the system. &nstrumentation plays a significant role in oth gathering information from the field and changing the field parameters! and as such are a key part of control loops.

%)!R$ S'!C/

0es-ription o+ the B% 1!S .$'&OR/ PR$SS#R$ S*S'$M

Pressure of B.F.Gas network is sensed y pressure transmitter PT2:8 efore 2::: dia gate ,al,e > sends signal to Pressure indicating controller "P&C2:2#. 6hen the pressure in the BF gas network increases eyond the set point "adjusta le etween 82:: to 8A:: mm6C#! P&C2:2 gi,es signal to actuator %2:2 to open PC12:2 control ,al,e accordingly. Thus e-cess gas is released to flare stack and BFG network pressure reduces to set pressure.
Control ,al,e PC12:2 is pro,ided with a stand y actuator " % 2:;#! pressure transmitter "PT 2:2# and controller "P&C 2:;#. %anual inter,ention is reCuired for changing the linking rod from one actuator to other. (fter opening PC12:2 ,al,e! flare stack pressure raises. The flare stack pressure is sensed y a pressure transmitter which gi,es signal to Pressure &ndicating controllers mounted at GCP8 Control room as mentioned elow.

Pressure &ndicating Controller a# P&C8::2 # P&C8::; c# P&C8::A d# P&C8::@ 55 To control PC18::2 at set pressure of ;@ %%6C. 55 To control PC18::; at set pressure of A@ %%6C. 55 To control PC18::A at set pressure of @@ %%6C. 55 To control PC18::@ at set pressure of 3@ %%6C.

6hen pressure of flare stack goes a o,e ;@"L;:# mmwcl! P&C8::2 starts opening first control ,al,e PC18::2 to meet pressure conditions. &f stack pressure reduces to ;@ "5;:# mmwc! ,al,e PC18::2 starts closing. &f decrease in pressure continues! PC18::2 closes completely. Similarly PC18::;! PC18::A > PC18::@ operate at their corresponding set ,alues.

&n case there is sudden rise of pressure more than 3@ "L;:# mmwc! all four ,al,es i.e.! PC18::2! PC18::;! PC18::A! PC18::@ start opening and open fully in a duration of 8 minute "actuator operating time for Full open position#.

(n orifice plate is installed at downstream of 2::: dia gate ,al,e with flow transmitter . Flow transmitter senses flow and gi,es feed ack to recorder on instrument panel at BFGCP2 control room. This recorder records following0 B.F Gas flow to flare stack. B.F. Gas Pressure at Flare stack. B.F Gas network pressure "upstream of 2::: dia ,al,e#.

P()O' (1.('(O. S*S'$M To ensure ignition of e-cess BF gases leed through BF gas flare stack! continuous CD gas pilots are pro,ided for all BFG urners. Pilot urners are lighted y means of remote ignition system "Flame front type #. Pilot igniter controls are located in the electrical room of BFG flare stack! which are closed5loop type! taking feed ack ,ia the thermocouple sensor mounted on the flare tip of the pilot.

There are four BF gas urners pro,ided with four pilots each "Two are lanked and two are working#. Dne FFG panel is used for igniting each of total 83 nos. of pilots one after another.

*ach pilot is pro,ided with separate ignition line "&L#. *nclosure of FFG panel is di,ided into A compartments one each for one BFG urner and located inside the electrical room. &gnition cycle for all 83 )os. pilots can e initiated from enclosure58 only. $owe,er! indication of pilot D)BDFF are pro,ided independently on each enclosure for corresponding BFG urner.

CDG and air are mi-ed together after passing through separate indi,idual orifices "+<#. The upstream pressure of mi-ture is adeCuately controlled y means of pressure regulator "P+1#! orifices! etc. that are pro,ided in oth CDG and air lines. %oreo,er! flash ack pre,ention is ensured y means of flame arrestor "F(# in the CDG and air lines. Constant monitoring of air and CDG pressure is achie,ed y the pressure gauges mounted on each line. &solation of either line is done y the plug ,al,es.

0$SCR(P'(O. O% 'H$ )OOP 0(!1R!M.

The )etwork pressure control loop is ha,ing three Transmitters . Two are located at BF Flare stack and one is located at Gas Cleaning Plant. (t BF Gas flare stack two transmitters are there. Dne is for CD)T+DL and another is for %*(S'+*%*)T. The control transmitter " PT 2:8 # con,erts the )etwork pressure into A Q 2: m( signal and gi,es to the PLC ! located at GCP58 Control room! and also to the P&= Stand alone Controllers through isolator. The range of the transmitter is :52@:: mm6C. &n PLC two controllers are programmed to control the %2:2 and %2:; actuators which are located at BF G(S FL(+*ST(C7. &n these two controllers one is working and another is stand y. The working controller set point is set y operator i.e.R SP. 6hen process ,aria le " P1 # is more than SP! controller issues the DP*) command to the actuator then ,al,e will open and ,ent the waste BF gas or )etwork gas. 6hen P1 is less than the SP controller issues the CLDS* command to the actuator and ,al,e will close and maintains the network pressure at set le,el. Dut of two actuators "%2:2 B %2:;# one is working and another is stand y. The feed ack signal of the actuator is gi,en to the ,al,e position indicators located in GCP58 control room for knowing the control ,al,e position. The second transmitter "PT 2:2# is ment for measurement and gi,es the output "A52:m(# to the SC(=( system and also to the PLC of GCP58 control room for recording purpose. The transmitter range is :5@::: mm6c. The third transmitter "PT 3a# is located at GCP is stand y transmitter for )etwork control loop and gi,es the output to the PLC and then retransmitted to the Stand alone controllers and also to the SC(=( system. The transmitter range is :52@:: mm6c. The entire loop is ha,ing two power supplies one is from Flare stack 'PS and another is from GCP58 'PS. These can e selecta le through selector switches. The stand alone controllers are also ha,ing two analog inputs either from BF Flare stack or GCP58 transmitters. These are programma le and ha,ing the diagnosis facility for knowing the error codes. The motori.ed actuators are working under ;5phase power supply. These are B*+)('+= make.The a o,e mentioned transmitters work on the strain gauge principle.

PR(.C(P)$ OF STRAIN 1!#1$

( Strain Gauge is used as the transducer in an electrical pressure transducer when attached directly to a mechanical pressure element such as a metal diaphragm! or a metal ellows! or when the pressure is transmitted to the strain gauge y an armature from the mechanical pressure element. Two Types of Pressure transducer "8# 'n Bonded Pressure Transducer "2# Bonded Pressure Transducer #n Bonded Press,re 'ransd,-er &n the 'n Bonded5type Pressure Transducer! the armature is connected to a metallic ellows !or diaphragm . when a diaphragm is used ! the strain gauge measures the displacement of the diaphragm center! due to process pressure e-erted on the diaphragm. This is done in one modern design y two four5legged springs intermeshed in a stainless5steel ring! with each leg attached to the ring. Pins e-tending through the springs are inding posts for the strain windings. (ny moment of the armature e-tending from the pick up diaphragm to the centre of the two springs will cause a simultaneous e-tension of one set of windings and rela-ation of the other. Thus the resistance of the windings ,aries proportionally to the gauge pressure applied. 6hen a gauge ,oltage is applied! an electrical signal proportional to the applied pressure e-ists at the pressure transducer output terminals. This pressure transducer is made in a compact cylindrical stainless housing with pressure connections on one end and electrical connections on the other.

Bonded press,re 'ransd,-er This works much the same as the un ounded type! e-cept that the
strain gauge filaments are onded directly to a pressure5sensiti,e tu e encased in a metal housing. 6hen fluid pressure enters the tu e! it e-pands the tu e circumferentially and stretches the strain gauge filaments. The resulting change in resistance un alance the ridge circuit. 6hen a fi-ed gauge ,oltage is applied at the input terminals! the ridge un alance is reflected as a change in pressure transducer output ,oltage proportional to the applied gauge pressure. 6hen either onded or un onded strain gauge transducers use as a ellows a solute pressure is measured. &f two pressure connections are pro,ided differential pressure is measured.

0$SCR(P'(O. O% P)C

The PLC type is0 S-henider $le-triSoftware 0 PL/5P+D P+*%&'% 1*+S&D) A.@ $%& 0 1&<*D C&T*CT 1 3.8 Communication protocol 0 %od us


Programma2le )ogi- Controller (P)C) is an industrial computer that accepts inputs from switches and sensors! e,aluates these in accordance with a stored program! and generates outputs to control machines and processes. ( PLC produces onBoff ,oltage outputs and can actuate elements such as electric motors! solenoids! heaters! fans and light switches. They are ,ital parts of industrial automation eCuipment found in all kinds of industries.

PLC (rchitecture0
( PLC (rchitecture consists of the following main units0 Power supply &nput Dutput system +eal Time central Processing 'nit %emory 'nit Programmer 'nit Peripheral =e,ices

Power s,ppl3

The Power supply unit pro,ides the isolation necessary to protect solid state components from high ,oltage line spikes. The power supply unit con,erts power line ,oltages to those reCuired y the solid state components. The power supply is rated for heat dissipation reCuirements for plant floor operation. This dissipation capa ility allows PLC to ha,e high Qam ient5temperature specifications and represents an important difference etween programma le logic controllers"PLCs# and personal computers"PCs# for industrial applications. The power supply unit dri,es the &BD logic signals! the central processing unit! memory unit !and some peripheral de,ices.

(np,t 4 O,tp,t s3stem

&nputs are defined as real 5world signals gi,ing the controller real5time status of process ,aria les. These signals can e analog or digital! low or high freCuency ! maintained or momentary .They are presented to the programma le controller as a ,arying ,oltage! current! or resistance ,alue Signals from thermocouples"TCs# and resistance temperature detectors"+T=s# are e-amples of analog signals. Some flow meters and strain gauges pro,ide ,aria le freCuency signals! while push uttons! limit switches! or e,en electromechanical relay contacts are e-amples of digital contact closure type signals. . +egister input is another type of input signal that reflects the computer nature of the programma le controller. The register input is particularly useful when the process condition is represented y a collection of digital signal deli,ered to the PLC at the same time. ( Binary coded decimal "BC=# thum 5wheel is an e-ample of an input de,ice that is compati le with a register input port. There are three common categories of outputs0 =iscrete! register and analog. =iscrete outputs can e solenoid ,al,es ! pilot lights! or enunciator windows"lamp o-#. +egister outputs can dri,e panel meters or displays. (nalog outputs can dri,e signals to ,aria les speed dri,es or to &BP "current5to5air# con,erters and thus to control ,al,es. (ll &BD systems are modular in nature! that is ! systems are arranged in modules that contain multiples of &BD points. These modules can e plugged into the us structure. The us structure is a high5speed multiple-er that carries information ack and forth etween the &BD modules and the central processor unit. Dne of the most important functions of &BD is its a ility to isolate real5world signal from the low Qsignal le,els.

Real 'ime Central Pro-essing #nit

The central processing unit also called central control unit! performs the tasks necessary to fulfil the PLC function such as scanning! &BD us traffic control program e-ecution ! peripheral and e-ternal de,ice communications! special function or data handling e-ecution and self5diagnostics

Memor3 #nit

The memory unit of the PLC ser,es se,eral functions .&t is the li rary! where the application program is stored. &t is also where the PLCSs e-ecuti,e program is stored. (n

e-ecuti,e program functions as the operating system of the PLC. &t is the program that interprets ! manages and e-ecutes the userSs application program. Finally! the memory unit is the part of the programma le controller ! where the process data from the input modules and control data from the output modules are temporarily stored as data ta les. Typically! an image of these data ta les is used y the CP' and! when appropriate! sent to the output modules.

%emory can e ,olatile or non5,olatile. The content of the ,olatile memory is erased if power is remo,ed. D ,iously! this is undesira le! in the units with ,olatile memory pro,ide attery ack up to ensure that there will e no loss of program in the e,ent of the power failure. )on51olatile memory does not change state on loss of power and is used in cases in which e-tended power failures.

Programmer ,nit

The programmer unit pro,ides an interface etween the PLC and the user during programmer de,elopment! start5up and trou leshooting. The instructions to e performed during each scan are coded and inserted into memory with the programmer unit. The programmer units ,ary from small hand5held units to desktop stand5alone intelligent C+T5 ased units.PLC manufacturers are now pro,iding controller models that use personal computer "pc# which allows the computer to interface with a serial input module installed in the programma le controller.

Programming units pro,ides automatic documentation of the e-isting program using a printer attached to it. 6ith off5line programming! the user can write a control program on the programming unit ! then take the unit to the PLC in the field and load the memory the new program! all without remo,ing the PLC.

Peripheral devi-es

Peripheral de,ices are grouped into se,eral categories such as programming aids operational aids! &BD enhancements and computer interface de,ices. Programming aids pro,ides documentation and program recording capa ilities. The definite trend in programming aids is PC5compati le software that allows the PLC to e emulated y the personal computer. Dperational aids include a ,ariety of resources that range from color graphics C+Ts to eCuipment or support programs that can gi,e the operator specific access to processor parameters .&n this situation the operator is usually allowed to read and modify timer !counter and loop parameters ut not ha,e access to the program itself. The &BD enhancement group is a large category of PLC peripheral eCuipment. &t includes all types of modules! from dry contact modules to intelligent &BD to remote &Bo capa ilities . Some &BD simulators used to de,elop and de ug programs that can e categori.ed in the &BD enhancement group. These are hardware modules which can e plugged in to the PLC . The computer interface de,ice group is a rapidly e-panding section of PLC peripheral de,ices . These de,ices allow peer5to5peer communication! as well as network interaction with ,arious computer systems .

Basi- str,-t,re
The inputs are read into the input memory register. (n input output register is not only a it ut a yte. ConseCuently! one input instruction gi,es the status of ? different input ports. The instruction fetches the ,alue from the input register and operates only on this or se,eral operands .The result of an instruction is stored either in some intermediate register or directly in the output memory register. The output function is usually included in the system programs in a PLC.

( PLC is specifically made to fit an industrial en,ironment! where it is e-posed to hostile conditions such as heat! dust! humidity! unrelia le power! mechanical shocks and ,i rations. PLCSs ha,e oth hardware and software features that make them attracti,e as controllers of a wide range of industrial eCuipments

The use and understanding of PLC programming depends on the following factors0 7nowledge of the process to e controlled 'nderstanding of electrical schematics (n appreciation for logic operations and for ,arious types of logic and relay de,ices.

( PLC is usually programmed ,ia an e-ternal unit called programming unit .The programming units range from small hand5held porta le units! to personal computers .The personal computer as programming unit has ecome ,ery popular with a graphical display. The display typically shows se,eral ladder diagram lines at a time and also indicates the power flow within each line during the operation to make de ugging and testing simpler Dther units are programmed with logical gates instead of a ladder diagram. The programming software is installed into a PC programming terminal. This software ena les the user to generate PLC programs and to download the resulting programming into the PLC ,ia a standard +S52;2 PC port or ,ia a supplier Qspecific data highway communication link.

)adder )ogi-

Ladder logic is the main programming method used for PLCs. (s mentioned efore! ladder logic has een de,eloped to mimic relay logic. The decision to use the relay logic diagrams was a strategic one. ( relay is a simple de,ice that uses a magnetic field to control a switch. +elays are used to let one power source close a switch for another "often high current# power source! while keeping them isolated. (n e-ample of a relay in a simple control application. &n this system the first relay on the left is used as normally Closed! and will allow current to flow until a ,oltage is applied to the input (. The second relay is normally open and will not allow current to flow until a ,oltage is applied to the input B. &f current is flowing through the first two relays then current will flow through the coil in the third relay! and close the switch for output C. This circuit would normally e drawn in the ladder logic form. This can e read logically as C will e on if ( is off and B is on. 6hen a process is controlled y a PLC it uses inputs from sensors to make decisions and update outputs to dri,e actuators! as shown in Figure. The process is a real process that will change o,er time. (ctuators will dri,e the system to new states . This means that the controller is limited y the sensors a,aila le! if an input is not a,aila le! the controller will ha,e no way to detect a condition.

The control loop is a continuous cycle of the PLC reading inputs! sol,ing the ladder logic! and then changing the outputs. Like any computer this does not happen instantly. Figure shows the asic operation cycle of a PLC. 6hen power is turned on initially the PLC does a Cuick sanity check to ensure that the hardware is working properly. &f there is a pro lem the PLC will halt and indicate there is an error. For e-ample! if the PLC ackup attery is low and power was lost! the memory will e corrupt and this will result in a fault. &f the PLC passes the sanity check it will then scan "read# all the inputs. (fter the inputs ,alues are stored in memory the ladder logic will e scanned "sol,ed# using the stored ,alues 5 not the current ,alues. This is done to pre,ent logic pro lems when inputs change during the ladder logic scan. 6hen the ladder logic scan is complete the outputs will e scanned "the output ,alues will e changed#. (fter this the system goes ack to do a sanity check! and the loop continues indefinitely. 'nlike normal computers! the entire program will e run e,ery scan. Typical times for each of the stages is in the order of milliseconds.

)adder )ogi- (np,ts

PLC inputs are easily represented in ladder logic. &n Figure there are three types of inputs shown. The first two are normally open and normally closed inputs! discussed pre,iously. The IIT "&mmediate &nput# function allows inputs to e read after the input scan! while the ladder logic is eing scanned. This allows ladder logic to e-amine input ,alues more often than once e,ery cycle.

)adder )ogi- O,tp,ts

&n ladder logic there are multiple types of outputs! ut these are not consistently a,aila le on all PLCs. Some of the outputs will e e-ternally connected to de,ices outside the PLC! ut it is also possi le to use internal memory locations in the PLC. Sitypes of outputs are shown in Figure. The first is a normal output! when energi.ed the output will turn on! and energi.e an output. The circle with a diagonal line through is a normally on output. 6hen energi.ed the output will turn off. This type of output is not a,aila le on all PLC types. 6hen initially energi.ed the OSR "Dne Shot +elay# instruction will turn on for one scan! ut then e off for all scans after! until it is turned off. The L "latch# and U "unlatch# instructions can e used to lock outputs on. 6hen an L output is energi.ed the output will turn on indefinitely! e,en when the output coil is de5 energi.ed. The output can only e turned off using a U output. The last instruction is the IOT "&mmediate Dutput# that will allow outputs to e updated without ha,ing to wait for the ladder logic scan to e completed.

Ladder Logic Dutputs

$le-tri- a-t,ator

(ctuators are used for the automation of industrial ,al,es and can e found in all kinds of technical process plants0 they are used in wastewater treatment plants! power plants and e,en refineries. This is where they play a major part in automating process control. The ,al,es to e automated ,ary oth in design and dimension. The diameters of the ,al,es range from a few inches to a few metres. =epending on their type of supply! the actuators may hydraulic! or ele-tri- a-t,ators. e classified as pneumatic!


*lectric multi5turn actuator with controls

Motor (5)
+o ust asynchronous ;5phase (C motors are mostly used as electric motors! for some applications also 85phase (C or =C motors are used. The motors are specially adapted for ,al,e automation reCuirements. =ue to their design! they pro,ide higher torCues from standstill than compara le con,entional motors. This feature is reCuired to e a le to unseat sticky ,al,es. *lectric actuators are used under e-treme am ient conditions. Fan motors do not pro,ide sufficient enclosure protection and can therefore not e used. (ctuators can generally not e used for continuous operation since the

motors ha,e to cool down after a certain operating time. This suits the application since ,al,es are not continuously operated.

)imit and tor6,e sensors (7)

The limit switching measures the tra,el and signals when an end position has een reached! the torCue switching measures the torCue present in the ,al,e. 6hen e-ceeding a set limit! this is signaled in the same way. (ctuators are often eCuipped with a remote position transmitter which indicates the ,al,e position as continuous current or ,oltage signal. 1earing ";# Dften a worm gearing is used to reduce the high output speed of the electric motor. This ena les a high reduction ratio within the gear stage! leading to a low efficiency which is desired for the actuators. The gearing is therefore self5locking i.e. it pre,ents accidental and undesired changes of the ,al,e position y acting upon the ,al,eSs closing element. This is of major importance for multi5turn actuators which are a-ially loaded with the weight of the gate ,al,e disc. Valve atta-hment "A# The ,al,e attachment consists of two elements. First0 The flange used to firmly connect the actuator to the counterpart on the ,al,e side. The higher the torCue to e transmitted! the larger the flange reCuired. Second0 The output dri,e type used to transmit the torCue or the thrust from the actuator to the ,al,e shaft. <ust like there is a multitude of ,al,es there is also a multitude of ,al,e attachments. =imensions and design of ,al,e mounting flange and ,al,e attachments are stipulated in the standards *) &SD @28: for multi5turn actuators or *) &SD @288 for part5turn actuators. The design of ,al,e attachments for linear actuators is generally ased on =&) ;;@?.

Man,al operation "@# &n their asic ,ersion most electric actuators are eCuipped with a hand wheel for

operating the actuators during commissioning or power failure. The hand wheel does not mo,e during motor operation. !-t,ator -ontrols "3# Both actuator signals and operation commands of the =CS are processed within the actuator controls. This task can in principle e assumed y e-ternal controls! e.g. a PLC. %odern actuators include integral controls which process signals locally without any delay. The controls also include the switchgear reCuired to control the electric motor. This can either e re,ersing contactors or thyristors which! eing an electric component! are not su ject to mechanic wear. Controls use the switchgear to switch the electric motor on or off depending on the signals or commands present. (nother task of the actuator controls is to pro,ide the =CS with feed ack signals! e.g. when reaching a ,al,e end position. $le-tri-al -onne-tion "/# The supply ca les of the motor and the signal ca les for transmitting the commands to the actuator and sending feed ack signals on the actuator status are connected to the electrical connection. The electrical connection is ideally designed as plugBsocket connector. For maintenance purposes! the wiring can easily reconnected. e disconnected and

%ield2,s -onne-tion "?# Field us technology is increasingly used for data transmission in process automation applications. *lectric actuators can therefore e eCuipped with all common field us

interfaces used in process automation. Special connections are reCuired for the connection of field us data ca les.


By using this system we can maintain the pressure in the set range and can a,oid the o,er pressures. The operation and maintenance is made easy y using this system. 6e can increase the life of the furnace y using this system. )ow the system is working effecti,ely without any complications. Schneider electric plc is used for this system ecause of its ease of programming