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SAMANYA ADHYAYAN

YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

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SERSERSERSERSERVICESVICESVICESVICESVICES MINERVA SAMANYA ADHYAYAN YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013 Price - 50/-

YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

Current Events

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Egypt Prez Morsy arrives on India visit

Visiting Egyptian President Dr. Mohamed

Morsy was given a ceremonial reception

at the Rashtrapati Bhawan this morning.

The visiting dignitary was received by

President Pranab Mukherjee and Prime

Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh. The Egyp-

tian President inspected the guard of

honour and also interacted with members

of the cabinet. Our correspondent reports

India and Egypt are expected to sign sev-

eral agreements later in the day after del-

egation level talks between Egyptian

President and Prime Minister

Dr.Manmohan Singh at Hyderabad House

in New Delhi.

Earlier talking to AIR in Cairo ahead of his

visit to India, Mr. Mursi lauded the role of

emerging economies like India in achiev-

ing high growth rates. He expressed hope

that BRICS would one day become E-BRICS

when Egypt joins the movement. Mr.

Mursi said that he will be visiting Durban

to attend the BRICS Summit next

week.The Egyptian President also wel-

comed the idea of a BRICS Bank saying it

can support countries to achieve high

growth rates and supplement the role of

the IMF, World Bank and similar institu-

tions.

Mr. Mursi told that the values and the ide-

als for which the Non aligned Movement

came into existence are still relevant. Mr.

Mursi said India and Egypt as the found-

ing members of the movement can give

and Egypt as the found- ing members of the movement can give ChinaChinaChinaChinaChina

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Unveiling a five-point formula to im-

prove relations with India, China's

newly elected President Xi Jinping on

Tuesday said the resolution of the

boundary dispute between the two

sides "won't be easy" and pending its

final settlement "peace and tranquil-

ity" should be maintained on the bor-

der without affecting the overall ties.

59-year-old Xi, who took over as the

head of Communist Party, President

and military chief, sent clear signals of

boosting bilateral relations with

India.He also expressed his keenness to meet Prime Minister Manmohan Singh next

week on the sidelines of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa).

Xi also spoke of the need for India and China with a combined population of 2.5

billion to cooperate in multilateral fora in to safeguard the "legitimate rights and

interests" of developing countries.

He said China sees its ties with India as "one of the most important bilateral rela-

tionships".

"The border question is a complex issue left from history and solving the issue won't

be easy. However, as long as we keep up friendly consultations, we can eventually

arrive at a fair reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement.

"Pending the final settlement of the boundary question the two sides should work

together and maintain peace and tranquility in the border areas and prevent the

border question from affecting the overall development of bilateral relations," said Xi.

India asserts that the border dispute covered about 4,000 km, while China claims

that it confined to about 2,000 km to the area of Arunachal Pradesh, which it refers

as Southern Tibet.

Unveiling his five proposals, Xi said that first China and India should maintain strate-

gic communication and keep the bilateral relations on the "right track". "Second,

we should harness each other's comparative strengths and expand win-win coop-

eration in infrastructure, mutual investment and other areas," he added. "We should accommodate each other's core concerns and properly handle prob- lems and differences existing between the two countries," he said.

a push to the NAM towards a global gov- ernance where peace is the basic premise. On relations with Iran , he told that while Egypt is working to develop its relations with Iran; it will not be at the cost of its relations with the gulf and the Arab countries.Egypt’s President told that Pal-

estinians must get their legitimate rights and urged India to support their cause with the international community.On Is- rael, he said that Egypt has a peace treaty with Israel and it will abide by all the in- ternational treaties .But this treaty was based on achieving comprehensive,just

Civil Services MINERVA Samanya Adhyayan

22222

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YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

and lasting peace for all which must be established and the rights of Palestinians must be addressed.

CMs unity against Center Government

Non-Congress chief ministers meet sepa- rately on sidelines of internal security con- ference. Lack of consultation with the states and failure to take the states into

confidence is a cogent commentary on

the system of governance in the Centre.

The Centre on April 16, 2012 came in for

sharp criticism at the hands of three Op-

position Chief Ministers over the way it

was handling issues of internal security.

United by their opposition to the pro-

posed National Counter Terrorism Centre,

Chief Ministers of Gujarat, Odisha met

their Tamil Nadu counterpart J Jayalalithaa

in New Delhi to mount pressure against

the Centre’s move.

While, Tripura Chief Minister accused

Centre of taking a number steps which

have implications on the Federal structure

of the country, Madhya Pradesh Chief

Minister called for joint Centre-State ef-

forts in improving internal security.

Congress Chief Ministers supported the

setting up of the National Counter Terror-

ism Centre as an integrating organization

for effective offensive against terrorists.

Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister N Kiran

Kumar Reddy sought permission from the

Centre to carry out a Rs 2,400 crore spe-

cial road corridor development project to

effectively deal with Naxalism.

Assam Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi said il-

legal coal trading in border areas of a

number of northeastern states is fast be-

coming a major source of funding for ter-

ror outfits.

Kerala Chief Minister Oman Chandy urged

the Centre to take steps to get the inter- national Maritime Community to declare that the Ocean along the coast line of In- dia is free from piracy unlike the coast of Africa. Meanwhile, Congress stressed on need for a coordinated efforts by the Centre as well as States to tackle the menace of terrorism. Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav urged the Union Government to

provide at least Rs 5,000 crore in the next five years for the purpose of commitment of safeguarding and protecting India. Speaking at the annual conference of Chief Ministers on internal security in New Delhi, Home Minister said international border in the west and LoC continues to be vulnerable to infiltration. Meanwhile, Chief Ministers of different states have their own take on the conference.

Tamil Nadu Chief Minister J Jayalalithaa

on Monday warned against an "emerging

pattern" wherein the state's powers are

"abrogated" by the Centre through pas-

sage of bills and accused it of showing

"scant respect" for state governments.

In an all-round attack on the Congress-led

UPA, Ms Jayalalithaa accused the central

government of "encroaching on state

powers" through the National Counter-

Terrorism Centre which was in "contra-

vention" to constitutional provisions that

accord priority status to police in the State

list.

Addressing the Chief Ministers' Confer-

ence on Internal Security here, she

claimed that the Centre unilaterally de-

cided on the Indo-US joint naval exercise

in the Bay of Bengal without taking the

state government into confidence.

Ms Jayalalithaa, who is opposed to the

NCTC, said this implies that the central

government has "scant respect" for con-

stitutionally-elected state governments.

She also expressed the hope that the Cen-

tre follows the principle of prior consul-

tation with the state governments, when-

ever such important decisions are taken

by the central government.

"No doubt, it is a pre-arranged exercise

according to the prescribed tenets under

covenant between two countries. Even so,

is it too much to expect to be kept in- formed?" she asked. Senior CPM leader and Tripura Chief Min- ister Manik Sarkar today came down hard on the Home Ministry accusing it of tak- ing a number steps, including on the pro- posed National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) and RPF and BSF Acts, which have "serious implications" for the federal structure of the country. Speaking at a conference of chief minis-

ters on internal security, the lone commu- nist Chief Minister cited Home Ministry's notification to form the National Counter Terrorism Centre NCTC and proposed amendments to the RPF Act and BSF Act as examples of "encroachment" upon rights of the states. "I am pained to point out that in recent past the Home Minis- try has taken several steps which have serious implication for the federal struc-

ture of the country," he said.

Centre ready to work

with states to firmly

tackle terror: PM

Reaching out to states complaining over

NCTC, PM Manmohan Singh has favoured

joint and coordinated efforts to deal with

challenges of terrorism whatever its ori-

gin, whether internal or external.

"There is no question that the burden of

the fight against terrorism falls largely on

the states' machinery. The Centre is ready

to work with the states to put in place

strong and effective institutional mecha-

nisms to tackle this problem," he said.

The Prime Minister, who inaugurated the

annual conference of Chief Ministers on

internal security in New Delhi on Mon-

day, did not dwell on the proposed Na-

tional Counter Terrorism Centre, saying it

will be discussed on 5th May in a sepa-

rate meeting as suggested by some Chief

Ministers.

ICC decides to expand

number of teams in

2014 T20 World Cup

The International Cricket Council (ICC)

executive board has decided to expand

the number of teams in the 2014

Twenty20 World Cup in Bangladesh from

12 to 16. This is to give more opportuni-

ties to the non-test playing nations. ICC Chief Executive Haroon Lorgat told reporters in Dubai on Monday that what excites him is the decision to extend the World Twenty20 event, which takes place in 2014 in Bangladesh. Lorgat said from then onwards the board has decided to expand the event to 16 teams. The Twenty20 World Cup will be played this year in Sri Lanka from Sept 18 to Oct 7 between 12 teams. The current 10 full

http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/

YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

members will be joined by six qualifiers

in the next version from 2014.

India commissions nuclear powered submarine 'INS Chakra'

India has inducted Russian- made nuclear powered submarine 'INS Chakra' into the

Navy, joining an elite group of five nations possessing such sophisticated warships.

Defence Minister A K Antony formally

commissioned the Akula II class Nerpa,

rechristened INS Chakra, into the Navy at

the Ship Building Complex in

Visakhapatnam on Wednesday.

With the country entering the select club

consisting of the US, Russia, the UK,

France and China with nuclear subma-

rines after a gap of two decades, Antony

said, "INS Chakra will ensure security and

sovereignty of the country."

He did not subscribe to the view that the

induction of nuclear powered submarines

will lead to any arms race in the region.

He said the armed forces will be strength-

ened to meet any challenge.

"India does not believe in arms race. We

are not a confrontationist nation. We are

at the same

time, the armed forces will be strength-

ened to meet any challenge," Antony told

reporters when asked about Pakistan's

reaction that INS Chakra's induction will

lead to arms race in the region.

"We have a vast land border. We have

more than 7500 kms of coastline and

more than two lakhs EEZs (Exclusive Eco-

nomic Zone). We have to protect the sea

lanes of our core area of interest," he said.

With INS Chakra and indigenously built

INS Arihant expected to start operational

patrols soon, India will soon have two

nuclear submarines guarding its vast mari-

time boundary.

To a question on China's increasing mili- tary capability, Antony said “Induction of INS Chakra or Vikramaditya (aircraft car- rier) warships or any other platform is not aimed at any country. It is to strengthen our national security to meet any chal- lenge more effectively.” With a maximum speed of 30 knots, the submarine can go upto a depth of 600 metres and has an endurance of 100 days

a peaceloving nation

but,

with a crew of 73.

The vessel is armed with four 533mm tor- pedo tubes and four 650mm torpedo tubes. India had leased and operated a Charlie class Russian nuclear submarine

in 1988 for training its personnel on such

submarines. Antony said, "INS Arihant will be ready for sea trials sometime this year." He also said the induction of INS

Vikramaditya, earlier called 'Admiral

Gorshkov', will take place sometimes early

next year.

On future induction of platforms in the

Indian Navy, he said four warships, includ-

ing INS Vikramaditya, were expected to

be delivered at the end of this year, be-

sides 15 fast interception craft.

"In the next few years, the Navy will get

more submarines," the Defence Minister

said.

He refused to share details with the me-

dia about the cost of leasing INS Chakra

from Russia. He said there is a proposal

for leasing another submarine but refused

to

"There is a proposal. But we have not

is not necessary,

taken any decision

but India can afford it," Antony said.

On whether the process of procuring sub-

marines from Russia was too long and

slow, he said, "We want speedy procure-

ment and we will modernise our armed

forces as quickly as possible. At the same

time, zero tolerance to corruption is also

our policy."

INS Chakra has been taken on lease from

Russia for 10 years and would provide the

Navy the opportunity to train personnel

and operate such nuclear-powered ves-

sels. India had signed a deal with Russia

in

leasing the submarine.

was expected to be inducted a couple

It

2004 worth over USD 900 million for

take queries on the issue.

Cost

of years back, but after an on-board acci-

dent in 2008, in which several Russian sailors died, the delivery schedule was changed.

Indian Navy personnel have already been imparted training in Russia for operating the submarine.

A crew of over 70 people, including

around 30 officers, is required to operate INS Chakra.

Brahmos supersonic cruise missile test fired successfully

India on Wednesday successfully test fired Brahmos supersonic cruise missile as part of a user trial by the Army from the test range at Chandipur off Odisha coast. "The missile was test fired from a ground mobile launcher from the launch com- plex-3 at about 1122 hours and the trial

was successful," said a defence official.

The missile, which has a flight range of

up to 290 km, is capable of carrying a con-

ventional warhead of 200 to 300 kg.

The cruise missile, a surface-to-surface

Army version, was test fired as part of user

trial by the Army, he said.

The two-stage missile, the first one being

solid and the second one ramjet liquid

propellant, has already been inducted into

the Army and Navy, he said.

While induction of the first version of

Brahmos missile system in the Indian Navy

commenced from 2005 with INS Rajput,

it is now fully operational with two regi-

ments of the Army.

The air launch version and the submarine

launch version of the missile system are

in progress, said the official.

The Army has so far placed orders for the

Brahmos missile to be deployed by three

regiments of the Army and two of them

have already been inducted operationally.

The Defence Ministry has also given a go-

ahead to the Army to induct a third regi-

ment equipped with the missile system

to be deployed in Arunachal Pradesh

along the China border.

Brahmos Aerospace, an Indo-Russian joint

venture company headed by a distin-

guished Indian defence scientist, is also

working to develop the air as well as the

submarine launch version of the misile

system and work on the project is in progress.

India successfully test- fires interceptor missile

India on Friday successfully test-fired in- digenously developed interceptor missile, capable of destroying any incoming hos- tile ballistic missile, from a test range off Odisha coast. "It was a fantastic launch. The trial, con-

YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/

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'Paan Singh Tomar', Tigmanshu Dhulia's biopic on the athlete-turned-dacoit, was named the best picture at the 60th Na- tional Film Awards while its male star Irrfan Khan shared the best actor trophy with veteran Marathi actor Vikram Gokhale.

Irrfan was chosen for his intense portrayal

of the steeplechase player Paan Singh

Tomar.

A

'50s and '60s, Tomar, who served in the

Indian army, turned a bandit after a land

fued in his family. He was killed in 1981.

Gokhale, who has acted in many Hindi

films as well, was honoured for his poi-

gnant depiction of a man struggling to

save his dying wife in Marathi film

'Anumati'.

Usha Jadhav was adjudged the best ac-

tress portrayal of a rustic housewife in

Marathi film 'Dhag' while its filmmaker

Shivaji Lotan Patil was declared the best

director.

The film depicts the struggle of a family,

who take care of their village cremato-

rium.

beaming Irrfan, 46, dedicated his award

to

that Paan Singh Tomar, who was unknown,

became a household name through this

film. I share this award with his family. I

hope that the film helps people realise

that talent should not go to waste," Irrfan

said on Monday.

Bollywood shared the spotlight with

Malayalam and Marathi films with the

jury recognising wide variety of movies

from different regional cinema industries.

Though not in the main categories,

Malayalam films bagged 13 awards to

emerge at the top. Headed by veteran filmmaker Basu Chatterjee, the 11-member feature films jury announced the awards in New Delhi on Monday. The National Film Awards along with Dada Saheb Phalke honour, to be declared later, are likely to be given by President Pranab Mukherjee on 3rd May, officials said. Bedabrata Pain's much-lauded debut 'Chittagong', about Chittagong uprising,

A

the athlete and his family. "I am happy

seven-time national champion in the

family. "I am happy seven-time national champion in the shared Indira Gandhi award for best de-

shared Indira Gandhi award for best de-

but film with Siddhartha Siva's Malayalam

film '101 Chodiyangal'.

Hindi film 'Vicky Donor', John Abraham

produced film on sperm donation, was

named for three trophies.

The Shoojit Sircar directed film was a joint

winner with Anwar Rasheed directed

Malayalam film 'Ustad Hotel' for the best

popular film providing wholesome enter-

tainment honour.

'Vicky Donor' actors Annu Kapoor and

Dolly Ahluwalia were best supporting ac-

tor and actress.

Ahluwalia won the award along with

Kalpana for Malayalam film 'Thanichalla

Njan'.

Director Sujoy Ghosh was declared the

best original screenplay writer for his

Vidya Balan starrer 'Kahaani' while an-

other Hindi film 'Oh My God', produced

by superstar Akshay Kumar, won the best

adapted screenplay for Bhavesh Mandalia

and Umesh Shukhla. 'Ustad Hotel' was recognised for best dia- logue for Anjali Menon. 'Kahaani', about a pregnant woman's quest for her miss- ing husband in Kolkata, won Namrata Rao the best editing honour. 'Bolo Na' from 'Chittagong' won the best lyrics for Prasoon Joshi and best male playback singer for Shankar Mahadevan. Aarti Anklekar Tikekar was named the best female playback singer for 'Palakein

Naa Moondoon' from Marathi film

'Samhita'.

Thanichalla Njan', apart from its support-

ing actress win, was also named in the

Nargis Dutt award for best feature film on

national integration category.

Malayalam film 'Spirit', which deals with

the topic of alcoholism, was named as the

best film on social issues.

Another Malayalam film 'Black Forest' was

declared the best film on environment

conservation/preservation.

Hindi film 'Dekh Indian Circus' was best

children's film and its lead Virendra Pratap

shared the best child actor honour with

'101 Chodiyangal'.

Nikhil Advani directed 'Delhi Safari' was

named the best animation film.

Kamal Haasan's 'Vishawaroopam' won

best production design and best chore-

ography for Pandit Birju Maharaj.

Poornima Ramaswamy was named best

costume designer for Tamil film 'Paradesi'

while Raja won the best make-up artist

award for Tamil movie 'Vazakkuenn 18/9'. Bollywood dominated in the special jury award with Aamir Khan starrer 'Talaash', 'Gangs of Wasseypur', 'Kahaani' and Dekh Indian Circus' being named in the category with Bengali film 'Chitrangada'. Best cinematography honour went to 'Ko:YAD', a film in Mising language. Best audiography award was shared by Malayalam film 'Annayum Rassoolum',

Civil Services MINERVA Samanya Adhyayan

55555

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YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

'Shabdo' and 'Gangs of Wasseypur'. Malayalam film 'Kaliyachan' and Marathi film 'Samhita' shared the best music di- rection award.

Telugu film 'Eega' was named in the best special effects category. 'Baandhon', by Jahnu Baruah, was named the best Assamese film Kaushik Ganguly's 'Shabdo' best Bengali film

'The Good Road', by Gyan Arora, best

Gujarati film

'Filmistan', by Nitin Kakkar, best Hindi film

P Sheshadri's 'Bharath Stores' best

Kannada film Kamal's 'Celluiod' best Malayalam film 'Leipaklei' was named best Manipuri film. The others in this category were:

'Investment (Marathi) 'Nabar' (Punjabi)

'Vazakkuenn 18/9' (Tamil) 'Eega (Telugu) 'Harud' (Urdu)

'Lessons in Forgetting (English)

'Ko:Yad' (Mising).

Special mention was given to actor Lal for

Malayalam film 'Ozhimuri', H G

Dhattatreya for Kannada film 'Bharat Stores', Parineeti Chopra for 'Ishaqzaade', Bishnu Kharghoria for Assamese film 'Baandhon', Tannishta Chatterjee for Hindi film 'Dekh Indian Circus', Hansraj Jagtap for Marathi film 'Dhag' and late actor Thilakan for Malayalam film 'Ustad Hotel'. 'Silent Cinema In India-A Pictorial Jour- ney' in English by B D Garga was named the best book on cinema while best film

critic award went to Malayalam writer P

S Radhakrishnan while Piyush Roy won a

special mention.

ducted from two launch sites of Inte-

grated Test Range (ITR) for developing a

fully fledged multi-layer Ballistic Missile

Defence system, was fully successful," ITR

Director S P Dash said.

The 'hostile' target ballistic missile, a

modified surface-to-surface 'Prithvi', was

first lifted from a mobile launcher around

1013hours from the launch complex-III of

ITR at Chandipur-on-Sea, about 15 km

from Balasore, Orissa.

After three minutes, the interceptor Ad-

vanced Air Defence (AAD) missile posi-

tioned at Wheeler Island, about 70 km

from Chandipur, received signals from

tracking radars installed along the coast-

line and travelled through the sky to de-

stroy it, defense sources said.

The ITR director said the interceptor hit

the 'target' missile at an altitude of about

15 km over the sea.

"Detailed results and the 'kill' effect of the

interceptor are being ascertained by

analysing data from multiple tracking

sources," a Defence Research Develop-

ment scientist said.

The interceptor is a 7.5-meter long single

stage solid rocket propelled guided mis-

sile equipped with a navigation system, a

hi-tech computer and an electro-me-

chanical activator, sources said.

Massive solar storm hits Earth

A monster solar storm of charged particles that erupted two days ago on Thursday hit the Earth, which could disrupt power grids, satellite navigation and flights. The storm, which scientists claimed to be the largest in five years, was triggered by

a pair of solar flares early Tuesday and is

growing like a giant soap bubble.

"The coronal mass ejection (CME) associ-

ated with the R3 (Strong) Radio Blackout

event from 0024 UTC March 7 (7:24 p.m.

EST March 6) arrived at ACE at 1045 GMT

today (15:15 IST)," National Oceanic and

Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) said.

"So far the orientation of the magnetic

field has been opposite of what is needed

to

event progresses, that field will continue

to

cause the strongest storming. As the

change," NOAA tweeted.

Earlier, Joseph Kunches, a space weather

scientist at the NOAA said, "Space

weather has gotten very interesting over

the last 24 hours."

"This was quite the Super Tuesday you

bet," Kunches was quoted as saying by

SPACE.com.

Several NASA spacecraft caught videos of

the solar flare as it hurled a wave of solar

plasma and charged particles, called a

coronal mass ejection (CME), into space. Early predictions estimate that the CME will reach Earth at 5pm (India time) to- day, with the effects likely lasting for 24 hours, and possibly lingering into Friday, Kunches said. The solar eruptions occurred when the Sun let loose two huge X-class solar flares that ranked among the strongest type of Sun storms.

The biggest of those flares registered as

an "X5.4 class" solar storm on the space

weather scale and the CME from this flare

is the one that could disrupt satellite op-

erations, Kunches said.

Poverty declined to 29.8

per cent in 2009-10

Going by the controversial daily consump-

tion number of Rs 28.65 per day, one out

of every three Indian is poor as per the

new Planning Commission's estimates

which have pegged the poverty ratio in

2009-10 at 29.8 pc, down from 37.2 pc in

2004-05

An individual above a monthly consump-

tion of Rs 859.6 in urban cities and Rs

672.8 in rural areas (at pier 2009-10

prices) is not considered poor, says the

Planning Commission's estimate based on

the controversial Tendulkar Committee

methodology.

The Plan panel has kept the poverty

threshold in its recent estimates lower

than Rs 32 per capita per day consump-

tion in urban cities and Rs 26 in rural ar-

eas is provided last year which were based

on June 2011 prices.

The Plan panel had said that, in its affida-

vit before the apex court that the "pov- erty line at June 2011 price level can be placed provisionally at Rs 965 (Rs 32 per day) per capita per month in urban areas and Rs 781 (Rs 26 per day) in rural areas.

The civil society had questioned this defi- nition stating it was very low. As per estimates released today, the num- ber of poor in India has declined to 34.47 crore in 2009-10 from 40.72 crore in 2004-

05.

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YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

The methodology recommended by the Tendulkar Committee includes spending on health and education, besides the calo- rie intake.

Among religious groups, Sikhs have low- est poverty ratio in rural areas at 11.9 per cent, whereas in urban areas, Christians have the lowest proportion of poor at 12.9 per cent. Poverty ratio is the highest for Muslims,

at 33.9 per cent, in urban areas.

Further, poverty in rural areas declined at

a faster pace than in urban cities between

2004-05 and 2009-10.

After polio, India to

eliminate measles,

tetanus child deaths

Laying emphasis on strengthening of rou-

tine immunisation, Health Min Ghulam

Nabi Azad said the lessons learnt from

success of polio campaign could help

eliminate measles-related child deaths

and neonatal tetanus from the country.

In his valedictory address at the two-day

Polio Summit in New Delhi on Sunday,

Azad said there has to be continued vigil

and effective emergency preparedness as

India cannot afford to let its guards now

on the polio virus.

"Emboldened by our progress in polio, we

are confident that we can achieve elimi-

nation of measles related child deaths. We

also now wish to completely eliminate

neonatal tetanus in India and are moving

towards it. Some of our learnings and les-

sons from the Polio programme could

prove to be extremely useful in accom- plishing these tasks," Azad said. The Minister laid stress on immunisation and said "strengthening routine immunisation is an imperative if we wish to sustain our gains in polio and guard ourselves against both distant and inter- national importations." He said, "We have declared 2012, the year of the intensifi- cation of Routine Immunisation. We in-

tend to accelerate routine immunisation

activities from 1st April itself through spe- cial immunisation drives, with a special focus on 207 districts recording low rou- tine immunisation coverage."

The minister also reaffirmed India's com- mitment to funding the Polio programme and said it willing to lend all possible sup- port for global eradication of polio. Azad said with increased public invest- ments in health from domestic resources

India required "catalytic and technical

support" from its various partners in help-

ing eradicate many diseases.

He urged Rotary International, WHO,

UNICEF, CDC, Gates Foundation, GAVI and

other partners to now work to provide

impetus to routine immunisation and

synergize polio eradication and Routine

Immunisation strategies.

Azad said that 26 million mothers and

children have already been registered

under the web enabled mother and child

tracking system set up by the Ministry of

Health and Family Welfare. The system

generates weekly work plans for the Aux-

iliary Nurse Midwives through SMS.

He informed that in 14 states where cov-

erage is less than 80 percent, introduc-

tion of second dose of measles has been

started. Our target is to cover more than

130 million children under this campaign.

The minister informed the gathering that

President Pratibha Patil, who launches the

annual National Pulse Polio round, has

conveyed her personal greetings and

commendation on the public health mile-

stone that has been achieved with WHO's

decision to take India off the list of coun-

tries with active endemic wild poliovirus

transmission.

The two-day Summit emphasised perse-

verance, innovation and accountability as

the hallmarks of India's polio programme.

Azad said he would look forward to an-

other polio summit after January 2014 when India would be declared Polio Free.

Installed Capacity Crosses 2 lakh MW Mark

The installed capacity in the country has crossed 2 lakh MW mark with the com- missioning of a 660 MW Unit of a power plant in Jhajjar in Haryana this week. With this the total installed capacity has reached 2,00,287 MW. It includes 1,32,013

MW capacity in thermal sector, 38,991 MW in hydro sector, 4,780 MW in nuclear sector and 24,503 MW in renewable en- ergy sector. At the end of the 11th Plan,

i.e. on 31st March 2012 the total installed capacity stood at 1,99,627 MW. There has been an unprecedented growth in capacity addition during the 11th Plan with addition of 54,964 MW of fresh ca- pacity showing a growth of 159% over the

10th Plan period during which 21,180 MW

capacity was added. During the 9th Plan

the capacity addition stood at 19,010 MW.

The year 2011-12 also saw new bench-

marks created in the capacity addition. A

record capacity of 20,501 MW was added

in 2011-12, out of which 5,482 MW was

added in the month of March 2012 alone.

The improved performance in capacity

addition during the 11th Plan period has

been recorded across all sectors includ-

ing the central, state and private sectors.

Criminal Law

(Amendment) Bill 2013

introduced in LS today

The Criminal Law (Aamendment) Bill,

2013, introduced in the Lok Sabha on

March 19, seeks to amend the Indian Pe-

nal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code,

the Indian Evidence Act and the Protec-

tion of Children from Sexual Offences Act.

The bill widens the definition of rape and

prescribes punishment which may extend

to sentence of death if the victim dies dur-

ing the commission of offence or is re-

duced to persistent vegetative state. In

case of gang rape, the punishment will be

for a minimum of twenty years extend-

able to life. The amendments also seek

specific provisions for punishment for the

offences of causing grievous hurt by acid

attack, punishment for stalking, voyeur-

ism and sexual harassment.

for stalking, voyeur- ism and sex ual har a ssmen t. According to the Statement of

According to the Statement of Objects and

Civil Services MINERVA Samanya Adhyayan

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YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

Reasons of the bill, it will be mandatory for all hospitals to immediately provide first aid and medical treatment free of cost to the victims of the acid attack or rape.

India, Egypt bilateral talks

Egypt's Prez Mohammad Mursi will hold bilateral talks with PM Manmohan Singh in New Delhi on March 19, seeking to

deepen relations with India and to make

it a partner in his country's development.

Mursi, who came to power after Egypt's

first democratic elections last year, is likely

to focus on betterment of trade ties be-

sides boosting bilateral relations.

During his stay here, Mursi will meet his

counterpart Pranab Mukherjee besides

meeting Vice President Mohammad

Hamid Ansari, External Affairs Minister

Salman Khurshid, the Leader of the Op-

position Sushma Swaraj and UPA Chair-

person Sonia Gandhi. President Mursi will

also address a business event organised

by the apex chambers of commerce.

Mursi made a short stopover in Pakistan

before his visit and officials said he is ex-

pected to be accompanied by 15 to 20

high-profile businessmen.

Mursi became President after the 30-year-

old iron-clasp rule of former strongman

Hosni Mubarak came to an end in Febru-

ary, 2011, following a series of anti-regime

protests, known as Arab Spring.

On the economic front, bilateral trade has

grown significantly and consistently in the

past five years. Trade between India and

Egypt during the last financial year (July

2011-June 2012) increased by 33 percent

from USD 3.2 billion to USD 4.2 billion,

leaving India with a trade deficit of about

USD 350 million.

Mid-quarter monetary

policy review:RBI reduces key repo rate by 25 basis points

In its mid-quarter policy review on March 19, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) de- cided to reduce the key repo rate by 25 basis points from 7.75 per cent to 7.5 per cent with immediate effect. Consequently, the reverse repo rate stands adjusted to 6.5 per cent and the marginal standing

facility (MSF) rate and the Bank Rate to 8.5 per cent with immediate effect. The RBI has left the cash reserve ratio (CRR) unchanged at 4 per cent.

left the cash reserve ratio (CRR) unchanged at 4 per cent. However, the apex bank said

However, the apex bank said that high

current account deficit (CAD) and infla-

tionary expectations limit possibility of

further easing of rates. This is the second

policy rate cut by the RBI this calendar

year to help revive a faltering economy,

taking comfort from moderating core

price pressures and the government's

commitment to trim the fiscal deficit.

The apex bank in its press release said that

since January 2013, global financial mar-

ket conditions have improved, but global

economic activity has weakened. It noted

that on the domestic front too growth has

slowed down significantly, even as infla-

tion remains at a level which is not con-

ducive for sustained economic growth.

The apex bank expressed growth con-

cerns, saying headline inflation is likely to

remain range-bound at the current levels

over the next fiscal year. In addition, it said

that elevated food prices, including pres-

sures stemming from minimum support

prices (MSP) increases, and the wedge

between wholesale and retail inflation

have adverse implications for inflation

expectations. On the CAD, the RBI said the

risk remains significant notwithstanding

the likely improvement in fourth quarter

and added that financing of the CAD with

stable flows remains a challenge. On li-

quidity management, RBI said it will con-

tinue using all instruments including gov- ernment bond buybacks to inject liquid- ity. RBI has retained the growth and infla- tion forecast at 5.5 per cent and 6.8 per cent respectively for the current fiscal.

Plan Panel Chief welcomes RBI benchmark policy rate cut

Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia has welcomed

RBI's cut in its benchmark policy rate by 25 basis points. He said he was glad that the RBI has signaled continuing reduction of rate. Talking to reporters on the side- lines of a function in New Delhi today, Mr Ahluwalia said the action by the RBI means the Central bank does believe that the macroeconomics of the country are turning around.

India now world no.1

ODI Cricket team

India has become the World’s number one

ODI Cricket team in the International

Cricket Council, ICC championship. In the

latest championship table released by the

ICC in Dubai today, the men in blue have

assured themselves of the top ranking by

virtue of their consistent performance

ahead of the cut off date of April 1. India

is number one with 119 points, England

is second with 117 points, Australia is

placed third with 116 points while South

Africa is fourth in the Championship table

with 114 points. India will now receive the

ODI Shield as well as a cheque of

US$175,000 for finishing at the top in the

cricket calendar of 2012-13. South Africa

needs to beat Pakistan in the remaining

two ODIs to claim the second position else

England will bag the second position.

In the test cricket format, after register-

ing yet another convincing win over Aus-

tralia at Mohali ; India stays in the race

for second best team with Australia and

England. India or Australia not only need

to win the New Delhi cricket test but also

hope for a New Zealand victory in the

Auckland Test against England.On the

other hand England team needs to win

or draw the Auckland Test against

Newzealand to secure the second posi-

tion. South Africa has already assured it-

self of the ICC Test Champion Shield and

the prize money of $4,50,000. The team finishing second gets prize money of $350,000 while the third team will receive $250,000 and the fourth ranked team gets

$150,000.

YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

CLCLCLCLCLONINGONINGONINGONINGONING

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World’s first cloned Pashmina female Goat ‘Noori” born in Kashmir

The faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Sheri

Kashmir University of Agriculture Sciences and Technology, Kash- mir has made a breakthrough by successfully cloning the first pashmina goat using the advanced reproductive techniques

under the leadership of Dr Riaz Ahmad Shah, associate profes-

sor, Centre of Animal Biotechnology, Kashmir.

“Success was achieved under the World Bank-funded project

called the National Agricultural Innovation Project of the Indian

Council of Agricultural Research and took two years for

standardisation of the technique. The healthy female kid was

born on March 9, 2012 using a foster mother.

The world’s first pashmina goat clone, produced in Kashmir, has

been named Noori, an Arabic word referring to light, in Srinagar

by a group of scientists and researchers.

“Noori has gained weight. From 1.3 kg at the time of birth on

March 9, 2012, it’s 5 kg. She is healthy and was allowed to be

part of more than two dozen pashmina goats assembled at

Alastaingh laboratory for the purpose,” said Dr Fazili.

Noori took two years of scientific research. “It took two years

for standardisation of the technique,” said Dr Shah.

The clone has come as good news for fine fiber-producing

pashmina goats, which are only spotted at an altitude of 14,000

feet in Ladakh, the coldest region of the state. ”With Noori there

is hope that pashmina can be yielded in lower altitude like Kash-

mir valley,” said Dr Fazili.

The valley owes its fame, besides natural beauty, to famed fine

wool of pashmina, gathered from mountainous of Ladakh after

the goat sheds its wool as a natural process.

The goat survives minus 40 degree Celsius temperature at an

altitude of 14,000 feet. In spring, the animal sheds its fiber, called

soft pashm, six times finer than human hair. The fiber is used to

spun famous kashmiri shawls, scarves, and stoles.

It is hoped that this research will help other labs across the re-

gion clone their own goats and even revive endangered spe-

cies.

Cashmere wool, particularly made into shawls, is a major source

of income for Kashmir, generating about $80 million a year for

the Indian-controlled portion of the mountain area. A shawl can cost $200 in Kashmir and much more when sold abroad — a boon given the average salary of $800 a year for Kashmir’s 10.2 million people. Experts say their numbers are dwindling. In recent years, Kash- mir has started importing cashmere from neighboring China to keep up with orders for the region’s hand-woven shawls. ‘This is the cheapest, easier and less time-consuming’ method of cloning, compared with conventional methods that use high- tech machinery and sometimes chemicals, Shah said. Noori is the first cashmere goat cloned by this method, though

is the first cashmere goat cloned by this method, though Shah earlier cloned a buffalo. They

Shah earlier cloned a buffalo. They plan to spread the goat-clon-

ing knowledge across the Indian Himalayas so others can grow

their own goats.

CloningCloningCloningCloningCloning ––––– thethethethethe historyhistoryhistoryhistoryhistory

The world first animal clone Dolly, a sheep, was created on 5

July 1996. It survived for seven years.

This is a list of animals that have been cloned in alphabetical

order. One significant aspect of this list is documenting the tran-

sition from early concerns that animal cloning procedures might

be limited to a few species that cloned animals might be physi-

ologically abnormal, or cloning might lack utility for society.

Camel

Injaz(Arabic: meaning “achievement”; born April 8, 2009) is a

female dromedary camel, credited with being the world’s first

cloned camel. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Wani, who headed the research

team in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, announced on April 14,

2009, that the cloned camel was born after an “uncomplicated”

gestation of 378 days.

Carp

Chinese embryologist Tong Dizhou successfully inserted the DNA

from a male Asian carp into the egg of a female Asian carp to

create the first fish clone in 1963. In 1973 Dizhou inserted Asian

carp DNA into a European crucian carp to create the first

interspecies clone.

Cattle

First World cloned calf (Gene) was born on February 7, 1997 on

American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin. Later

it was transferred and kept to Minnesota Zoo Education Center.

A Holstein heifer named Amy was cloned by Dr. Xiangzhong

(Jerry) Yang using ear skin cells from a high-merit cow named

Aspen at the University of Connecticut on June 10, 1999, fol- lowed by three additional clones, Betty, Cathy and Daisy by July

7, 1999.

Second Chance, a Brahman bull was cloned from Chance, a be- loved celebrity bull. Second Chance was born August 9, 1999 at Texas A&M University. Texas A&M University cloned a Black Angus bull named 86

http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/

YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

Squared in 2000, after cells from his do-

nor, Bull 86, had been frozen for 15 years. Both bulls exhibit a natural resistance to Brucellosis, Tuberculosis and other dis- eases which can be transferred in meat. Millie and Emma were two female Jersey cows cloned at the University of Tennes- see in 2001. They were the first cows to be produced using standard cell-culturing techniques.

Pampa the first animal cloned in Argen-

tina by Biosidus (2002)

Ten more Jersey cows were cloned at the

University of Tennessee. (females, 2002)

Bonyana and Tamina cloned calf in Royan

Research Institute,Isfahan, Iran in summer

of 2009.

In 2010 the first Spanish Fighting Bull was

cloned by Spanish scientists.

Anatolian Grey bull (Efe) was cloned in

Turkey in 2009 and cattle from the same

breed no(Ece, Ecem, Nilufer, Kiraz) by

TUBITAK

GARIMA- I: world’s first buffalo calf

through the “Hand guided Cloning Tech-

nique” was born on February 6, 2009 at

NDRI, Karnal(India).

GARIMA- II: NDRI, Karnal(India).

Cloned male buffalo calf Shresth born on

August 26, 2010 at National Dairy Re-

search Institute, Karnal, India

Deer

Dewey was born on May 23, 2003 at Texas

A&M University.

Dog

South Korean scientist Hwang Woo-Suk

cloned the first dog, an afghan hound

named Snuppy. Later in 2005 Hwang Woo-

Suk was found to have fabricated evi-

dence in stem cell research projects. This

caused some to question the veracity of

his other experiments, including Snuppy.

their investigation of Hwang Woo-Suk’s

publication, however, a team from SNU

In

confirmed that Snuppy was a true clone of Tei, the DNA donor dog. South Korean scientists recently cloned ’sniffer’ dogs. BioArts International held a dog cloning

contest where people would send in sub- missions about which dog was the most suited to be cloned. The winner was Trakr,

a K-9 police dog who was a 9/11 hero.

In summer 2011, South Korean research- ers cloned a beagle dog named Tegon,

which glowed in ultraviolet light

Ferret Clones Libby and Lilly were produced via nuclear transfer by cell fusion in 2004 Frog

In 1958, John Gurdon, then at Oxford University, explained that he had success- fully cloned a frog. He did this by using intact nuclei from somatic cells from a Xe- nopus tadpole. This was an important ex- tension of work of Briggs and King in 1952

on transplanting nuclei from embryonic

blastula cells

Gaur

A species of wild cattle, the first endan-

gered species to be cloned. In 2001 at the

Trans Ova Genetics in Sioux Center, Iowa,

USA, a cloned Gaur was born from a sur-

rogate domestic cow mother. However,

the calf died within 48 hours

Goat

Downen TX 63 684 (nicknamed Megan)

was cloned from a top producing Boer

goat born on March 29, 2001 at Texas

A&M University.

The Middle East’s first and the world’s

fifth cloned goat, ‘Hanna’, has been suc-

cessfully born at Royan institute in

Isfahan, Iran. The cloned goat was devel-

oped in the surrogate uterus of a black

Bakhtiari goat for 147 days and was born,

Wednesday, at 1:30 a.m. through a cesar-

ean section. She is reported to be in a

good health. Hanna, also known as R-CAP-

C1, is completely distinguished from other

goats because of its white and henna-like

color. Iran’s first cloned lamb, Royana, was

born September 30, 2006 in Royan insti-

tute and was able to survive the post-na-

tal complications common in cloned ani-

mals. Iranian researchers are looking to

use cloned goats to produce the geneti-

cally modified animals required for manu-

facturing new recombinant

medications.(April 2009) Isfahan, Iran

Horse Prometea, female, born May 2003, Italy Pieraz, male, born February 2005, Italy Paris-Texas, male, born March 2005, USA Gemini, male, born September 2008, USA, clone of multiple recipient of “Horse of the Year” award for jumping Gem Twist Saphir, male, born February 2010, USA, clone of show jumper Sapphire Mice Possibly the first cloned mammal was a

mouse (named “Masha”) in 1986, in the Soviet Union. However, the cloning was done from an embryo cell, while the sheep Dolly in 1996 was cloned from an

adult cell. The first mouse from adult cells, Cumulina, was born in 1997 at the Uni- versity of Hawai’i at Ma-noa in the labo- ratory of Ryuzo Yanagimachi using the Honolulu technique. Over a dozen clones as of 2002.

Mouflan

An endangered species, the Mouflon was

the first to live past infancy. Cloned 2001

Mule

Idaho Gem (male, May 2003)

Utah Pioneer (male, June 2003)

Idaho Star (male, July 2003)

Pig

5 Scottish PPL piglets (Millie, Alexis,

Dotcom, Carrel, and Christa) (March 5,

2000) .

Xena (female, August 2000).

Pyrenean Ibex

In 2009, one clone was alive, but died

seven minutes later, due to physical de-

fects in the lungs. The Pyrenean Ibex be-

came the first taxon ever to come back

from extinction, for a period of seven min-

utes in January 2009.

Rabbit

In France (March–April, 2003

Rat

Ralph (male, 2003)

Rhesus Monkey

Tetra (female, January 2000) by embr yo

splitting.

Cloned embryos (November 2007) by

transfer of DNA from adult cells

Sheep

From early embryonic cells by Steen

Willadsen (1986). Megan and Morag

cloned from differentiated embryonic

cells in June 1995.

Dolly (1996–2003), first cloned mammal from somatic cells. Polly and Molly (July 1997), first transgenic cloned mammal. Royanan(2006) cloned in Royan Research institute in Isfahan, Iran. Oyali and Zarife were cloned in Novem- ber 2007 in Istanbul University in Istanbul, Turkey. Water Buffalo The world’s first water buffalo was cloned

YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/

either in Beijing China in 2005 or New

Delhi, India in 2009 “Samrupa”, the world’s first cloned buffalo calf, which died a week later from a lung infection. Wolf An endangered species of wolf cloned by Korean scientists including the controver- sial scientist Hwang Woo-Suk. There are two cloned wolves in a zoo in Korea for public view, they are called

Snuwolf and Snuwolffy which are names

taken from the university in Korea, Seoul

National University.

YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

CyberCyberCyberCyberCybercrimescrimescrimescrimescrimes

http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/

InternaInternaInternaInternaInternationaltionaltionaltionaltional ConConConConConvvvvventionentionentionentionention ononononon CyberCyberCyberCyberCybercrimescrimescrimescrimescrimes

The Convention on Cybercrime, also

known as the Budapest Convention on

Cybercrime or just the Budapest Conven-

tion, is the first international treaty seek-

ing to address Computer crime and

Internet crimes by harmonizing national

laws, improving investigative techniques

and )increasing cooperation among na-

tions. It was drawn up by the Council of

Europe in Strasbourg with the active par-

ticipation of the Council of Europe’s ob-

server states Canada, Japan and China.

The Convention and its Explanatory Re-

port was adopted by the Commit-

tee of Ministers of the Council of

Europe at its 109th Session on 8

November 2001. It was opened for

signature in Budapest, on 23 No-

vember 2001 and it entered into

force on 1 July 2004. As of 28 Oc-

tober 2010, 30 states had signed,

ratified and acceded to the conven-

tion, while a further 16 states had

signed the convention but not ratified it.

On 1 March 2006 the Additional Protocol

to the Convention on Cybercrime came

into force. Those States that have ratified

the additional protocol are requited to

criminalize the dissemination of racist and

xenophobic material through computer

systems, as well as of racist and xenopho-

bic-motivated threats and insults.

Objectives

The Convention is the first international

treaty on crimes committed via the Internet and other computer networks, dealing particularly with infringements of copyright, computer-related fraud, child pornography, hate crimes and violations of network security. It also contains a se- ries of powers and procedures such as the search of computer networks and Lawful interception. Its main objective, set out in the pre- amble, is to pursue a common criminal

policy aimed at the protection of society against cybercrime, especially by adopt- ing appropriate legislation and fostering international co-operation. The Convention aims principally at:

Harmonising the domestic criminal sub-

stantive law elements of offences and

connected provisions in the area of cyber-

crime providing for domestic criminal pro-

cedural law powers necessary for the in-

vestigation and prosecution of such of-

fences as well as other offences commit-

ted by means of a computer system or

evidence in relation to which is in elec-

tronic form setting up a fast and effective

regime of international co-operation.

The following offences are defined by the

Convention: illegal access, illegal intercep-

tion, data interference, system interfer-

ence, misuse of devices, computer-related

forgery, computer-related fraud, offences

related to child pornography and offences

related to copyright and neighbouring

rights.

It also sets out such procedural law issues

as expedited preservation of stored data,

expedited preservation and partial disclo-

sure of traffic data, production order,

search and seizure of computer data, real-

time collection of traffic data, and inter- ception of content data. In addition, the Convention contains a provision on a spe- cific type of transborder access to stored computer data which does not require mutual assistance (with consent or where publicly available) and provides for the setting up of a 24/7 network for ensuring speedy assistance among the Signatory Parties. The Convention is the product of four

years of work by European and interna- tional experts. It has been supplemented by an Additional Protocol making any pub- lication of racist and xenophobic propa- ganda via computer networks a criminal

offence. Currently, cyber terrorism is also

studied in the framework of the Conven-

tion.

Accession by the USA

Its ratification by the United States Sen-

ate in August 2006 was both praised and

condemned. The U.S. became the 16th

nation to ratify the convention. Forty-

three nations have signed the treaty. The

Convention entered into force in the USA

on January 1, 2007.

“While balancing civil liberty and privacy

concerns, this treaty encourages the shar-

ing of critical electronic evidence

among foreign countries so that

law enforcement can more effec-

tively investigate and combat these

crimes,” said Senate Majority

Leader Bill Frist.

“The Convention includes a list of

crimes that each signatory state

must transpose into their own law.

It requires the criminalization of

such activities as hacking (including the

production, sale, or distribution of hack-

ing tools) and offenses relating to child

pornography, and expands criminal liabil-

ity for intellectual property violations. It

also requires each signatory state to

implement certain procedural mecha-

nisms within their laws. For example, law

enforcement authorities must be granted

the power to compel an Internet Service

Provider to monitor a person’s activities

online in real time. Finally, the Conven- tion requires signatory states to provide international cooperation to the widest extent possible for investigations and pro- ceedings concerning criminal offenses related to computer systems and data, or for the collection of evidence in electronic form of a criminal offense. Law enforce- ment agencies will have to assist police from other participating countries to co- operate with their mutual assistance re-

Civil Services MINERVA Samanya Adhyayan

1212121212

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YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

quests.” Although a common legal framework would eliminate jurisdictional hurdles to facilitate the law enforcement of

borderless cyber crimes, a complete re- alization of a common legal framework may not be possible. Transposing Conven- tion provisions into domestic law is diffi- cult especially if it requires the incorpo- ration of substantive expansions that run

counter to constitutional principles. For

instance, the U.S. may not be able to

criminalize all the offenses relating to

child pornography that are stated in the

Convention, specifically the ban on virtual

child pornography, because of its First

Amendment free speech principles. Un-

der Article 9(2)(c) of the Convention, a

ban on child pornography includes any

“realistic images representing a minor

engaged in sexually explicit conduct.” Ac-

cording to the Convention, the U.S. would

have to adopt this ban on virtual child

pornography as well, however, the U.S.

Supreme Court, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech

Coalition, struck down as unconstitutional

a

“any visual depiction” that “is, or appears

to be, of a minor engaging in sexually ex-

plicit conduct.” In response to the rejec-

tion, the U.S. Congress enacted the PRO-

TECT Act to amend the provision, limiting

the ban to any visual depiction “that is,

or is indistinguishable from, that of a mi-

nor engaging in sexually explicit conduct.”

18 U.S.C

The United States will not become a Party

to

tion on Cybercrime.

Ten Years On: The Budapest Convention –

A

The 10th anniversary of the Budapest

Convention received special attention last

week at the Octopus Conference (21 – 23

November), part of the Council of Europe’s Global Project on Cybercrime. After ten years the Budapest Convention remains the only accepted international text on how to “protect against and con- trol online crime while at the same time respecting human rights”, the Secretary General, Thorbjørn Jagland emphasized in his concluding speech at the close of the Strasbourg held three-day Octopus Con- ference.

the Additional Protocol to the Conven-

provision of the CPPA that prohibited

Common Force against Cybercrime

The overall consensus of the conference

was that despite some criticism of the Convention it provides the only effective and practical tool to fight global on-line crime. In its new role as Chair of the Council of Europe, the UK representative, Parliamen- tary Under-Secretary for Crime and Secu- rity, James Brokenshire, took the oppor- tunity to outline the continued support

that the UK intends to give to the

Budapest Convention as “the most impor-

tant international agreement on cyber

crime.” UK support is evidenced in the UK

Cyber Security Strategy, released on Fri-

day, where it commits to using its chair-

manship to encourage a wider adoption

of the Budapest Convention. A key ele-

ment of the UK plan will be to enable

‘compatible frameworks of law and effec-

tive cross-border law enforcement to

deny safe havens to cybercriminals.’ The

UK plans to achieve this by: promoting

greater levels of international coopera-

tion; by sharing understanding on cyber

crime as begun ‘by the London Confer-

ence on Cyberspace’; by promoting the

Council of Europe’s Convention on Cyber

crime (the Budapest Convention); and by

building on the new EU Directive on at-

tacks on information systems. There is

also a further commitment to contribut-

ing to the review of security provisions of

the EU Data Protection Directive and the

proposed EU Strategy on Information Se-

curity.

At the close of the Conference, Mr

Brokenshire admitted that the London

conference had raised questions about

some parts of the Convention’s articles,

although he repeated the view of William

Hague, UK Foreign Secretary, that there

was ‘no appetite’ for an alternative Con-

vention. Brokenshire paid tribute to the

Convention’s “great achievement” and to those who developed it. As well he em- phasized the effectiveness of the Conven- tion during an era of great technical change and of the need to ensure that it stays relevant which will require all par- ties to “develop additional protocols and other changes as the need arises.” Ahead of Australia joining the other 32 parties of the Convention, Australian At- torney General, Robert McClelland, spoke

of the ‘duality of modernity’ that Internet

connectivity has brought where the posi- tives are tempered by the darker side of the human condition, as evidenced in

crimes and exploitation. Major cyber in- trusions, McClelland said, is costing Aus- tralian organizations “an average of $2 million per incident” and more than a bil- lion dollars a year to the Australian economy. This requires a global response,

McCelland emphasized.

The Attorney General praised too the

drafters of the Convention and their ‘re-

markable’ foresight adding that any sug-

gestion that it (the Convention) is ‘out of

date’ was unfounded. McClelland gave

examples of the practical approach of-

fered by the Convention and the reason

why it remains the world’s leading inter-

national legal tool in combating

cybercrime. For example; Article 24 re-

quires parties to provide real time assis-

tance to one another; Article 35 requires

that assistance be made available on a 24

hour 7 day a week basis facilitated

through a central contact point; that par-

ties ensure that their law enforcement

responders are properly trained and

equipped and that parties have an obli-

gation to provide appropriate technical

assistance to others.

McCelland noted that a further two dozen

countries will soon be joining the Conven-

tion and called for all to “rise to the chal-

lenge to ensure that Governments, busi-

nesses and individuals realize the full ben-

efits of cyberspace” whilst also ensuring

that current and emerging risks are man-

aged.

The Deputy Secretary General of the

Council of Europe, Maud de Boer-

Buquicchio, acknowledged that there

were challenges ahead for all members,

although there was reason for optimism,

and summed up the magic formula in one word: CO-OPERATE. Challenges include the need for:

More engagement from political decision- makers in the co-operation against cybercrime. More co-operation with and between

countries from all regions of the world.

A stronger public-private co-operation

against cybercrime. A stronger co-operation between interna-

YEAR 8; Issue 3; March 2013

http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/

tional organizations. More technical co-operation to assist countries worldwide in the implementa-

tion of the Budapest Convention and re- lated tools and good practices. Ms de Boer-Buquicchio further empha- sized that the Budapest Convention is not a static treaty and allows for an effective response to new challenges, for example, the problems of jurisdiction and law en-

forcement as posed by cloud computing.

One thing is certain, The Deputy Secre-

tary General stated, the Budapest Conven-

tion is the “best tool that exists to effec-

tively fight crime on-line.

In summing up Secretary General,

Thorbjørn Jagland, used recent events in

his home country, Norway, to highlight the

threat that online criminality poses. Nor-

wegian key defense and energy compa-

nies have found themselves the target of

recent and ongoing attacks illustrating

that the need for global cooperation has

never been greater. The Secretary Gen-

eral iterated the commitment of the

Council of Europe to enhancing coopera-

tion and in furthering the Budapest Con-

vention as a “treaty with global impact.”

“Together, we can take pride in the re-

sults,” Jagland said:

“The convention has proven to work.

Thanks to it, there has been a broad har-

monization of cybercrime legislation. Not

only in Europe but worldwide. In addition,

offences such as illegal access to com-

puter data or illegal interception of com-

puter data or computer-related forgery or

fraud, have been criminalized.”

By way of caution, Jagland reminded

delagates that technology and, with it, the

techniques used by cybercriminals evolve

much faster than legal responses and al- though the Budapest Convention is cer- tainly not a static treaty no one can claim to have “all the answers to all the emerg- ing challenges.” The multistakeholder ap-

proach has its part to play as does the need to look for “complementarity rather than duplication.” Jagland concluded, “The Budapest Con- vention is the international community’s

most forceful and agreed upon response. It serves as a common ground for inter- national co-operation and partnerships and has the interest of you and me in mind: to protect our rights in cyberspace!”

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