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Forme sau ipostaze ale relaiilor publice 1. Responsabilitatea social corporativ/-ist (CSR / Corporate Social Responsibility) Definiii: 1.

obligaia moral care poate fi impus corporaiilor dincolo de simpla respectare a legilor; 2. preocuparea unei corporaii pentru bunstarea societii sau pentru impactul aciunilor sale asupra societii; 3. obligaia de a trata moral i ntr-o manier responsabil grupurile cointeresate; 4. practica unei corporaii de a-i selecta obiectivele i de a-i evalua rezultatele nu doar prin prisma profitabilitii i a bunstrii proprii, ci i n funcie de standardele socialmente dezirabile; 5. obligaia de a urmri obiective pe termen lung benefice pentru societate, dincolo de criteriile economice sau de cerinele stabilite prin lege. Termeni corelativi responsabilitii sociale corporative: guvernan corporativ (corporate governance), protecia mediului (environmental protection), conservarea energiei (energy conservation), controlul polurii i managementul deeurilor (pollution control and waste management), dezvoltare durabil (sustainable development), comer echitabil i investiie de capital etic (fair trade and ethical investment), atitudine etic i receptiv n relaia cu clienii i furnizorii (ethical and responsive dealings with customers and suppliers), implicarea stakeholderilor (stakeholder engagement), activiti filantropice i caritabile (philanthropic and charitable activities), obiective socio-politice, precum reducerea srciei, implementarea unor programe educaionale i de sntate n favoarea comunitilor dezavantajate etc. (S. Jaseem Ahmad, From Principles to Practice. Exploring Corporate Social Responsibility in Pakistan, Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 24, Winter 2006, pp. 115-129) CSR este o concepie referitoare la contribuia pe care trebuie sa o aib companiile la dezvoltarea societii moderne. Programe de CSR: 1. promovarea unei cauze (Cause Promotion), 2. marketing legat de o cauz (Cause Related Marketing), 3. marketing social (Corporate Social Marketing), 4. aciuni filantropice (Corporate Philantropy), 4. voluntariatul n comunitate (Community Volunteering) i 5. practici de afaceri responsabile social (Socially Responsible Business Practices). (www.responsabilitatesociala.ro) Responsabilitatea social nu nlocuiete obligaiile financiare, ci se adaug acestora. Keith Davis: responsabilitatea social trebuie s fie proporional cu puterea social. Triple-bottom line (3P: people, planet, profit): responsabilitate social, responsabilitate ecologic i responsabilitate financiar.
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3 imperative legate de CSR: 1. monitorizarea mediului social, economic i politic; 2. identificarea percepiilor i ateptrilor publicurilor int; 3. promovarea celor mai bune practici de responsabilitate social n lumina acestor percepii i ateptri. Argumente pro-CSR: Corporaiile trebuie s acioneze ca ceteni responsabili. Cetenii responsabili nu trebuie s se mulumeasc cu respectarea strict a legilor, care ne mpiedic s facem ru celorlali n timp ce ne urmrim propriile interese. Trebuie s acionm n beneficiul societii. Dac practicile organizaionale deterioreaz societatea, vor lipsi resursele necesare continurii activitilor pe termen lung. Dac puterea financiar nu este folosit responsabil, guvernul, sindicatele, grupurile de activiti sociali vor ncerca s diminueze influena companiei prin proteste, greve, boicoturi i reglementri etc. Argumente anti-CSR: Doing well by doing good este cea mai nalt responsabilitate social. Companiile au 4 obligaii sociale (Milton Friedman): respectarea legii, oferirea unor bunuri sau servicii, folosirea eficient a resurselor i plata onest a resurselor n funcie de situaia pieei. Programele de responsabilitate social afecteaz competitivitatea. Nu companiile, ci statul, ONGurile, familia, parohia i alte organizaii din sfera societii civile au datoria, responsabilitatea, pregtirea i resursele necesare pentru realizarea programelor sociale. 2. Strngerea de fonduri (Fundraising) Definiie: practica social de a ajuta organizaiile i donatorii s-i satisfac interesele filantropice mutuale. Strngerea de fonduri nu este o simpl adunare de bani. Donatorii nu ofer fonduri doar pentru c sunt generoi sau pentru c au fost persuadai, ci i pentru c donaiile sunt ateptate, admirate sau chiar impuse. Fundraisingul se deruleaz n forma ROPES. ROPES const din cinci etape consecutive: Research (cercetarea) Objectives (stabilirea obiectivelor) Programming (programarea) Evaluation (evaluarea) Stewardship (supravegherea/ ntreinerea)

Cercetarea se desfoar n urmtoarele zone: (a) organizaia de caritate pentru care lucreaz specialitii n PR, (b) oportunitatea sau problema cu care se confrunt organizaia i (c) categoriile de donatori corelate att cu organizaia, ct i cu oportunitatea/ problema.

Obiectivele stabilite trebuie s fie specifice, msurabile, derivate din obiectivele organizaionale i fundamentate pe rezultatele activitilor de cercetare. Programarea const n planificarea i implementarea activitilor menite s produc rezultatele stabilite n obiective. Aceste activiti se mpart n dou clase: (1) activiti de cultivare (a relaiilor) i (2) activiti de solicitare (a fondurilor). Prin evaluare stabilim gradul de realizare a obiectivelor. Stewardship-ul asigur retroaciunea sistemului fundraiseri-donatori-beneficiari i presupune 4 elemente: (a) reciprocitate, (b) responsabilitate, (c) transparen i (d) cultivare. 3. Activitile de lobby (Lobbying) Definiie: procesul de influenare a procesului legislativ n scopul instituionalizrii unei schimbri. Lobbyitii pot fi direci sau indireci. Lobbyitii direci sunt angajai ai unei organizaii sau membri ai unor firme de lobbying care sunt pltii pentru a comunica formal i nemijlocit cu autoritile i instituiile publice. n Statele Unite este obligatorie identificarea lobbyistului, a clientului i a problemei. Lobbyitii indireci se angajeaz, fr a fi pltii, n activiti de relaii publice pentru a politiza o problem sau pentru a influena agenda politic a unei autoriti sau instituii publice. 4. Comunicarea intern (Internal Communication) Definiie: relaiile publice la nivel intra-organizaional, care au drept scop edificarea unor relaii caracterizate de nelegere mutual, reciprocitate, ncredere, credibilitate i legitimitate. Comunicarea intern susine misiunea sau viziunea organizaiei i previne tensiunile dintre patroni, manageri i angajai. Principalele modaliti de realizare: comunicarea fa n fa, intranetul, mailingul, newsletterul, memorandumul, video-conferina etc. 5. Managementul problemelor (Issues Management) Definiie: arta de a reduce friciunile i de a crete armonia dintre o organizaie i publicurile sale relevante n sfera public. Parte a managementului problemelor, comunicarea de criz privete rezolvarea situaiilor neprevzute care perturb activitatea unei organizaii, afecteaz negativ relaiile acesteia cu publicurile implicate i pun sub semnul ntrebrii legitimitatea existenei organizaiei n sfera public. Principalele strategii n comunicarea de criz: I. Negarea: 1. negarea propriu-zis (organizaia poate s nege c aciunea a avut loc, c ea a realizat aciunea sau c aciunea a provocat prejudicii cuiva), 2. nvinovirea unei tere pri (organizaia
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susine c altcineva este autorul aciunii ofensatoare, acesta purtnd responsabilitatea pentru toate consecinele neplcute aprute) II. Derobarea: 1. prezentarea aciunii ca rspuns la o provocare (aciunea este nfiat ca o reacie raional i legitim la o provocare), 2. sublinierea lipsei de informaii sau de competene (cele mai multe aciuni sunt ntreprinse pe baza unei cunoateri limitate a contextului; 3. organizaia se prevaleaz de neputina de a controla toi parametrii din mediu), 4. punerea aciunii sub semnul hazardului / ghinionului (aciunea este pus sub incidena unor mprejurri nefaste care nu puteau fi prevzute i care, probabil, nu vor mai aprea), 5. sublinierea bunelor intenii (consecinele negative ale aciunii nu au fost premeditate, ci au aprut accidental, n ciuda eforturilor organizaiei de a aduce beneficii publicurilor implicate) III. Reducerea caracterului negativ al aciunii: 1. accentuarea trsturilor pozitive (organizaia reamintete publicului aciunile benefice pe care le-a realizat n trecut, miznd pe meninerea sau chiar consolidarea unei legturi afective pozitive), 2. minimizarea efectelor negative (organizaia caut s reduc afectele negative la nivelul publicului, micornd importana dau nelor produse), 3. diferenierea fa de alte aciuni congenere (organizaia compar aciunea pentru care este nvinovit cu aciunile similare ale altor organizaii, subliniind maniera diferit n care s -a comportat: atitudine preventiv, pruden, receptivitate, reacie rapid, minimizarea pagubelor etc.), 4. punerea problemei ntr-un plan superior (aciunea este transpus ntr-un context favorabil; spre exemplu, tratamentul brutal la care sunt supui unii deinui este privit ca mijloc de garantare a securitii cetenilor), 5. atacarea prii adverse (organizaia ncearc s preia iniiativa, determinndu-i adversarul s reacioneze, la rndul su, unor acuzaii), 6. compensarea (organizaia ofer victimelor compensaii materiale sau morale) IV. Corectarea: 1. refacerea strii de lucruri iniiale (organizaia elimin toate urmrile negative ale aciunilor sale, revenindu-se la parametrii de mediu anteriori acestora), 2. adoptarea unei atitudini preventive (organizaia ofer garanii publicului c asemenea aciuni negative nu vor mai aprea) V. Mortificarea (organizaia i mrturisete greeala i cere iertare publicului) 6. Comunicarea de marketing/ Relaiile publice de marketing (Marketing Communication / Marketing Public Relations) Definiii: 1. arta de a satisface profitabil nevoile clienilor crend valoare adugat de ord in semiotic/ comunicaional; 2. procesul managerial care permite i faciliteaz dialogul ntre consumatori (i, n unele situaii, ntre grupurile cointeresate)
(Varey, Richard J., Marketing Communication: An Introduction to Contemporary Issues, Florence (KY, USA): Routledge, 2001) 4

Aspecte de ordin comunicaional ale situaiei de marketing care pot fi decise de ctre specialistul n marketing:

The offering Product mix Variety Quality Design Features Brand name Packaging Sizes Services Warranties Returns Price mix Cost of product Discounts and allowances Payment period Credit terms Place mix Channels Coverage Assortments Locations Inventory Transport People Service staff Physical environment Ambience Process Transaction Making the offer Advertising Publicity Sales promotion Direct marketing Personal selling

What this can communicate Personality Integrity Taste Flexibility Assurance Protection and care Consideration Support Peace of mind Confidence Expectations of quality Value for money Affordability Cost Convenience and status Availability Choice Convenience and status Availability Availability Competence Comfort Impression Identity Expertise Value Personalized offer Attention and concern

Example Choice of colours Fine detail and finish Aesthetic appearance Dual purpose Meaningful name Carrying case Range of options Installation and demonstration Telephone hotline Pre-paid mailing label Premium price relative to others Special offer voucher Instalment plan Interest-free period payment Respected outlets Stocked by prominent stores Range of colours, etc. High-street stockist Always in stock Prompt home delivery Confident, attentive checkout Tasteful decor Prompt attention Clearly stated valuation Comment on social issue Buy 2, get 1 free offer Follow-up offer Problem resolved

7. Comunicarea corporativ (Corporate Communications) Definiie: form de comunicare ce se difereniaz prin (a) perspectiva corporatist, (b) grupurile cointeresate avute n vedere i (c) activitile de management realizate.
(Cornelissen, Joep, Corporate Communications: Theory and Practive, London: Sage Publications Ltd, 2004)

Termeni cheie n comunicarea corporativ


Concept Mission Definition Overriding purpose in line with the values or expectations of stakeholders The long-term aims and aspirations of the company for itself. Example: British Airways British Airways is aiming to set new industry standards in customer service and innovation, deliver the best financial performance and evolve from being an airline to a world travel business with the flexibility to stretch its brand into new business areas To become the undisputed leader in world travel by ensuring that BA is the customer's first choice through the delivery of an unbeatable travel experience

Vision/ strategic intent

Corporate objectives and goals

(Precise) statement of aims or purpose

Strategies

The ways or means in which the corporate objectives are to be achieved and put into effect

Corporate identity

The profile communicated organization

and by

values an

Corporate image

The immediate set of meanings inferred by an individual in confrontation/ response to one or more signals from or about a particular organization at a single point in time

Corporate reputation

Stakeholder

Public

An individual's collective representation of past images of an organization (induced through either communication or past experiences) established over time Any group or individual that can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization's objectives People who mobilize themselves against the organization on the basis of some common issue or concern to them

To be a good neighbor, concerned for the community and the environment, to provide overall superior service and good value for money in every market segment in which we compete, to excel in anticipating and quickly responding to customer needs and competitor activity Continuing emphasis on consistent quality of customer service and the delivery to the marketplace of value for money through customer-oriented initiatives (on-line booking service, strategic alliances) and to arrange all the elements of our service so that they collectively generate a particular experience building trust with our shareholders, employees, customers, neighbors and with our critics, through commitment to good practice and societal reporting The world's favorite airline (this corporate identity with its associated brand values of service, quality, innovation, cosmopolitanism and British-ness is carried through in positioning, design, livery, and communications) Very recently I got a ticket booked to London, and when reporting at the airport. I was shown the door by BA staff. I was flatly told that the said flight in which I was to travel was already full so my ticket was not valid any further and the airline would try to arrange for a seat in some other flight. You can just imagine how embarrassed I felt at that moment of time. To add ghee to the fire, the concerned official of BA had not even a single word of apology to say (customer of BA). Through the Executive Club program, British Airways has developed a reputation as an innovator in developing direct relationships with its customers and in tailoring its services to enhance these relationships (longstanding supplier of BA). 25 Employees, consumers, investors and shareholders, community, aviation business and suppliers, government, trade unions, NGOs, and society at large Local residents of Heathrow Airport appealed in November 2002 against the Government and British Airways concerning the issue of night flights at Heathrow airport. The UK Government denied that night flights violated local residents' human rights. British Airways intervened in support of the UK Government claiming that there is a need to continue the present night flights regime The market for British Airways flights consists of passengers who search for superior service over and beyond the basic transportation involved Night flights at Heathrow Airport: noise and inconvenience for local residents and community Newsletters, promotion packages, consultation forums, advertising campaigns, corporate design and code of conduct, free publicity/ public relations British Airways aims to communicate its brand values of service, quality, innovation, cosmopolitanism and British-ness through all its communications in a consistent and effective manner

Market

Issues

Communications

Integration

A defined group for whom a product is or may be in demand (and for whom an organization creates and maintains products and service offerings) An unsettled matter (which is ready for a decision) or a point of conflict between an organization and one or more publics The internal and external communications techniques and media that are used towards internal and external groups The act of coordinating all communications so that the corporate identity is effectively and consistently communicated to internal and external groups