Sunteți pe pagina 1din 3

REVISED CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST TYPES OF INDIA On the basis of additional information available Champion and Seth revised the

preliminary classification of forest types of India prepared in 1935. In this classification, the forests of India have first been divided into the following five major groups: Tropical forests Montane subtropical forests Montane temperate forests Sub-alpine forests and Alpine scrub The major groups have, as described below, been further divided into type groups or, simply, groups on the basis climatic data and vegetation. The tropical forests have been differentiated into seven groups, the montane subtropical forests into three groups, montane temperate forests into three groups, sub-alpine forests into one group and alpine scrub into two groups. Most of these groups or type groups have been further differentiated into two subgroups describing southern and northern forms. Each subgroup is again divided into types in which climax formations have been designated by letter C, edaphic climax formation by letter E, primary sere by IS and secondary sere by 2S, the tropical swamps by letter TS and fresh water swamps by FS. Within each subgroup, the types are given in serial number as C1, C2, E1, E2 and so on. These types are differentiated into subtypes by suffixing letter a, b, c and so on for each subtype. Subtypes are sometimes further classified into varieties by suffixing number, e.g., i, ii, iii. Thus a variety of type C1 is designated as C1a(i). MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION OF BIOTIC POTENTIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE Biotic potential of a population is reflected in its intrinsic rate of natural increase, r, i.e., the instantaneous rate of increase per individual of a population under a given set of environmental conditions, assuming that the effect of changes in population size can be ignored. The intrinsic rate of natural increase is contained in the expression: dN -------- = rN ------------- (1) dt where N is population at time t, and the differential dN ------ denotes the population growth rate dt If the differential equation is integrated the form obtained is Nt = Noert ------------- (2) Where Nt Number of individuals at time 5 No Number of individuals at time zero e Base of natural logarithms, i.e. 2.718 The expression (1), in fact, is the equation for exponential growth and will be modified if the population growth becomes subject to some kind of environment resistance at some point of time. If

environmental resistance factor is indicated by letter K, the rate of population will be given by the equation. dN (1 N) ------ = rN ---------dt K K in the equation is a constant indicating the population size at which some limiting substance or factor or a combination of the two prevents further increase in the population. K in essence expresses the concept of carrying capacity.

GULLY EROSION It is an advanced stage of rill erosion, widened rills get deepened and widened every year and begin to attain the form of gullies. Gullies under stopped (or) controlled in the rill stage grow deeper and wider. Cattle paths, tracks, furrows (or) other small depressions down a slope favor concentration of runoff. Every time the rainwater surface down there gullies, increases their depth and width. Principles of gully erosion: The rate of gully erosion depends mainly on runoff characteristics of the water shed, water shed area, soil characteristics alignment, size and shape of the gully. Highly developed gully is called as ravines. The main processes involved in the development of a gully are, Water fall erosion: Water falling over the edge of the gully or back of a ditch forms a deep and vapidly extending gullies. The falling water undermines the edge of the bank, which caves in. The soil so detached is transported by the large volume of flowing water and the waterfall moves upstream. ii) Channel erosion: Channel (or) ditch erosion is the scouring away of soil by continuous runoff. As it flows over the unprotected depressions. It may also be caused by a raindrop splash on unprotected soil in gully. Gullies formed by channel erosion having sloping heads and sizes. Channel erosion or waterfall erosion are commonly found in this same gullies. The extension of gully head is by water fall erosion and its scouring of bottom by channel erosion iii) Alternate freezing and throwing of exposed forms of gully. iv) Sliding (or) mass movement of soil in the gully. Different stages of gully development: There are 4 stages of gully development. i) Formulation stage : It is formed with channel by downward occur of soil ii) Development stage: it is the stage where upstream movement in the gully head and enlargement of the gully in depth and width takes place. iii) Healing stage: It is the stag here vegetation begins to grow in the gully. iv) Stabilization stage: Here the gully head reaches a stable condition. The gully walls reach a stable slope and vegetative cover spreads over the gully surface. i)

Types of gullies: Gullies may be classified as 'V' or 'U' shaped based as the shape of the cross section. Both V and U shaped gullies may be found in same channel. As gullies moves upstream the most active portion is at the gully head (or) the upper and whereas most stable section is at the lower end. Active and inactive gully: Active gullies are those that continue to enlarge and they will be recognized the presence of bear (or) side soil. Inactive gullies are those which do not enlarge further and it consists of vegetation and the side slopes. Classification based on depth Si.No 1 Symbol G1 Description Very small gullies Side slopes with bed. Up to 3m deep with bed width 18m. 2 G2 Small gullies Side uniform slopes of 8-15% 3 G3 Medium gullies Depth 3-9m. Bed width will not be less than 18m sides uniformly sloping between 8-15% a) 3-9 deep. Bed width <18m. Side slopes vary b) Depth >9m. Bed width varies with sides. Slope varies. Mostly steep (or) even vertical within intricate and active branch alleys Specifications Up to 3m deep with bed width 18m.

Deep and narrow 4 G4 Gullies

Terminal velocity of raindrop: It is the rate of the falling raindrop which equals the resistance offered by the air to the fall of the drop. The impact of raindrops / unit area in determined by the number, size and velocity of the raindrops. According to Ellison in 1943, soil loss is directly proportional to V t 4.33 where Vt is the terminal velocity. The diameter of the raindrops depends on the intensity of rain air resistance atmospheric pressure temperature and humidity. The velocity of the raindrop depends on the size, height of fall, wind velocity and air resistance. For 1mm diameter of raindrop, the terminal velocity is 4.5 m/sec and for 5mm diameter of raindrop the terminal velocity in 9m/sec. It has been observed that a simple raindrop may splash red soil as much as 60 cm high and 150 cm around from the spot where the raindrop hits. The factors affecting the direction and distance of soil splash are wind, land slope, soil surface condition, vegetative cover and mulches.