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# A Direct Spectral Domain Method for

## Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical

Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of
Atmospheric Refractivity
Raj Bhattacharjea
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
August 12, 2013
Outline
Background and Motivation
Environmental and Mathematical Models
The Spectral Domain Greens Functions
Sommerfeld Integrals
Pole Extraction
Hybrid Asymptotic / Numerical Evaluation
Numerical Experiments
Future Research
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 2/19
Motivation: Real World Applications
Mesh topology low power networks
Wireless sensor networks
Unattended ground sensor
networks
Applications
Intrusion detection
Localization
Tomography
Agricultural Sensing
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 3/19
Motivation: Real World Applications
Mesh topology low power networks
Wireless sensor networks
Unattended ground sensor
networks
Applications
Intrusion detection
Localization
Tomography
Agricultural Sensing
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 3/19
Refractivity
In non-magnetic media, n =

r
In air, n is a weak function of pressure, temperature, and air composition
(H
2
O is dominant term, followed by CO
2
) as
N = (n 1) 10
6
= K
1
P
T
+ K
2
e
T
+ K
3
e
T
2
If P, T, e are functions of height z above the earth, then so is N.
Refractive eects are known to be signicant (dominant propagation
mechanism in some cases) in classical radar scenarios, i.e. tens of
kilometers of range and kilometers of height over the ocean.
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 4/19
Refractivity
In non-magnetic media, n =

r
In air, n is a weak function of pressure, temperature, and air composition
(H
2
O is dominant term, followed by CO
2
) as
N = (n 1) 10
6
= K
1
P
T
+ K
2
e
T
+ K
3
e
T
2
If P, T, e are functions of height z above the earth, then so is N.
Refractive eects are known to be signicant (dominant propagation
mechanism in some cases) in classical radar scenarios, i.e. tens of
kilometers of range and kilometers of height over the ocean.
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 4/19
Refractivity
In non-magnetic media, n =

r
In air, n is a weak function of pressure, temperature, and air composition
(H
2
O is dominant term, followed by CO
2
) as
N = (n 1) 10
6
= K
1
P
T
+ K
2
e
T
+ K
3
e
T
2
If P, T, e are functions of height z above the earth, then so is N.
Refractive eects are known to be signicant (dominant propagation
mechanism in some cases) in classical radar scenarios, i.e. tens of
kilometers of range and kilometers of height over the ocean.
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 4/19
Near-Ground Temperature and Humidity
Dynamics: boundary-layer uid mechanics + solar forcing.
We use some measurements
(P(z), T(z), e(z)) N = K
1
P
T
+ K
2
e
T
+ K
3
e
T
2
Florida
Sensor 6
Sensor 5
Sensor 4
Sensor 3
Sensor 2
Sensor 1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
Height [m]
R
e
f
r
a
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

[
N

u
n
i
t
s
]
Refractivity vs. Height in the nearsurface environment
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 5/19
Near-Ground Temperature and Humidity
Dynamics: boundary-layer uid mechanics + solar forcing.
We use some measurements
(P(z), T(z), e(z)) N = K
1
P
T
+ K
2
e
T
+ K
3
e
T
2
Florida
Sensor 6
Sensor 5
Sensor 4
Sensor 3
Sensor 2
Sensor 1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
Height [m]
R
e
f
r
a
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

[
N

u
n
i
t
s
]
Refractivity vs. Height in the nearsurface environment
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 5/19
Maxwells Equations in Plane-Stratied Media
Time-harmonic Maxwells equations
(exp (j t)), Lorenz gauge
potentials, in multilayered media:
_

2
+ k
2

_
A =
0
J
Tangential E, H continuous at z

= {1, 2, . . . L + 1}
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 6/19
Maxwells Equations in Plane-Stratied Media
Time-harmonic Maxwells equations
(exp (j t)), Lorenz gauge
potentials, in multilayered media:
_

2
+ k
2

_
A =
0
J
Tangential E, H continuous at z

= {1, 2, . . . L + 1}
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 6/19
Maxwells Equations in Plane-Stratied Media
Time-harmonic Maxwells equations
(exp (j t)), Lorenz gauge
potentials, in multilayered media:
_

2
+ k
2

_
A =
0
J
Tangential E, H continuous at z

= {1, 2, . . . L + 1}
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 6/19
The Spectral Domain Greens Function
_

2
+ k
2

_
A
z
=
0

I
z0
(z z

)
Tangential E, H continuous at z

= {1, 2, . . . L + 1}
A
z
F
x,y

A
z
(x, y)
F
x,y
(k
x
, k
y
)
(
2
+ k
2

)
F
x,y

2
z
2
+ k
2
z
k
2
z
= k
2

k
2

, k
2

= k
2
x
+ k
2
y
Reduces the PDE to an ODE

2

A
z
z
2
+ k
2
z

A
z
=
_
_
_

I
z0
(zz

)
4
2
, source layer
0, other layers
With solution

A
z
= j

0

I
z0
8
2

_

_
e
jk
z
|zz

|
k
z
+ R
+

e
jk
z
(zz
1
)
+ R

e
jk
z
(zz

)
, source layer
R
+

e
jk
z
(zz
1
)
+ R

e
jk
z
(zz

)
, other layers
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 7/19
The Spectral Domain Greens Function
_

2
+ k
2

_
A
z
=
0

I
z0
(z z

)
Tangential E, H continuous at z

= {1, 2, . . . L + 1}
A
z
F
x,y

A
z
(x, y)
F
x,y
(k
x
, k
y
)
(
2
+ k
2

)
F
x,y

2
z
2
+ k
2
z
k
2
z
= k
2

k
2

, k
2

= k
2
x
+ k
2
y
Reduces the PDE to an ODE

2

A
z
z
2
+ k
2
z

A
z
=
_
_
_

I
z0
(zz

)
4
2
, source layer
0, other layers
With solution

A
z
= j

0

I
z0
8
2

_

_
e
jk
z
|zz

|
k
z
+ R
+

e
jk
z
(zz
1
)
+ R

e
jk
z
(zz

)
, source layer
R
+

e
jk
z
(zz
1
)
+ R

e
jk
z
(zz

)
, other layers
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 7/19
The Spectral Domain Greens Function
_

2
+ k
2

_
A
z
=
0

I
z0
(z z

)
Tangential E, H continuous at z

= {1, 2, . . . L + 1}
A
z
F
x,y

A
z
(x, y)
F
x,y
(k
x
, k
y
)
(
2
+ k
2

)
F
x,y

2
z
2
+ k
2
z
k
2
z
= k
2

k
2

, k
2

= k
2
x
+ k
2
y
Reduces the PDE to an ODE

2

A
z
z
2
+ k
2
z

A
z
=
_
_
_

I
z0
(zz

)
4
2
, source layer
0, other layers
With solution

A
z
= j

0

I
z0
8
2

_

_
e
jk
z
|zz

|
k
z
+ R
+

e
jk
z
(zz
1
)
+ R

e
jk
z
(zz

)
, source layer
R
+

e
jk
z
(zz
1
)
+ R

e
jk
z
(zz

)
, other layers
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 7/19
The Spectral Domain Greens Function
_

2
+ k
2

_
A
z
=
0

I
z0
(z z

)
Tangential E, H continuous at z

= {1, 2, . . . L + 1}
A
z
F
x,y

A
z
(x, y)
F
x,y
(k
x
, k
y
)
(
2
+ k
2

)
F
x,y

2
z
2
+ k
2
z
k
2
z
= k
2

k
2

, k
2

= k
2
x
+ k
2
y
Reduces the PDE to an ODE

2

A
z
z
2
+ k
2
z

A
z
=
_
_
_

I
z0
(zz

)
4
2
, source layer
0, other layers
With solution

A
z
= j

0

I
z0
8
2

_

_
e
jk
z
|zz

|
k
z
+ R
+

e
jk
z
(zz
1
)
+ R

e
jk
z
(zz

)
, source layer
R
+

e
jk
z
(zz
1
)
+ R

e
jk
z
(zz

)
, other layers
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 7/19
Spectral Domain Boundary Conditions
Tangential continuity of E, H + Sommerfeld radiation condition:
_

A
z
=

A
z(+1)
_
z=z

R
+
1
= 0, R

L+1
= 0
_
1
n
2

A
z
z
=
1
n
2
+1

A
z(+1)
z
_
z=z

R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 8/19
Spectral Domain Boundary Conditions
Tangential continuity of E, H + Sommerfeld radiation condition:
_

A
z
=

A
z(+1)
_
z=z

R
+
1
= 0, R

L+1
= 0
_
1
n
2

A
z
z
=
1
n
2
+1

A
z(+1)
z
_
z=z

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Matrix Column
M
a
t
r
i
x

R
o
w
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 8/19
Spectral Domain Boundary Conditions
Tangential continuity of E, H + Sommerfeld radiation condition:
_

A
z
=

A
z(+1)
_
z=z

R
+
1
= 0, R

L+1
= 0
_
1
n
2

A
z
z
=
1
n
2
+1

A
z(+1)
z
_
z=z

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Matrix Column
M
a
t
r
i
x

R
o
w
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 8/19
Fourier integral simplies to Sommerfeld integral:
_ _
(k
x
,k
y
)

A
z
(k
x
, k
y
) exp (j (k
x
x + k
y
y)) dk
x
dk
y

_

0

A
z
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

## Two issues to handle for numerical integration

Singularities in complex-k

plane
1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
8
6
4
2
0
2
Log SDGF Contours
Integration Path
Oscillatory nature of J
0
(k

)
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 9/19
Fourier integral simplies to Sommerfeld integral:
_ _
(k
x
,k
y
)

A
z
(k
x
, k
y
) exp (j (k
x
x + k
y
y)) dk
x
dk
y

_

0

A
z
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

## Two issues to handle for numerical integration

Singularities in complex-k

plane
1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
8
6
4
2
0
2
Log SDGF Contours
Integration Path
Oscillatory nature of J
0
(k

)
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 9/19
Fourier integral simplies to Sommerfeld integral:
_ _
(k
x
,k
y
)

A
z
(k
x
, k
y
) exp (j (k
x
x + k
y
y)) dk
x
dk
y

_

0

A
z
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

## Two issues to handle for numerical integration

Singularities in complex-k

plane
1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
8
6
4
2
0
2
Log SDGF Contours
Integration Path
Oscillatory nature of J
0
(k

)
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 9/19
Fourier integral simplies to Sommerfeld integral:
_ _
(k
x
,k
y
)

A
z
(k
x
, k
y
) exp (j (k
x
x + k
y
y)) dk
x
dk
y

_

0

A
z
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

## Two issues to handle for numerical integration

Singularities in complex-k

plane
1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
8
6
4
2
0
2
Log SDGF Contours
Integration Path
Oscillatory nature of J
0
(k

)
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 9/19
Singularity Extraction and Modal Solutions
log(

A
z
(k

)), z = 5, z

= 3.1123
1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
8
6
4
2
0
2
Log SDGF Contours
Integration Path
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 10/19
Singularity Extraction and Modal Solutions
log(

A
z
(k

)), z = 5, z

= 3.1123
1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
8
6
4
2
0
2
Log SDGF Contours
Integration Path
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 10/19
Singularity Extraction and Modal Solutions
1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08
0.05
0
0.05
10
8
6
4
2
0
Log SDGF Contours
Integration Path
1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08
0.05
0
0.05
5
4
3
2
1
0
Pole 1
1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08
0.05
0
0.05
7
6
5
4
3
2
Pole 2
1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08
0.05
0
0.05
5.5
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
No Pole SDGF
_

0
f (z)
k
2

k
2
p
J
0
(k

) k

dk

=
j
2
f (z)H
(1)
0
(k
p
)
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 11/19
Singularity Extraction and Modal Solutions
1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08
0.05
0
0.05
10
8
6
4
2
0
Log SDGF Contours
Integration Path
1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08
0.05
0
0.05
5
4
3
2
1
0
Pole 1
1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08
0.05
0
0.05
7
6
5
4
3
2
Pole 2
1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08
0.05
0
0.05
5.5
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
No Pole SDGF
_

0
f (z)
k
2

k
2
p
J
0
(k

) k

dk

=
j
2
f (z)H
(1)
0
(k
p
)
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 11/19
Handling Oscillatory Integrals
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
Usual Approaches
Contour deformation to less oscillatory paths
Curve t

A
z
with functions that have closed form Sommerfeld integrals.
New approach: account for the oscillation in the quadrature rule weights.
Takes numerical samples and returns asymptotic ( ) results:
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 12/19
Handling Oscillatory Integrals
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
Usual Approaches
Contour deformation to less oscillatory paths
Curve t

A
z
with functions that have closed form Sommerfeld integrals.
New approach: account for the oscillation in the quadrature rule weights.
Takes numerical samples and returns asymptotic ( ) results:
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 12/19
Handling Oscillatory Integrals
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
Usual Approaches
Contour deformation to less oscillatory paths
Curve t

A
z
with functions that have closed form Sommerfeld integrals.
New approach: account for the oscillation in the quadrature rule weights.
Takes numerical samples and returns asymptotic ( ) results:
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 12/19
Handling Oscillatory Integrals
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
0 10 20
0.5
0
0.5
1
Usual Approaches
Contour deformation to less oscillatory paths
Curve t

A
z
with functions that have closed form Sommerfeld integrals.
New approach: account for the oscillation in the quadrature rule weights.
Takes numerical samples and returns asymptotic ( ) results:
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 12/19

A
z
(k

)
M

m=0
a
m
T
m
(k

)
_

A
z
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

m=0
a
m
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

w
m
() =
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

## There is a recurrence relationship among T

m
polynomials (and thus
among the weights). Solving the recurrence numerically for any M and
is its own problem, solved by V. Domnguez in the FCC package.
Numerically stable implementation for
_

A
z
(k

) exp(jk

)dk

, but
J
0
(k

)
_
1
2k

_
e
jk

j

4
+ e
jk

+j

4
_
for large
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 13/19

A
z
(k

)
M

m=0
a
m
T
m
(k

)
_

A
z
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

m=0
a
m
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

w
m
() =
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

## There is a recurrence relationship among T

m
polynomials (and thus
among the weights). Solving the recurrence numerically for any M and
is its own problem, solved by V. Domnguez in the FCC package.
Numerically stable implementation for
_

A
z
(k

) exp(jk

)dk

, but
J
0
(k

)
_
1
2k

_
e
jk

j

4
+ e
jk

+j

4
_
for large
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 13/19

A
z
(k

)
M

m=0
a
m
T
m
(k

)
_

A
z
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

m=0
a
m
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

w
m
() =
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

## There is a recurrence relationship among T

m
polynomials (and thus
among the weights). Solving the recurrence numerically for any M and
is its own problem, solved by V. Domnguez in the FCC package.
Numerically stable implementation for
_

A
z
(k

) exp(jk

)dk

, but
J
0
(k

)
_
1
2k

_
e
jk

j

4
+ e
jk

+j

4
_
for large
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 13/19

A
z
(k

)
M

m=0
a
m
T
m
(k

)
_

A
z
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

m=0
a
m
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

w
m
() =
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

## There is a recurrence relationship among T

m
polynomials (and thus
among the weights). Solving the recurrence numerically for any M and
is its own problem, solved by V. Domnguez in the FCC package.
Numerically stable implementation for
_

A
z
(k

) exp(jk

)dk

, but
J
0
(k

)
_
1
2k

_
e
jk

j

4
+ e
jk

+j

4
_
for large
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 13/19

A
z
(k

)
M

m=0
a
m
T
m
(k

)
_

A
z
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

m=0
a
m
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

w
m
() =
_
T
m
(k

)J
0
(k

)k

dk

## There is a recurrence relationship among T

m
polynomials (and thus
among the weights). Solving the recurrence numerically for any M and
is its own problem, solved by V. Domnguez in the FCC package.
Numerically stable implementation for
_

A
z
(k

) exp(jk

)dk

, but
J
0
(k

)
_
1
2k

_
e
jk

j

4
+ e
jk

+j

4
_
for large
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 13/19
Putting it All Together: Numerical Results 1
Range [
0
]
H
e
i
g
h
t

[

0
]

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
5
0
5
10
15
60
40
20
0
Range [
0
]
H
e
i
g
h
t

[

0
]

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
5
0
5
10
15
60
40
20
0
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 14/19
Putting it All Together: Numerical Results 1
Range [
0
]
H
e
i
g
h
t

[

0
]

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
5
0
5
10
15
60
40
20
0
Range [
0
]
H
e
i
g
h
t

[

0
]

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
5
0
5
10
15
60
40
20
0
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 14/19
Putting it All Together: Numerical Results 2
Range [
0
]
H
e
i
g
h
t

[

0
]
Dipole guided modes at 5.8 GHz in a linear gradient above copper

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0
10
20
d
B
80
60
40
20
0
Range [
0
]
H
e
i
g
h
t

[

0
]
Raytracing of guided modes in a linear gradient above copper

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0
10
20
I
n
d
e
x

o
f

R
e
f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
1
1.02
1.04
1.06
1.08
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 15/19
Future Research
Closed form expressions for the quadrature weights
Horizontal Dipoles and Magnetic Duals
Scattering formulation based on surface integral equations for terrain
Validation against measurements
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 16/19
Acknowledgements
Dr. V. Domnguez of Universidad P ublica de Navarra
This work is sponsored by the US Oce of Naval Research
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 17/19
Extra Material
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 18/19
Environmental Model: Plane-Stratied Lossy Dielectric
R. Bhattacharjea, GT
A Direct Spectral Domain Method for Near-Ground Microwave Radiation by a Vertical Dipole Above Earth in the Presence of Atmospheric Refractivity 19/19