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CHAPTER XIII

PREPOSITIONS () I. The Name. As is often the case, so here the name describes a later de elo!ment, not the ori"inal, nor the essential, idea# (a) SO$E POSTPOSITI%E# Pre!ositions ma& indeed be !ost!ositi e li'e the (atin mecum, the )ree' , (anastro!he)# In the T*r'ish ton"*e+ the& are all !ost!ositi e# And )iles (Manual, !# ,-+) thin's that is earlier than # (b) NOT ORI)INA((. /SE0 1ITH %ER2S# $oreo er, the name im!lies that the& !ro!erl& belon" 3ith erbs (prae-verbia, )# 2*t 3e no3 'no3 that the *se 3ith erbs 3as a m*ch later de elo!ment# There are indeed in )ree' no 4inse!arable5 !re!ositions, 3hich are *sed onl& in com!osition 3ith erbs# In the Attic, o*tside of Xeno!hon, 3as *sed mainl& in com!osition#6 In the N# T# ! is fo*nd onl& 3ith com!o*nd 3ords li'e "##, # In the Sans'rit most of the erbal !refi7es can be traced to ad erbs 3ith cases#, (c) EXP(ANATION# Hence the name m*st be e7!lained# The later "rammarians *sed the term for those ad erbs 3hich 3ere *sed in com!osition 3ith erbs and in connection 3ith the cases of no*ns# 2oth thin"s had to be tr*e accordin" to this definition# 2*t it 3ill be seen at once that this definition is arbitrar&# The *se 3ith erbs in com!osition 3as the last ste!, not the first, in the de elo!ment# 2esides, 3hat is to be said abo*t those ad erbs that are *sed, not 3ith erbs, b*t 3ith cases, and no lon"er a!!ear as mere ad erbs8 Ta'e , for instance, 3ith the ablati e# It is not fo*nd in com!osition 3ith erbs nor b& itself a!art from a no*n# It is, of co*rse, a !re!osition# The "rammars call it an 4im!ro!er5 or ad erbial !re!osition# It is onl& 4im!ro!er5 from the stand!oint of the definition, not from that of the )ree' lan"*a"e# The tr*th seems to be that b& !re!osition one m*st mean a 3ord *sed 3ith cases of no*ns and man& of 3hich came to be *sed in com!osition 3ith erbs# The facts do not s9*are 3ith the other definition# II. The Origin of Prepositions.

1 Farrar, Gk. Synt., p. 95. Giles GILES, P., A Short Manual of Co parati!e Philolo"y. #$ e$. %19&1'. (((, )he Greek Lan"ua"e %En*y*. +ritanni*a, 191&'. # Monro, ,o . Gr., pp. 1#-, 1./. Courto0 %(es Pr:fi7es en )rec, en (at# et en ;ran<ais , 119., p. 51' says2 3O*tre les di7=h*it !r:!ositions 9*e no*s enons de !asser en re *e, il & a encore, en "rec, 9*el9*es !artic*les ins:!arables, 9*i s>em!loient comme !r:fi7es dans les mots com!os:s# Ces !artic*les sont , o* $, %, &' et (.4 +ut these are not the 3prepositions4 un$er $is*ussion. - 5hitney, Sans. Gr., p. .1..

(a) ORI)INA((. A0%ER2S# This is no3 so 3ell reco"nised that it seems stran"e to read in 1iner+ that 4!re!ositions e#"# often ass*me the nat*re of ad erbs, and vice versa,5 e en tho*"h he adds 4that the !re!ositions are ad erbs ori"inall&#5 )iles6 !*ts the matter sim!l& and clearl& 3hen he sa&s? 42et3een ad erbs and !re!ositions no distinct line can be dra3n#5 Th*s e en in Homer !, !, etc#, a!!ear still as ad erbs#, 0elbr@c'- "oes a bit f*rther and sa&s that ori"inall& the !re!ositions 3ere !lace=ad erbs# 2r*"mannA 9*alifies that to 4mostl&,5 and he adds that 3e cannot dra3 a shar! line bet3een the *se as ad erb and the *se as !re= erb or !re!osition#B (b) REASON ;OR /SE O; PREPOSITIONS# 4The !re!osition is, therefore, onl& an ad erb s!ecialiCed to define a case=*sa"e#5D This definition "i es the reason also# The case alone 3as eno*"h at first to e7!ress the relation bet3een 3ords, b*t, as lan"*a"e de elo!ed, the b*rden on the cases "re3 hea ier# The anal&tic tendenc& in lan"*a"e is
5iner 5I6E7, G. +., 0e erbor*m c*m !rae!# com!os# in N# T# /s* %11-.811.-'. (((, )ramm# d# ne*t# S!rachidioms (+E66)# D# A*fl# on (@nemann %l19/'. 1 5.:)h., p. -59. # Man., et*., p. -.1. - ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. 959. Cf. Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1#-. ;el<r=*k ;EL+7?C@, +., Ablati (ocalis Instr*mentalis %119/'. (((, )r*ndriF der er"l# )ramm# d# indo"# S!rachen# S&nta7# 2de# III8> %119-, 119/, 19&&'. (((, Intro$u*tion to the Stu$y of Lan"ua"e %111#'. Einleit*n" in das S!rachst*di*m# -# A*fl# (+GH-)# A# A*fl# %191-'. (((, S&nta'tische ;orsch*n"en# A 2de# %11/181111'. . I<., p. 959. Cf. Grun$l., I>, p. 1-.. +ru" ann +7AGMA66, @., Ele ents of Co parati!e Gra %translation <y 5ri"ht, 1195'. ar of the In$o:Ger ani* Lan"ua"es

(((, )riechische )rammati'# ,# A*fl# %19&&', the e$. Buote$. %ierte ermehrte A*fl# of A. )hu < %191-'. (((, )r*ndriF der er"l# )r# d# indo"# S!rachen# 6# A*fl#, 2de# I, II %119/8191-'. (((, I*rCe er"leichende )rammati' der indo"ermanischen S!rachen %19&.'. 5 Grie*h. Gr., p. .#9. 9 I<., p. .-&. / Giles, Man., et*., p. -.1.

res!onsible for the "ro3th of !re!ositions#E The !re!ositions come in to hel! o*t the meanin" of the case in a "i en conte7t# The notion, therefore, that !re!ositions 4"o ern5 cases m*st be discarded definitel&# ;arrarG clearl& !ercei ed this !oint# 4It is the case 3hich indicates the meanin" of the preposition, and not the !re!osition 3hich "i es the meanin" to the case#5 This conce!tion e7!lains the *se and the non=*se of a !re!osition li'e $, for instance, 3ith the locati e, ) or ' 3ith the ablati e, etc# In the Sans'rit the !re!ositions do not e7ist as a se!arate class of 3ords, tho*"h a "ood man& ad erbs are comin" to be *sed 3ith the obli9*e cases (e7ce!t the dati e) to ma'e clearer the case=idea#+H (c) %AR.IN) HISTOR.# The ad erbs that come to be *sed 3ith the cases ar& "reatl& in their histor&# Some cease to be *sed as ad erbs, as , for instance# Others contin*e (besides the *se 3ith cases and 3ith erbs) to be em!lo&ed occasionall& as ad erbs (* +, Re # 6+?6+J '* ,, $'# +-?+GJ - $./, 6 Cor# ++?6,)# Some are *sed both 3ith no*ns, and in com!osition 3ith erbs, li'e $, ! and the other se enteen 4!ro!er5 classical !re!ositions# 0 ! occ*rs onl& in com!osition# Others are not *sed in com!osition 3ith erbs, b*t are no lon"er mere ad erbs li'e # Others are em!lo&ed both as ad erb and 3ith cases of no*ns, li'e 1', 23, etc# Some occ*r both as !re!osition and conK*nction, li'e , , 2, #4# Some fi"*re as s*bstanti e, ad erb and !re!osition 3ith case, li'e # III. Growth in the Use of Prepositions. (a) ONCE NO PREPOSITIONS# As alread& noted, in the Sans'rit there is no se!arate class of !re!ositions, tho*"h a n*mber of ad erbs are alread& comin" to be *sed as !re!ositions, and erbs ha e some !refi7es# Some ad erbs in )ree' are occasionall& *sed 3ith cases, li'e 3! and the "eniti e, b*t are not !re!ositions# Here 3e see the *se of !re!ositions started, tentati el& at an& rate# 1e ma& s*!!ose a time f*rther bac' in the histor& of the Indo=)ermanic ton"*es 3hen no ad erbs 3ere *sed 3ith cases, 3hen the cases stood all alone# (b) THE PREPOSITIONS STI(( /SE0 AS A0%ER2S IN HO$ER# Not onl& do the 4ad erbial5 !re!ositions ha e their *s*al freedom, b*t a considerable n*mber of ad erbs are fo*nd in com!osition 3ith erbs# Homer mar's a distinct ad ance o er the Sans'rit in the increase of !re!ositions# There is in Homer a real class of !re!ositions# 2*t in Homer the limitation of the !re!osition to cases of no*ns and com!osition 3ith erbs is far from bein" established# 0 !, $, etc#, ma& be sim!l& ad erbs, Lon both sides,> Linside#>+ So common is the se!aration of the !re!osition from the erb that the term tmesis is *sed for it, b*t no strict line can be dra3n bet3een this *sa"e and the ordinar& ad erb#6 (c) 0ECREASIN) /SE AS A0%ER2S A;TER HO$ER# It is not common thereafter for the ei"hteen classical !re!ositions, those *sed in com!osition 3ith erbs as 3ell as 3ith cases of no*ns, to occ*r se!aratel& as ad erbs# It is not common, b*t still !ossible# This
1 Farrar, Gk. Synt., p. 9.. Farrar FA77A7, F. 5., Greek SyntaC %11/9'. 9 I<. 1& 5hitney, Sans. Gr., p. .1.. 1 Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1#-. # I<., p. 1#..

list com!rises !, , !, ), %, 5, $3, $, $!, ', , ', !, ), ), , 6, 6)# No3 these 3ords 3ere *sed 3ith stead& increase so that one of the mar's of later )ree' is the ab*ndance of com!o*nd erbs as 3ell as the more e7tensi e *se of these !re!ositions 3ith the ario*s cases# Not onl& is this tr*e, b*t contin*all& ne3 ad erbs Koined the alread& lar"e list of ad erbial !re!ositions em!lo&ed 3ith cases# In a 3ord, as 2lass+ remar's, the *se of a !re!osition 3ith no*ns 3as 4a !ractice 3hich in the co*rse of the histor& of the lan"*a"e became more and more ado!ted in o!!osition to the em!lo&ment of the sim!le case#5 The Em!eror A*"*st*s 3as noted for his e7cessi e *se of !re!ositions in his effort to s!ea' more clearl& (quod quo facilius exprimeret, S*etoni*s)#6 Other (atin 3riters sho3 the same tendenc&# (d) SE$ITIC IN;(/ENCE IN N# T# The N# T# 3riters 3ere once s*!!osed to ma'e s*ch free *se of !re!ositions beca*se of the Hebre3 and Aramaic# 2*t the N# T# does not ma'e ab*ndant *se of all the !re!ositions# 0 ! has dro!!ed o*t entirel& sa e in com!osition, and is nearl& confined to the distrib*ti e *se and * , a sort of com!o*nd !re!osition#, It occ*rs onl& +6 times, omittin" the ad erbial *se in Re # 6+?6+# 0! a!!ears 66 times, b*t as $o*lton- e7!lains, fi e of these are d*e to 7 8# 2*t ) is er& ab*ndant in the N# T#, as are %, 5, $, $, $!, ', , )# 2*t
1 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#1. # Cf. Farrar, Gk. Synt., p. 95D E""er, Gr. Co p., p. 195. - Moulton, Prol., p. 1&&. Moulton MEAL)E6, F. ,., A Gra ar of 6. ). Greek. >ol. I, Prole"o ena %19&9'. -$ e$. %19&1'.

(((, Chara*teristi*s of 6. ). Greek %)he ECpositor, 19&.'. (((, Einleit*n" in die S!rache des N# T# %1911'. (((, Gra ati*al 6otes fro the Papyri %)he ECpositor, 19&1, pp. #/18#1#D 19&-, pp. 1&.81#1, .#-8.-9. )he Classi*al 7e!ieG, 19&1, pp. -18-/, .-.8..1D 19&., pp. 1&98 11#, 1518155'. (((, Intro$u*tion to 6. ). Greek %1195'. #$ e$. %19&.'. (((, Lan"ua"e of Christ %,astin"sH Ene:!ol. ;. +., 19&9'. (((, 6. ). Greek in the Li"ht of Mo$ern ;is*o!ery %Ca <r. +i<l. Essays, 19&9, pp. .918 5&5'. (((, )he S*ien*e of Lan"ua"e %19&-'. MEAL)E6, 5. F., an$ GE;E6, A. S., A Con*or$an*e to the Greek )esta ent %119/'. MEAL)E6 an$ MILLIGA6, LeCi*al 6otes fro the Papyri %)he ECpos., 19&1('. the Papyri an$ other 6on:Literary

(((, )he >o*a<ulary of the 6. ). Illustrate$ fro Sour*es. Part I %191.', II, III. . I<.

', !, ), , 6, 6) are, li'e , alread& "oin" the 3a& of !# Irebs has made a caref*l st*d& of the !re!ositions in Pol&bi*s,A as Helbin" has done for Herodot*sB and Mohannessohn for the (XX#D The& sho3 the same "eneral tendenc& to3ards the increased *se of some !re!ositions to the dis*se of others# ;or the N# T#, $o*ltonE has made a caref*l calc*lation 3hich is 3orth re!rod*cin"# 9 and 5 far o*tn*mber an& of the other !re!ositions in the N# T#G And $ leads 5 b& a "ood mar"in# $o*lton ta'es $ as *nit& and finds the other N# T# !re!ositions ran"in" as follo3s? #HH-A, ! #HHE, ) #6-, % #6-, 5 #B-, $ #,-, $! #,6, ' #+D, # +D, ' #HD, ! #+6, ) #H+E, ) #6A, #H-E, 6 #HA-, 6) #HE# The three commonest !re!ositions in Herodot*s+H are 5, $ and $!, in this order# In Th*c&dides and Xeno!hon the order is $, 5 and $!# 2*t Xeno!hon aries the order of fre9*enc& in his ario*s boo's# In Pol&bi*s the three chief !re!ositions are ', ), 5J in 0iodor*s 5, ', )J in 0ion&si*s $, $!, 5J in Mose!h*s (War) ), 5, ', (Ant.) 5, $!, )J in Pl*tarch $, ), 5J in 0io Cassi*s $, 5, $!# In the N# T# the three main ones, as seen abo e, are $, 5, $, tho*"h $! is not far behind $# In the literar& 4 it 3ill be seen that the *se of 5 is nearl& do*ble that of $, 3hereas in the N# T# 5 is ahead of $ onl& in $ar' and Hebre3s#+ In the ernac*lar 4, $ ma'es a rather better sho3in"# The lar"e increase of the ad erbial !re!ositions in the N#

@re<s @7E+S, F., 0ie PrN!ositionen bei Pol&bi*s %111#. S*han0H +eitrI"e'. (((, 0ie PrN!ositionsad erbien in der s!Nteren hist# )rNcitNt# )l. I %1119'. (((, O*r Re'tion der Ias*s in der s!Nteren hist# )rNcit . %111/8119&'. 5 0ie PrN!# bei Pol&b# , 111#D *f. p. -. ,el<in" ,EL+I6G, 7., 0ie PrN!os# bei Herodot *nd andern Histori'ern %19&.'. (((, )rammati' der Se!t*a"inta# (a*t= *nd 1ortlehre %19&/'. (((, Pber den )ebra*ch des echten *nd soCiati en 0ati s bei Herodot . 9 0ie PrN!# bei Herod# *nd andern Hist#, 19&.. Fohannessohn FE,A66ESSE,6, M., 0er )ebra*ch der Ias*s *nd der PrN!ositionen in der Se!t*a"inta. )eil I %191&'. / Fohannessohn, 0er )ebr# der Cas*s *nd der PrN!# in der Se!t#, )l. I, 191&. Cf. also C. an$ S., p. 1& f. 1 Prol., p. 91. 9 I<., p. 9#. 1& See ,el<in", PrIp. <ei ,ero$., p. 1 f., for the fa*ts here use$. 1 Moulton, Prol., p. 9#.

T#, as in the 4, calls for s!ecial treatment a little later# It ma& be here remar'ed that the& n*mber -6, co*ntin" ar&in" forms of the same 3ord li'e :, !# (e) IN $O0ERN )REEI# The ar&in" histor& of the ei"hteen !re!ositions "oes still f*rther#6 Th*s !;< s*r i es in the ernac*lar as 3ell as ) ;<, % ;.<, 5 ;$, , 7<, ;<, ' ;< and =# Cf# Th*mb, Handb., !!# +HH ff# The b*l' of the old !re!ositions dro! o*t in the mediQ al !eriod# Their !lace is s*!!lied lar"el& b& the later !re!ositional ad erbs, as b& , $3 b& 23, b*t !artl& also b& a 3ider *se of the remainin" !re!ositions, as 5 for $ and ), for # Then a"ain all !re!ositions in the modern )ree' *se the acc*sati e case as do other ad erbs, and sometimes e en 3ith the nominati e (.* ), Las a sa"e>)# In a sense then the )ree' !re!ositions mar' a c&cle# The& sho3 the ret*rn of the acc*sati e to its ori"inal fre9*enc&# The& ha e lost the fine distinctions that the old )ree' !re!ositions once !ossessed 3hen the& 3ere *sed to hel! o*t the ideas of the cases# The& dro! o*t before the rise of other !re!ositions 3hich more clearl& e7hibit the ad erbial side of the !re!osition# The so=called im!ro!er !re!ositions are more shar!l& defined in modern )ree' (Th*mb, Handb., !!# +HD ff#)# 2*t in the N# T# the !re!ositions ha e not "one so far in their histor&# IV. Prepositions in Composition with Verbs. (a) NOT THE $AIN ;/NCTION# As has alread& been sho3n, this 3as not the ori"inal *se of 3hat 3e call !re!ositions, tho*"h this *sa"e has "i en the name to this "ro*! of 3ords# 2esides it debars one technicall& from callin" those n*mero*s ad erbs !re!ositions 3hich are *sed 3ith cases, b*t not *sed in com!osition 3ith erbs# 2*t no 4inse!arable5 !re!ositions 3ere de elo!ed in )ree',+ a!art from the similar *se of ! alread& mentioned# In most dialects ! 3as obsolete (2*c', Gk. Dialects, !# +H6)# In modern )ree' >, '> and $> ;3< are *sed chiefl& in com!osition (Th*mb, Handb., !# GG), b*t occ*rs 3ith acc*sati e# (b) PREPOSITION A(ONE# Sometimes indeed the !re!osition is *sed alone (elli!sis) and the erb has to be s*!!lied, as in ? 2 ()al# ,?6E) for ? 2# So - $./ in
# See Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -95 f., for *areful *o parison <etGeen an*. an$ Cf. ,at0., Einl., p. 151. )hu < ),AM+, A., 0ie ;orsch# @ber die hellen# S!r# in den Mahren 19&#819&. %Ar*h. f. Pap. -, pp. ..-8 ./-'. (((, 0ie "riech# S!rache im Oeitalter des Hellenism*s %19&1'. (((, 0ie s!rach"esch# Stell# des bibl# )riech# %)heol. 7un$., 19&#'. (((, Handb*ch der "riech# ;ial. %19&9'. (((, Handb*ch d# ne*"riech# %ol'ss!rache# 6# A*fl# %191&'. (((, Handb*ch des Sans'rits. I, Gra atik %19&5'. o$. Gk.

(((, /nters# @ber d# S!# As!er im )riech# %1119'. 1 Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1#-. +u*k +AC@, C. ;., Intro$u*tion to the Stu$y of the Greek ;iale*ts %191&'.

6 Cor# ++?6,# Cf# ##7 ' (Lb*t *!R>) in Homer# This elli!sis does not differ "reatl& from the common *se of tmesis in Homer, 3here the !re!osition is re"arded more as an ad erb# (c) INCREASIN) /SE# The *se of !re!ositions in com!osition increased 3ith the histor& of the )ree' lan"*a"e# One characteristic of the later )ree' is the n*mber of com!o*nd erbs em!lo&ed#6 This is a matter !artl& of im!ression and 3ill remain so till one 4'# "rammarian5 arri es 43ho 3ill toil ri"ht thro*"h the !a!&ri and the 4 literat*re#5, No one is an7io*s for that tas', b*t Irebs- is able to sa& that erbs com!o*nded 3ith !re!ositions !la& a note3orth& rle in the later )ree'# This is not sim!l& tr*e of ne3 com!o*nds li'e $@', etc#, b*t 4there is a "ro3in" tendenc& to *se the com!o*nds, es!eciall& those 3ith %, ' and , to e7!ress 3hat in the oldest )ree' co*ld be s*fficientl& indicated b& the sim!le7#5A The N# T# does not indeed sho3 as la ish a *se of com!o*nd erbs as does Pol&bi*s, the chief re!resentati e of the literar& 4 of his time# 2*t these %#A belon"ed to the lan"*a"e of the !eo!le in Aristotle>s timeB and the !a!&ri sho3 a common *se of com!o*nd erbs#D As com!ared 3ith Pol&bi*s the N# T# ma'es less *se of certain erbs, b*t the matter aries 3ith different erbs and different 3riters#E (d) REPETITION A;TER %ER2# Sometimes the !re!osition is re!eated after the erb, as in the older )ree'# The !re!ositions most fre9*entl& re!eated are ), $3, 5, $, $!# This is !artl& beca*se these !re!ositions are so common in the N# T# and !artl& beca*se the& em!hasiCe the local notions of Lfrom,> Lin,> or L*!on,> and Lto> or Linto#> Perha!s also the !re!osition in com!osition is a bit 3orn do3n# The !a!&ri and inscri!tions sho3 the same re!etition of the !re!osition, tho*"h hardl& so fre9*entl&, if one ma& K*d"e b& his im!ressions# See B# 7 '?C ($'# +?-6)# 1ith ) indeed 1iner+ finds that for the most !art the !re!osition is re!eated in the N# T# Th*s 3e note also 'D 7 '?E ($t# G?+A), 'F' 7 $C ((*# +B?,, b*t not so in +H?-6), (##' 7 '?C ((*# +6?AE), E ! (Col# 6?6H), 7 '?E " ((*# A?6), ' E '#E (Ac# G?+E), ' 7 6E (+ Th# 6?+D), ! 7 ##4# ($t# 6A?,6),
# )he LJJ in parti*ular shoGs a "reat !ariety of uses of the prep. Gith !er<s, partly $ue to transl. fro the ,e<., partly to the 4. Cf. C. an$ S., p. 11, for list. Cf. Fohannessohn, 0er )ebr# d# Cas*s *nd der PrN!# in der (XX. - Moulton, Prol., p. 111. Cf. 5.:)h., p. .#9. . O*r Rect# der Cas*s in der s!Nteren hist# )rNc# , III. ,eft, p. -. 5 Moulton, Prol., p. 115. 9 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. /&. / Mayser, Gr. $. "rie*h. Pap., pp. .19 ff. @uhrin" %de !rae!osition*m )raecar*m in chartis Ae"&!tiis *s* 9*aestiones selectae, 19&9' an$ 7oss<er" %de !rae!# )raec# in chartis Ae"&!t# Ptol# aetatis *s*, 19&9' ha!e <oth atta*ke$ the pro<le s in the pap., as Geyer %Obser ationes e!i"ra!hicae de !rae!# )raec# forma et *s* , 111&' has $one for the ins*r. 1 Moulton, Prol., p. 119 f. )he "reat Gork on prepositions is )y*ho Mo der (ehre on den "riech# PrN!#, 1195. 1 5.:)h., p. .#/. senHs 2eitr# C*

( 7 '?E ((*# 66?-+), G H'/" (Ro# ++?6B), F 7 $C ($t# D?6,), )( 7 $C ((*# +,?6D, b*t not 6?,D)# (i'e3ise $ ma& be re!eated as 3ith $"## $ C ('C ($t# +,?A6), $ C $3#' ($t# 6?B), $3' $ C #'C (Ac# 6B?+D), $3#3( $ C ) (Mo# +A?+G), $ B '* $3)( (Ro# ++?6-), $3' $ E E (Ac# +6?D), $) $ C )' ($t# +A?++), $ .F $ C I (Ac# +G?+B)# %erbs com!o*nded 3ith 5 4*niforml& re!eat 55 (1iner=Tha&er, !# -,H)# So, for instance, 54.'. ((*# 66?A-), 5' (Ac# ,?,), 5B# ($t# 6?6+), 5' ($'# +?6+), 5 (Ac# +D?6H), b*t see Ac# 6E?,H (5> ))# 1ith $ 3e obser e the re!etition in some erbs a!!ears, tho*"h often 5 occ*rs instead both 3here motion is im!lied and 3here the idea is sim!l& that of rest (!re"nant constr*ction)# As is 3ell 'no3n, $ and 5 are reall& the same 3ord# Hence the ri"id distinction bet3een the t3o !re!ositions cannot be insisted on# There are t3o e7tremes abo*t 5 and $, one to blend them entirel& beca*se of alle"ed Hebraism, the other to insist on com!lete distinction al3a&s# As a r*le the& are distinct, b*t 5 fre9*entl& encroached on $ 3here one has to admit the !ractical identit&, li'e 5 +) $ ($'# 6?+, mar"# in 1# H#), J K 5 )# C ') (Mo# +?+E), etc# ;or the fre9*ent (XX e7am!les see Con&beare and Stoc', !# E+# Still, for the sa'e of *niformit&, onl& e7am!les of $ are here "i en, li'e $"G' $ L "#!M ($t# 6B?6,), $"/ $ N'L (Mo# ++?,E), $..'( $ 'F '%!' (6 Cor# ,?6), $%(C $ L /' (6 Cor# A?B), $.E $ 6F (Ph# 6?+,), $' $ D %'4O (Heb# E?G), $! $ 6F (Col# ,?+B), $ E $ 'F ' (6 Pet# 6?+,)# A n*mber of erbs ha e $! re!eated, s*ch as $""(P $! 3ith acc*sati e ($t# 6+?A), $"## $! 3ith acc*sati e ((*# A?,B), $B $7 $ (Mo# +,?+E), $ '#) $7 '? (Ac# +G?+B), $#' $Q ((*# +?,A), 2% $Q * #R (Ac# -?6G), $ $7 '?L (Mo# ++?,E), $"#G $Q S #R ((*# +?-E), $ $7 '?) ((*# +?+6), $7 ?%Q '?E $) (Ac# E?+B), $!G' $7 '?) (+ Pet# A?D), $' $Q T #R ($t# 6,?-), $%F $Q #R (+ Cor# ,?+6), $%( $Q L #R (E!h# 6?6H)# As to % not man& erbs ha e it re!eated, b*t note %'' '? %* ! ((*# B?+), %/(' %7 -%' (+ Pet# ,?6H), %' %7 % ($t# +6?-,), %4 %* ((*# +D?++)# A similar rarit& as to re!etition e7ists in the case of ', b*t 3e note '(.F '7 '?C ((*# 6,?+-), '''A '* B #(!' (Mas# ,?+-)# %er& seldom is ' re!eated as in '#" '7 UE (+ Th# -?+, cf# + Th# 6?+,J 6 Th# ,?B)# ! is re!eated 3ith more erbs than '# Th*s 'G' Q $ (Ac# 66?B), & Q * #R (Re # +A?B), !' Q #R ((*# +D?6), A Q ##4 ((*# +H?-H)# ), li'e , sho3s no e7am!le of re!etition in the critical te7t, tho*"h some $SS# read O / (for $/) in (*# +?DB#
5iner:)hayer 5I6E7:),AKE7, A Gra ar of the I$io of the 6. ). %1199'. >arious e$s. the LJJ. A Gra ati*al

Cony<eare an$ Sto*k CE6K+EA7E an$ S)EC@, Sele*tions fro Intro$u*tion %19&5'.

As e7am!les of ) re!eated ta'e ##(4' S #R (E!h# A?,+), T #R ($'# D?6A), ( T #R (Ac# +,?,B)# It is seldom re!eated# As a lonel& e7am!le of re!eated see &!( T '?L (Col# 6?+,)# 1e ha e no e7am!le of 6) re!eated and b*t one of 6 in some $SS# (not the critical te7t) for Ro# E?6B (6.V6N UE)# (e) 0I;;ERENT PREPOSITION A;TER %ER2# Once more, a different !re!osition ma& be *sed other than the one in com!osition# This is, of co*rse, tr*e 3here the meanin" differs radicall&, as in '#C' ) ((*# 6,?-G), b*t e en 3hen the !re!ositions do not differ er& "reatl&# Th*s 5 fre9*entl& follo3s com!o*nds of $, as $" 5 #F ($t# E?6,), $"'#F 5 S .' ((*# +6?A), $"') 5 #R ($'# +-?6H), $"#G' 5 * #R ($t# B?6B), ) 5 T #R ((*# +H?,B), $' 5 #R ($t# 6B?BD), $!( 5 '###' (Ro# ++?6-)# There is little ca*se for comment here# In "eneral the ar&in" of the !re!osition is !ertinent and is to be noted# So, for instance, ), $, '# Here ' calls attention to the fact that one is beside the !lace or !erson 3hence he startsJ ) merel& notes the !oint of de!art*re, 3hile $ distinctl& asserts that one had been 3ithin the !lace or circle before de!artin"# Cf# therefore $t# ,?+B "( C -%' and $'# +?+H '"'! $ C -%'# Th*s ) follo3s ''"'! in Ac# +?6A, ''#'" in + Cor# ++?6,, '' in $'# +-?,B, and '' in $t# A?+E# %erbs com!o*nded 3ith $ (besides $) ma& ha e ) as $#! in + Pet# ,?++, or ' as $3' in (*# 6?+, 3hile $' sho3s either $ ($t# +A?+E), ) ($t# 6H?6G) or ' (Mo# +A?6B)# So com!o*nds of ' *se either ) as ''"'! ((*# G?A-) or $ as ib. (Mo# B?-+)# See f*rther disc*ssion *nder se!arate !re!ositions# Com!o*nds of li'e3ise are follo3ed b& 5 as 3ith '"'! ($t# A?+), . ((*# 6?66), '"# ((*# G?+B), '#'"'' ($'# +B?+G), '! ((*# +-?+H), ' ((*# 6-?A+), ' ()al# +?+E)J or b& $! as '"'! ((*# A?+G), '""& ($t# +,?-E), ' ((*# +H?B), '#!' ($t# +-?+G), '! 3ith acc*sati e ($t# +A?,A) or "eniti e ($'# E?B), ' (+ Pet# 6?6-)J or b& ) as '"'! (Mo# 6H?+D), ' ($t# 6?+6), ' ((*# 6,?D)# As a r*le ) refers to !ersonal relations 3hile 5 and $! differ in that $! more distinctl& mar's the termin*s# 2*t the line cannot be dra3n hard and fast bet3een these !re!ositions, beca*se $! and ) sho3 a ariation# Th*s erbs com!o*nded 3ith $! ma& be follo3ed b& 5 as in $"## ($'# -?,D), $"'! (Ac# 6H?+E), $'! ((*# +E?+,), $ ' (6 Cor# +H?+-)# 9. is e en follo3ed b& $ in Ac# +D?6,# On the other hand, ) ma& be follo3ed b& $! as in !( ($t# B?6D) or $ as in (+ Tim# +?,)# And e en I has ) in Ac# 6+?+E and 5 has $! ((*# +6?++)# W in com!osition ma& be follo3ed b& 5 as in %'"'! (Ac# +B?G), ) ((*# +B?6B) or (+ Cor# B?A), etc# Com!o*nds 3ith *s*all& ha e 5, li'e '"'! ((*# +H?D both $ and 5), '## (Ro# +?6B), ' ($t# +6?-+), '' (Ac# +H?66), ' (Ac# 6?6H), '('!& (+ Cor# -?B), '!( (Ac# D?+B), ' (Mas# -?G), !& (Ac# D?-)# 2*t '%!% (Ro# +6?E) and '## (Ro# +?6A) ha e $# . is follo3ed b& $ in $t# -?6,# As to ) in (*# +?+D 3e ha e #' follo3ed b& /#

%erbs com!o*nded 3ith ma& ha e (cf# the dis!lacin" of b& in modern )ree') as in '! ($t# 6A?+G) ##'#E ($t# +D?,), (6 Cor# E?+E), E ($t# 6H?6) and e en 'G( !( * E X%' )# (Ac# +?6B)# 2*t note . 5 ($t# ,?+6), $! (6D?6D) and ) ($'# D?+), $! (+ Cor# ++?6H) and 5 (++?,, f#)# ;or 6 F ' see Ro# +6?,# Cf# 6"## $! in 6 Cor# G?+- and 6'!' $! in 6 Th# 6?-# 1ith 6) 3e find a n*mber of !re!ositions es!eciall& 3ith 6., as ($t# A?-+), 5 (G?B), ) (+,?--), ) (Mo# +,?,), $ (Mas# 6?+B), 3ith 3hich com!are ! ($t# +B?6,) and '3 (+E?+A)# Cf# also 6 3ith 5 ((*# +?AB) and $! (Ac# E?6E)# 0elicate shades of meanin" 3ill be fo*nd in all these !re!ositions 3itho*t *nd*e refinement# See Con&beare and Stoc', !# EE, for different !re!ositions 3ith erbs in the (XX# (f) SECON0 PREPOSITION NOT NECESSAR.# 2*t it is not al3a&s necessar& for an& !re!osition to follo3 the com!o*nd erb# Often the !re!osition 3ith the erb ma& be follo3ed b& the case that is *s*al 3ith the !re!osition 3itho*t m*ch re"ard to the erb itself# That is to sa&, the !re!osition in com!osition ma& be tantamo*nt in res*lt to the sim!le erb follo3ed b& that !re!osition# This is not al3a&s tr*e, b*t it sometimes ha!!ens so# It is not necessar& to "i e an e7ha*sti e list# As e7am!les 3e ma& note the follo3in"? 9! '?L ($'# ,?+H) 3ith the dati e ma& be com!ared 3ith B $3' ()al# A?-) 3ith the ablati e# Here the t3o !re!ositions and the cases corres!ond e7actl&# The instr*mental case is ill*strated b& ( ((*# +A?B)# Cf# also the ablati e in (*# +H?-6 3ith '4'# As an e7am!le of the locati e ta'e $ D ! (Ac# +-?66)# An e7am!le of the "eniti e is seen in '''C ($t# 6B?B6# Cf# also $t# +B?+E) and of the acc*sati e in S 1# '( !' (Ac# 6E?6H) 3here a chan"e of stand!oint ta'es !lace, since the chain is aro*nd Pa*l# Cf# Heb# +6?+# In a case li'e % * )# (Ac# +B?-) one ma& either re"ard the acc*sati e as loosel& associated 3ith the !re!osition (cf# %* in (*# +D?++) or consider that the !re!osition has made an intransiti e erb transiti e (see ne7t !oint)# See ch# XI for f*rther e77# ( ) E;;ECT O; PREPOSITION ON $EANIN) O; THE %ER2# Sometimes there is no effect at all# The !re!osition is merel& local as in $3', L"o o*t#> The !re!osition ma& be 4!erfecti e5 and merel& intensif& the meanin" of the erb, as in '! (Leat *!>), ''%/ (Lh*nt do3n>)# The !re!osition is sometimes 3ea'ened in idea as in %', !'# Pre!ositions in com!osition sometimes chan"e the meanin" of the erb and blend 3ith it# A res*ltant meanin" arises 3ith a ne3 constr*ction# The *se of % all*ded to abo e ma& be a case in !oint# Th*s ta'e %'"'! 3ith acc*sati e (Heb# ++?6G), %' ((*# +G?+)# The *se of %'# 3ith the acc*sati e in Ac# 6D?A is !robabl& the res*lt of the !re!osition in com!osition# See also 3 6A in sense of L"o before> ($t# 6B?,6)# Cf# f*rther %'C, '%!%, .#!# These e7am!les 3ill s*ffice, tho*"h the& co*ld be m*lti!lied easil&# (!) 0ROPPIN) THE PREPOSITION 1ITH SECON0 %ER2# 1iner+ denies that 3e ha e in the N# T# an instance of the old )ree' idiom of *sin" the !re!osition 3ith the first erb and dro!!in" it 3ith the re!eated erb tho*"h reall& retained in sense# 2*t $o*lton6 seems to sho3 that the N# T# does offer some e7am!les of this constr*ction, li'e the 'B., Y., Y., of E*ri!ides> "acc!ides, +HBA (En"lish L!*lled do3n, do3n,
1 5.:)h., p. .--. # Prol., p. 115.

do3n,> $o*lton)#, He cites '#'", 2#'" (Mo# +?++ f#)J . (, $. ( (Ro# +A?-)J $3('(', $'E (+ Pet# +?+H f#)J $%'', $% (6 Cor# A?,)J B', B' (E!h# B?+,)J ' '., 2 '. (Re # +H?+H)# These are certainl& !ossible ill*strations, tho*"h I ha e do*bts abo*t 6 Cor# A?, and E!h# B?+,# In E!h# B?+, es!eciall& B' is stron"er alone than 3ith !# I do not a"ree that in + Cor# +6?6 3e ha e an ill*stration in Z. '.)# (i) INTENSI%E OR PER;ECTI%E# There is still another er& common *se of the !re!osition in com!osition# It is that of a mere ad erb and intensifies or com!letes the idea of the erb# Sometimes the fre9*ent *se of the com!o*nd form tends to obsc*re this ad erbial idea# Th*s in !' the force of ) has lar"el& faded and in 4 it is 9*ite obsc*re# 0o*btless Ldie off> 3as the ori"inal idea for the one, as Lans3er bac'> for the other# The a!!eal to the ori"inal *sa"e 3ill e7!lain the force of the !re!osition# 2*t in most instances the idea is er& clear, as in '#F T !# ((*# +A?B), Lcalls his friends to"ether#> This common f*nction of the !re!osition in all the Indo=)ermanic ton"*es 3as !robabl& the ori"inal *se 3ith erbs# At an& rate it is common eno*"h in En"lish, tho*"h 3e *s*all& se!arate erb and !re!osition# 1e sa& 4*!=set5 as 3ell as 4set *!,5 b*t the& mean different thin"s# 1e all see the ad erbial force in 4come home,5 4come bac',5 4come a3a&,5 etc#, b*t it is the ad erb K*st as tr*l& in 4fore=close,5 4!re=cl*de,5 etc# Indeed, !re!ositions 3hen com!o*nded are et&molo"icall& !*re ad erbs# The En"lish ma& be com!ared 3ith the Homeric )ree' in the se!arateness of the ad erb from the erb#+ In )erman the com!o*nd *se of the !re!osition is er& e7tensi e, b*t later )ree' and (atin ill*strate it ab*ndantl&# 6 The )erman !re!ositions are either inse!arable or detachable# As a!!lied to the meanin" of the erb the term 4!erfecti e5 is *sed for the force of the !re!osition, b*t it is not a er& ha!!& desi"nation, since one is at once reminded of the !erfect tense 3ith 3hich it has nothin" to do#, $o*lton "i es a n*mber of l*mino*s e7am!les s*ch as [ Lto be d&in",> 'F Lto die (off)>J . Lto flee,> %' .F Lto esca!e (flee clean thro*"h)>J %/ Lto !*rs*e,> ''%/ Lto h*nt do3n>J (F Lto 3atch,> (F Lto 'ee! safe>J $.&' Lto 3or',> '.&' Lto 3or' o*t (do3n to the end),> etc# The !re!osition in this 4!erfecti e5 sense does ha e a bearin" on the !resent and aorist tenses of an& "i en erb, b*t that !hase of the matter belon"s to the disc*ssion of the tenses# Indeed, not all of the N# T# erbs b& an& means sho3 e7am!les of this 4!erfecti e5 *se of the !re!osition# $o*lton- notes this absence, as com!ared 3ith Pol&bi*s, in the case of ', ', , #.!&', %, ##, .!&', # He finds that the !a!&ri s*!!ort this 4!erfecti e5 *se of the !re!osition as bet3een sim!le7 and com!o*nd# N# T# ill*strations are interestin"# Th*s ' ($'# +-?-D) is *sed of Peter>s dra3in" his s3ord (note oice), b*t %''D (Ac# 6,?+H) e7!resses the fear that Pa*l ma& be dra3n in t#o# So $.&' is a common erb for doin" 3or' (as $'# +-?B), b*t '.&' accents the carr&in" of the 3or' thro*"h as in Ph# 6?+6, and in erse +, $.F is *sed for the idea of in= 3or'in" as contrasted 3ith the o*t=3or'in" or de elo!ment ta*"ht b& '.&'#
- I<. 1 Moulton, Prol., p. 11#. # 7ie . an$ Goel0er, Synt., p. 115. - Moulton, Prol., p. 111. . Prol., p. 119.

Cf# also (%N $.'& ##* .'& (6 Th# ,?++) 3here the 3hole idea t*rns on !, Ldoin" nothin" b*t doin" abo*t> is a free renderin"# The same distinction is seen bet3een $! Lto eat> ($t# +A?6) and '! Lto eat *! (do3n)> in (*# 6H?-D# Cf# also 2 '. ($t# B?6A) and ' '. ($t# +,?-)# As one f*rther ill*stration note ./ $ (+ Cor# +,?+6) and ) %N $./' 'P 'Q $./( (ib.)# In "eneral, on the 3hole s*bKect of !re!ositions in com!osition see 0elbr@c', $er leic!ende %&ntax, I, !!# BBH ff# Cf# also 2r*"mann, Griec!. Gr., !# -,+ f# See also ch# X%III for f*rther remar's# (') 0O/2(E CO$PO/N0S# It is al3a&s interestin" to note the si"nificance of both !re!ositions# As noted in cha!ter %, 1ord ;ormation, I%, (c), these do*ble com!o*nds are fre9*ent in the 4 and so in the N# T# The !oint to em!hasiCe here is that each !re!osition as a r*le adds somethin" to the !ict*re# There are !ict*res in !re!ositions if one has e&es to see them# ;or instance, note @'@B# ((*# +H?,+ f#), @'@ #"(' (+H?-H# Cf# Ro# E?6B# ;irst 'no3n in (XX, b*t no3 fo*nd in !a!&r*s and inscri!tions third cent*r& 2#C# Cf# 0eissmann, (i !t., !# E,), 6@@. (Ro# E?6B), @''@#(E (Col# +?6-), @''@#'"F (Ac# +A?,D), @''@#(E (6 Cor# G?+6), @%'@!' (6 Tim# 6?6A), etc# V. Repetition and Variation of Prepositions. A fe3 3ords are needed in "eneral on this s*bKect before 3e ta'e *! the !re!ositions in detail# (a) SA$E PREPOSITION 1ITH 0I;;ERENT CASES# Sometimes the same !re!osition is *sed 3ith different cases and so 3ith a different res*ltant idea# Ta'e %, for instance# In + Cor# ++?G 3e ha e ? $!( S %* S .'F', 3hile in erse +6 3e read S %' B .')# In Heb# 6?+H the 3hole !oint t*rns on the difference in case, %7 \ * ' 'Q %7 ] * '# In Heb# ++?6G the erb 3ith % in com!osition has the acc*sati e 3hile % alone has the "eniti e, %"(' S 9* #'' = %*
;eiss ann ;EISSMA66, A., +i<le Stu$ies %19&1'. )r. <y A. Grie!eD *f. 2ibelst*dien %1195' an$ Ne*e 2ibelst*dien %119/'. (((, 2iblische )rNcitNt etc# %)heol. 7un$s*hau, Ekt. 191#'. (((, 0ie Hellenisier*n" des semitischen $onotheism*s %6. Fahr<. f. $. kl. Alt., 19&-'. (((, 0ie ne*t# ;ormel 3in Christo4 %119#'. (((, 0ie S!rache d# "riech# 2ibel %)heol. 7un$s*hau, 19&9, 6o. 119'. (((, 0ie /r"eschichte des Christent*ms im (ichte der S!rachforsch*n" %Intern. 5o*h., -&. Ekt. 19&9'. (((, Hellenistisches )riechisch %,er0o":,au*kHs 7ealen*y*., >II, 1199'. (((, (icht om Osten %19&1'. (((, Li"ht fro the An*ient East %191&'. )r. <y Stra*han.

(((, 6eG Li"ht on the 6. ). %19&/'. )r. <y Stra*han. (((, Papyri %En*y*. +i<l., III, 19&#'. (((, St. Paul in the Li"ht of So*ial an$ 7eli"ious ,istory %191#'.

3(A .B# Cf# %* ((*# -?,H) and %* ((*# +D?++)# 2*t the res*ltant idea is here the same# 9! is a !ertinent ill*stration# In Re # A?+ 3e find $Q S %3 and $Q C ), 3hile in Re # ++?+H obser e $Q B .B and $7 '?F# Cf# also Re # +-?B# So a"ain in $t# +G?6E note $Q ) and $Q ) and in $t# 6-?6 $Q #!, b*t #! $Q #!M in (*# 6+?B# Cf# $Q C and $Q S in Re # +-?G# So $#!& $! 3ith dati e in + Tim# -?+H and acc*sati e in A?A# This is all in harmon& 3ith the ancient )ree' idiom# ;or an interestin" com!arison bet3een the S&no!tic and the Mohannine *se of !re!ositions and the ar&in" cases see Abbott, )o!annine $ocabular&J !!# ,ADS,B+# The ariation is es!eciall& noticeable in %, $! and '# The (XX sho3s ab*ndant *se of the !re!osition after erbs# Cf# Con&beare and Stoc', %elections from t!e (**, !# ED f#, and Mohannessohn, Der Gebrauc! etc# In some stereot&!ed form*lQ one notes e en in modern )ree' '%!', * "!', '* %'")# (Th*mb, Handb., !!# +H, ff#)# (b) REPETITION 1ITH SE%ERA( NO/NS# 1hen se eral no*ns are *sed 3ith the same !re!osition the !re!osition is re!eated rather more fre9*entl& than in the earlier )ree'#+ 1iner6 thin's that the re!etition occ*rs onl& 3hen the t3o or more s*bstanti es do not come easil& *nder the same cate"or&# 1ithin limits this is tr*e (cf# re!etition of the article), b*t there is rather more freedom in the later )ree' on this !oint# In Mo# -?6, 3e do ha e a similar idea in the !hrase $ ' 'Q #(!^ as in )" 'Q %!' in (*# 6+?6B# Cf# also $ _ 'Q H!M (Ac# +B?6), b*t in erse + obser e 'Q 5 W"( 'Q 5 _', 3here !erha!s the do*ble conK*nction !la&s some !art# Indeed 3ith 'QV'! or V'! the !re!osition is commonl& re!eated# Th*s 'Q $ J#!.M 'Q $ .#M (Ac# 6B?6G), 2 F %F 'Q $ D #.!' (Ph# +?D)# 1ith disK*ncti e conK*nctions the re!etition is *s*al also, as 'E ` ")# ($t# D?+B)# 1ith antithesis the re!etition is the r*le, as S $ !^ ##7 $ % (+ Cor# 6?A# Cf# also erse -)# 2*t one cannot !ro!erl& insist on an& ironclad r*le 3hen he considers a case li'e a 'Q E (E ((*# 6-?6D), !' 'Q ## (Mo# 6H?6), $ % 'Q $ ' b.!M 'Q $ #( !^ (+ Th# +?A)# In a com!arison a"ain the !re!osition is re!eated, as $7 '?TVc 'Q $ 7 UA (Ac# ++?+A)# 2*t e en 3ith disK*ncti e conK*nctions the !re!osition is not al3a&s re!eated, as $Q %Q ` ! (Heb# +H?6E)# In Ac# 6B?+E ) is not re!eated, tho*"h 5 occ*rs in one member of the sentence and $! in the other# In Mo# +B?E ! is re!eated for rhetorical reasons, ! b'!' 'Q ! %'( 'Q ! !# Cf# E!h# B?+6 3here the re!etition occ*rs 3itho*t a conK*nction, * , * $3!', T ', etc# Cf# also Mo# +D?G# (c) REPETITION 1ITH THE RE(ATI%E# The !re!osition is not al3a&s re!eated 3ith the relati e# /s*all& the classic a*thors did not re!eat the !re!osition 3ith the relati e
A<<ott A++E)), E. A., Clue. A Gui$e throu"h Greek to ,e<reG %19&.'. (((, Fohannine Gra ar %19&9'.

(((, Fohannine >o*a<ulary %19&5'. 1 Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 151. # 5.:)h., p. .#&.

3hen the antecedent had it#, So the N# T# sho3s similar e7am!les, as $ U' '+ $F% ((*# +?6A), 5 2. \ #(' (Ac# +,?6), d (Ac# +,?,G), etc# 2*t the re!etition is seen in s*ch e7am!les as 5 S .B '(, 5 e (Ac# D?-)J /( U', 7 f (Ac# 6H?+E)# In Mo# -?A,, $!O D c^, $ g, the !re!osition occ*rs 3ith the relati e, b*t not 3ith the antecedent# Ho3e er, there is er& little difference bet3een the mere locati e case and $ added# Es!eciall& noticeable- is a case 3here the antecedent is not e7!ressed and the relati e has the !re!osition of the antecedent# So Q = in Mo# +D?G is e9*al to Q h %% # Cf# 5 i (Mo# B?6G)# (d) CON0ENSATION 2. %ARIATION# Once more, the ariation of the !re!osition is a s'ilf*l 3a& of condensin" tho*"ht, each !re!osition addin" a ne3 idea# Pa*l is es!eciall& fond of this idiom# Th*s in Ro# ,?66 3e note %'( %N C %* ! H(C jC 5 '# Cf# erses 6A f# A !artic*larl& stri'in" e7am!le is $3 '?C 'Q %7 '?C 'Q 5 '? * ' (Ro# ++?,B)# Cf# also Col# +?+B $ '?L $!( * 'V%7 '?C 'Q 5 '? 2'# Cf# $!, %, $ in E!h# -?B# In )al# +?+ Pa*l co ers so*rce and a"enc& in his denial of man>s control of his a!ostleshi! b& the *se of ) and %# See 1iner=Tha&er, !# -+E f# Cf# also 6 k! %* C 4 ($t# +?66) for mediate and intermediate a"ent# One sho*ld not ma'e the !re!ositions mere s&non&ms# Cf# 6 (Ro# A?B), ! ($t# 6H?6E), and ! ($t# 6B?6E) all *sed in connection 3ith the death of Christ# The& a!!roach the s*bKect from different an"les# VI. The Functions of Prepositions with Cases. (a) THE CASE 2E;ORE PREPOSITIONS#+ 2oth in time and at first in order# In the Indo= )ermanic ton"*es at first the s*bstanti e 3as follo3ed b& the !re!osition6 as is still seen in the )ree' X, , etc# The )ree', ho3e er, "enerall& came to !*t the !re!osition before the s*bstanti e as 3ith com!o*nd erbs# (b) NOTION O; 0I$ENSION# The !re!ositions es!eciall& hel! e7!ress the idea of dimension and all the relations "ro3in" o*t of that,, b*t the& come to be *sed in ario*s abstract relations also# Indeed it 3as K*st the !*rel& 4local5 cases (ablati e, locati e and instr*mental) that came to lose their inde!endent forms ($o*lton, +rol., !# BH f#), d*e !artl& to the increase in the *se of !re!ositions# (c) ORI)INA( ;ORCE O; THE CASE# The case retains its ori"inal force 3ith the !re!osition and this f*ndamental case=idea m*st be obser ed# The same !re!osition 3ill be *sed 3ith different cases 3here the one difference lies in the ariation in case as alread& noted# Ta'e ', for instance, 3ith the ablati e, the locati e or the acc*sati e# The !re!osition is the same, b*t the case aries and the res*ltant idea differs radicall&# (d) THE )RO/N0=$EANIN) O; THE PREPOSITION# This m*st al3a&s be ta'en into consideration#+ It is 9*ite erroneo*s to sa& that ', for instance, means no3 Lfrom,> no3 Lbeside,> no3 Lto#> This is to conf*se the res*ltant meanin" of the !re!osition, case
- 5.:)h., p. .##. . +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1/.. 1 @.:G., I, p. ..1. 3(a !r:!osition ne fait 9*e confirmer, 9*e !r:ciser *ne id:e e7!rim:e !ar *n cas em!lo&: ad erbialement.4 7ie . an$ Cu*uel, Synt. Gre*., 1111, p. #1-. # ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. 95-. Cf. +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .-- f. - @.:G., I, p. .51. Cf. ;el<r=*k, Grun$l. et*., p. 1-.. . @.:G., I, p. .5&.

and conte7t 3ith the !re!osition itself# It is the common ice in the st*d& of the !re!ositions to ma'e this cr*cial error# The scientific method of st*d&in" the )ree' !re!osition is to be"in 3ith the case=idea, add the meanin" of the !re!osition itself, then consider the conte7t# The res*lt of this combination 3ill be 3hat one translates into En"lish, for instance, b*t he translates the total idea, not the mere !re!osition# It is !*erile to e7!lain the )ree' !re!ositions merel& b& the En"lish or )erman renderin" of the 3hole# /nfort*natel& the )ree's did not ha e the benefit of o*r En"lish and )erman# I@hner=)erth6 3ell obser e that it is often im!ossible to ma'e an& translation that at all corres!onds to the )ree' idiom# (e) THE O2(IT/E CASES A(ONE 1ITH PREPOSITIONS# See also ch# XI# The ocati e 3as ob io*sl& o*t of the 9*estion, and the nominati e onl& a!!eared 3ith !*re ad erbs li'e * , (Re # 6+?6+)# Cf# $'# +-?+GJ Ro# +6?A, '7 ,# 2*t not all the si7 obli9*e cases 3ere *sed 3ith e9*al freedom 3ith !re!ositions# Certainl& in the ori"inal Indo= )ermanic ton"*es the dati e 3as not *sed 3ith !re!ositions#, The dati e is not ori"inall& a 4local5 case and e7!resses !*rel& !ersonal relations# 0elbr@c' thin's that the )ree' dati e did come to be *sed sometimes 3ith $! as in Homer, $Q l/ '#- Indeed some N# T# e7am!les of $! ma& nat*rall& be dati es li'e $#'.!( $7 '?F ($t# +-?+-), '( $7 $! ($t# +E?6B)# 2*t *s*all& e en 3ith $! the case is locati e, not dati e# 1e do ha e t3o e7am!les of $.. 3ith the dati e, as Ac# G?,EJ 6D?E# Ori"inall& a"ain the "eniti e 3as not *sed 3ith !re!ositions,A b*t the )ree' *ndo*btedl& *ses the "eniti e, tho*"h not a 4local5 case, 3ith some !re!ositions li'e !, %, $!# (f) ORI)INA( ;REE0O$# That is to sa&, most of the !re!ositions co*ld be *sed 3ith ablati e, locati e, acc*sati e and some 3ith the "eniti e or instr*mental# 2*t the three first mentioned (L3hence,> L3here,> L3hither> cases) called *!on most of the !re!ositions# The dialect inscri!tions "i e man& !roofs of this matter# Th*s ) and $3 both a!!ear in the Arcadian and C&!rian dialects 3ith the locati e as 3ell as the ablati e#+ 0 ! ori"inall& occ*rred 3ith locati e, acc*sati e and "eniti e# The same thin" 3as tr*e of $!, ! and 6) (!ossibl& 3ith ablati e, not "eniti e)# Indeed ! once *sed the ablati e also# ' and ) 3ere *sed 3ith locati e, acc*sati e or ablati e# It is !ossible indeed that ) ma& ha e been *sed 3ith fi e cases, addin" tr*e dati e and tr*e "eniti e to the abo e#6 In the case of $! fo*r cases occ*r (0elbr@c') since it a!!arentl& *sed the dati e also# Other !re!ositions once 3ere *sed 3ith t3o cases, as and $ 3ith locati e and acc*sati e (e en the "en# 3ith $ and 5 li'e 5 m%), 3hereas ' seems to *se acc*sati e, "eniti e, ablati e# ) ori"inall& had
1 @.:G., I, p. .51. @=hner:Gerth @?,6E7:GE7),, A*sf# )ramm# d# "riech# S!r# ,# A*fl# of I@hner# Tl# II, 2de# I, II %1191, 19&.'. # I<. - ;el<r=*k, Grun$l. et*., pp. 1-&, 1-.. Cf. also Monro, ,o ., Gr. p. 1#5. . I<., p. 1-&. 5 I<., p. 1-.. 1 ;el<r=*k, Grun$l., p. 1#9. Cf. ,a$ley an$ Allen, pp. #5#8#9&. # +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. ..9 f.

locati e as 3ell as ablati e, 3hile 6 had ablati e ("eniti e8) and acc*sati e and % acc*sati e and "eniti e# 0! has onl& "eniti e, 3hile has onl& instr*mental# 0 ! still occasionall& occ*rs in the !a!&ri as a free !re!osition# ( ) NO A0ET/ATE 0I%ISION 2. CASES# It is er& diffic*lt, therefore, to ma'e an& ade9*ate di ision of the !re!ositions b& the cases# There 3ere indeed in earl& )ree' t3o 3ith onl& one case, ei"ht 3ith t3o, and ei"ht 3ith three cases# 2*t the !oint to obser e is that the *sa"e aries "reatl& in the co*rse of the cent*ries and in different re"ions, not to sa& in the ernac*lar and in the literar& st&le# 2esides, each !re!osition had its o3n histor& and e er& 3riter his o3n idios&ncrasies# ;or the detailed com!arison of the !re!ositions see Helbin",, and for the histor& of the cases 3ith the !re!ositions see Irebs#- 2*t in the Ptolemaic times !re!ositions are more and more *sed 3ith the acc*sati e to the corres!ondin" disa!!earance of the other obli9*e cases#A In !artic*lar one m*st note (cf# ch# XI) the disa!!earance of the locati e, instr*mental and dati e before the acc*sati e and the "eniti e, *ntil in the modern )ree' 5 and the acc*sati e ha e s*!erseded $ and the locati e and the dati e !ro!er also# E en and the instr*mental disa!!ear in the modern )ree' ernac*lar before ;< and the acc*sati e#B (!) SIT/ATION IN THE N# T# 2*t in the N# T# the matter has not de elo!ed that far and the cases are not so m*ch bl*rred, tho*"h the ran"e of the !re!ositions in the matter of cases is "reatl& limited# The se enteen 4!ro!er5 !re!ositions ( ! dro!s o*t) in the N# T# *se the cases as 3ill be no3 sho3n# +# ,!ose #it! -ne .ase# 0, !, ), 5, $, $, ), *se onl& one case, ei"ht as o!!osed to t3o in the earl& )ree' (! and )# The cases *sed are not the same (acc*sati e 3ith and 5J "eniti e 3ith !J ablati e 3ith ), $ and )J locati e 3ith $J instr*mental 3ith ), b*t nearl& half of the !re!ositions ha e come to one case in the N# T# In the modern )ree' all the !re!ositions occ*r *s*all& 3ith the acc*sati e (or e en the nom#)# The *se of the "eniti e (abl#) is d*e to literar& infl*ence# The common !ro!er !re!ositions in modern )ree' are 5, ), , ., and less commonl& ', ', !, and in dialects ) (Th*mb, Handb., !# GE)# This tendenc& to3ards case sim!lification is 3ell ill*strated b& the so=called im!ro!er !re!ositions 3hich *se onl& one case (abl#, "en# or dat#), tho*"h the& do not feel the mo ement to3ards the acc*sati e# 6# ,!ose #it! ,#o .ases# ;i e (as o!!osed to ei"ht) *se t3o cases? %, , !, 6, 6)# The cases *sed are "eniti e and acc*sati e each 3ith %, , !J ablati e and acc*sati e 3ith 6 and 6)# In the case of ! some of the e7am!les can be e7!lained as ablati e (from aro*nd), 3hile 6) seems, li'e 6, to *se the ablati e (cf# (atin sub) and !ossibl& the "eniti e also# ,# ,!ose #it! ,!ree .ases# Onl& fo*r !re!ositions (as a"ainst ei"ht) retain three cases? $!, ', ', ), *nless !, 6 and 6) ha e both ablati e and "eniti e# k' in $t# E?,6, c( '* C (C, is *sed 3ith the ablati e# ) indeed onl& has the ablati e once (Ac# 6D?,-) and that is d*e to the literar& infl*ence on the N#
- 0ie PrN!# bei Herod#, p. 1 f. Cf. A<<ott, Foh. >o*., et*., pp. -5/ ff., for prep. in the Gospels. . 0ie PrN!# bei Pol&b# , p. 9 f. 5 Mulla*h, Gr. >ol"., pp. -/9 ff.D >Llker, Pap. Grae*. Synt., p. -&. 9 Cf. Gel$art, Gui$e to o$. Gk., p. #./D )hu <, ,an$<., pp. 1&& ff.

T#+ If ) dro!s o*t, onl& three !re!ositions still *se three cases, barrin" !, 6 and 6)# Of these ' is not er& common ("en# DE, acc# BH, loc# AH), still less ', 3hile $! is still fre9*ent (acc# -B-, "en# 6+B, loc# +DB)# -# +ossibl& /our #it! $!# In the case of $! indeed 3e ma& ha e to admit fo*r cases, if there are e7am!les of the !*re dati e li'e $t# +E?6B, '( $7 $!# 2*t at an& rate $! and ' alone sho3 the old freedom in the *se of the cases# (i) EACH PREPOSITION IN A CASE# (i'e other ad erbs the !re!ositions are fi7ed case=forms, some of 3hich are still a!!arent# Th*s '! is in the locati e case, li'e $;!<, $!, !# Cf# also ! ;)<# The forms %'! and 6'! occ*r also (dati es)# The old dati e ''! occ*rs, 3hile ' is instr*mental# So , %, ', are in the instr*mental case# 1hat 6) is 3e do not 'no3# 2*t the case in 3hich the !re!osition ma& be itself has no necessar& bearin" on the case 3ith 3hich it is *sed# It is K*st a !art of the 3ord>s o3n histor&, b*t still it is al3a&s 3orth obser in"# VII. Proper Prepositions in the N. T. (a) 0 . The case of is not clear# Ori"inall& it 3as ' and ma& be the same as the (esbian, Thessalian and C&!rian :# Cf# En"lish 4on#5 It ma& be com!ared 3ith the Old Persian and )othic ana, the (atin and )erman an# One ma& com!are the )ree' and Sans'rit ana#+ The f*ndamental idea seems to be 4on,5 4*!on,5 4alon",5 li'e )erman auf, and this "ro3s easil& to 4*!5 li'e in contrast 3ith ' ;<# Homer *ses the ad erb ' as an elli!sis to mean 4*!#5 The locati e 3as once *sed 3ith , b*t in the N# T# onl& the acc*sati e occ*rs# The distrib*ti e *se ma& be *! and do3n a line or series, and $SS# "i e ' in se eral of these instances (a common *se of ' also)# 1hile is er& common in com!osition 3ith erbs in the N# T# (o er ten !a"es of e7am!les in $o*lton and )eden>s .oncordance), onl& thirteen e7am!les of the !re!osition alone occ*r in the N# T# One of these ((*# G?,) is absent from 1# H# (Nestle retains it), 3hile in Re # 6+?6+ (* ,) the 3ord is merel& ad erb (cf# Homer), not !re!osition#6 Of the remainin" ele en instances, fo*r are e7am!les of * 3ith the "eniti e, a sort of com!o*nd !re!ositional !hrase 3ith the idea of 4bet3een5 (li'e $t# +,?6A), similar to the modern )ree' ', and fo*nd in the (XX, Pol&bi*s, etc# One (+ Cor# +-?6D, * , means Lin t*rn,>, 3hile the remainin" si7 are all e7am!les of the distrib*ti e *se, li'e * % ((*# +H?+)# The distrib*ti e *se is in Xeno!hon# ;or e7am!les in !a!&ri and inscri!tions see R adermacher, !# +A# Cf# o*r 4analo"&#5 In Ac# E?,H, ./ n './, the !oint t*rns on '>, b*t it is not clear ho3 '> t*rns 4'no35 to 4read#5 See Ac# +H?6H
1 Moulton, Prol., p. 1&9. 1 +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .-9D @.:G., I, p. ./-. En the 6. ). prep. see also )y*ho Mo sen, 2eitr# C* d# (ehre on d# "riech# PrN!# %1195'. Moulton MEAL)E6, 5. F., an$ GE;E6, A. S., A Con*or$an*e to the Greek )esta ent %119/'. # Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. 1/1, *ites so e late Gk. eCC. of as a$!. Clearly not a ,e<rais . ;eiss., +. S., p. 1-9. - +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1##, *ites Poly<. 7a$er a*her 7A;E7MAC,E7, L., Ne*t# )rammati'# 0as )riechisch des N# T# im O*sammenhan" mit der %ol'ss!rache %1911'.

'* '"( for contrast bet3een and '# Abbott, )o!annine Gr., !!# 666 ff#, ar"*es at len"th to sho3 that the one e7am!le in Mohn (6?B) is distrib*ti e# 0 does not s*r i e in modern )ree' ernac*lar (Mannaris, Hist. Gk. Gr., !# ,BB)# In the !a!&ri sho3s some ne3 com!o*nds not in the N# T#, li'e '' ($a&ser, Gr. d. Griec!. +ap., !# -EB)# 0elbr@c', $er l. %&ntax, I, !# D,-, considers , li'e !, one of the 4!roethnic5 !re!ositions# It is rare in the !a!&ri and the inscri!tions (Radermacher, 0. ,. Gr., !# ++A)# 2*t ''F , Lhe *!sets me> (P#O7&# ++G, iiUiii A#0#), is stran"el& li'e Ac# +D?B o S 5R ''/'# (b) 0! . This !re!osition is in the locati e case of '# Cf# Sans'rit nti, (atin ante, (ith*anian ant, )othic and, )erman ant (-ent), An"lo=Sa7on andlang, andswerian (Lans3er>)# The root=idea is reall& the er& 3ord 4end#5 2r*"mann (Griec!. Gr., !# -,D) thin's it ma& mean 4front#5 If so, 4in front of5 3o*ld be the idea of the 3ord in the locati e# Cf# ante-room, !, ;>, 6><, $'!, Lat the end> (!)# S*!!ose t3o men at each end of a lo" facin" each other# That "i es the et&molo"ical !ict*re, 4face to face#5 The case *sed 3ith it 3as ori"inall& the "eniti e and nat*rall& so, tho*"h in modern )ree' the acc*sati e has dis!laced it#+ It is ob io*sl& the real adnominal "eniti e and not ablati e (cf# Sans'rit ad erb nti) that 3e ha e 3ith ! and is li'e the "eniti e 3ith the ad erbs ', !, !', and the adKecti e !, etc#6 In Homer indeed ! has K*st be"*n to be *sed in com!osition 3ith erbs so that it barel& esca!es the list of the 4im!ro!er5 !re!ositions#, 2lass- calls it 4one of the !re!ositions that are d&in" o*t,5 b*t as a matter of fact it s*r i es in modern )ree'# In the N# T# it is *sed in com!osition 3ith t3ent&=t3o erbs (sin"le com!o*nds) and occ*rs t3ent&=t3o times also 3ith no*ns and !rono*ns# It is not therefore er& flo*rishin" in the N# T# It does not occ*r often in the indices to the !a!&ri ol*mes, and $a&serA "i es !a!&ri s*!!ort for some of the N# T# com!o*nds li'e b#., !', #'"'# It is absent from the inscri!tions of $a"nesia and Per"amon (Radermacher, 0. ,. Gr., !# ++A)# In some of the com!o*nds the ori"inal idea of the !re!osition comes o*t finel&# Th*s in @ '#F L M (Ac# 6D?+A) the !re!osition merel& carries on the idea of the '#)# The boat co*ld not look at (Le&e, face to face>) or face the 3ind# This root=idea is al3a&s !resent in ! and is the basis from 3hich to disc*ss e er& e7am!le# It is e9*all& !lain in a 3ord li'e
Fannaris FA66A7IS, A. 6., A ,istori*al Greek Gra ar %119/'.

(((, En the )rue Meanin" of the k4 %Class. 7e!., 19&-, pp. 9- ff.'. Mayser MAKSE7, E., )rammati' der "riech# Pa!&ri a*s der PtolemNerCeit# (a*t= *nd 1ortlehre %19&9'. 1 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -91. Cf. ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /.&. # +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .-/D Monro, ,o . Gr., pp. 1#9, 1.9 f. - Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 15&. . Gr. of 6. ). Gr., p. 1#.. 5 Gr. $. "rie*h. Pap., p. .1/.

@'@B# ((*# +H?,+ f#)# The !riest and (e ite !assed alon" on t!e ot!er side of t!e road, facin" (!) the 3o*nded tra eller# Note @"## in (*# 6-?+D, 3here the t3o disci!les 3ere e7chan"in" 3ords (castin" them from one to the other as the& faced each other, !) 3ith one another, an intimate and i id !ict*re of con ersation# Cf# also the contrast bet3een ! and ' in p 3' (Lclea e to,> Lclin" to,> Lhold one>s self face to face 3ith>) 'Q C p '' 4 ($t# B?6-)# In the do*ble com!o*nd @'@#'"' D !^ UE (Rom E?6BJ cf# (*# +H?-H) the f*ndamental meanin" is ob io*s# The Hol& S!irit la&s hold of o*r 3ea'ness alon" 3ith () *s and carries his !art of the b*rden facin" *s (!) as if t3o men 3ere carr&in" a lo", one at each end# Cf# @#'"' in Ac# 6H?,A# The En"lish 3ord 4antithesis5 !reser es the idea also# Note '(4' j! (Ac# 6H?+A) 3here in both erb and !re!osition the idea of face=to=face a!!ears# So @'4 ($'# +-?+,), !@' ((*# E?6B), $@'!@ (6H?6B)# No3 the ario*s res*ltant ideas "ro3 o*t of this root=idea beca*se of different conte7ts# Ta'e the notion of o!!osition (a"ainst)# The 3ord does not mean that in itself# The t3o disci!les 3ere tal'in" in a friendl& mood (@"##), b*t if a man ma'es himself 'in" he @#. L k'!' (Mo# +G?+6) in a hostile sense# It is the atmos!here of ri alr& that "i es the colo*r of hostilit&# 1e see it also in the 3ord !@ (+ Mo# 6?+E), @! L ' (Ac# D?A+)# In (*# 6+?+A three instances occ*r? @B', @F, @ !# Cf# !@% ($t# A?6A)# There is no instance of the *ncom!o*nded !re!osition in this sense# The idea of 4in the !lace of5 or 4instead5 comes 3here t3o s*bstanti es !laced o!!osite to each other are e9*i alent and so ma& be e7chan"ed# The maKorit& of the N# T# e7am!les belon" here# In '# Q '#C ($t# A?,EJ cf# also Q %)) there is e7act e9*i alence li'e 4tit for tat#5 So also ' Q 'C (Ro# +6?+DJ + Th# A?+AJ + Pet# ,?G), #%!' Q #%!' (+ Pet# ,?G)# None the less does the idea of e7chan"e (cf# @##'.', $'# E?,D) res*lt 3hen a fish and a sna'e are !laced o!!osite each other, Q 5 : ((*# ++?++) or one>s birthri"ht and a mess of !otta"e (Heb# +6?+B)# In $t# +D?6D, Q $C 'Q C, there is a com!ression of statement 3here the stater strictl& corres!onds to the ta7 d*e b& Christ and Peter rather than to Christ and Peter themsel es# 2*t in # Q ##E ($t# 6H?6EJ $'# +H?-A) the !arallel is more e7act# These im!ortant doctrinal !assa"es teach the s*bstit*tionar& conce!tion of Christ>s death, not beca*se ! of itself means 4instead,5 3hich is not tr*e, b*t beca*se the conte7t renders an& other res*ltant idea o*t of the 9*estion# Com!are also !# 6N b& Pa*l (+ Tim# 6?B) 3here both ! and 6 combine 3ith # in e7!ressin" this idea# Cf# !@ (Heb# G?6-)# In $t# 6?66 Q C ') the s*bstit*tion ta'es the form of s*ccession as son s*cceeds father on the throne# Cf# @' (Ac# +,?D)# In Mas# -?+A Q C #. the res*lt is also s*bstit*tion, the !oints of ie3 bein" contrasted# In Heb# +6?6 the cross and the Ko& face each other in the mind of Mes*s and he ta'es both, the cross in order to "et the Ko&# The idea of e7chan"e a!!ears also in + Cor# ++?+A U )( Q "#'!# 2lass+ considers Q (Mo# +?+B) as 4!ec*liar,5 b*t 1iner6 ri"htl& sees the

1 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#.. # 5.:)h., p. -9..

ori"inal im!ort of the !re!osition# Simco7, cites from Philo ' ' Q '#' $%!% as clearl& e7!lainin" this 4remar'able5 !assa"e# 2*t reall& has not too m*ch diffic*lt& been made of it8 As the da&s come and "o a ne3 s*!!l& ta'es the !lace of the "race alread& besto3ed as 3a e follo3s 3a e *!on the shore# )race ans3ers (!) to "race# The remainin" e7am!les are fi e of 7 d in the sense of Lbeca*se> (Ltherefore>), 3hen t3o cla*ses or sentences corres!ond to each other, one the reason for the other# This is indeed classical eno*"h ((XX also)# Similar is Q (E!h# A?,+) 3here the (XX ()en# 6?6-), 3hich Pa*l does not 9*ote, has X (cf# $'# +H?DJ $t# +G?-)# There is &et another idea that comes o*t in com!osition li'e @'@%!% ((*# +-?+-) 3here ) has the meanin" of Lbac'> and ! of Lin ret*rn> (cf# 4in t*rn5)# Cf# @'@!' ((*# +-?B) and @#. ((*# 6?,E)# In Col# +?6-, @''@#(), Pa*l *ses ! in the sense of Lin his t*rn> (ans3erin" o er to Christ)# As Christ, so Pa*l fills *! the meas*re of s*fferin"# One ma& remar' that !re!ositions in com!osition often best sho3 their ori"inal im!ort# (c) 0) . The et&molo"& of this !re!osition is er& sim!le# 1e note the Sans'rit pa, (atin ab, )othic af, En"lish of1 off# Some of the older dialects *sed the form (Arcad#, C&!r#, Thess#) and the E!ic '! is to be noted#- 1e ma& com!are G ;@< 3ith (atin aps (ab2 cf# $, $3)# The case of ) cannot be determined, b*t obser e '! abo e# In the Arcadian and C&!rian is fo*nd 3ith the locati e, b*t in the literar& )ree' onl& the ablati e is *sed 3ith ), a case in !erfect harmon& 3ith the meanin" of the 3ord# The nominati e J q in Re # +?- is, of co*rse, for a theolo"ical !*r!ose, to accent the *nchan"eableness of )od# It is one of the most tenacio*s of the !re!ositions, bein" e7tremel& fre9*ent in the N# T# both 3ith no*ns and in com!osition 3ith erbs# Mannaris+ "i es an interestin" s'etch of the histor& of ) in the later )ree'# In the modern )ree' it is *sed 3ith the acc*sati e (the ablati e onl& in set !hrases)# This acc*sati e *sa"e is fo*nd as earl& as Hermas#6 9 finall& anished before ) (cf# $ before 5), b*t in the modern )ree' ) also s*!!lants to some e7tent , ) and 6)# The e7!lanation of ) is some3hat com!licated therefore, since the increase of its *se is d*e !artl& to the "eneral tendenc& re"ardin" !re!ositions (cf# ) 3ith ablati e instead of the 4!artiti e "eniti e5) and !artl& to its s*!!lantin" other !re!ositions li'e $, ', 6)# +# -ri inal %i nificance# It can be easil& !ercei ed in the N# T# It is clear eno*"h in @), for instance, Lto c*t off,> as @G r! (Mo# +E?6B)# Cf#
Si *oC SIMCEJ, 5. ,., )he Lan"ua"e of the 6. ). %119&'. (((, )he 5riters of the 6. ). - Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1-/. Cf. A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. ##5 f. )he !a"ue Gor$ !#(G %1 Cor. 1#2#1' is freBuent in petitions to the Ptole ies %pap.'. Cf. P. Par. #9 %+.C. 19-8 #'. . +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .-/. Cf. ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, pp. 999 ff. 1 ,ist. Gk. Gr., pp. -99 ff. # I<., p. -/-. - Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1-/. Cf. Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -99.

@'#, Lto ta'e the eil off,> L*n eil> (cf# $t# +H?6B for contrast bet3een '# and '##)# So @4(, La treas*re=ho*se for !*ttin" thin"s a3a&> ($t# ,?+6)# Cf# @%4( ($t# 6+?,,) for La man off from home#> So "# in Heb# ++?6B and @E in +6?6# It is needless to m*lti!l& e7am!les from the com!o*nd 3ords- li'e @# $o*ltonA seems ri"ht a"ainst 2lassB in considerin" = '%! %' (Mo# ++?+E) not a real (atinism, b*t a mere accidental !arallel to a millibus passuum duobus# The same idiom occ*rs in Mo# 6+?E and also in Re # +-?6H# It is indeed rather late )ree' (Strabo, 0iodor*s and Pl*tarch), b*t it is not s*ch a manifest (atinism as MannarisD s*!!oses# It is not the meanin" of ) that is *n*s*al here, b*t merel& the !osition# 1e sa& ten miles off, not off ten miles# Cf# c' s, Lat G o>cloc',> P# O7&# A6, (iiUA#0#)# The idea of 4off5 or 4a3a& from5 is eno*"h to e7!lain the b*l' of the N# T# !assa"es# The conte7t as a r*le does not alter this sim!le idea# Th*s B t'##'!' ($t# ,?+,), C -%' (,?+B), '#E (6?+), "# C (A?6G), C (C (B?+,), C (! ((*# 6-?6), 7 $C ($t# D?6,), '' (Heb# -?-), B c' $!( ($t# G?66), E b'E ($t# +?6+), ' $. 7 '?E ((*# 6-?,+), ' C jC (Rom# G?,)# Here the ablati e case and the root=idea of the !re!osition ma'e all clear# The 9*estion of !lace, time, !erson or abstract relations c*ts er& little fi"*re in the matter# 1here er the ablati e case is nat*ral in )ree', there ) ma& a!!ear to ma'e clearer the case=idea of so*rce or se!aration# Con&beare and Stoc' (!# E-) consider the idiom 0"'* X W'!% ($t# +?+D) a Hebraism# The constr*ction is in the (XX, b*t there is nothin" *n=)ree' abo*t it# ;or ) in e7!ressions of time ta'e 7 f U' (Col# +?G)# In $t# D?+B, E 'E $./, the notion of so*rce is the real idea# Cf# %#3' '?F E .' E (Ac# +D?6)# In Ac# +B?,,, 2# E #(.E, it seems at first as if the stri!es 3ere 3ashed from Pa*l and Silas and not, as here, Pa*l and Silas 3ashed from the stri!es# 1iner+ s*""ests the addition in tho*"ht of 4and cleansed#5 Cf# ''! p'T ' #C (6 Cor# D?+), 3hich idiom 0eissmann ("ible %tudies, !# 6+B) ill*strates from the inscri!tions, and on !# 66D he f*rther cites from the inscri!tions three e7am!les of #' ) in ill*stration of Ac# +B?,,# Cf# @!G' * F' ($t# 6D?6-)# In Ac# +A?,E, ' 7 '?E ' #!', no diffic*lt& sho*ld be fo*nd in the threefold *se of ), since the )ree', *nli'e the En"lish, lo es to re!eat 3ords in ar&in" relations# Here 3e ha e ) in com!osition, 3ith !ersons, 3ith !lace# See 0L C 'u' ($t# 6D?6-)# Certainl& there 3as ne er an& reason for thin'in" '' C 'u' (Ac# 6H?6B) a Hebraism, since it is the !*re ablati e idea, and the *sa"e is contin*o*s from 0emosthenes to late )ree' 3riters and !a!&ri#6 1e e en find #'T E q, Pa!# Par# +H, 6H (Radermacher, !# ++B)# The +astor Hermae sho3s ) after $.'', ''!&', '', #'
. Cf. Mayser, Gr. $. "rie*h. Pap., p. .1/. 5 Prol., p. 1&#. 9 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 95. A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. ##/, also sees Lat. infl*ence here. / ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -/1. 1 5.:)h., p. -/#. # ;eiss., +. S., p. 199, for nu erous eCC.D Moulton, Prol., p. 1&#. Cf. @uhrin", ;e Praep. in Asu, p. 5..

(Radermacher, !# ++,)# $an& similar e7am!les of this sim!le *se of ) occ*r in the N# T# Cf# the mere ablati e 3ith !' ((*# 6?,D) and then 3ith ) (-?+,)# Cf# ) (Col# 6?6H), ')( ) (Ac# E?66), etc# (i'e other !re!ositions ) ma& occ*r 3ith ad erbs, li'e ) ($t# -?+D)# 6# Meanin 3"ack.4 1e see it clearl& in @%!%, L"i e bac'> ($t# +B?6D)# 2*t e en here the !oint of ie3 is sim!l& chan"ed# The "i er "i es from himself to the reci!ient# In the case of a debt or re3ard from the reci!ient>s !oint of ie3 he is "ettin" back 3hat 3as his d*e# This idea a!!ears in #'" as in (*# B?,-# A !artic*larl& "ood e7am!le is fo*nd in '?E ($t# B?6)# Cf# @ ($'# +-?-+)# This notion of recei!t in f*ll is common (4in co*ntless instances,5 0eissmann) for in the ostraca, !a!&ri and inscri!tions# Cf# 0eissmann, (i !t fr. t!e Anc. 5ast, !!# ++H ff# Cf# * * A' (iUA#0#, 0el!hi Inscr#, "ull. de .orr. Hell., 66, !# AE), LI ha e recei ed the 3hole !rice> for the sla e>s man*mission# Cf# #'" * F', P# O7&# ,D (A#0# -G)# Cf# $3%)( S %4, P# O7&# ++,,, +B (A#0# ,GB)# This idiom seems to be confined to com!osition (cf# )@', 6 Cor# +?G) and @'4 (Ro# E?6,)# ,# 6,ranslation-Hebraism7 in "F' )# Cf# (*# +6?-#+ In $t# +H?6E, "F %R, 3e ha e the *s*al acc*sati e, and in erse 6B 3e e en see "(B '?J b*t erse 6E a"ain sho3s "F )# In (*# +6?+, p'F B &(, 3e ha e the *s*al ablati e as abo e# Cf# "# ) in $'# E?+A# 0) in the (XX 3as *sed to translate the Hebre3 , ,6 b*t not all the e7am!les in the (XX are necessaril& !*re Hebraisms, as Con&beare and Stoc' im!l&# , 2esides, the !a!&ri sho3 "# ' E H%'!, 2#)#/# +HDG (A#0# -+), the first reference to the Me3s as mone&= lenders# Some of the N# T# e7am!les are merel& for the so=called 4!artiti e "eniti e#5 Th*s $#3 7 '?E %/%' ((*# B?+,), $.' E G'! (Mo# 6+?+H), $E C ' (Ac# 6?+D), $! E G! ($t# +A?6D), ! C .4' ((*# 66?+E), !' E % ($t# 6D?6+), etc# The !oint is not that all these !hrases occ*r in the older )ree', b*t that the& are in !erfect harmon& 3ith the )ree' "eni*s in the *se of the ablati e and in the *se of ) to hel! the ablati e# $o*lton (+rol., !# 6-B) cites K E j'E, +ela ia (/sener, !# 6E) as fairl& !arallel 3ith ?'QV E '%# ($t# +E?D)# The !artiti e *se of the ablati e 3ith ) does come nearer to the realm of the "eniti e (cf# En"lish of and the "eniti e), b*t the ablati e idea is still !resent# One ma& note k#E )" in Pol&bi*s X%II, ++, 6 (Radermacher, 0. ,. Gr., !# ++B)# Cf# 2%' E ($t# ,?-) 3ith the old "eniti e of material# -# .omparison #it! $# 2*t ) needs to be com!ared more !artic*larl& 3ith $ 3hich it finall& dis!laced sa e- in the E!irot or # 2*t the t3o are ne er e7actl& e9*i alent# 9 means Lfrom 3ithin> 3hile ) is merel& the "eneral startin"=!oint# 0) does not den& the 43ithin=ness5J it sim!l& does not assert it as $ does# Th*s in $'# +?+H 3e read '"'! $ C -%' 3hen the assertion is made b& $ that Mes*s had been in the 3ater (cf# 'V5, V$ in Ac# E?,E f#)# 2*t in $t# ,?+B 3e merel& read
1 Moulton, Prol., p. 1&#. # +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#9. - Sel., et*., p. 1-. . Moulton, Prol., p. 1&#.

"( C -%', a form of e7!ression that does not den& the $ of $ar'# The t3o !re!ositions are sometimes combined, as $3#F 7 '?B (Ac# +B?+E) and C $ ($t# +,?-G)# E en 3ith the "ro3th in the *se of ) it still falls behind $ in the N# T#+ 2oth and $ are *sed of domicile or birth!lace, b*t not in e7actl& the same sense#6 Th*s in Mo# +?-- see Y %N J v!# w('%, $ B )# 0%, 3here ) corres!onds closel& 3ith the )erman von and ;rench de 3hich came to be mar's of nobilit&# So in erse -A, HS x'&', 3here (in both erses) no effort is made to e7!ress the idea that the& came from 3ithin NaCareth# That idea does a!!ear in erse -B, $ x'&'# In (*# 6?- both and $ are *sed for one>s home ( B t'##'!' $ )# x'&')# Indeed $ in this sense in the N# T# seems confined to )##, 2oth a!!ear a"ain in Mo# ++?+# Cf# also Mo# D?-+ f#, $ B t'##'!', w(#, 3here the t3o !re!ositions are re ersed# The (atin ersions render both and $ here b& a#- Cf# y''5' (Mo# +G?,E)# AbbottA is clear that Mohn does not mean to conf*se the t3o !re!ositions, b*t *ses each in its o3n sense, tho*"h ) is not fo*nd in the older 3riters for domicile# The sense of ariet&, as in En"lish, ma& ha e led to the *se of no3 one, no3 the other, since at bottom either ans3ers# So (*'e in Ac# 6,?,- has $ !' $'!', b*t k#!'# Cf# Ac# +?-# 2lassB notes that o*tside of Mohn the N# T# 3riters *se ) for one>s co*ntr&# So e en (*'e in Ac# 6-?+E, B 0!'# The $SS# indeed ar& in some instances bet3een ) and $ as in Ac# +B?,G 3ith B )## Cf# $S# ariation bet3een ) and ' in $'# +B?G# Cf# also Ac# +,?AH for $V)# In a case li'e o B H'#!' (Heb# +,?6-) the !re!osition does not determine 3hether the !ersons are still in Ital& or are o*tside of Ital&# Cf# $o*lton, +rol., !# 6,D# 2*t 0eissmann ((i !t, etc#, !# +EB) thin's that ) here means Lin,> li'e v'C in an ostracon from Thebes, A#0# +G6# Cf# E 7 z3. )#, P# O7&# ,E, A#0# -G# 0 is also, li'e $ (Ac# +H?-A, etc#), *sed for members of a !art& in Ac# +6?+, ' E B $#(!', an *n=Attic *sa"e# 2*t on the 3hole the t3o !re!ositions can be readil& distin"*ished in the N# T# A# .omparison #it! '# As to ', it s*""ests that one has been b& the side of the one from 3hom he comes# In relation to )od 3e find $ C C $3B# (Mo# E?-6), '* C ' $3B# (+B?6D), C $3B# (+B?,H)# Cf# ) (Mo# +?+)# It 3o*ld be o errefinement to insist on a 3ide and radical difference here bet3een ), $ and 'J and &et the& are not e7actl& s&non&mo*s# In the older )ree' ' 3as the common !re!osition for the conscio*s !ersonal de!art*re#+ 2*t in N# T# ) occ*rs also 3ith !ersons# So ()' 7 '?C (+ Mo# +?A), 'F 7 6E ()al# ,?6), '#'" C ! (+ Cor# ++?6,)# One m*st not, ho3e er, read too m*ch into ), as in )al# 6?+6, 3here * H'/" does not mean L3ith the a*thorit& of Mames,> tho*"h the& do*btless claimed it# Cf# $'# +A?-AJ + Th# ,?B# One
1 Moulton, Prol., p. 1&#. # A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. ##/ f. - +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#5. . A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. ##1. 5 I<., p. ##9. 9 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#5. 1 5.:)h., p. -/&. Cf. +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#5.

do*bts if 3e are K*stified in insistin" on a radical distinction bet3een '* C ') (Mo# +H?+E) and C ! (+ Cor# ++?6,) sa e as et&molo"& thro3s li"ht on the matter#6 B# .ompared #it! 6)# The $SS# of ancient 3riters,, as of the N# T#, aried often bet3een ) and 6)# As instances of this ariation in the N# T# ta'e $'# E?,+J Ac# -?,BJ +H?+DJ Ro# +,?+# The $SS# often ar& 3here ) is the correct te7t# The *se of ) 3ith the a"ent is not !recisel& li'e 6), tho*"h one has onl& to com!are ) 3ith (atin ab and En"lish of to see ho3 nat*ral it is for ) to ac9*ire this idiom# Obser e 'Q C - (Ac# 6H?G)# So in Mas# +?+,, C &', 3e translate Ltem!ted of )od#> The tem!tation, to be s*re, is !resented as comin" from )od# Cf# also J J ( 7 6E (Mas# A?-), 3here the 'ee!in" bac' of the re3ard is concei ed as comin" from &o*# Cf# Ac# -?,B# In $t# +B?6+, 'F E ", Lat the hands of,> is a free renderin" of the idea of a"enc& or so*rce# In (*# +B?+E, ##( %), note the re!etition of )# This idea of remo al is !resent in 5'B' ) ((*# B?+D) and in $# ) (B?+E) it is a"enc&# There ma& be a Ce*"ma in the last cla*se# In (*# G?66, %'B' E ", 3e ha e the same constr*ction as in +B?+E abo e (cf# +D?6A)# Cf# U' C C (Re # +6?B) and Ac# 6?66 %%. C C# The *se of ) after s*bstanti es thro3s some li"ht on this matter# Th*s S C $'..#!' (Ac# 6,?6+), C (F ($t# +6?,E)# This *se of ) after !assi e erbs came to be the r*le in the later 3riters# Cf# 1ilhelm, 8. G. XII# A, 6G# 2*t it is not alone a form of a"enc& that ) comes to e7!ress# It ma& also be *sed for the idea of ca*se, an old *sa"e of 6)# ;or instance, ta'e B 'A '?C 6. ($t# +,?--), C )" 2'3' (+-?6B), ?'Q L )M E '%# (+E?D), B #( ((*# 66?-A), ? I C #4 (Mo# 6+?B), ? $"# B %)3( (Ac# 66?++)# Cf# f*rther (*# +G?,J 6-?-+J Ac# +6?+-J 6H?GJ Heb# A?D, etc# The (XX "i es ab*ndant ill*stration of the same idiom,+ the ca*sal *se of )# As a matter of so*nd see $ 7 i and 7 f in Heb# D?+,# (d) W . 0elbr@c'6 sa&s? 4Of the ori"in of % I 'no3 nothin" to sa&#5 One hesitates to !roceed after that remar' b& the master in s&nta7# Still 3e do 'no3 somethin" of the
# Cf. 5.:)h., p. -/&. - Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1-1. 5ilhel 5IL,ELM, A., 2eitrN"e C*r "riech# Ins*hriftenkun$e %19&9'.

1 C. an$ S., p. 1-. ;el<r=*k ;EL+7?C@, +., Ablati (ocalis Instr*mentalis %119/'. (((, )r*ndriF der er"l# )ramm# d# indo"# S!rachen# S&nta7# 2de# III8> %119-, 119/, 19&&'. (((, Intro$u*tion to the Stu$y of Lan"ua"e %111#'. Einleit*n" in das S!rachst*di*m# -# A*fl# (+GH-)# A# A*fl# %191-'. (((, S&nta'tische ;orsch*n"en# A 2de# %11/181111'. # >er"l. Synt., I, p. /59.

histor& of the 3ord both in the )ree' and in other Indo=)ermanic ton"*es# The form % ma& be in the instr*mental case, b*t one m*st note %'! (dati e) in the l&ric !assa"es of Vsch&l*s, not to sa& the Thessalian %#, 2*t there is no do*bt abo*t % bein" 'in to %, %!# Sans'rit dva, dvi (cf# trayas, tri), dvisJ (atin duo1 bis (cf# Sans'rit dvis, )ree' %!, bWv or )J )erman 9#eiJ En"lish t#o (fem# and ne*t#), t#ain (masc#), t#i-ce1 t#ili !t1 be-t#een1 t#o-fold, etc# +# ,!e :oot-8dea# It is manifest in %'@), %@!#, %!@%'', %@#C (cf# b@ #C)# The et&molo"& of the 3ord is Lt3o,> %, as sho3n in these three 3ords as 3ell as in %!, %@#), all of 3hich occ*r in the N# T# Th*s it 3ill be seen ho3 !ersistent is the et&molo"ical force in the 3ord# Cf# $'# B?,DJ Re # +E?BJ $'# A?+,# See also %Q % (Te7t# Rec#, % R Re # G?+B), %!@#. (+ Tim# ,?E), %!@ (Heb# -?+6), %!@G (Mas# +?E), %!@%' ($t# +D?6-), W!@% (Mo# ++?+B)# Cf# $!( 5 % ($t# 6D?A+)# 6# 3"& ,#os4 or 3"et#een.4 2*t the !re!osition has ad anced a ste! f*rther than merel& 4t3o5 to the idea of b&=t3ain, be=t3een, in t3o, in t3ain# This is the "ro*nd= meanin" in act*al *sa"e# The 3ord %@#' ori"inall& meant Lresemblin" t3o seas> (cf# E*7ine Sea, Strabo 6, A, 66), b*t in the N# T# (Ac# 6D?-+) it a!!arentl& means l&in" bet3een t3o seas (Tha&er)# The notion of interval (be=t3een) is fre9*ent in the N# T# both in com!osition and a!art from com!osition# Th*s in UE %'@. E (Ac# 6A?+,), Lsome da&s came in bet#een> (%)# Cf# %'@./' * '7 6A (Ac# 6-?66) 3ith (atin di- nosco1 dis-cerno and )ree'=En"lish dia- nosis (%@., Ac# 6A?6+)# W'@4( is an arran"ement or co enant bet3een t3o ()al# ,?+D)# See %@'C (+ Cor# +6?++)J %'@%!% ((*# ++?66) Ldi ide>J ?N %@ '3T UE 'Q '?E (Ac# +A?G) 3here '3 e7!lains %# Cf# %@ (Heb# A?+-), Ldis= crimination>J %'@#! ((*# D?-A), Linter als of dela&>J %'@# (Ac# A?,B), Ldis=sol e>J %'@!& (Ac# 6?-A), Ldis=trib*te>J %'@4. ((*# E?6G), Lrend as*nder>J %'@ !& (Mo# ++?A6), o!!osed to ., Ldi=s!erse>J %'@ ($'# A?-), Lrend in t3o>J %'@! (Ac# E?+)WLscatter abroad>J %'@ (Mo# D?,A), Ldis!ersion>J %'@ ## (Heb# +6?6H), Ldi ide>J %@(' (Ac# A?D), Ldistance> or Linter al>J %'@#4 (+ Cor# +-?D), Ldistinction>J %'@!' ((*# 66?6G), Ldis!ose>J %'@ (Ac# 6D?6D, $t# B?6B), Lbear a!art,> Ldiffer>J % (Ro# +6?B), Ldifferent>J %@& ($t# +H?,A), Lset at ariance> (Lclea e as*nder>)# These n*mero*s e7am!les o*"ht to be s*fficient to sho3 3hat the real meanin" of the 3ord in itself is# A !artic*larl& noticeable instance a!!ears in (*# 6-?A+, 3here 3e ha e %@( 7 '?E# The N# T# !reser es this notion of inter al in e7!ressions of time and so it is hardl& 4!ec*liar onl& to literar& st&le#5+ Th*s in $'# 6?+ %7 UE means Linter al of da&s,> Lda&s bet3een,> Lafter some da&s,> tho*"h s*rel& no one 3o*ld thin' that % reall& means Lafter#> Cf# $t# 6B?B+, %* E UE (cf# $, 6D?-H)J %7 $E #), Ac# 6-?+DJ )al# 6?+, %* %' $E# Cf# Ac# A?D# In Ac# +?,, %7 UE ' '), the a!!earance of Mes*s 3as at inter als 3ithin the fort&
- @.:+l., II, p. #5&. Cf. ''!, ''!, 6'!. )hayer ),AKE7, F. ,., Greek:En"lish LeCi*on of the 6. ). %111/'. (((, Lan"ua"e of the 6. ). %,astin"sH ;. +., 19&&'. 1 Fann., ,ist. Gr. Gk., p. -/..

da&s# 2*t see o!!osition to this idea in Abbott, )o!annine Grammar, !# 6AA f# In the !hrase %* ) (Ac# A?+GJ +B?G, etc#), Lb& ni"ht,> % adds little to the "eniti e itself# It is the real adnominal "eniti e# The !re!osition is er& common in the N# T#, es!eciall& 3ith the "eniti e ("en# ,E6, acc# 6DG),6 tho*"h the acc*sati e becomes dominant later# ,# 3+assin "et#een4 or 3,!rou !.4 The idea of inter al bet3een leads nat*rall& to that of !assin" bet3een t3o obKects or !arts of obKects# LThro*"h> is th*s not the ori"inal meanin" of %, b*t is a er& common one# The case is *s*all& the "eniti e, tho*"h in Homer, the acc*sati e is common also, as 3e find it once in the N# T# ((*# +D?++), % ''!' (cf# %* , -?,H), and e en here note the "eniti e after # Some $SS# in Mo# E?AG read also %* # 2lass- 3ron"l& calls the acc*sati e an 4inadmissible readin"5 in ie3 of Homer and the "ro3in" *se of the acc*sati e in the ernac*lar 3ith all !re!ositions (cf# modern )ree')# This *se of Lthro*"h> or Lthoro*"h> is common in com!osition and sometimes has a 4!erfecti e5 idea (Lclear thro*"h>) as in %'@''F S 1#' ($t# ,?+6), L3ill thoro*"hl& cleanse#> Cf# also %'@"'! (Heb# ++?6G), %'@"# ($t# D?A), %@'..## ((*# G?BH), %'@.(. ((*# G?,6), %@. (+ Tim# 6?6), %'@%' (Ac# D?-A), %'@'#.' (Ac# +E?6E), %'@' (Ac# 6,?G), %'@ ((*# +?66), %'@ ((*# B?+6), %@' (Ac# 6+?D), %'@''"4 (+ Tim# B?A)J %'@! ((*# ,?+-), %'@/& ((*# D?,), %'@ # (-?+H)# This sense of % is *sed 3ith 3ords of !lace, time, a"ent or abstract 3ord# In all of these relations the root=idea of the !re!osition is easil& !ercei ed# Th*s in $t# +6?-,, %' %7 % ), %* 3(A (Heb# ++?6G), %* B ''!' (Mo# -?-), %* ) (+ Cor# ,?+A), %7 $) (+ Cor# +,?+6)# Cf# Ac# +,?-GJ 6 Cor# E?+E# In Ro# +A?6E, #' %7 6E 5 '!', 1iner (1iner=Tha&er, !# ,DE) ta'es %7 6E to be Lthro*"h &o*,> i#e# Lthro*"h &o*r cit&,> Lthro*"h the midst of &o*#> In all these e7am!les the idiom r*ns K*st as in the older )ree'# The *se of % 3ith e7!ressions of time 3as ne er er& common and "rad*all& 3as transferred+ to 5# 2*t some e7am!les occ*r in the N# T# li'e %7 :#( ) ((*# A?A), 3hich ma& be
A<<ott A++E)), E. A., Clue. A Gui$e throu"h Greek to ,e<reG %19&.'. (((, Fohannine Gra ar %19&9'.

(((, Fohannine >o*a<ulary %19&5'. # Moulton, Prol., p. 1&5. - Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1.5. . Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-#. 5iner 5I6E7, G. +., 0e erbor*m c*m !rae!# com!os# in N# T# /s* %11-.811.-'. (((, )ramm# d# ne*t# S!rachidioms (+E66)# D# A*fl# on (@nemann %l19/'. 5iner:)hayer 5I6E7:),AKE7, A Gra 1 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -/.. ar of the I$io of the 6. ). %1199'. >arious e$s.

com!ared 3ith %* ' C &B (Heb# 6?+A) and the common !hrase %* ') ($'# A?A)# Here the idea of thro*"h is a!!lied to time# Ro*ffiac (:ec!erc!es, !# 6G) cites %* C E i# from inscri!tions of Priene ++6, GE and GG (iU2#C#)# The a"ent ma& also be e7!ressed b& %# This f*nction 3as also !erformed in the ancient )ree', tho*"h, 3hen means or instr*ment 3as meant, the instr*mental case 3as commonl& em!lo&ed#6 W is th*s *sed 3ith inanimate and animate obKects# Here, of co*rse, the a"ent is concei ed as comin" in bet3een the non=attainment and the attainment of the obKect in ie3# One ma& com!are .G' %* '?E (Ac# +A?6,) 3ith % $#*, %* x(% !', %* k! '' ) !', 2#/# +HDG, A#0# -+ ($illi"an, Greek +ap., !# ,G)# So ? # %* #' 'Q '# . (, Mo# +,), %* .#/( (+ Cor# +-?G), * %* C /' (6 Cor# A?+H), %* E i# (6 Cor# B?D), 4 %* ' 4 %* #). 4 %7 $#B (6 Th# 6?6)# In 6 Pet# ,?A note the difference bet3een $3 -%' and %7 -%'# Abstract ideas are fre9*entl& so e7!ressed, as %* ! (E!h# 6?E), %* #4' C (E!h# +?+), %* C ?'..#! (+ Cor# -?+A), %* ) (Ro# ,?6D), %7 '#G ()al# +?+6)# Cf# + Cor# B?+-# 1hen % occ*rs 3ith the !ersonal a"ent, he is re"arded as the intermediate a"ent# Sometimes the immediate a"ent is also e7!ressed b& 6)# So 6 k! %* C 4 ($t# +?66, etc#)# Cf# also %* B .')V$ C C (+ Cor# ++?+6), 3here so*rce and mediate a"ent are distin"*ished# In )al# +?+, 7 /V%7 /, Pa*l ta'es !ains to den& both ideas# In + Cor# E?B, $3 {V%7 {, the first refers to )od the ;ather as the so*rce of all thin"s and the second refers to Mes*s as the mediate a"ent b& 3hom all thin"s come into e7istence# Cf# Col# +?+B# Indeed )od himself ma& be re"arded as so*rce, mediate a"ent, and *ltimate obKect or end, as Pa*l does in his noble do7olo"& in Ro# ++?,B, i $3 '?C 'Q %7 '?C 'Q 5 '? * '# There are other instances also 3here )od is loo'ed *!on as the inter enin" ca*se or a"ent# So %7 { (Heb# 6?+HJ + Cor# +?G)# 2*t % is often *sed 3ith Christ in re"ard to o*r relation to )od (cf# Pa*l>s *se of $)# Th*s Ro# +?EJ A?+, etc# Cf# %7 $C in Mo# +-?B, %* ##E ' (6 Tim# 6?6), %7 ..# (Heb# 6?6)# The intermediate idea of % a!!ears 3ell in + Cor# ,?A % %7 d $', Heb# ,?+B %* a, Ro# A?A %* '# In + Th# -?6, !' ''..#!' $%/' 6F %* C ! H(C, the matter seems t*rned ro*nd, b*t, as Pa*l 3as the s!ea'er, he concei es Mes*s as also ma'in" the commands# Abbott, )o!annine Grammar, !# 6,B, ri"htl& ar"*es in fa o*r of Lthro*"h him> (not Lit>) in Mo# +?D# It is im!ortant to note %* H(C jC (E!h# +?A), !re"nant 3ith meanin"# Cf# Schettler, Die paulinisc!e /ormel 6Durc! .!ristus17 !!# 6E ff# This *se of % occ*rs in the !a!&ri (1en"er, Die %tellvertretun im :ec!te der +ap&ri, +GHB, !# G f#)# Christ is concei ed as o*r re!resentati e (0eissmann, (i !t, etc#, !# ,-H)# It is not far from the notion of means li'e % ! to that of manner li'e %* ''"#B ((*# E?-)# Indeed the t3o shade off
7ouffia* 7EAFFIAC, F., Recherches s*r les caractXres d* "rec dans le N# T# d>a!rXs les inscri!tions de PriXne %1911'. # I<., p. -/5. Milli"an MILLIGA6, G., )he Greek Papyri Gith Spe*ial 7eferen*e to their >alue for 6. ). Stu$y %191#'. (((, )he 6. ). ;o*u ents %191-'.

into one another as %7 J' (Ac# +E?G)# Note also %7 .( ()al# A?B), %7 $'..#!' ()al# ,?+E), %* "' (Heb# +,?66), %7 #!. (+ Pet# A?+6), %7 -%' 'Q 'u' (+ Mo# A?B), %* .' 'Q B (Ro# 6?6D), %* )' (+-?6H), %* %)3( (6 Cor# ,?++), %7 6B (Heb# +6?+), %* ##E %' (6 Cor# 6?-)# Cf# Rom# 6?6D# 2*t here also the notion of bet3een is al3a&s !resent# This is tr*e e en in a case li'e %* E 5E C C (Ro# +6?+)# Cf# also %* B in Ro# +6?, 3ith %* S in +A?+A# -# 3"ecause of.4 1ith the acc*sati e % comes to be *sed 3ith the idea of Lbeca*se of,> Lfor the sa'e of,> Lon acco*nt of#> The notion of bet3een is still !resent# Ta'e $t# 6D?+E, %* ) '%' '?)# En & is the reason that !rom!ted the betra&al and so came in bet3een and ca*sed the act# The acc*sati e (e7tension) is nat*ral and hel!s also to distin"*ish this idiom from the others# ;or instance, in Heb# 6?+H, %7 \ * ' 'Q %7 { * ', the t3o ideas are distin"*ished entirel& b& means of the cases# One ma& note also %* S .'F' and %* B .') (+ Cor# ++?G, +6)# Cf# %* S abo e# In Ro# E?++ the $SS# ar& bet3een %* $C and %* C $C (1# H#, Nestle)# Note also the difference bet3een %* ! and %* S in Ro# ,?6A# Cf# also the common %* :' ($t# +H?66), %* S ##S .( (E!h# 6?-), %* #). (Mo# +A?,), %* ) (Heb# A?+6)# Cf# Heb# A?+-J Re # +6?++# The !ersonal "ro*nd is common also as in $.P &E %* '' (Mo# B?AD), %7 - (Heb# B?D), etc# Cf# + Mo# -?G &4 %7 '?C# The aim (*s*all& e7!ressed b& X') ma& be set forth b& % also# So ""' %* $. 'Q ? J %* ""' in $'# 6?6D# Cf# also %7 $ and %7 6A in Mo# +6?,H# Cf# $'# +,?6HJ Ph# ,?D# $o*lton (+rol., !# +HA) cites u' %* N "'#C C
;eiss ann ;EISSMA66, A., +i<le Stu$ies %19&1'. )r. <y A. Grie!eD *f. 2ibelst*dien %1195' an$ Ne*e 2ibelst*dien %119/'. (((, 2iblische )rNcitNt etc# %)heol. 7un$s*hau, Ekt. 191#'. (((, 0ie Hellenisier*n" des semitischen $onotheism*s %6. Fahr<. f. $. kl. Alt., 19&-'. (((, 0ie ne*t# ;ormel 3in Christo4 %119#'. (((, 0ie S!rache d# "riech# 2ibel %)heol. 7un$s*hau, 19&9, 6o. 119'. (((, 0ie /r"eschichte des Christent*ms im (ichte der S!rachforsch*n" %Intern. 5o*h., -&. Ekt. 19&9'. (((, Hellenistisches )riechisch %,er0o":,au*kHs 7ealen*y*., >II, 1199'. (((, (icht om Osten %19&1'. (((, Li"ht fro the An*ient East %191&'. )r. <y Stra*han.

(((, 6eG Li"ht on the 6. ). %19&/'. )r. <y Stra*han. (((, Papyri %En*y*. +i<l., III, 19&#'. (((, St. Paul in the Li"ht of So*ial an$ 7eli"ious ,istory %191#'. Moulton

%'! , $#P# +B and 6H (iiiU2#C#), in ill*stration of Mo# B?AD# The Pa*line !hrase %* H(C (6 Cor# -?A) is ill*strated b& %* k in a 2erlin $*se*m !a!&r*s letter (iiUA#0#) 3hich 0eissmann ((i !t, !!# +DB ff#) thin's c*rio*sl& ill*mines the stor& of the Prodi"al Son in (*# +A# In the modern )ree' . ;%< this notion of aim or !*r!ose 3ith the acc*sati e is the *s*al one#+ A common idiom in the )rQco=Roman and 2&Cantine )ree'6 is the *se of %* ) and the infiniti e in the sense of u'# It is !racticall& e9*i alent in the N# T# to i and the indicati e and is fre9*ent# In Mo# 6?6- f# 3e ha e both constr*ctions !arallel, %* '? ./ ', 'Q i ? !' +# In the modern )ree' 3e act*all& ha e .* ;%* u'< 3ith the s*bK*ncti e# Cf# En"lish 4for that#5 The *se of %* ! does not differ !racticall& from ! alone# (e) 9 . Inasm*ch as 5 ;$@< is merel& a later ariation of $, it 3ill be treated after $# There is an older form $! (locati e case), X , and in Homer 5! or 5 for metrical reasons# 2*t some of the dialects (Arcadian, Cretan) 3rote 5 li'e the (atin in# 2*t com!are (atin en-do, /mbrian en, ((atin inter), )erman in (ein), En"lish in (en-)#

MEAL)E6, F. ,., A Gra

ar of 6. ). Greek. >ol. I, Prole"o ena %19&9'. -$ e$. %19&1'.

(((, Chara*teristi*s of 6. ). Greek %)he ECpositor, 19&.'. (((, Einleit*n" in die S!rache des N# T# %1911'. (((, Gra ati*al 6otes fro the Papyri %)he ECpositor, 19&1, pp. #/18#1#D 19&-, pp. 1&.81#1, .#-8.-9. )he Classi*al 7e!ieG, 19&1, pp. -18-/, .-.8..1D 19&., pp. 1&98 11#, 1518155'. (((, Intro$u*tion to 6. ). Greek %1195'. #$ e$. %19&.'. (((, Lan"ua"e of Christ %,astin"sH Ene:!ol. ;. +., 19&9'. (((, 6. ). Greek in the Li"ht of Mo$ern ;is*o!ery %Ca <r. +i<l. Essays, 19&9, pp. .918 5&5'. (((, )he S*ien*e of Lan"ua"e %19&-'. MEAL)E6, 5. F., an$ GE;E6, A. S., A Con*or$an*e to the Greek )esta ent %119/'. MEAL)E6 an$ MILLIGA6, LeCi*al 6otes fro the Papyri %)he ECpos., 19&1('. the Papyri an$ other 6on:Literary

(((, )he >o*a<ulary of the 6. ). Illustrate$ fro Sour*es. Part I %191.', II, III. 1 )hu <, ,an$<., p. 1&.. # Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -/.. - @.:G., I, p. .91.

+# -ld ;se of $ #it! Accusative or (ocative# Ori"inall& $ 3as *sed 3ith either locati e or acc*sati e, not to sa& "eniti e in a case li'e 5 |I%' 3hich 2r*"mann- does not consider mere elli!sis# He cites also $%/ as bein" reall& $ %E# 2*t there is no manner of do*bt as to the acc*sati e and the locati e# The inscri!tions of man& of the dialects sho3 ab*ndant ill*strations of $ 3ith the acc*sati e s*ch as the Thessalian, 2Yotian, North3est )ree', Arcadian, etc#+ Cf# $ .', $ J#!', etc#6 So 5 * 2.',, etc# Indeed in C&!riote )ree' $ *s*all& has the acc*sati e#- In North Arcadian $ alone a!!ears (not $@, 5) and 3ith either locati e or acc*sati e li'e (atin in#A 2esides in Homer 3e ha e $@E', not to mention the common com!o*nd erbs li'e $@"##, $@"'!, 3here one mi"ht loo' for 5# Cf# $" 5 #F ($t# E?6,), J $"G' $ L "#!M ($t# 6B?6,)# This so=called !re"nant *se of $ seems er& nat*ral after all# It is onl& in com!osition that the old *sa"e is !reser ed in the N# T# or a case li'e $ L "#!M abo e after a erb of motion 3here 5 mi"ht at first seem more nat*ral# Cf# (*# G?-BJ + Cor# ++?+EJ Ro# +?6A# In Ro# +?6- $ occ*rs 3ith '%, b*t 5 in erse 6B# Indeed (2lass, Gr. of 0. ,. Gk., !# +,H) 3e find $ 3ith %!%, u( and !(# Remnants of this earl& *sa"e s*r i e in the N# T#, as %%) $ D '%!^ (6 Cor# E?+B), %% $ D ! (Mo# ,?,A), $ #'D ($t# +-?,)# Cf# the s!*rio*s erse Mo# A?- '"' $ D #"4^J Par# P# +H, 6 (iiiUA#0#) '/( $ 0#3'%!^J E!ict# (I, ++, ,6) O $ }/OJ Tob# A?A B' $ }.# Cf# 2lass=0ebr*nner, !# +,+# The (XX sho3s similar e7am!les# Cf# Con&beare and Stoc', !# E,# 2*t it 3as onl& b& de"rees that $ came to be associated e7cl*si el& 3ith the locati e case and 5 3ith the acc*sati e as a res*lt of the tri*m!h
+ru" ann +7AGMA66, @., Ele ents of Co parati!e Gra %translation <y 5ri"ht, 1195'. ar of the In$o:Ger ani* Lan"ua"es

(((, )riechische )rammati'# ,# A*fl# %19&&', the e$. Buote$. %ierte ermehrte A*fl# of A. )hu < %191-'. (((, )r*ndriF der er"l# )r# d# indo"# S!rachen# 6# A*fl#, 2de# I, II %119/8191-'. (((, I*rCe er"leichende )rammati' der indo"ermanischen S!rachen %19&.'. . Grie*h. Gr., p. .-9. Cf. +ru"., I*rCe er"l# )r#, II, p. .95. 1 I<., p. .-1. # Meister, 0ie "riech# 0ial#, +$. I, p. #1.. - Sol sen, Inscr# )raecae, p. .. . Meister, Gr. ;ial., +$. II, p. #1- f. 5 ,off ann, Gr. ;ial., +$. II, p. 591. +Motian also knoGs only $ Gith either lo*. or a**. Cf. Claflin, Synt. of +Motian ;ial. Ins*r., p. 59 f. Pin$ar shoGs $ Gith a**. +lass:;e<runner +LASS:;E+7A66E7, )rammati' d# ne*t# )riech# -# A*fl# %191-'. Cony<eare an$ Sto*k CE6K+EA7E an$ S)EC@, Sele*tions fro Intro$u*tion %19&5'. the LJJ. A Gra ati*al

of the Ionic=Attic )ree'#B In Homer indeed $ a!!ears as an ad erb#D In ori"in therefore 3e are not to associate $ !rimaril& 3ith the locati e an& more than in (atin, tho*"h *ltimatel& that came to be tr*e# Other e7am!les of $ in com!osition in the N# T# 3ith erbs of motion are $"' (Col# 6?+E), $""& (Ac# 6D?B), $! ((*# +H?,B follo3ed b& 5)# The 3ord therefore e identl& e7!resses the idea of L3ithin,> 3hether of rest or of motion de!endin" on the conte7t# Com!are ernac*lar En"lish, 4Come in the ho*se#5 Note in Ac# 6B?6H that $ is not re!eated 3ith H## 6# 9 -lder t!an 5# It seems certain that ori"inall& $ stood alone 3itho*t 5, 3hereas in the modern )ree' ernac*lar $ has entirel& disa!!eared before 5 3hich *ses onl& the acc*sati e#+ There is once more *nit&, b*t not e7actl& on the same terms# In the )ree' N# T# this !rocess of absor!tion is "oin" steadil& on as in the 4 "enerall&# There is rarel& m*ch do*bt as to the si"nificance of $, 3hereas 5 has alread& be"*n to res*me its old identit& 3ith $, if indeed in the ernac*lar it e er "a e it *!#6 1e ma& com!are $ L .L in $t# 6-?+E 3ith 5 .) in $'# +,?+B# Cf# $ ) 5 S 0!' (Ac# +G?66), (F' 5 k''!' (6A?-), 5 +) $ (some $SS# in $'# 6?+)# Cf# Mo# +?+E# In the N# T# $ is so fre9*ent (6BGE instances) that it is still the most common !re!osition# Indeed $o*lton, thin's that its *ltimate disa!!earance is d*e to the fact that it had become too a"*e as 4a maid of all 3or'#5 ,# +lace# The sim!lest *se is 3ith e7!ressions of !lace, li'e $ D .~ ($t# 6H?,), $ %3~ (Heb# +?,), $ L )M (Re # ,?6+), $ L #!M ($t# -?6+), $ D )# ((*# D?,D), $ L H%O 'L ($t# ,?B), $ -%' (,?++), $ D #M (Mo# +A?-)# Cf# also $3B# J #). $ D H%'!^ ((*# D?+D) and $ L .'& #'!M (Mo# E?6H)# ;or the 4!re"nant5 constr*ction of $ after erbs of motion cf# cha!ter XI, X, (i)# Cf# e7am!les "i en *nder +# In these and li'e e7am!les $ indeed adds little to the idea of the locati e case 3hich it is *sed to e7!lain# See also $ F ((*# 6?-G) in the sense of Lat the ho*se of> (cf# 5 * I%', Mo# +G?6D) for 3hich $o*lton- finds ab*ndant ill*stration in the !a!&ri# Cf# $ F 0##!, R#(# ,E6 (iiiU2#C#)# The !re!osition in itself merel& states that the location is 3ithin the bo*nds mar'ed b& the 3ord 3ith 3hich it occ*rs# It does not mean Lnear,> b*t Lin,> that is Linside#> The translation of the res*ltant idea ma& be indeed in1 on1 at, accordin" to the conte7t, b*t the !re!osition itself retains its o3n idea# There is nothin" stran"e abo*t the meta!horical *se of $ in e7!ressions li'e $ "' ((*# +B?6,), $ L 'M (+ Mo# ,?+-), $ %)3O (Ph# -?+G), $ (!M (+ Cor# 6?D), etc# -# 5xpressions of ,ime# 9 ma& a!!ear rather oftener than the mere locati e# Cf# $ D $O U^ in Mo# B?--, b*t D $O U^ in B?A-, 3hile in B?-H the $SS# ar&# 2& $ Q U' (Mo# 6?+G) it is clear that Mes*s meant the res*rrection 3ill ta'e
9 +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .-1. / Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1./. 1 >. an$ ;., Mo$. Gk., p. 1&9 f. # Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1.#. - Prol., p. 1&-. In the Ptol. papyri, 7oss<er" %PrIp., p. 1' fin$s ##.5 eCa ples of $ an$ it is the ost *o on preposition. . Prol., p. 1&-. En the retreat of $ <efore 5 see Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -1&.

!lace #it!in the !eriod of three da&s# Cf# D !O U^ (ne er 3ith $ in the N# T#) in $t# +B?6+#+ $ore common e7!ressions are $ '""M ($t# +6?6), $ D U^ (Mo# ++?G), $ D ! (++?+H), $ L %M (Ac# D?+,), $ L '3B ((*# E?+), $ L '3 (Mo# -?,+), $ 'F U' $!' ($t# ,?+), $ D '!^ (+ Th# 6?+G), $ D ' ($'# +6?6,), $ U^ ! ($t# +H?+A), $ D $O #.. (+ Cor# +A?A6), etc# Cf# (*# +?D# Another tem!oral *se of $ is $ in the sense of L3hile> ($'# 6?+G)# Cf# also $ , in (*# +6?+# The fre9*ent *se, es!eciall& in (*'e (cf# $ L 6 , E?-H), of $ L 3ith the infiniti e calls for a 3ord# E7am!les of this idiom occ*r in the ancient )ree' (+B in Xeno!hon, B in Th*c&dides, 6B in Plato)6 and the !a!&ri sho3 it occasionall&#, Cf# $ L #.!&', Par# P# B, (iiU2#C#)# 2*t in the (XX

it is a constant translation of and is m*ch more ab*ndant in the N# T# as a res*lt of the (XX !rof*sion# A# 3Amon .4 1ith !l*ral no*ns $ ma& ha e the res*ltant idea of Lamon",> tho*"h, of co*rse, in itself it is still Lin,> L3ithin#> Th*s 3e note $ .(F .'E ($t# ++?++), 2 $ UF (Ac# 6?6G), Y $ '?F (-?,-), $ 6F (+ Pet# A?+), $ F U.) H% ($t# 6?B)# This is a common idiom in the ancient )ree'# Not er& different from this idea (cf# (atin apud) is the *se $ '#F UE ($t# 6+?-6), li'e (atin coram# One ma& note also $ 6F in + Cor# B?6# Cf# $ F 2 ()al# +?+B)# See also 6 Cor# -?,J E?+# B# 38n t!e .ase of14 3in t!e +erson of4 or sim!l& 3in.4 A fre9*ent *se is 3here a sin"le case is selected as a s!ecimen or stri'in" ill*stration# Here the res*ltant notion is Lin the case of,> 3hich does not differ "reatl& from the meta!horical *se of $ 3ith so*l, mind, etc# Cf# (*# 6-?,E# Th*s 3ith '# note $ $! ()al# +?+B), 5%P $ 'L (Mo# B?B+), .(' $ $! (+ Cor# G?+A), $ L 3(L ! .(' ((*# 6,?,+), $ UF ( (+ Cor# -?B), $ D # ((*# 6-?,A)# One ma& note also $ L 0%* 4 (+ Cor# +A?66), $ L H(C ''..## (Ac# -?6), U.'( $ ' b.!M (Ro# +A?+B), U.!'' $ D .'! (+ Cor# D?+-), etc# Pa*l>s fre9*ent m&stical *se of $ !M (+ Cor# G?+), $ jL (Ro# B?++, 6,, etc#) ma& be com!ared 3ith Mes*s> o3n 3ords, !' $ $!, .P $ 6F (Mo# +A?-)# Cf# also $ L L in Col# ,?,# The (XX *sa"e is not 9*ite on a !ar 3ith this !rofo*nd meanin" in the mo*th of Mes*s and Pa*l, e en if 4e7tremel& indefinite5 to the non=Christian#+ 2*t $o*lton6 a"rees 3ith Sanda& and Headlam (Ro# B?++) that the m&stic ind3ellin" is Christ>s o3n idea ado!ted b& Pa*l# The classic disc*ssion of the matter is, of co*rse, 0eissmann>s Die 0eutestamentlic!e /ormel 4in .!risto )esu5 (+EG6), in 3hich b& caref*l st*d& of the (XX and the N# T# he sho3s the de!th and ori"inalit& of Pa*l>s idea in the *se of $ jL# $o*lton, do*bts if e en here the N# T# 3riters ma'e an inno ation, b*t the f*lness of the Christian content 3o*ld am!l& K*stif& them if the& did ha e to do so# See
1 See espe*ially Fiel$Hs !alua<le note on this !erse shoGin" hoG i possi<le it is for the resurre*tion to ha!e o**urre$ on the fourth $ay. Cf. also A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. #55 f. # Moulton, Prol., p. #15. - I<., p. 1.. Cf. Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -/9. 1 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-1. Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1.., *onsi$ers this an 3eCtra:"ra ati*al4 point. # Prol., p. 1&-. 5ith this *f. $ %Mt. 1/21#D Lu. #-2-1', an i$io parallele$ in the LJJ. Cf. $3#3' $ p! %1 Chron. #12.', ' $ '?L %1 Chron. #129'.

$ '?L $!( * ' (Col# +?+B)# As f*rther e7am!les cf# Ro# G?+J +-?+-J Ph# ,?GJ E!h# -?6+# D# As a Dative< One ma& hesitate to sa& do"maticall& that in + Cor# +-?++, J #'#E $ $Q ""', 3e ha e $ *sed merel& as the dati e (cf# 5 in modern )ree')# 2*t L #'#C ""' in the same erse loo's that 3a&,- and $o*ltonA cites F $ L 'Q .'( (M*# +) and reminds *s of the common "ro*nd bet3een the locati e and dati e in Sans'rit 3here the locati e a!!ears 3ith erbs of s!ea'in"# Cf# also $ $! in Ph# +?6B# Note also $ $Q in late (XX boo's (Thac'era&, Gr., !# +-)# One ma& com!are $!(' $ '?L ($t# +D?+6)# There seems no do*bt that J#. $ ($t# +H?,6W(*# +6?E) is d*eB to literal translation of the Aramaic# The *se

of $ 3ith ' ($t# A?,-) is similar to the Hebre3 # E# Accompan&in .ircumstance# It is needless to m*lti!l& *nd*l& the ario*s *ses of $, 3hich are 4inn*merable5 in the (XXD 3here its chief e7tension is d*e to the imitation of the Hebre3 #E 2*t b& no means all these *ses are Hebraic# Th*s $ for the idea of accom!an&in" circ*mstance is classical eno*"h (cf# $ :# +', Xen# Anab. A# G, li'e En"lish 4The !eo!le are *! in arms5), tho*"h the (XX abo*nds 3ith it# It occ*rs also in the !a!&ri# Cf# Tb#P# -+ (++G 2#C#)# Here $ dra3s close to and in *sa"e# Note, for instance, $ %' # 6'B' ((*# +-?,+), Y# $ b.!' '?C (M*# +-), $ A '#'") (E!h# B?+B), $ #'F 'F ($'# +6?,E), 2' $ $%' " ($t# D?+A), $ #F '& (Mo# 6H?+6), '#'V$ G'F (Ac# D?+-), 5' $ 'u' (Heb# G?6A), $ L -%' 'Q $ L 'u' (+ Mo# A?B), $ "%M 2# (+ Cor# -?6+), $ #(/' (Ro# +A?6G), $ #' (+ Th# -?+B), "'#F' $ o'! (Re # ,?AJ cf# $t# ++?E)# Note also $ (!M #'#C (+ Cor# 6?D) 3here Lin the form of> is the idea# These e7am!les sho3 the freedom of the !re!osition in this direction# Some3hat more com!licated is a !assa"e li'e $ ' 'M ($'# +?6,), 3hich 2lass+ !ro!erl& com!ares 3ith C' ' 2 ($'# ,?,H), and the do*ble *se in Ro# E?G, 6F %N ? $N $ 'Q ##* $ ', I C' C 5F $ 6F (follo3ed b& C' jC ? 2)# The notion of manner is closel& allied to
- Prol., p. 1&-. . +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-1. 5 Prol., p. 1&-. )ha*keray ),AC@E7AK, ,. S)., A Gra A**i$en*e %19&9'. ar of the E. ). in Greek. >ol. I, Intro$u*tion, Ertho"raphy an$

(((, 7elation of St. Paul to Conte porary )hou"ht %19&&'. 9 I<., p. 1&.. / C. an$ S., Sel., et*., p. 1#. Cf. )ha*k., Gr., p. ./, for the freBuent use of $ of a**o panyin" *ir*u stan*e in the LJJ. 1 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-&. 1 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-1.

this idiom as 3e see it in $ %'O (Ac# +D?,+), $ '(!^ (Col# 6?+A), $ ((*# +E?E, cf# ' and ')# Cf# $t# B?+E and Mo# +E?6H# G# 3Amountin to14 3-ccasion14 3%p!ere.4 $o*lton6 considers $'# -?E, 2 5 ' 'Q $ p34' 'Q $ p') (note similarit& here bet3een 5 and $), as sho3in" that $ sometimes is *sed in the sense of Lamo*ntin" to#> Cf# also Ac# D?+((XX)# The idiom is !resent in the !a!&ri# $o*lton cites F' $ %''F $'!', 2#/# GDH (iiUA#0#), S /( %) $ %''F '', O#P# D6- (iiU2#C#)# He (+rol., !# DB) 9*otes Hb# P# -6 (iiiU2#C#), %/ $ #4', as 4!redicati e5 *se of $# He com!ares E!h# 6?+A, $ %).', Lconsistin in decrees#> Certain it is that in Re # A?G .)'' $ L 'u'! 3e ha e !rice, indicated b& $# Cf# Ro# ,?6AJ Ac# 6H?6E# In a fe3 e7am!les $ "i es the occasion, as 2 . $ L #).M M (Ac# D?6G), $ D ##.!^ '?E 5'4' ($t# B?D), $ M (Mo# +B?,H)# Note also #' $ L '! $ L ?'..#!M (Ro# +?G) 3here the second $ s*""ests Lin the s!here of#> Cf# $ M (E!h# -?+B), $ I (+ Tim# -?+A), $ )M e' (Ro# 6?+6)# In sim!le tr*th the onl& 3a& to 'no3 the res*ltant meanin" of $ is to note caref*ll& the conte7t# It is so sim!le in idea that it a!!ears in e er& ariet& of connection# +H# 8nstrumental ;se of $# See !re io*s disc*ssion *nder Cases# 2lass- considers it d*e to Hebre3 infl*ence as does Mannaris#+ The ancient )ree' 3riters did *se $ 3ith certain erbs as the N# T# '! $ ! (Re # +D?+B, some $SS#), '# $ ! (+ Cor# ,?+,), b#!& $ ! ($t# A?+,), $ M ($t# D?6)#6 The constr*ction in itself is as old as Homer#, Cf# $ '#F %' (Il# i# AED), $ Q '! (Il#

77i # ,E)# It is abnormall& fre9*ent in the (XX *nder the infl*ence of the Hebre3 ,b*t it is not so common in the N# T# 2esides, the !a!&ri sho3 *ndo*bted e7am!les of it#A $o*lton finds Ptolemaic e7am!les of $ ''!O, Tb#P# +B al.2 %'#)' $ L #L Par#P# 6E (iiU2#C#), 3hile 66 has L #L %'#B' and note T $( 2 b.4', Par#P# B, (iiU2#C#)# 1e can onl& sa&, therefore, that the (XX accelerated the ernac*lar idiom in this matter# The Aramaic !robabl& hel!ed it on also# The blendin" of the instr*mental 3ith the locati e in form facilitated this *sa"e be&ond
# Prol., p. 1&-. - 7are an$ possi<ly ,e<raisti*. Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -1&. . Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-&. Fannaris FA66A7IS, A. 6., A ,istori*al Greek Gra ar %119/'.

(((, En the )rue Meanin" of the k4 %Class. 7e!., 19&-, pp. 9- ff.'. 1 ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -/9. +ut see ;eiss., +. S., p. 119 f. # 5.:)h., p. -11. - Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1... . C. an$ S., p. 1#D )ha*k., p. ./. 5 Moulton, Prol., pp. 1#, 91, 1&., #-. f.

a do*bt,B and the tendenc& to *se !re!ositions ab*ndantl& hel!ed also#D 2*t e en so one m*st obser e that all the N# T# e7am!les of $ can be e7!lained from the !oint of ie3 of the locati e# The !ossibilit& of this !oint of ie3 is the reason 3h& $ 3as so *sed in the be"innin"# I !ass b& e7am!les li'e "'!& $ -%', "'! $ ' b.!M 'Q ! ($t# ,?++) as !robabl& not bein" instances of the instr*mental *sa"e at all# 2*t there are real instances eno*"h# Ta'e (*# 66?-G 5 '3 $ ''!O2 Here the smitin" can be re"arded as located in the s3ord# To be s*re, in En"lish, 3e translate the res*ltant idea b& L3ith,> b*t $ in itself does not mean L3ith#> That res*ltant idea can onl& come in the !ro!er conte7t# So $ L w&"T# E %'! $"## ($t# +6?6-)# Here the castin" o*t is located in the !rince of demons# Cf# ! $ %! (Ac# +D?,+), $ "'! ((*# +?A+), $ %)#M ($'# +-?+), $ )M ''!( (Heb# ++?,D)# The A!ocal&!se has se eral e7am!les, li'e #4 $ D '!^ (6?+B), F' $ '!^ 'Q $ #L 'Q $ 'M (B?E), $ ''!O F (+,?+H)# In Re # +-?+A, & $ D, 3e do not necessaril& ha e to e7!lain it in this manner# Cf# Ro# 6?+BJ 6?6EJ + Mo# 6?,J Mas# ,?G# On the 3hole there is little that is o*t of harmon& 3ith the ernac*lar 4 in the N# T# *se of $, tho*"h AbbottE thin's that the e7am!les of 0eissmann and $o*lton do not e7actl& !arallel the N# T# instr*mental *se# ;or re!etition of $ see 6 Cor# B?- ff# (f) 5 . There is nothin" to add to the et&molo"& of 5 as com!ared 3ith that of $ sa e that 5 is 'no3n to be reall& $@ as 3e find it in the inscri!tions of Ar"os, Crete, etc# So $ 0''!'#+ This seems to ha e been added to $ b& analo"& to $3#6 /s*all& 3ith the disa!!earance of the form 3as 5, b*t Th*c&dides, li'e the Ionic and 0oric 3riters and the !oets, !referred $ 3hich 3as c*rrent in the inscri!tions before ,,- 2#C#, So 5 a!!ears in a Phr&"ian Christian inscri!tion#- 2*t the Volic 5 "rad*all& dro e o*t all the other forms#A Ori"inall&, therefore, $ alone e7isted 3ith either locati e or acc*sati e, and 5 a!!ears no3here else sa e in the )ree'# The classic *se of 5 |u% (some $SS# in Ac# 6?6D, ,+ and readin" in Is# +-?+A) is the tr*e "eniti e, accordin" to 2r*"mann (Griec! Gr., !# -,G), Lin the s!here of Hades#> +# -ri inal %tatic ;se# In Homer 5@F' means merel& to lie 3ithin# 2*t, tho*"h 5 reall& means the same thin" as $, it 3as earl& *sed onl& 3ith the acc*sati e, and "rad*all& s!ecialiCed th*s one of the *sa"es of $# The locati e 3ith $, ho3e er, contin*ed to be *sed sometimes in the same sense as the acc*sati e 3ith 5# The
9 I<., p. 91. / Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -/9. 1 Foh. Gr., p. #59. 1 Sol sen, Inscr# )raecae, p. .9. # +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .-1. ,e treats $ an$ 5 to"ether. - Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -/9. . 7a say, Cities an$ +ishopri*s of Phry"ia, II, p. 5#5. Cf. also Psi*hari, Zt*des de Philol#, 119#, p. !. 5 Cf. ,. 5. S yth, p. 1&, )ransa*tions of A . Philol. Asso*. for 111/. F. Fraser %Cl. Nuarterly, 19&1, p. #/&' shoGs that in Cretan Ge ha!e $ ) %<efore !oGel', <ut $ ) %<efore *onsonant'.

acc*sati e indeed normall& s*""ests motion (e7tension), and that did come to be the common *sa"e of 5 !l*s the acc*sati e# The res*ltant idea 3o*ld often be Linto,> b*t this 3as b& no means al3a&s tr*e# 5 is not *sed m*ch in com!osition in the N# T# and al3a&s 3here motion is in ol ed sa e in the case of 5@' 3here there seems little difference bet3een 5 and $ (cf# + Cor# +-?6+J $t# B?D)# In itself 5 e7!resses the same dimension relation as $, iC# in#B It does not of itself mean into1 unto, or to# That is the res*ltant idea of the acc*sati e case 3ith erbs of motion# It is tr*e that in the later )ree' this static *se of 5 3ith the idea of rest (in) is far more common than in the earlier )ree'# This 3as nat*rall& so, since in the ernac*lar 5 finall& dro e $ o*t entirel& and did d*t& for both, K*st as ori"inall& $ did# The onl& difference is that 5 *sed the one case (acc*sati e), 3hereas $ *sed either acc*sati e or locati e# 2*t+ then the acc*sati e 3as once the onl& case and m*st be allo3ed lar"e libert&# And e en in the classic 3riters there are not 3antin" e7am!les# These are *s*all& e7!lained6 as instances of 4!re"nant5 constr*ction, b*t it is !ossible to thin' of them as s*r i als of the et&molo"ical idea of 5 ;$@< 3ith onl& the "eneral notion of the acc*sati e case# Certainl& the ernac*lar laid less stress on the distinction bet3een 5 and $ than the literar& lan"*a"e did# Tho*"h 5 falls behind $ in the N# T# in the !ro!ortion of 6 to ,, still, as in the !a!&ri, and the inscri!tions and the (XX,- a n*mber of e7am!les of static 5 occ*r# Some of these 3ere referred to *nder $, 3here the 4!re"nant5 *se of $ for 5 occ*rs# HatCida'is "i es ab*ndant e7am!les of $ as 5 and 5 as $# Cf# 5 0#3% $, 2#/# ii# ,EAJ 5 " F', Iaibel E!i"r# +,-J %' 5 #'', 2#/# -6, (iiUA#0#)# 0eissmann ((i !t, !# +BG) notes Pa*l>s % $ '#O and that the Roman soldier in the last e7am!le 3rites 4more *l"arl& than St# Pa*l#5 In these e7am!les it is not necessar& nor !ertinent to brin" in the idea of Linto#> 2lassA comments on the fact that $atthe3 (b*t see belo3) has no s*ch e7am!les and Mohn b*t fe3, 3hile (*'e has most of them# I cannot, ho3e er, follo3 2lass in citin" $'# +?G $"'!( 5 H%( as an e7am!le# The idea of motion in "'!& s*its 5 as 3ell as $ in $'# +?A# Cf# 5G' 5 (Mo# G?D)# 2*t in $t# 6E?+G, "'!& 5 :', and Ro# B?, f#, 5 j) and 5 ', the notion of s!here is the tr*e one# The same thin" ma& be tr*e of "'4 5 E b'E (Ac# 6?,E), 3here onl& the conte7t and the tenor of N# T# teachin" can determine 3hether Linto,> L*nto> or merel& Lin> or Lon> (L*!on>) is the ri"ht translation, a tas' for the inter!reter, not for the "rammarian# One does not need here to a!!eal to the Hebre3

9 @.:G., I, p. .91. 1 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -/9. # I<., p. -//. Cf. Mulla*h, Gr. $. "rie*h. >ul"arsp., p. -1&. +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#-, *alls it a 3pro!in*ialis .4 Cf. further ,at0., Einl., p. #1& f.D Moulton, Prol., p. #-. f. - Moulton, Prol., p. 9# f. . C. an$ S., Sel., p. 11. ,at0i$akis ,A)OI;A@IS, G. 6., Einleit*n" in die ne*"riechische )rammati' %119#'. @ai<el @AI+EL, Stil *nd Te7t der 0('! #!'. 5 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1##.

e 9ur %prac!erkl=run des 0. ,., !# -D f#)# Indeed the *se of :' for !erson is common in the !a!&ri (0eissmann, "ible %tudies, !# +GB f#)# 0eissmann "i es e7am!les of 5 :', $7 )', and the mere locati e )', from the !a!&ri# The static *se of 5 is seen in its distrib*ti e *se li'e $ in $'# -?E, 5 ' 'Q $ p34' 'Q $ p')# 2*t there are *ndo*bted e7am!les 3here onl& Lin,> Lon> or Lat> can be the idea# Th*s ( 5 * '.. ($'# +?,G) 3here there is some e7c*se for the 4!re"nant5 e7!lanation beca*se of f## So $#P '( 5 )# ($t# 6?6,J -?+,), b*t note onl& '( 5 .B (Heb# ++?G) and 6( 5 & (Ac# E?-H)# Cf# '( 5 : ($'# +,?,), J 5 .) ($'# +,?+B), F 5 , ((*# G?B+), 5 S !( 5! ((*# ++?D), $.''#!G 5 m%( (Ac# 6?6DJ cf# erse ,+), F 5 ' (6?,G), 5 #4V:' (Ac# E?6,), $ ) 5 S 0!' (Ac# +G?66), 'F 5 H'#4 (Ac# 6+?+,), 5 }/( 'B' (Ac# 6,?++), (F' 5 k''!' (Ac# 6A?-), J K 5 #)# (Mo# +?+E), o F 5 X 5 (+ Mo# A?E), 5 B (+ Pet# A?+6)# Nor is this 9*ite all# In some $SS# in $'# 6?+ 3e ha e 5 +) $ ( 20( $ IM)# In Ac# 6?A the $SS# ar& bet3een 5 and $ as in $'# +H?+H# Another instance is fo*nd in E!h# ,?+B, ''B' 5 2 # Cf# Mo# 6H?DJ $'# +,?G# 2*t in 2( 5 (Mo# 6H?+G, 6B) 3e ha e motion, tho*"h 2( 5 '5.'#) (Mo# 6+?-) is an e7am!le of rest# Mo# +D?6, is normal# In $t# +H?-+ f#, 5 :' 4 ;'(C, %'!< one can see little difference bet3een 5 and $# Certainl& this is tr*e of $t# +6?-+, )(' 5 4.' HA, 3here it is abs*rd to ta'e 5 as Linto> or L*nto> or e en Lto#> See also (. 5 $ :' ($t# +E?6H)# 6# Wit! $erbs of Motion# 2*t the *s*al idiom 3ith 5 3as *ndo*btedl& 3ith erbs of motion 3hen the motion and the acc*sati e case combined 3ith 5 (Lin>) to "i e the res*lta" of Linto,> L*nto,> Lamon",> Lto,> Lto3ards> or Lon,> L*!on,> accordin" to the conte7t# This is so common as to call for little ill*stration# As 3ith $ so 3ith 5, the no*n itself "i es the bo*ndar& or limit# So 5 S 5!' ($t# 6?++), 5 : (A?+), 5 '/ (6D?6D), 5 #'' (+D?6D), 5 ?') (Re # +H?A), 5 2( (Ac# 66?6+), 5 ') ($t# B?+,), 5 (F (Mo# ++?,E), 5 S J%) ($'# ++?E), 5 T '( ((*# B?6H), 5 T #O ((*# +H?,B), 5 #!( (Re # 6?66), 5 * %3 (Mo# 6+?B), 5 S '#4 ($t# 6D?,H), 5 * .#' ((*# 6?6E), 5 i# ) ($'# +-?G), 5 6A (+ Th# 6?G)# These e7am!les fairl& ill*strate the ariet& in the *se of 5 3ith erbs of motion# ;or idea of Lamon"> see Mo# 6+?6,# It 3ill be seen at once, if one cons*lts the conte7t in these !assa"es, that the !re!osition does not of itself mean Linto> e en 3ith erbs of motion# That is indeed one of the res*ltant meanin"s amon" man& others# The meta!horical *ses do not differ in !rinci!le, s*ch as 5 #!G ($t# 6-?G), . 5 X (Mo# ++?A6), 5 S &4 ($t# +E?E), 5 ! (Mo# A?6-), 5 6'4 (6 Cor#+H?A), 5 F' ($t# +D?66), etc# ;or man& interestin" e7am!les of $ and 5 see Theimer, Die +r=positionen 5, $, $ im 0. ,.1 "eitr= e 9ur >enntnis des %prac! ebrauc!es im 0. ,., +EGB# ,# Wit! 5xpressions of ,ime# Here 5 mar's either the limit or accents the d*ration e7!ressed b& the acc*sati e# Th*s in 6 Tim# +?+6 3e find #3' 5 $!( S U' 3here L*ntil> s*its as a translation (cf# La"ainst>)# Cf# Ph# +?+H, 5 U'
)holu*k ),ELAC@, 2eitrN"e C*r S!racher'lNr*n" des N# T# )hei er ),EIME7, A., 2eitrN"e C*r Ienntnis des S!rach"ebr# im N# T# %1199'.

a as as Thol*c' does ("eitr=

C# Not 9*ite so shar! a limit is 5 S ' ($t# B?,-)# Cf# + Pet# +?++# There is little that is added b& the !re!osition to the acc*sati e in s*ch e7am!les as 5 ## ((*# +,?G), 5 '5E' ($t# 6+?+G), 5 .* 'Q . ((*# +?AH), 5 %( (Heb# D?,), etc# Cf# (*# +6?+G# 2*t a more definite !eriod is set in cases li'e 5 ') ((*# +?6H), 5 '3 ""' (Ac# +,?-6)# -# (ike a Dative# It is not stran"e to see 5 *sed 3here dis!osition or attit*de of mind is set forth# Indeed alread& 5 and the acc*sati e occ*r 3here the dati e alone 3o*ld be s*fficient# This is es!eciall& tr*e in the (XX, b*t the !a!&ri sho3 e7am!les also# Cf# o 5 j) (Mart. +auli, II)# $o*lton (+rol., !# 6-B) cites Tb# P# +B, ? #4. B 5 '?T '?'%!^, 43here 5 act*all& stands for the !ossessi e "eniti e#5 One m*st remember the com!lete disa!!earance of the dati e in modern )ree'+ ernac*lar# Note B #.!' B 5 T b.! (+ Cor# +B?+), #E 5 ' (Ro# +H?+6), #3 5 (Ph# -?+D), $#(' 4 5 2 (Ac# 6-?+D), #. 5 * 2( (Ro# +A?+B), "# 5 (Heb# ++?6B), #. 5 (Ac# 6?6A), 5 ($t# A?,- f#), '? 5 ##4# (Ro# +6?+B), 5 ($t# +E?B), ( 5 (E!h# -?,6), .( 5 (Ro# A?E), etc# If one entertains hostile feelin"s the res*ltant idea 3ith 5 3ill be La"ainst,> tho*"h the 3ord does not of itself mean that# So in (*# +6?+H 5 o C / (cf# ' in $t# +6?,6) and 5 1. C' "#' (4', "# (' 5 (Ac# B?++), $"#S 5 (Ac# 6,?,H), *' 5 ((*# +A?+E), etc# As a matter of fact all that 5 reall& accent*ates here is the acc*sati e case (3ith reference to) 3hich ha!!ens to be in a hostile atmos!here# 2*t that is not tr*e of s*ch e7am!les as (' 5 p' ((*# D?,H), 5 S $'..#!' C C (Ro# -?6H), etc# ;or :G' 5 in Mo# +G?,D see Abbott, )o!annine Grammar, !# 6-A# In the modern )ree' 5 has dis!laced the dati e in the ernac*lar# A# Aim or +urpose# Sometimes indeed 5 a!!ears in an atmos!here 3here aim or !*r!ose is manifestl& the res*ltant idea# Th*s 3e ma& note $#P 5 S lM%' 5 ?'..# (6 Cor# 6?+6)# Here the second 5 s*""ests the !*r!ose of his comin"# Cf# also C F 5 S $S ( (+ Cor# ++?6-), 3here 5 does not mean Lfor,> tho*"h that is clearl& the res*ltant idea# So 3ith 5 ' '?F ($t# E?-)# Ta'e Ro# ++?,B, for instance, 3here 5 '?) is set o er a"ainst $3 '?C# Cf# a"ain 5 %)3' C in Ph# +?++, 5 )" in Ro# E?+A, 5 2%3 in Ro# ,?6A, 5 &S '5/ in Mo# B?6D# One ma& not do*bt also that this is the idea in $t# 6B?6E, Q ##E $) 5 b'E# 2*t it b& no means follo3s that the same idea is e7!ressed b& 5 in $'# +?- and Ac# 6?,E (cf# $t# +H?-+), tho*"h that ma& in the abstract be tr*e# It remains a matter for the inter!reter to decide# One m*st not omit here also the fre9*ent *se of 5 and the infiniti e to e7!ress desi"n# Cf# 5 $'F3' in $t# 6H?+G, 5 'B' in 6B?6# See cha!ter on %erbal No*ns for f*rther disc*ssion# Cf# also 5 C ($'# +?,E), 5 '? C (6 Cor# A?A), .& 5 (Mo# +,?6G), 5 ( ($t# 6A?B), 5 6( '?L (Mo# +6?+,)#+ Cf# 3# 5 $#'E (;a&# P#, AH A#0#), Lstic's for m& oli e="ardens> (0eissmann, (i !t, etc#, !# +AD), 5 u $# (P# ;l#=Pet#, ii# XX%, 66B 2#C#), Lfor a sic' horse>
1 Moulton, Prol., p. 9-D C. an$ S., p. 1#D 5.:)h., p. -99 f. 1 )his *an no lon"er <e *alle$ a ,e<rais , sin*e the pap. ha!e it. Moulton, Prol., p. 1.. Cf. 5 (, )<. P. .- %iiP+.C.'. 7ouffia* %7e*her*hes, p. #1' fin$s +' 5 #'4 in ins*r. of Priene 5&, -9 %iiP+.C.'.

(0eissmann, ". %., !# ++E)# Radermacher (0. ,. Gr., !# ++6) cites %)(V5 p') (E, N# Chr# 1add# Inscr#, 6B+-)# B# +redicative ;se# 2*t there remains one more *se of 5 3hich, tho*"h "ood 4, 3as "reatl& accelerated b& the infl*ence of the (XX#6 This is 3here 5 occ*rs in the !redicate 3ith 5! or .!', ## Radermacher (0. ,. Gr., !# +B f#) 9*otes u' S 5 G! .(', P#;a&# ++G, 6DB (+HH A#0#)J Heliod#, ?t!iop. %I, +-, S 4' 5 '%' ('(J and e en the Attic a*thor Vneas ++-, A H, .'F' J#!' = $ %'# Th*s in (*# ,?A, 2' * #* 5 ?!' (Is# -H?-)# So 2 5 oT 'Q .'' (6 Cor# B?+E, (XX)J 2' o % 5 ' !' ($t# +G?AJ cf# )en# 6?6-)J U #( 6E 5 '* .4' (Mo# +B?6H)# Cf# (*# +,?+G# As alread& remar'ed, this !redicate *se of 5 a!!ears in the !a!&ri, and in the A!ostolic ;athers,b*t not 3ith the fre9*enc& that 3e find it in the (XX# Cf# !!# -E+ f# 2lass+ credits 5 in -'. 5 54( ($'# A?,-) to the Hebre3 thro*"h the (XX (cf# + Sam# +?+D)# Cf# also 5 %''.* ..# (Ac# D?A,) 3here 5 is m*ch li'e $# In "eneral therefore, as 3ith $ so 3ith 5 3e m*st har' bac' to first !rinci!les and 3or' o*t to the res*ltant idea b& means of the conte7t and the histor&# D# .ompared #it! $!, ' and )# The "ro3th in the *se of 5 is sho3n b& its a!!earance 3here $! or ) 3o*ld be e7!ected in the older )ree'# Cf# 2' 5 )# (Mo# -?A), 3here the !oint is not Linto,> b*t Lto#> So ++?,+, 6. 5 (F# In ++?,E 0 has $!, not 5# So in $'# ,?D, /( S #'', 0HP ha e 5# Cf# $'# 6?+,, has 5 for ' and in D?,+ 20 ha e 5, not )# ( ) 9 ;$3< . The et&molo"& of this 3ord is sim!le# Cf# (atin ex (e), )allic ex, Old

Irish ess, C&mric eh# In the )ree' the form aries th*s $ ($3 before o3els), $. (assimilation), $ ((ocrian, cf# (atin e), $ or $ li'e Old Irish (Arcadian, 2Yotian, Thessalian)# The ori"inal form 3as $3, then $ li'e (atin ex1 e# Cf# 2r*"mann, Griec! Gr., !# +-D# +# Meanin # The 3ord means Lo*t of,> Lfrom 3ithin,> not li'e ) or '# It stands in contrast to $ ;$@<#6 In the modern )ree' ernac*lar ) has dis!laced $ e7ce!t in the E!irot or #, 2*t in the N# T# $ is still ahead of )# The indifference of the scribes- as to 3hich the& *sed is sho3n in the $S# ariations bet3een $ and ) as in $t# D?-J +D?GJ $'# +B?,# The 3ritin"s of Mohn ()os!el, E!istles, Re elation) *se $
7a$er a*her 7A;E7MAC,E7, L., Ne*t# )rammati'# 0as )riechisch des N# T# im O*sammenhan" mit der %ol'ss!rache %1911'. # C. an$ S., p. 11 f. - Moulton, Prol., p. /1 f. Cf. @.P. .9 %iiPA.;.' 2 '7 6E % ;< '', Qfor a loan.H Cf. our 3to Gife.4 Moulton %Prol., p. 9/' *ites M. Aurelius, >I, .#. . C. an$ S., p. 11. Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1.-, *ites an eC. fro 1 Gr. of 6. ). Gk. # +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. ..&. - Moulton, Prol., p. 1&#. En p. #.9 he *ites Psi*hari as sayin" that $ ) is still 3*ne forme i ante.4 . Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1.5. )heo"n.

more fre9*entl& than an& other N# T# boo's#A In the late )ree' (ei"hth cent*r& A#0#) 3e find the acc*sati e 3ith $, and this 3as the last *sa"e to s*r i e#B 2r*"mannD indeed thin's that $ ma& e en rarel& *se the "en*ine "eniti e besides the ablati e, b*t I do*bt this# 2*t it is certain that $ *sed the locati e in Arcadian, C&!riotic and Pam!h&lian dialects after analo"& of $ (2*c', Greek Dialects, !# +H+ f#)#E 6# 8n .omposition# It is er& common and sometimes 3ith the 4!erfecti e5 idea# So 3e note $3@' contrasted 3ith in 6 Cor# -?E#G Cf# also $@ %'' (6 Cor# +6?+A), $@%(.' (Ac# +,?-+), $@'" ($'# G?+A), $@ '& ($'# +6?+D), $@''! (6 Tim# 6?6+), $3@' (+ Pet# +?+H)# The other *ses in com!osition follo3 the root=idea of the 3ord closel&, meanin" Lo*t of,> La3a&,> etc#, li'e $3', $"##, etc# 9 has a ca*sati e force in com!osition sometimes as in $3'', Lca*se to sin> ((XX), and $ "F (6 Cor# +H?G)# ,# +lace# The !re!osition nat*rall& is common 3ith e7!ressions of !lace# The strict idea of from #it!in is common, as in S $ E ?'E ($t# ,?+D), $ C '#C ((*# B?-6), $ E (! ($t# E?6E), etc# Often it a!!ears in contrast 3ith 5 as in $ B H%'!' 5 S t'##'!' (Mo# -?-D), C $ ) 6A '#' 5 E (+ Pet# 6?G), 3here the meta!horical follo3s the literal *sa"e# In (*# B?-6 $ C '#C is set in o!!osition to $ L '#L# In Ac# E?,E f# 3e ha e both 5 -% and $ C -%'# So in $'# +?+H '"'! $ C -%' a !re io*s !resence $ L -%' is im!lied# In a case li'e ''"') $ C : ($t# +D?GJ !arallels in $'# and (*# )) 3e are not to s*!!ose that the& had been in a ca e, b*t merel& *! in the mo*ntain (cf# En"lish idiom), the term 4mo*ntain5 incl*din" more than the earth and roc'# Cf# 5 : in $t# A?+# 2*t in $t# E?+ 3e merel& ha e C :# Note li'e3ise Q3 $ B '#B ((*# 6+?+E), $ E E (Ac# +6?D)# Th*s 3e e7!lain also (! $ B '?C (Ac# 6E?-), $ %3E ($t# 6H?6+), $3 $'!' ($'# +A?,G), etc# It is not necessar& to record all the erbs 3ith 3hich $ occ*rs# In (*# A?, $%!%' $ C #! the teachin" is re!resented as !roceedin" o*t of the boat (Mes*s 3as in the boat)# One ma& com!are 3ith this $.!' $ C %! (Mo# +,?-), '#O $ E . ((*# +6?,B), #! #! $ B ' ($'# +B?,), %'' $ B '#( (Ac# 6E?-)# -# ,ime# 1ith e7!ressions of time $ "i es the !oint of de!art*re, li'e $ )( ($'# +H?6H), $3 B (Mo# B?B-), $3 o'E ) ((*# 6,?E), $ C '5E (Mo# G?,6), $ ##E $E (Ac# 6-?+H), $ (Mo# B?BB)# In cases 3here s*ccession is in ol ed the !oint of de!art*re is reall& !resent# Th*s 3ith $ % (Mo# G?6-), $ ! ($t# 6B?--), U' $3 U' (6 Pet# 6?E)# Other ad erbial !hrases ha e a similar ori"in as 3ith $ (+ Cor# +6?6D), $ (Mo# ,?,-), $3 .( (6 Cor# G?D), $ / (+ Cor# D?A)# Cf# $ #'#
5 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#9. 9 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -11. / Grie*h. Gr., p. ..&. +u*k +AC@, C. ;., Intro$u*tion to the Stu$y of the Greek ;iale*ts %191&'. 1 ;el<r=*k, 0ie )r*ndl#, p. 1#9D Meister, Grie*h. ;ial., I, pp. #15, -&/. 9 Moulton, Prol., p. #-/.

A# %eparation# The *se of $ for the idea of se!aration is merel& the f*ller e7!ansion of the ablati e# Th*s 3ith $# $ (+ Cor# G?+G), ''4' $ E ) (Re # +-?+,), 6GE $ B .B (Mo# +6?,6), 6G' $ B $#B (6 Pet# 6?6+), O $ C ) (Mo# +D?+A)# Cf# Mo# +D?B# Abbott+ do*bts if in the (XX and Mohn $ al3a&s im!lies !re io*s e7istence in the e ils from 3hich one is deli ered 3hen *sed 3ith /3 and (# Certainl& in Mo# +D $ occ*rs rather fre9*entl&, b*t (4O $ C (C (+D?+A) ma& still im!l& that the e il one once had !o3er o er them (cf# Mes*s> !ra&er for Peter)# Certainl& in Mo# +6?6D, E) $ B q' '(, Mes*s had alread& entered into the ho*r# Cf# % /3 $ ' (Heb# A?D) 3here $ ma& accent*ate the !o3er of )od (%), tho*"h he had not &et entered into death# In Re # ,?+H (4 $ B c' C 'C 3e seem to ha e the !ict*re of "eneral tem!tation 3ith the !reser ation of the saints# Cf# 2"' in + Cor# +H?+,# So in $t# +,?-+ ##3 $ B "'#!' the idea is Lo*t from amon",> K*st as cheat or coc'le "ro3s in amon" the 3heat in the same field# The t3o 'in"doms coe7ist in the same s!here (the 3orld)# The notion of se!aration is common 3ith a n*mber of erbs li'e $3# 4' $ C #'C (Ac# ,?6,), Z. $ E (Mo# +6?+), U ' U $ E ((*# 6H?,A), $3#3( $ C ) (Mo# +A?+G), etc# This all seems sim!le and clear# Not 9*ite so a!!arent is E' $ C (! (Re # +A?6)# Tha&er and 2lass both ta'e it li'e ( $, L ictorio*s o er> (b& se!aration)# Cf# )(' $ E 2. (Re # +B?++) and Mo# ,?6A, &4( $# B# -ri in or %ource# E9*all& ob io*s seems the *se of $ for the idea of ori"in or so*rce# Th*s $3B# $ C ') (Mo# +B?6E), ? 5Q $ C ) (+D?+-, +B), $ E #! $.F' ' ($t# ,?G# Nat*rall& this *sa"e has a 3ide ran"e# Cf# $ x'&' (Mo# +?-B f#), $ )# (Mo# +?--), $ B ''!' (Mo# -?D), 9"'F $3 9"'! (Ph# ,?A), $ B .B (Mo# ,?,+), $ C (Ph# ,?G), $ $E ()al# 6?+A), $ #( (+ Th# 6?,), $ ##B #!G (6 Cor# 6?-), D $3 UE $ 6F .O (6 Cor# E?D)# Cf# (*# +6?+A# This list is b& no means e7ha*sti e, b*t it is at least s*""esti e# One ma& note here ' $3 'E ($t# 6D?6G), 3here the material is e7!ressed b& $3# D# .ause or -ccasion# Closel& allied to the abo e is the notion of ca*se or occasion 3hich ma& also be con e&ed b& $# Th*s note $3 6E in Ro# +6?+E, $'E $ C ) (Re # +B?+H), %'' $ ! (Ro# A?+), $3 2. ()al# ,?+H), $ C ?'..#! &B (+ Cor# G?+-), $3 !' (6 Cor# +,?-), $ C 'A ((*# +B?G)# Cf# also ' $ E 6% (Re # E?++)# Perha!s here belon"s $#(/( $ B B (Mo# +6?,)# Cf# .!& $ in Mo# B?+, (Abbott, )o!annine Gr., !# 6A,)# At an& rate a n*mber of erbs *se $ in this "eneral sense li'e r # ($'# D?++), &(C' (6 Cor# D?G), %F' (Re # 6?++), # (Re # +E?,), &' (Re # +G?6+), & (Mo# -?B), & (Ro# +?+D), etc# Cf# $"#' 4(' $ B #(.B (Re # +B?6+)# Indeed $ 3ith the notion of !rice does not differ radicall& from this idiom# Th*s .)'' $3 '?E .) ($t# 6D?D), $4' $ C (Ac# +?+E), 4' $ %('! ($t# 6H?6)# 9 %''.B, Lb& order,> 3as a re"*lar form*la in the !a!&ri (0eissmann, (i !t, etc#, !# ED)# 0eissmann, "ible %tudies, !# 6-E, finds the idiom $ E ($'# +,?6D) in the !a!&ri as 3ell as in Oech# ++?B# E# ,!e +artitive ;se of $# It is not infre9*ent, mar'in" an increase o er the earlier idiom#+ Th*s in Mo# +B?+D $ E '(E is e en *sed as the s*bKect of +'# Cf# Ac# 6+?+B 3itho*t $# See also Mo# D?-H# Mohn is s!eciall& fond of the !artiti e *se of $
1 Foh. Gr., p. #51 f.

(Radermacher, 0. ,. Gr., !# ++A) and the inscri!tions and !a!&ri ha e it also# Cf# S $ E ), Petersen=(*schan, :eisen, !# ++,, 7 iii# A# A# ;*rther e7am!les are $ E v''! (Mo# ,?+), 4 $ E ) (Mo# D?-E), $ C :# ' (Mo# D?-H), ''/ $3 6E ((*# 6+?+B), $3 '?E F ($t# 6,?,-), "# $ E #'E (Re # ++?G), %() $ E 6') ((*# E?,), $3 '?C .O (Mo# B?AH), $ C ' %% (+ Mo# -?+,), ! $ C -%' (Mo# -?+,), ?%Q $3 '?E (Mo# +D?+6), etc#6 In Heb# +,?+H it is 3hat is on the altar that is eaten# The *se of $ 3ith a class or for a side or !osition ma& as 3ell be mentioned here also# Th*s J K $ B #(!' (Mo# +E?,D), o $ ) (Ro# -?+-), J $ ! (Ro# ,?6B), o $ B (Ac# ++?6), o $ $!' (Ro# 6?E), etc# The !artisan *se is allied closel& to the !artiti e# Cf# Ph# -?66 o $ B k'!' 55'# See f*rther ch# XI, Cases# G# 9 and $# A 3ord in concl*sion is needed abo*t the so=called blendin" of $ 3ith $# 2lass, do*bts if this classic idiom a!!ears in the N# T# The !assa"es that seem to ha e it are S ''" ' * $ B 5!' '?C ($t# 6-?+D) 3here $ mi"ht indeed ha e been em!lo&ed, b*t $ coincides in idea 3ith '# Cf# $'# +,?+A, 3here $ does not ha e before it# In (*# ++?+, J 'S J $3 ?'C %/ C' 1. 1# H# brac'et J before $3, and 3ith J the sendin" of the Hol& S!irit b& the ;ather has ca*sed $3 to dis!lace $ 3hich 3o*ld other3ise ha e been re"*lar# In Mo# ,?+, some $SS# add J K $ L ?'L to J o C /, th*s ma'in" Mes*s in hea en at that moment 3hen he 3as s!ea'in" to Nicodem*s# In Col# -?+B, S $ _'%!', the $ ass*mes, of co*rse, that an E!istle had been sent to (aodicea, and s*""ests that the Colossians "et it from ($) them# Cf# Ro# ,?6A f# for e7am!les of %, $, 5, ), $# See ) and '# (!) 9! . See Sans'rit pi (locati e case), Oend aipi, (atin ob, (ith*anian pi# +# Ground-Meanin # It is L*!on> as o!!osed to 6)# It differs from 6 in that $! im!lies a real restin" *!on, not merel& o er#+ 2*t the er& sim!licit& of this idea "i es it a manifoldness of res*ltant *ses tr*e of no other !re!osition# Sometimes indeed in the ca*sal and ethical *sa"es the root=idea seems dim,6 b*t none the less it is there# The onl& safet& consists in holdin" on to the root=idea and 3or'in" o*t from that in each s!ecial conte7t# It mar's a delicate shade of difference from $, as is seen in = $ ?'L 'Q $Q .B ($t# B?+H)# ;or $ cf# (*# E?+A# 6# 8n .omposition in t!e 0. ,. It is er& common, al3a&s retainin" the root=idea (cf# $@@%, 6 Cor# A?6), tho*"h sometimes the !erfecti e idea is clear# Th*s 3ith $@ ' in (*# +B?,, $@./ in + Cor# +,?+6,, $!@. in Col# +?G, $@# in 6 Cor# E?++#

1 Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1.5. # Cf. +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1&&. - I<., p. #51. Cf. also Fiel$, Et. 6or!., Pars III, Mk. 52-&, on S $3 '?C %'. 1 @.:G., I, p. .95. # I<. - Cf. Moulton, Prol., p. 11-.

,# /requenc& in 0. ,. In the N# T# $! is still in constant *se, tho*"h it *ltimatel& dro!!ed o*t of the ernac*lar- before $# Note X $Q %'#.), P# O7&# 6G(A#0# 66) li'e * +, etc# 2*t in the N# T# it is the one !re!osition still *sed freel& 3ith more than t3o cases (acc# -B-, "en# 6+B, dat# and loc# +DB)#A $ost of the e7am!les called dati e in the le7icons and "rammars are reall& locati es, b*t some of them are !ossibl& tr*e dati es#B So then $! reall& has fo*r cases still in the N# T# In Homer 2 often stands alone for 2@# ;arrar,D 9*otin" 0onaldson, finds in the locati e 3ith $! the idea of absol*te s*!er!osition, 3hile the "eniti e e7!resses onl& !artial s*!er!osition and the acc*sati e im!lies motion 3ith a ie3 to s*!er!osition and the dati e 3o*ld be s*!er!osition for the interest of one# There is some tr*th in this distinction and the case=idea m*st al3a&s be obser ed# 2*t the "ro3th of the acc*sati e in the later lan"*a"e at the e7!ense of the other cases ca*sed some conf*sion in the *sa"e accordin" to the standard of the earlier )ree'# Simco7+ considers it 4almost a matter of indifference5 3hether in the N# T# one *ses locati e, "eniti e or acc*sati e# This is some3hat tr*e, b*t e en so it does not follo3 that there 3as no difference in the cases# The locati e accent*ated mere location, the "eniti e bro*"ht o*t rather the 'ind or "en*s, 3hile the acc*sati e 3o*ld !resent the "eneral idea of e7tension modified b& the fact that the acc*sati e tended to absorb the other cases 3itho*t insistin" on the distinct case=idea# Th*s sometimes either case 3ith $! 3o*ld "i e s*bstantiall& the same idea, tho*"h technical differences did e7ist# ;or instance, in Ac# A?G note $Q D ^, 3hile in erse 6, 3e ha e $Q E E# So com!are $.. $ $Q ' ($'# +,?6G) 3ith X(' $Q S ' (Re # ,?6H)# Here the notion of rest e7ists 3ith all three cases, tho*"h in Re # ,?6H 'Q ma& ha e some effect on the !resence of the acc*sati e# Once more obser e '!O $Q ) and '4 $Q %/%' ) in $t# +G?6E# Re # -?6 "i es *s $Q ) '4, erse G (mar"# of 1# H#, te7t of Nestle) L '(M $Q L )M, 3hile erse +H has C '(
. Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -1-D Mulla*h, >ul"., p. -11. 5 Moulton, Prol., p. 1&/. 9 @.:G., I, p. .95D ;el<r=*k, Grun$l., p. 1-&D >er"l. Synt., I, p. 9/9 f. Farrar FA77A7, F. 5., Greek SyntaC %11/9'. / Greek Synt., p. 1&#. ;onal$son ;E6AL;SE6, F. 5., )he 6eG Cratylus %1159'. Si *oC SIMCEJ, 5. ,., )he Lan"ua"e of the 6. ). %119&'. (((, )he 5riters of the 6. ). 1 Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1.9. 6estle 6ES)LE, E., Einf@hr*n" in das "riech# N# T# 6# A*fl# %1199'. Intro$. to the )eCtual Crit. of the 6. ). %)r. 19&1'. (((, No *m Testament*m )raece. 1th e$. %191&'.

$Q C ), three cases 3ith the same erb# It 3o*ld be o errefinement to insist on too m*ch distinction here# 2*t the cases afford ariet& of constr*ction at an& rate# In Re # +-?G the sin"le erb #'" has $Q C / '?C ` $Q S F' '?C (cf# Ac# 6D?--)# Com!are also #! $Q #! in $t# 6-?6 3ith #! $Q #!M in (*# 6+?B# In Ph# 6?6D the $SS# ar& bet3een #( $Q #( and #( $Q #O# Cf# also $7 #!.' and $Q ##E in $t# 6A?6+# The *se of $! 3ith locati e or acc*sati e has alread& been disc*ssed# The acc*sati e s*""ests more the initial act of faith (intr*st) 3hile the locati e im!lies that of state (tr*st)# 1e find 5 also *sed 3ith this erb as 3ell as dati e (both common in Mohn)# Once 3e ha e $ ($'# +?+A)# See $o*lton, +rol., !# BE# 2*t, after all is said, the onl& !ractical 3a& to st*d& $! is from the !oint of ie3 of the cases 3hich it s*!!lements# -# Wit! t!e Accusative# As alread& noted, it is far in e7cess of the other cases combined# It is hardl& necessar& to ma'e min*te s*bdi ision of the acc*sati e *sa"e, tho*"h the !re!osition 3ith this case follo3s the familiar lines# 1ith e7!ressions of !lace it is er& common and er& eas& to *nderstand# So $#F $Q * -%'' ($t# +-?6E), ( $Q * -%'' (+-?6G), 'F $Q B .B ($t# +A?,A), ) $. $Q A' B .B ($t# 6D?-A), $Q S J%) (Ac# E?6B), $"'# * F' $Q H(C ($t# 6B?AH), 'P $Q B (Mo# +,?6A)# The meta!horical *se is in harmon& 3ith this idiom# Th*s )" $ $7 '?) ((*# +?+6), '(' '? $Q * 2.' (Heb# 6?D), "'# $Q + ((*# +?,,), u' $(/O $7 $N U %' C jC (6 Cor# +6?G)# Cf# 6 Cor# +?6,, $'#C' $Q S pS G4# 2*t not all the acc*sati e *ses are so sim!le# In a case li'e $t# D?6-, %)( $Q S ', some idea of motion ma& be seen# 2*t that is not tr*e of $t# +,?6, A J :# $Q '5.'# o4# Cf# also '4 $Q #/ ($t# G?G) and others "i en abo e# So $Q #' '% ($'# -?,E), C' Y . $7 '? ((*# 6?6A), 2 $7 '?) (Mo# +?,6), $(' $Q #E' (Ac# +H?+D), $ 7 6A ''' (+ Pet# -?+-), #' $Q S '%!' F' (6 Cor# ,?+A), 2' #4' $Q '?) ((*# +D?,A)# Here it is hard to thin' of an& idea of L3hither#>+ Sometimes indeed $! seems not to im!l& strictl& L*!on,> b*t rather Las far as#> So 3ith 2' $Q (F ($'# +B?6), '"(' $Q S #'' (Mo# B?+B), Y# $! -% (Ac# E?,B)# The aim or !*r!ose is sometimes e7!ressed b& $!, as $Q "' ($t# ,?D), $ 7 \ ($t# 6B?AH)# It ma& e7!ress one>s emotions as 3ith $! (Ro# -?6-), $#!& $! (+ Pet# +?+,), #'.!&' $! ($t# +A?,6)# Cf# $ 7 \ ..) in Ac# -?66 and the "eneral *se of $! in $'# G?+6 ..'' $Q o C /# In !ersonal relations hostilit& is sometimes s*""ested, tho*"h $! in itself does not mean La"ainst#> Th*s = $Q #OS $34#' ($t# 6B?AA)# In $t# +6?6B $ 7 p' $!( is *sed side b& side 3ith F' '7 p'B in the !recedin" erse# Cf# also $'# ,?6B, etc# Abbott6 notes that Mohn sho3s this *sa"e onl& once (+G?,,)# ;or $! 3ith the idea of de"ree or meas*re see $ 7 i (Ro# ++?+,)# Cf# $Q '?) in the sense of Lall
(((, Septua"int %,astin"sH ;. +., 19&#'. (((, Se!t*a"inta=St*dien. I8> %1119819&/'. (((, Ou neutest. Grie*his*h %O. 6. 5., !ii, 19&9'.

1 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-9. For LJJ eC. of rest see C. an$ S., p. 15. # Foh. Gr., p. #59.

to"ether> (Ac# +?+A)# 1ith e7!ressions of time $! ma& merel& fill o*t the acc*sati e, as 3ith $Q 2( !' ((*# -?6A, mar"# of 1# H#), $Q U' #! (Ac# +,?,+), $ 7 i ) (Ro# D?+), or a more definite !eriod ma& be indicated, as 3ith $Q S c' B B (Ac# ,?+),, $Q S ' ((*# +H?,A)# It is common 3ith ad erbs li'e $ 7 1'3, $Q !, etc# A# Wit! t!e Genitive# The "eniti e 3ith $! has li'e3ise a 3ide ran"e of *sa"es# /s*all& the sim!le meanin" L*!on> satisfies all re9*irements, as in $Q #!( ($t# G?6), $ 7 { %)( ((*# -?6G), (3' $Q E % ($t# +H?6D), $) $Q #E ($t# 6-?,H), 2( $Q C 'C (Mo# +G?+G), '!' $Q C "4' (Ac# +6?6+), $Q B '#B (Mo# 6H?D), $Q B '#( (Re # A?+,), $Q 3# (Ac# A?,H)# In $'# +6?6B, $Q C ", an elli!sis in tho*"ht occ*rs 4in the !assa"e abo*t the b*sh#5 Sometimes, indeed, as 3ith the acc*sati e, so 3ith the "eniti e, $! has the idea of icinit&, 3here the 3ord itself 3ith 3hich it is *sed has a 3ide meanin"# Th*s in Mo# 6+?+ $Q B '#( seems to mean Lon the sea=shore,> and so Lb& the sea#> So 3ith $Q B J%C ($t# 6+?+G), the fi"=tree bein" not on the !ath, b*t on the ed"e of the road# Abbott+ notes ho3 $atthe3 (+-?6A f#) has $Q S #'' 3hich is not ambi"*o*s li'e the "eniti e in Mo# B?+G# Cf# Ac# A?6, $Q E E# The classic idiom 3ith $! and the "eniti e in the sense of Lto3ards> is not so common in the N# T#, tho*"h it has not 9*ite disa!!eared as Simco76 thin's# Cf# $. #F $Q B .B (Mo# B?6+), ' $Q B .B (Ac# +H?++), "'#C' $Q C /' ($t# 6B?+6), 2 $Q B .B ($'# +-?,A), .) $Q C ) ((*# 66?-H), $7 '?B $) (Heb# B?D), P $Q B .B ($'# G?6H)# In these e7am!les 3e see K*st the o!!osite tendenc& to the *se of the acc*sati e 3ith erbs of rest# Cf# F' $Q B .B ($t# +H?6G) 3ith $'# G?6H abo e and "'#F $Q S .B ($t# +H?,-) 3ith $'# -?6B# 1ith !ersons $! and the "eniti e ma& &ield the res*ltant meanin" of Lbefore> or Lin the !resence of#> Th*s $Q U.) ($'# +,?G), !' $Q E %! (+ Cor# B?+), $ 5 S $Q % ` E ' (+ Tim# A?+G), $Q ! # (+ Tim# B?+,), $Q C (Ac# 6,?,H), $7 $C (6A?G)# 2lass, obser es ho3 in Ac# 6A?+H pP $Q C "4' k'!' the meanin" is Lbefore,> 3hile in erse +D the *s*al idea L*!on> is alone !resent ('!' $Q C "4')# Cf# $Q l! in 6 Cor# D?+-# 1ith e7!ressions of time the res*lt is m*ch the same# Th*s $7 $ E ) (+ Pet# +?6H) 3here $! nat*rall& occ*rs (cf# M*# +E)# 1ith $Q E E (Ro# +?+H) 3e ha e !eriod of !ra&er denoted sim!l& b& $!# Cf# $' $! ($a"ical !a!&r*s, 0eissmann, (i !t, etc#, !# 6A6)# There is no diffic*lt& abo*t $Q B !' ($t# +?++)# 1ith !ersons a f*ller e7!osition is re9*ired, since $Q k#'%! (Ac# ++?6E) is tantamo*nt to Lin the time of Cla*di*s> or Ld*rin" the rei"n of Cla*di*s#> Cf# also $Q ' ((*# ,?6), $Q 9#'! (-?6D), $Q 0"' ($'# 6?6B)# Cf# $7 '?B in Heb# D?++# The idea of basis is a nat*ral meta!hor as in $7 #(!' ((*# -?6A), n $! $Q E (Mo# B?6), = $Q ##E ()al# ,?+B), pQ )' ($t# +E?+B)# One of the meta!horical *ses is 3ith the res*ltant idea of Lo er,> "ro3in" nat*rall& o*t of L*!on#>+ Th*s ''4 $Q B '!' ((*#
- A post*lassi*al usa"e, Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1./. 1 Foh. Gr., p. #91. # Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1./. - Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-/.

+6?-6), tho*"h in $t# 6A?6+, 6, both "eniti e and acc*sati e occ*r# Cf# also "'#!' $Q E "'# (Re # +D?+E), J q $Q (Ro# G?A), etc# B# Wit! t!e (ocative# Here $! is more sim!le, tho*"h still 3ith a ariet& of res*ltant ideas# 2lass6 obser es that 3ith the !*rel& local sense the "eniti e and acc*sati e *ses o*tn*mber the locati e 3ith $!# 2*t still some occ*r li'e $Q !' ($t# +-?E), $Q D (.D (Mo# -?B), $Q o'!M '#'L ($t# G?+B), $Q 'O D ^ 5%4 ($t# +B?+EJ cf# some $SS# in $'# 6?-, $ 7 '), $Q F '" ($'# B?AA), $Q L )M ($'# B?,G), $7 $4 ) ($'# +?-A), $ $7 '?L (Mo# ++?,E), $Q '! (Ac# 6D?--J cf# also $! )# In (*# 6,?,E, $.' S $7 '?L, the res*ltant idea is rather that of Lo er,> $t# 6D?,D ha in" $ B '#B '?C# As 3ith the acc*sati e and "eniti e, so 3ith the locati e the idea of conti"*it& sometimes a!!ears, as in $Q ' ($t# 6-?,,), $Q D "'D (Mo# A?6), $Q D ~ (Ac# ,?++)# Here the 3ider meanin" of the s*bstanti e ma'es this res*lt !ossible# Cf# also $Q L 'L (Re # G?+-)# 9! is *sed er& s!arin"l& 3ith the locati e in e7!ressions of time# Cf# $Q #!^ E '5/ (Heb# G?6B)# The *se of $Q O D !^ 6E (Ph# +?,), ? B' $Q F ($'# B?A6), !& $Q ?#.!' (6 Cor# G?B) 3a ers bet3een occasion and time# Cf# also $Q D /O %'4O (Heb# G?+A)# The notion of $Q Q (Heb# +H?6E) is rather Lbefore,> Lin the !resence of#> Cf# $Q F (Heb# G?+D)# All these de elo!ments admit of satisfactor& e7!lanation from the root=idea of $!, the locati e case and the conte7t# There are still other meta!horical a!!lications of $!# Th*s in $t# 6-?-D, $Q A, Lo er> is the res*ltant meanin"# So in (*# +6?-- $Q A F 6# The notion of basis is in ol ed in $7 M )M in $t# -?-, $Q L 4'! in (*# A?A, $#' $Q L )'! in $t# 6-?A, $7 $#!% in Ac# 6?6B, etc# )ro*nd or occasion li'e3ise ma& be con e&ed b& $!# Th*s note $Q M in Mo# -?6D and in !artic*lar $ 7 , li'e $Q M i, in Ro# A?+6 and 6 Cor# A?-# Cf# $ 7 $ F (Ph# -?+H) 3here L3hereon> is the sim!le idea# See also $Q '.L 6E (E!h# -?6B), cf# 6 Cor# G?+A# The idea of aim or !*r!ose seems to come in cases li'e $Q 2. .'F (E!h# 6?+H), $ 7 'Q '#4 ( (Ph# ,?+6)# Note also )al# A?+,, $7 $#!^J + Th# -?D, ? $7 ''!^ (cf# $ b.'L), $Q '' D (6 Tim# 6?+-)# Cf# $7 $#!' inscr# at 0el!hi iiU2#C# (0eissm#, (i !t, !# ,6D)# The notion of model is in ol ed in $# $Q L )' ((*# +?AG) and $Q L J/' (Ro# A?+-)# $an& erbs of emotion *se $! 3ith the locati e, as 2' $Q A ((*# +,?+D), '& $! ((*# 6?,,), etc# 2*t some of the e7am!les 3ith these erbs ma& be real dati es, as is !ossibl& the case 3ith the notion of addition to, li'e ( 'Q C $Q A ((*# ,?6H)# D# ,!e ,rue Dative# As 3e ha e seen, it 3as !robabl& sometimes *sed 3ith $!# The N# T# e7am!les do not seem to be er& n*mero*s, and &et some occ*r# So I 3o*ld e7!lain %* S 6"##' C C $ 7 6F (6 Cor# G?+-)# This seems a clear case of the dati e 3ith $! s*!!lementin" it# The same thin" ma& be tr*e of $ 7 6F in + Th# ,?D and Ro# +B?+G# Cf# also )' $ 7 p'F in (*# +E?G and '( $7 $! in $t# +E?6B f# So (*# +?-D $Q L L# In (*# +6?A6 f#, F $Q %!, % $Q !, o $Q '! (cf# also $Q .''), the res*ltant sense is La"ainst#> Cf# also (C' $Q #'F in Re # +H?++# In Mo# +6?+B, Y $7 '?L ..'', and Ac# A?,A, $Q F / , the idea is rather Labo*t> or Lin the case of#> Cf# also B .( $Q M (Ac# ++?+G)# Here the !ersonal
1 For $Q C ?. in Prol. to Sira*h see ;eiss., +. S., p. --9 f. # Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-/.

relation seems to s*it the dati e conce!tion better than the locati e# The notion of addition to ma& also be dati e# Cf# (*# ,?6H abo e and Col# ,?+-, $5 A %N J Heb# E?+, $Q F #.# In E!h# B?+B the best $SS# ha e $# It is !ossible also to re"ard the *se of $! for aim or !*r!ose as ha in" the tr*e dati e as in + Th# -?D# (i) k' . There is do*bt abo*t the et&molo"& of this !re!osition# In tmesis it a!!ears as ', and in Arcadian and C&!riote )ree' it has the form '# It is !robabl& in the instr*mental case,+ b*t an a!!arentl& dati e form ''! s*r i es a fe3 times# 2r*"mann6 com!ares it 3ith Old Irish ct, C&mric cant, (atin com-, tho*"h this is not absol*tel& certain# +# :oot-Meanin # 2r*"mann, thin's that the root=meanin" of the !re!osition is not !erfectl& clear, tho*"h Ldo3n> (cf# ) seems to be the idea# The diffic*lt& arises from the fact that 3e sometimes find the ablati e case *sed 3hen the res*lt is do#n from, then the "eniti e do#n upon, and the acc*sati e do#n alon # 2*t Ldo3n> (cf# ) seems al3a&s to be the onl& idea of the !re!osition in itself# In the N# T# three cases occ*r 3ith '# 6# Distributive %ense# k' came to be *sed in the distrib*ti e sense 3ith the nominati e, li'e and , b*t chiefl& as ad erb and not as !re!osition#+ Hence this *sa"e is not to be credited to the real !re!ositional idiom# (ate )ree' 3riters ha e it# So + '* , in $'# +-?+G (and the s!*rio*s Mo# E?G), '7 , in Ro# +6?A# The modern )ree' *ses '! or '' as a distrib*ti e !rono*n#6 0eissmann, "ible %tudies, !# +,E f#, considers also + '7 X' (A (e # 6A?+H) merel& the ad erbial *se of '# 2*t see '7 X' in + Cor# +-?,+, '* %N p4 ($t# 6D?+A)# ,# k' in .omposition# It is tr*e to the root=idea of Ldo3n,> li'e '"( in $t# D?6A, ''.'.F in Ro# +H?B# 2*t the ario*s meta!horical *ses occ*r also in com!osition# Often ' occ*rs 3ith 4!erfecti e5 force#, So, for instance, obser e ''! (+ Pet# A?+H), '(.!' (Heb# ++?,,), '%!3 ($'# +?,B), ''%#F (6 Cor# ++?6H), ''' ($t# ,?+6), '' ($t# B?6E), ''4' ((*# +6?6-), ''' (Ac# +-?+E), ''! ($t# 6,?6-), '' ($'# +?6), '.& (Ph# 6?+6), ' '. ($t# +,?-), 'A' (Ro# +?6H)# This !re!osition ies 3ith % and in the !erfecti e sense# k' in Ro# +?+E is 3ell ill*strated b& J ' ) from an ostracon (0eissmann, (i !t, !# ,HE)# In the ma"ical te7ts it means to Lcri!!le> or to Lbind,> Lhold fast#> 2*t in $'# +-?-A, ' !#(, the !re!osition seems to be 3ea'ened, tho*"h the A# S#%# !*ts 4'issed him m*ch5 in the mar"in# Cf# $o*lton, .l. :ev., No #, +GHD, !# 66H#

1 Giles, Co p. Philol., p. -.#. # Grie*h. Gr., p. ..-. Cf. also ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /59 f. - I<. 1 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. 1/1. # I<.D Moulton, Prol., p. 1&5. - Cf. i<., pp. 115 ff. Cl. Rev. Cl. Rev., Classi*al 7e!ieG %Lon$on'.

-# Wit! t!e Ablative# This constr*ction is reco"nised b& 2r*"mann,- $onro,A I@hner= )erth,B 0elbr@c'#D There are some e7am!les of the ablati e in the N# T#, 3here Ldo3n> and Lfrom> combine to ma'e Ldo3n from># Th*s, for instance, is to be e7!lained 2"'# '7 '?B ) (Ac# 6D?+-), 3here '?B refers to k4(, and the meanin" (cf# American Standard Re ision) is manifestl& Ldo3n from> Crete# In + Cor# ++?-, ( '* '#B 2, 3e ha e Ldo3n from> a"ain, the eil han"in" do3n from the head# In $'# A?+, 3e find c( U .#( '* C (C ($t# E?,6W(*# E?,,) 3here Ldo3n from the cliff> is a"ain the idea# A# Wit! t!e Genitive# It is more *s*al 3ith ' than the ablati e in the N# T# as in the earlier )ree'#+ The idea is Ldo3n *!on,> the "eniti e merel& accentin" the !erson or thin" affected# A "ood e7am!le of this sense in com!osition follo3ed b& the "eniti e a!!ears in ''' (Ac# +G?+B)# Some $SS# in $'# +-?, ha e ' 3ith B '#B, b*t 3itho*t it ' means L!o*r do3n on> the head# In 6 Cor# E?6, U '* " !', the idea is Ldo3n to> de!th# 2*t 3ith the "eniti e the other e7am!les in the N# T# ha e as res*ltant meanin"s either La"ainst,> Lthro*"ho*t> or Lb&#> These notions come from the ori"inal Ldo3n#> (*'e alone *ses Lthro*"ho*t> 3ith the "eniti e and al3a&s 3ith i## The earlier )ree' had '7 i# (also alone in (*'e in the N# T#, Ac# -?+E), tho*"h Pol&bi*s em!lo&ed ' in this sense# Cf# in (*# -?+- '7 i#( B /J Ac# G?,+ '7 i#( B H%'!' (so G?-6J +H?,D)# The older )ree' 3o*ld ha e *sed the acc*sati e in s*ch cases# 2*t cf# Pol&b# iii, +G, D, '* B 4 %('# The notion of La"ainst> is also more common6 in the 4# 2*t in the modern )ree' ernac*lar ' ;< is confined to the notions of Lto3ard> and Laccordin" to,> ha in" lost the old ideas of Ldo3n> and La"ainst> (Th*mb, Handb., !# +HA
. Grie*h. Gr., p. ..-. Monro ME67E, ;. +., ,o eri* Gra 5 ,o . Gr., p. 1.5. @=hner:Gerth @?,6E7:GE7),, A*sf# )ramm# d# "riech# S!r# ,# A*fl# of I@hner# Tl# II, 2de# I, II %1191, 19&.'. 9 I, p. ./5. / >er"l. Synt., I, p. /9&. 1 ;el<r=*k, i<., p. /91. # Fe<<, in >. an$ ;., ,an$<., et*., p. -1-. )hu < ),AM+, A., 0ie ;orsch# @ber die hellen# S!r# in den Mahren 19&#819&. %Ar*h. f. Pap. -, pp. ..-8 ./-'. (((, 0ie "riech# S!rache im Oeitalter des Hellenism*s %19&1'. (((, 0ie s!rach"esch# Stell# des bibl# )riech# %)heol. 7un$., 19&#'. (((, Handb*ch der "riech# ;ial. %19&9'. (((, Handb*ch d# ne*"riech# %ol'ss!rache# 6# A*fl# %191&'. ar %111#'. #$ e$. %1191'. First e$. use$.

f#)# Certainl& the !re!osition does not mean La"ainst#> That comes o*t of the conte7t 3hen t3o hostile !arties are bro*"ht to"ether# Cf# En"lish ernac*lar 4do3n on5 one# This ' then is Ldo3n *!on> rather literall& 3here the Attic *s*all& had $! and acc*sati e#, Amon" man& e7am!les note '* C H(C '!' ($'# +-?AA), ( '* A ($t# +H?,A), '* C ' ($t# +6?,6), '* C '# (Ac# 6-?+), etc# Cf# Ro# E?,,# Sometimes and ' are contrasted ($t# +6?,H) or ' and 6 ((*# G?AHJ + Cor# -?B)# The other *se of ' and the "eniti e is 3ith erbs of s3earin"# The idea is !erha!s that the hand is !laced do3n on the thin" b& 3hich the oath is ta'en# 2*t in the N# T# )od himself is *sed in the solemn oath# So $t# 6B?B,, $3!& '* C C# Cf# Heb# B?+,, +B# In + Cor# +A?+A $'4' '* C C ma& be ta'en in this sense or as meanin" La"ainst#> B# Wit! t!e Accusative# 2*t the "reat maKorit& of e7am!les in the N# T# *se the acc*sati e# Radermacher (0. ,. Gr., !# ++B) notes the fre9*enc& of the acc*sati e in the !a!&ri 3here ! 3o*ld a!!ear in the older )ree'# ;arrar+ s*""ests that ' 3ith the "eniti e (or ablati e) is !er!endic*lar (Ldo3n on> or Ldo3n from>) 3hile 3ith the acc*sati e it is horiContal (Ldo3n alon">)# C*rio*sl& eno*"h Mohn has onl& some ten instances of ' and se eral of them are do*btf*l#6 On the 3hole, the N# T# *se of the acc*sati e 3ith ' corres!onds !rett& closel& to the classic idiom# 1ith a "eneral horiContal !lane to 3or' from a n*mber of meta!horical *sa"es occ*r# 2*t it a!!ears freel& in local e7!ressions li'e B# '7 i#( S )# ( ((*# E?,G), %4 '* * /' ((*# G?B), '* S J%) ((*# +H?-), $. # '* S /' ((*# +A?+-), '* S k#!' (Ac# 6D?A), "#' '* #!"' (Ac# 6D?+6), '* ("!' (Ac# E?6B), '* ) ()al# 6?++), '7 '# ()al# ,?+), '* ) (Ph# ,?+-)# The notion of rest ma& also ha e this constr*ction as '7 + (Ac# 6?-B)# Cf# S '7 + '?B $#(!' (Col# -?+A)# Cf# Ac# ++?+# In Ac# +,?+ a rather ambi"*o*s *sa"e occ*rs, '* S ]' $#(!' B'# 2*t this e7am!le ma& be com!ared 3ith E '* H%'! $E (Ac# 6B?,), o '7 6A ('! (Ac# +D?6E, some $SS# '7 UA), ) C '7 6A (Ac# +E?+A)# This idiom is common in the literar& 4 and is one of the mar's of (*'e>s literar& st&le#, 2*t this is merel& a nat*ral de elo!ment, and ' 3ith the acc*sati e al3a&s e7!ressed direction to3ards in the ernac*lar#- Schmidt (de eloc. )osep!., !# 6+ f#) calls ' a sort of !eri!hrasis for the "eniti e in late )ree'# Cf# * '7 $ (Ph# +?+6)# It is more than a mere circ*mloc*tion for the "eniti eA in the e7am!les abo e and s*ch as S '7 6A ! (E!h# +?+A), '7 $ (Ro# +?+A), '* ' (Ro# G?A), * '7 $ (E!h# B?6+J cf# Ac# 6A?+-), % F '7 $34 (Ac# 6A?6,J cf# par
(((, Handb*ch des Sans'rits. I, Gra atik %19&5'.

(((, /nters# @ber d# S!# As!er im )riech# %1119'. - +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1--. 1 Gk. Synt., p. 1&&. # A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. #99. - Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1.9D +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1--. . Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -1.. 5 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1--.

excellence)# k' is *sed 3ith e7!ressions of time li'e '7 $F ') (Ac# +6?+), '* (Ac# +B?6A), '7 p( U' (Heb# ,?+,), '* A ""' (Ac# +,?6D)# The notion of distrib*tion comes easil& 3ith ', as in '* )# ((*# E?+), '* * '.. (Ac# 66?+G), '7 2 ((*# 6?-+), '7 U' (Ac# 6?-B), '7 X' (+ Cor# +-?,+), '7 :' (Mo# +H?,), etc# See $t# 6D?+AW$'# +A?B# Cf# '* %, P# O7&# EEB (iiiUA#0#)# As a standard or r*le of meas*re ' is er& common and also sim!le# So '* ?'..# (Ro# +B?6A) 3ith 3hich com!are the headin"s+ to the )os!els li'e '* a''F, tho*"h 3ith a different sense of ?'..## Here the e7am!les m*lti!l& li'e '* ) ((*# 6?66), '* (Ro# ++?6+), '* (Ro# -?-), '* ) (Ro# E?6D), '* S ! ($t# G?6G), '* %' (6 Cor# E?,), '7 6"#4 (Ro# D?+,), '* ./( (+ Cor# D?B), etc# %ario*s res*ltant ideas come o*t of different connections# There is no reason to call '* A' '5!' ($t# +G?,) and '* .' (Ac# ,?+D) bad )ree'# If there is the idea of ca*se here, so in + Tim# B?,, '7 ?"', the notion of tendenc& or aim a!!ears# 1e m*st not tr& to s9*are e er& detail in the de elo!ment of ' or an& )ree' !re!osition 3ith o*r translation of the conte7t nor 3ith classic *sa"e, for the N# T# is 3ritten in the 4# This !re!osition is s!eciall& common in Acts and Hebre3s# k'7 o%!' ($t# +-?+,) is ad erbial# 2*t '* ) is not a mere Hebraism, since the !a!&ri ha e it (0eissmann, "ible %tudies, !# +-H)# As a sam!le of the do*blin" *! of !re!ositions note ( '7 '?E (Ac# +B?66)# (') a . $ost !robabl& has the same root as , (atin medius, )erman mit (mii), )othic mi, En"lish mid (cf# a-mid)# Some scholars indeed connect it 3ith 1' and )erman samt# 2*t the other ie3 is reasonabl& certain# The modern )ree' *ses a shortened form , 3hich 3as indeed in earl& ernac*lar *se#6 Some of the )ree' dialects *se %# So the (esbian, 2Yotian, Arcadian, etc# a seems to be in the instr*mental case#, +# ,!e :oot-Meanin # It is (Lmid>) Lmidst#> This sim!le idea lies behind the later de elo!ments# Cf# '3 and '# 1e see the root=idea !lainl& in !& (from @, in Lmid=air>)# In the N# T# 3e ha e a meta!horical e7am!le ((*# +6?6G) 3hich is intelli"ible no3 in the da& of aero!lanes and diri"ible balloons# The root=idea is manifest also in @ (Re # D?,), Lthe s!ace bet3een the e&es#> 6# 8n .omposition# The later res*ltant meanin"s !redominate in com!osition s*ch as 43ith5 in '%!% (Ro# +6?E), '#'" (Ac# 6?-B), (+ Cor# +H?,H)J 4after5 in ' (Ac# +H?A)J or, as is *s*all& the case, the notion of chan"e or transfer is the res*lt as 3ith !( (+ Cor# +,?6), '"'! ($t# E?,-), ' ) (Ro# +6?6), '#' ($t# 6D?,), ' ($t# ,?6)# ,# .ompared #it! # a is less fre9*ent in com!osition than , tho*"h far more common as a !re!osition# Simco7+ thin's that it is *seless to elaborate an& distinction in meanin" bet3een and # The older "rammars held that e7!ressed a more intimate fello3shi! than # 2*t in the N# T# has nearl& dri en o*t#
1 I<. # Fann., ,ist. Gr. Gk., p. -11D ,at0., Einl., p. 15-. - Giles, Co p. Philol., p. -.#. 1 Lan". of the 6. )., p. 1.9. Cf. )hayer, un$er .

-# (oss of t!e (ocative ;se# a 3as ori"inall& *sed 3ith the locati e# It is common in Homer, b*t e en 3ith him the "eniti e has be"*n to dis!lace it#6 Homer *ses the locati e 3ith collecti e sin"*lars and !l*rals#, $ommsen- indeed considers that in Hesiod 1', and all *se the instr*mental case and 3ith abo*t e9*al fre9*enc&, 3hile 3ith the "eniti e 3as rare# 2*t in the N# T# , alon" 3ith ! and 6), has been confined to the "eniti e and acc*sati e, and the "eniti e *se "reatl& !redominates (,B+ to +HH)#A The idea 3ith the locati e 3as sim!l& Lbet3een#>B 1ith se eral !ersons the notion of Lamon"> 3as !resent also#D A# Wit! t!e Genitive# In Homer it occ*rs onl& fi e times and 3ith the res*ltant idea of Lamon"#> So once (8liad, +,# DHH, * wE $), 3here indeed the idea is that of alliance 3ith the 2Yotians# In Re # 6?+B, etc#, occ*rs 3ith # in a hostile sense, a *sa"e not occ*rrin" in the older )ree', 3hich Simco7E considers a Hebraism# 2*t the !a!&ri ma& "i e *s e7am!les of this *sa"e an& da&# And Th*mb (Hellenismus, !# +6AJ cf# $o*lton, +rol., !# +HB) has alread& called attention to the modern )ree' *se of 3ith ## 0eissmann ((i !t, !# +G+) finds * '/ 3ith 5 in an ostracon (not in hostile sense) and !ossibl& 3ith #., Lelse3here#> In Mo# B?-, occ*rs in a hostile sense 3ith ...& and !robabl& so 3ith &4( in Mo# ,?6A, tho*"h AbbottG ar"*es for the idea of alliance here bet3een the 2a!tist>s disci!les and the Me3s to incite ri alr& bet3een the 2a!tist and Mes*s# In + Cor# B?B f# 3e ha e the hostile sense also in le"al trials, %# * %# C !'# Cf# Mo# +B?+G# This notion "i es no diffic*lt& to En"lish st*dents, since o*r 43ith5 is so *sed# 2*t $o*lton+H admits a translation Hebraism in (*# +?AE, $.# k 2# '?C 7 '?B# 2*t 3hat abo*t i' $!( J 7 '?E (Ac# +-?6D) and #!' U .( 7 UE (+ Mo# -?+D)8 Simco7+ a"ain finds a Hebraism in 4the reli"io*s sense5 3hich a!!ears in $t# +?6,J (*# +?6EJ Mo# ,?6, etc# 2*t the notion of fello3shi! is certainl& not a Hebraism# a has !lent& of
# +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .... - @.:G., I, p. 5&5. Mo sen

MEMMSE6, )., 2eitrN"e C*r (ehre der "riech# PrN!ositionen %111981195'. (((, 0ie PrN!# *nd bei den nachhom# E!i'ern %11/9'. . ). Mo also Mo sen, 0ie PrN!. *nd bei den nachhomerischen E!i'ern, 11/9, p. 1 f. Cf. sen, 2eitr# C* der (ehre on der "riech# PrN!# , 1195.

5 Moulton, Prol., p. 1&5. 9 ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /.1 f. / Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1-9. 1 Lan". of the 6. )., p. 15&. 9 Foh. Gr., p. #9/. 1& Prol., p. 1&9. 1 Lan". of the 6. )., p. 15&.

e7am!les of the sim!le meanin" of the !re!osition# Th*s &E' * E E ((*# 6-?A), Y * E (! ($'# +?+,), * E #E ((*# A?,H), * ) $#.!( ((*# 66?,D), an idiom not common to and fo*nd in the classical !oets#6 Cf# also (S C C * E / (Re # 6+?,), * %.E ($'# +H?,H), 23 * E E ((*# +,?+), + * #B ($t# 6D?,-)# It is not far from this idea to that of con ersation as in * .' $## (Mo# -?6D), and "eneral fello3shi! as 3ith 5( (Ro# +6?+E), ($t# 6H?6), !' 2 (+ Mo# +?,), '! #). ($t# +E?6,), etc# Perha!s the most fre9*ent *se of is 3ith the idea of accom!animent# So 3ith # ((*# G?-G), #'" ($t# 6A?,), ''#'" ($t# +6?-A), 2' ($'# +?6G), ' ($'# ,?D), etc# Cf# $t# 6D?BB# So 3ith 5! ($'# ,?+-), b*t sometimes the notion of hel! or aid is added as in Mo# ,?6J E?6G, etc# Cf# also U 7 6E (Ro# +B?6H) and often# The notion of fello3shi! ma& de elo! into that of follo3ers or !artisans as in $t# +6?,H# Sometimes the !hrase o 7 '?C 3ith the !artici!le (Mo# G?-H) or 3itho*t ($t# +6?-) means one>s attendants or follo3ers (com!anions)# The idea of accom!animent also occ*rs 3ith thin"s as in $34#' * ''E ((*# 66?A6), * E #'% ($t# 6A?-), * #.. ($t# 6-?,+), * "'! 6G(#C (Ac# +,?+D), some of 3hich a!!roach the instr*mental idea# Cf# * $ E E (+ Tim# -?+-), 3here the idea is rather Lsim*ltaneo*s 3ith,> b*t see * i ($t# +-?D), * B .#( ((*# +D?+A)# Still in all these cases accom!animent is the dominant note# See also (%;'< ##' E * ! (Lin the corn ser ice>), 2#/# 6D (iiUA#0#)# Certainl& it is not a Hebraism in (*# +?AE, for $o*lton (+rol., !# 6-B) can cite A#P# +,A (iiUA#0#) ! %N UF "( * E )2 In later )ree' the instr*mental *se comes to be common 3ith (cf# En"lish 43ith5)#, In (*# +H?,D J 4' 2# 7 '?C 0ebr*nner (2lass=0eb#, !# +,-) sees a Hebraism# 2*t see Herm# S# %# +, +, $!( 7 $C# The meta!horical *se for the idea of accom!animent occ*rs also li'e * % 'Q %)3( ($t# 6-?,H), * %B ($'# B?6A), * %' (Heb# +6?+D), * )" 'Q ) (6 Cor# D?+A), '(!' (Ac# 6?6G), " (Ac# 6-?+E), etc# 0eissmann ("ible %tudies, !!# B-, 6BA) finds in the !a!&ri e7am!les of * '! li'e that in Ph# -?,# Cf# Schmid, Der Atticismus, III, !# ,,E# In the modern )ree' ernac*lar is confined to accom!animent, means or instr*ment and manner# Time has dro!!ed o*t (Th*mb, Handb., !# +H, f#)# B# Wit! t!e Accusative# At first it seems to !resent more diffic*lt&# 2*t the acc*sati e=idea added to the root=idea (4midst5) 3ith erbs of motion 3o*ld mean 4into the midst5 or 4amon"#5 2*t this idiom does not a!!ear in the N# T# In the late )ree' ernac*lar 3ith the acc*sati e occ*rs in all the senses of and the "eniti e,+ b*t that is not tr*e of the N# T# Indeed, 3ith one e7ce!tion (and that of !lace), * % '''' (Heb# G?,), in the N# T# 3ith the acc*sati e is *sed 3ith e7!ressions of time# This e7am!le in Hebre3s is hel!f*l, ho3e er# The res*ltant notion is that of behind or be&ond the eil obtained b& "oin" thro*"h the midst of the eil# All the other e7am!les ha e the res*ltant notion of 4after5 3hich has added to the root
# +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-- f. - Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -1/. For *o pare$ Gith ' see A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. #91. S*h i$ SC,MI;, 5., 0er Atticism*s in seinen Ha*!t ertretern# - 2de# %111/8119/'. 1 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -1/.

meanin", as a!!lied to time, the notion of s*ccession# .o* !ass thro*"h the midst of this and that e ent and come to the !oint 3here &o* loo' bac' *!on the 3hole# This idea is 4after#5 Cf# * % U' ($t# 6B?6)# In the historical boo's of the (XX * 'C' (cf# (*# A?6D) is er& common#6 Simco7, treats ? * ##* '' U' (Ac# +?A) as a (atinism, b*t, if that is not tr*e of ), it is hardl& necessar& to !osit it of # Cf# * U' I Herm# %is# I%, +, +# The litotes is common# Mannariscomments on the fre9*enc& of * ) 3ith the infiniti e in the (XX and N# T# So * 'B' (Acts +H?-+)# Cf# + Cor# ++?6AJ Heb# +H?6B, etc# This comes to be one of the common 3a&s of e7!ressin" a tem!oral cla*se (cf# $! or i)# Cf# * "' ((*# 66?AE), * ) ($'# +-?DH), ad erbial !hrases# (k) ' . +# %i nificance# 0elbr@c'A does not find the et&molo"& of ' clear and thin's it !robabl& is not to be connected 3ith pr (Sans'rit), 3hich means Ldistant#> 2r*"mannB connects it 3ith the old 3ord pur li'e (atin por-, )othic fara, An"lo=Sa7on fore (cf# )erman vor)# )ilesD thin's the same root f*rnishes ') ("en#), ' (instr#), ''! (dat#), ! (loc#)# He also sees a 'inshi! in these to ', ', )# 6# .ompared #it! )# In meanin"+ ' and ) do not differ essentiall& sa e that ' merel& means Lbeside,> Lalon"side> (cf# o*r 4!arallel5), 3hile ) rather s*""ests Lfacin" one another,> an additional idea of contrast# This oldest meanin" e7!lains all the later de elo!ments#6 Radermacher (0. ,. Gr., !# ++B) thin's that the N# T# sho3s conf*sion in the *se of ' (%#.!& '7 [mar"# of 1# H# and Nestle, $ in te7t\ p'F, $t# 6+?6A) and %#.!& p' ($'# ++?,+)# 2*t is it not di ersit& the rather8 ,# 8n .omposition# The !re!osition is e7ceedin"l& common in com!osition, tho*"h 3ith no*ns it falls behind some of the others a "ood deal# ' does not s*r i e in modern )ree' ernac*lar sa e in com!osition (li'e and $) and some of its f*nctions "o to ) and 5#, All the ario*s de elo!ments of ' a!!ear in
# A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. #99. - Lan". of the 6. )., p. 151. . ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -19. 5 >er"l. Synt., I, pp. /55, /91. 9 I*rCe %er"l# )r#, II, p. ./.D Grie*h. Gr., p. ..9. Giles GILES, P., A Short Manual of Co parati!e Philolo"y. #$ e$. %19&1'. (((, )he Greek Lan"ua"e %En*y*. +ritanni*a, 191&'. / Co p. Philol., p. -.#. 1 @.:G., I, p. 5&9. # ;el<r=*k, 0ie )r*ndl#, p. 1-&. - )hu <, ,an$<., p. 1&#.

com!osition, and the sim!lest *se is er& common# Th*s ''"#4 ($'# +,?6E) is a L!lacin" of one thin" beside another#> So ''@'# ($t# -?+,) is merel& Lbeside the sea#> Cf# also ''@4( (6 Tim# +?+-), ''@'! ((*# +H?,G), ''@'# (Ac# 6E?6H), '@#( (Mo# +-?+B), ''@#.' (Ac# 6D?E), '@# ((*# B?+D), ''@ (Heb# D?6,J cf# E 'Q ''@E Ph# +?6A), ''@# (Ac# 6H?+B), ''@ (Heb# 6?+), ''@!( ($'# B?-+), @ ((*# +,?+), etc# A s!eciall& noticeable 3ord is @ (+ Tim# ,?,)# Cf# also @'@B# in (*# +H?,+ f# Sometimes ' s*""ests a notion of stealth as in '@@. (6 Pet# 6?+), '@@ % (M*# -), '@!@' ()al# 6?-), b*t in '@@' in Ro# A?6H this notion is not !resent# Cf# $t# +-?+A, U c' Z%( 'B#, Lthe ho*r is alread& far s!ent> (L"one b&>)# Note also the Scotch 4far in5 li'e modern )ree' ''' ($o*lton, +rol., !# 6-D)# A fe3 e7am!les of the 4!erfecti e5 *se occ*r as in '3 (Ac# +D?+B), ''@ '! (Heb# ,?+B), '@( (Ac# 6E?++), ''@( ()al# -?+H, b*t in (*# +-?+ the idea of en io*s 3atchin" comes o*t)# 1ith ''@ the notion is rather Lto be beside one>s self,> Lo*t of mind#> Cf# also ''@! in Heb# B?B, fo*nd in the ostraca (1ilc'en, i# DE f#) as a commercial 3ord Lto fall belo3 !ar#> ;or '#F (Ac# +A?+G) see '#F UA, P# Tb# ,B (iiU2#C#)# ' occ*rs in the N# T# 3ith three cases# The locati e has AH e7am!les, the acc*sati e BH, the ablati e DE#-# Wit! t!e (ocative# ' 3ith the locati e is nearl& confined to !ersons# Onl& one other e7am!le a!!ears, o4' '* L 'L (Mo# +G?6A)# This confinin" of ' to !ersons is li'e the *s*al )ree' idiom, tho*"h Homer+ *sed it freel& 3ith both# Homer *sed it also as an ad erb and in the shortened form # The onl& instance in the N# T# of the locati e 3ith ' after a erb of motion is in (*# G?-D, 2( '? '7 p'L, tho*"h here 0 reads p')# The locati e 3ith ' lea es the et&molo"ical idea *nchan"ed so that 3e see the !re!osition in its sim!lest *sa"e# Cf# \ # '* kM (6 Tim# -?+,) as a t&!ical e7am!le of the *se 3ith !ersons 3hich is m*ch li'e apvd in (atin, Lat one>s ho*se> (Mo# +?-H), Lin his societ&,> etc# So ''#C' ' ((*# +G?D), ' (Mo# +-?+D), 3!& ' (Ac# 6+?+B)# Cf# Ac# 6+?E# In Re # 6?+,J $t# 6E?+A, ' has the idea of Lamon"#> The !hrase '* L L ((*# +?,H) is common# The 3ord is *sed in ethical relations,6 also li'e '7 $! (6 Cor# +?+D)# Cf# ! !' '7 6F (Ac# 6B?E) and ) '7 p'F (Ro# +6?+B)# ' 3ith the locati e does not occ*r in Hebre3s# A# Wit! t!e Ablative# 2*t it occ*rs onl& 3ith !ersons (li'e the older )ree')# The distinction bet3een ' and ) and $ has alread& been made# In $'# E?++ both ' and ) occ*r, &(C '7 '?C (F C ?'C (cf# +6?6), and in Mo# +?-H 3e ha e both ' and $, , $ E % E '* H# In a case li'e Mo# E?,E the locati e is follo3ed b& the ablati e,, N/'' '* L '!V ' '* C '), tho*"h some $SS# ha e locati e in the latter cla*se also# 2*t the ablati e here is in strict accordance 3ith )ree' *sa"e as in a case li'e C'
5il*ken 5ILC@E6, A., 0ie ;orsch*n"en @ber die hellen# S!r# in den Mahren 19&#819&. %Ar*hi! f. Pap., 19&9, pp. ..-8./-'. . Moulton, Prol., p. 1&9. 1 Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1-.. # Si *oC, Lan". of 6. )., p. 151. - A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. #/1.

'* C (Ac# +H?66)# On the other hand in Mo# B?-A f# 3e find the ablati e in both instances, J ' '* C ')VJ K '* C C (cf# J K 5 )# C ') in Mo# +?+E)# 2*t this last '* im!lies the comin" of Christ from the ;ather, li'e '* C ' $3B# (Mo# +B?6D)# ' 3ith the ablati e means Lfrom the side of> as 3ith the acc*sati e it means Lto the side of#> The !hrase o '7 '?C therefore describes one>s famil& or 'insmen ($'# ,?6+)# In the !a!&ri the !hrase is er& common for one>s a"ents, and $o*lton- has fo*nd one or t3o li'e o '7 UE !arallel to o '7 '?C in $'# ,?6+# Cf# also * ' '?E ((*# +H?D) for one>s reso*rces or !ro!ert&# Ro*ffiac (:ec!erc!es, etc#, !# ,H) cites $%'( '7 p'C (cf# $'# A?6B) from inscri!tion from Priene (+++, ++D)# Note also U '7 $C %'4( (Ro# ++?6D) 3ith notion of a*thorshi!# 1ith !assi e erbs the a"ent is sometimes e7!ressed b& ' as in '# '* C (Mo# +?B), F ##'#( '* k! ((*# +?-A)# Cf# Te7t# Rec# in Ac# 66?,H 3ith '(.F' '* E H%'!, 3here 1# H# ha e 6)R ' occ*rs 3ith the middle in $t# 6+?-6, '* k! $.# In the later )ree' ernac*lar ' 3ith the ablati e hel!ed s*!!lant 6) alon" 3ith ), and both ' and 6) (and $) anished+ 4before the ictorio*s )#5 B# Wit! t!e Accusative# It is not fo*nd in Mohn>s 3ritin"s at all6 as it is also 3antin" in the other Catholic E!istles# The acc*sati e is common in the local sense both 3ith erbs of motion and of rest# The increase in the *se of the acc*sati e 3ith erbs of rest e7!lains in !art the dis*se of the locati e#, One nat*rall& com!ares the encroachments of 5 *!on $# 1e see the idiom in the !a!&ri as in o '* N !, P# Par# -D (2#C# +A,)# The *se of ' 3ith the acc*sati e 3ith erbs of rest 3as common in North3est )ree' (2*c', Greek Dialects, !# +H+)# Th*s in $t# -?+E 3e find 'E '* S #'' lo"icall& eno*"h, b*t in +,?+ 3e meet $( '* S #'', and note '4 '* S J%) ($t# 6H?,H), pP '* S #!( ((*# A?+), $Q 5!' '* #'' (Ac# +H?B), %% '* #'' ($'# -?+), '' '* T )%' (Ac# 66?,)# Cf# Ac# -?,A# So no diffic*lt& arises from 2G' '* T )%' ($t# +A?,H)# There is no e7am!le in the N# T# of ' in the sense of Lbe&ond,> li'e Homer, b*t one 3here the idea is Lnear to,> Lalon"side of,> as Y# '* S #'' ($t# +A?6G)# 2*t fi"*rati el& ' does occ*r often in the sense of Lbeside the mar'> or Lbe&ond#> Once- indeed 3e meet the notion of Lmin*s,> as in '' '* !' (6 Cor# ++?6-)# Cf# '* #') '', 2#/# +HDG (A#0# -+), 3here ' means Le7ce!t#> The modern )ree' ernac*lar 'ee!s '* !', L3ithin a hair>s breadth> (Th*mb, Handb., !# GE)# The notion of Lbe&ond> is common eno*"h in classic 3riters and is most fre9*ent in Hebre3s in the N# T# It occ*rs 3ith com!arati e forms li'e %' / (Heb# +?-), #! (,?,), ! (G?6,J cf# +6?6-), 3ith im!lied com!arison li'e #' "' (6?D), or 3ith merel& the !ositi e li'e b'#! ((*# +,?6J cf# +,?-)# Indeed no adKecti e or !artici!le at all ma&
. Prol., p. 1&9. In G. ,. -9 %iiP+.C.', +. A. 991 %iiP+.C.', P. Par. -9 %iiP+.C.'. Cf. +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-1. 1 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -91. # A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. #/&. - +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-1. . 5.:)h., p. .&.. +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-1, less naturally eCplains ' here as eanin" Q<y !irtue of,H <ut not ;e<runner.

a!!ear, as in #' $. '* ' ((*# +,?-J cf# +,?6)# The *se of the !ositi e 3ith ' is li'e the Aramaic (cf# 1ellha*sen, 5inl., !# 6E)# Here the notion of Lbe&ond> or Labo e> is sim!le eno*"h# Cf# ' after ## in + Cor# ,?++ and U' in Ro# +-?AJ Heb# ++?++# The older )ree' 3as not 3itho*t this nat*ral *se of ' for com!arison and the (XX is f*ll of it#+ In the later )ree' ernac*lar the ablati e and Z both retreat before ' and the acc*sati e#6 In the modern )ree' ernac*lar 3e find ' and the acc*sati e and e en 3ith the nominati e after com!arison (Th*mb, Handb., !# DA)# The notion of com!arison ma& "lide o er into that of o!!osition er& easil&# Th*s in Ro# +?6A, $#' D ! '* !'', 3here Lrather than> is the idea (cf# 4instead of5)# Cf# Ro# -?+E, '7 $#!%' $7 $#!%, 3here both !re!ositions ans3er o er to each other, Lbe&ond,> L*!on#> So in 6 Cor# E?, '* %' and '* %' are in shar! contrast# Cf# Ac# 6,?,# In )al# +?E f# '7 i has the idea of Lbe&ond> and so Lcontrar& to#> Cf# Ro# ++?6-J +6?,J +B?+D# To e7ceed instr*ctions is often to "o contrar& to them# In a case li'e '* ) (Ac# +E?+,), to "o be&ond is to "o a"ainst# Cf# En"lish trans- ression, '@'# Once more ' 3ith the acc*sati e stran"el& eno*"h ma& act*all& mean Lbeca*se of,> li'e propter# So in + Cor# +6?+A f# '* C# Cf# 0 in (*# A?D# The Attic 3riters *sed ' th*s, b*t it disa!!ears in the later ernac*lar#, The notion of ca*se "ro3s o*t of the idea of nearness and the nat*re of the conte7t# ;arrar- s*""ests the En"lish collo9*ial? 4It>s all alon" of his o3n ne"lect#5 (l) ! . There is some dis!*te abo*t the et&molo"& of !# Some scholars, li'e Sonne,A connect it in et&molo"& and meanin" 3ith 6# 2*t the !oint is not &et clear, as 2r*"mannB contends# 1hate er ma& be tr*e abo*t the remote Indo=)ermanic root, ! belon"s to the same stem as ' and is in the locati e case li'e pri in the Sans'rit#D Cf# also Old Persian pariy, Oend pairi, (atin per, (ith*anian per, )othic fair , Old Hi"h )erman far-1 fer, )erman ver-# The )ree' *ses as an ad erb (Homer) and the Volic dialect+ e en *ses instead of !# The intensi e !article is this same 3ord# +# ,!e :oot-Meanin # It is Lro*nd> (Laro*nd>), Lon all sides> (cf# !, Lon both sides>)# Cf# 3 (Ac# A?+B), 3here the root=idea is manifest# Cf# (atin circum1 circa# The !re!osition has indeed a manifold de elo!ment,6 b*t after all the root=idea is
5ellhausen 5ELL,AASE6, F., Einl# in die drei ersten E an"elien %19&5'. #. Aus". %1911'. 1 C. an$ S., p. 15 f.D )ha*k., Gr., p. #-. # Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -19. - I<., p. -9&. . Gk. Synt., p. 1&.. 5 @. O., 1., pp. 1 ff. Cf. ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /&&. 9 I*rCe er"l# )r#, II, p. ./5. / +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. ../D ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /&&. 1 @.:G., I, p. .91. # +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. ../.

!lainer al3a&s than 3ith some of the other !re!ositions# The N# T# e7am!les chiefl& (b*t cf# Ac# 6E?D) concern !ersons and thin"s, tho*"h e en in the meta!horical *ses the notion of Laro*nd> is !resent# 6# 8n .omposition# The idea of Laro*nd> in the literal local sense is ab*ndant# Cf# B. ($t# -?6,), 'G' (Ac# 66?B), E' (Mo# ++?-6), %' ($'# B?AA), ($'# B?AA), @' (Ac# +G?+,), '. '?L ( ($t# 6+?,,)# In @' ($t# G?A) ! has nearl& lost its s!ecial force, 3hile in .'& (6 Th# ,?++) the 3hole !oint lies in the !re!osition# Note in $'# ,?,-, @"#G T Q '? #M '(, 3here #M e7!lains ! alread& t3ice e7!ressed# Cf# also @#/! ((*# +G?-,)# The !erfecti e idea of ! in com!osition is manifest in @#F b'!' (Heb# +H?++), Lto ta'e a3a& alto"ether#> Cf# @'G C $ M B '?#B ((*# 66?AA), 3here note the addition of ! to $ M# In $'# +-?BA @'# means Lto co er all ro*nd,> Lto co er *!,> li'e @ in (*# +?6-# This is the 4!erfecti e5 sense# Cf# !@# in $t# 6B?,E# +er contra note !. (+ Tim# A?+,) for Lb*s&bod&,> b*s& abo*t trifles and not abo*t im!ortant matters# In + Tim# B?+H note ' in the sense of L!ierced thro*"h#> 2*t in 6 Cor# ,?+B, 'F', Lthe eil is remo ed from aro*nd the head#> ,# -ri inall& /our .ases ;sed# These 3ere the locati e, acc*sati e, "eniti e, ablati e# The locati e 3as ne er common in !rose and died o*t in the late )ree', not a!!earin" in the N# T# 0elbr@c', is er& !ositi e abo*t the ablati e in some e7am!les in Homer and the earlier )ree'# Indeed he thin's that the tr*e "eniti e is a later de elo!ment after the ablati e 3ith !# I thin' it !robable that some of these ablati e e7am!les s*r i e in the N# T#, tho*"h I do not stress the !oint#-# Wit! t!e Ablative# There is some do*bt as to ho3 to e7!lain the ablati e 3ith !# In Homer+ it is *s*all& e7!lained as li'e ablati e of com!arison# Cf# 6# Th*s ! is ta'en in the sense of Lbe&ond> or Lo er,> and is allied to ' ;'< and 6, accordin" to the ori"inal sense#6 2r*"mann, cites also ! and .!.' 3here the notion of s*!eriorit& comes in# 1ith this com!are 'F .' B ( (Ac# 6D?+B), 3hich 3o*ld th*s ha e the ablati e in (# 2*t $onro- admits that the ori"in of this notion 3ith ! is not 9*ite clear# On the other hand, the *se of ! in com!osition ma& thro3 li"ht on the s*bKect# In 6 Cor# ,?+B, @'F' #', Lthe eil is ta'en from aro*nd#> Cf# also Ac# 6D?6H# The same notion occ*rs in @ '' (+ Cor# -?+,) and !G(' (ib.), Loff=sco*rin"> and Loff=scra!in"#> The same idea of from around occ*rs in @43' * o' (Ac# +B?66J cf# 6 $acc# -?,E)# In (*# +H?-H this idea a!!ears in a meta!horical sense 3ith A, Ldra3n a3a&> or Lfrom aro*nd,> Ldistracted#> See A, P# 2rit# $# -6 (2#C# +BE) for Locc*!&#> Cf# also the notion of be&ond in !. (+ Tim# A?+,), #! (+ Th# -?+A), (Ac# +?-), (Tit# 6?+-), (Mo# B?+6), ) ($t# A?,D)# In the last
- 0ie )r*ndl#, p. 1-1 f.D >er"l. Synt., I, p. /11 f. . Cf. also +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. ../. 1 Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1--D Sterrett, )he ;ial. of ,o . in ,o . Il., 6 ./. # ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /1.. Cf. ', A*. 192-9. - Grie*h. Gr., p. ..1. Cf. I*rCe er"l# )r#, II, p. ./9. . ,o . Gr., p. 1--.

e7am!le, , note the ablati e# There remains a "ro*! of !assa"es of a meta!horical nat*re 3here the idea is that of ta'in" somethin" a3a&# These ma& be e7!lained as ablati es rather than "eniti es# So in Ro# E?,, Q b'!', the idea is that 3e ma& be freed from sin, from aro*nd sin# Tha&er (*nder !) e7!lains this *sa"e as 4!*r!ose for remo in" somethin" or ta'in" it a3a&#5 This, of co*rse, is an ablati e idea, b*t e en so 3e "et it rather indirectl& 3ith !# See j 1'3 Q b'E ' in + Pet# ,?+E# It is 3orth obser in" that in )al# +?- 1# H# read 6 rather than !, 3hile in Heb# A?, 1# H# ha e ! rather than 6# Cf# $'# +-?6-# In E!h# B?+E f# 3e ha e %4 Q E b.!, 'Q 6N $C, 3here the t3o !re!ositions differ er& little# 2*t in + Pet# ,?+E (see abo e), 6N %!, the distinction is clearer# Cf# Mo# +B?6BJ +D?G# See Simco7, (an . of t!e 0. ,., !# +A6 f# 0 has 6 3ith $) in $t# 6B?6E rather than !# Cf# 2lass, Gr. of 0. ,. Gk., !# +,-# Cf# ! 3ith o#') in + Mo# 6?6# The ablati e 3ith 6 renders more !robable this ablati e *se of !# A# Wit! t!e Genitive# This is the common case 3ith ! in the N# T# If the "eniti e and ablati e e7am!les are co*nted to"ether (the real ablati es are certainl& fe3) the& n*mber 6G+ as a"ainst ,E acc*sati es#+ 2*t in the later )ree' the acc*sati e "rad*all& dri es o*t the "eniti e (3ith the hel! of % also)#6 The "eniti e 3as al3a&s rare 3ith ! in the local or tem!oral sense# The N# T# sho3s no e7am!le of this *sa"e o*tside of com!osition (Ac# 6A?D), *nless in Ac# 6A?+E Q { be ta'en 3ith ', 3hich is do*btf*l#, C*rio*sl& eno*"h the )os!el of Mohn has the "eniti e 3ith ! almost as often as all the S&no!tic 3riters and the acc*sati e not at all in the critical te7t, Mo# ++?+G readin" S a'#- This fre9*enc& in Mohn is d*e lar"el& to the ab*ndant *se of ', #., #'#, . , etc# Cf# Mo# +?D, 66J D?+,, +D, etc# ! ma& occ*r 3ith almost an& erb 3here the notion of Labo*t,> Lconcernin"> is nat*ral, li'e $#'.!( ($t# G?,B), .'(' (6H?6-), # (66?+B), $#.) ((*# ,?+G), $''' ((*# 6?+E), etc# The list incl*des erbs li'e , ./, %'#.!&', $', $&(, etc# The *sa"e incl*des both !ersons, li'e Q UE (+ Th# A?6A), and thin"s, li'e Q $%' ! A ($t# B?6E)# One neat )ree' idiom is * !# Cf# * Q B J%C (Ac# 6-?66), * Q H(C (+E?6AJ $'# A?6D), * Q $'C (Ac# 6-?+H)# 2lassA considers F Q '?C ((*# 6?6D) 4an incorrect !hrase,5 3hich is !*ttin" it too stron"l&# Cf# #'. ! in Mo# +G?6-, li'e classical ' !# Sometimes ! a!!ears rather loosel& at the be"innin" of the sentence, Q B #.!' (+ Cor# +B?+), Q 0##/ (+B?+6)# Sometimes ! is *sed 3ith the relati e 3hen it 3o*ld be re!eated if the antecedent 3ere e7!ressed, as in Q d $.G' (+ Cor# D?+) or 3here ! !ro!erl& belon"s onl& 3ith the antecedent, as in Q d %% (Mo# +D?G)# In (*# +G?,D, Q 'E d +% %, the !re!osition strictl& belon"s onl& to the antecedent 3hich is incor!orated# In a case li'e Q ' (, Mo# 6) the s*bKect=matter of the !ra&er is im!lied in ! as ca*se is in ol ed in Q C ''C ($'# +?--)
1 Moulton, Prol., p. 1&5. # Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -9#. - 5.:)h., p. -/-. . A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. #/#. 5 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-5.

and as ad anta"e is e7!ressed in Q '?B ((*# -?,E)# 2*t this is merel& d*e to the conte7t# B# Wit! t!e Accusative# This constr*ction in realit& occ*rs 3ith m*ch the same sense as the "eniti e# The acc*sati e, of co*rse, s*""ests a !lacin" aro*nd# It is rare in the N# T#, b*t in later )ree' dis!laced the "eniti e as alread& remar'ed# 2*t it does not s*r i e in the modern )ree' ernac*lar# 1ith the acc*sati e ! is *sed of !lace, as in G Q '?4 ((*# +,?E), Q ) $F (Ac# 6E?D)# Cf# $'# ,?E# So 3ith e7!ressions of time, as in Q !( c' ($t# 6H?,)# Note the *se of ! 3ith the different !arts of the bod&, as Q S ($t# ,?-), Q (# (+E?B)# Cf# Re # +A?B# ! is *sed of !ersons as in 'G' Q $ (Ac# 66?B), +%' Q '? ($'# G?+-)# An ancient )ree' idiom occ*rs in o Q 'C# (Ac# +,?+,), li'e o Q E' (Xen# Anab. D, -, +B), 3here the idea is LPa*l and his com!anions#>+ 2*t in a case li'e o Q '?) ((*# 66?-G) the !hrase has onl& its nat*ral si"nificance, Lthose abo*t him#> The still f*rther de elo!ment of this !hrase for the !erson or !ersons named alone, li'e the ernac*lar 4&o* all5 in the So*thern States for a sin"le !erson, a!!ears in some $SS# for Mo# ++?+G, * Q a' 'Q a'!', 3here onl& $artha and $ar& are meant,6 the critical te7t bein" S a'# 2lass, notes that onl& 3ith the Phili!!ian E!istle (6?6,, * Q $) did Pa*l be"in the *se of the acc*sati e 3ith ! (cf# "eniti e) in the sense of Lconcernin",> li'e Plato# Cf# in the Pastoral E!istles, Q S ! (+ Tim# +?+G), Q S #4' (6 Tim# 6?+E)# 2*t (*'e (+H?-H f#) has it alread&# Cf# Q * 'C' (Ac# +G?6A)# 2*t #M in the (XX, as in the 4, is also ta'in" the !lace of ! (Thac'era&, Gr., !# 6A)# 0 ! co*ld not stand before !, and finall& ! itself 3ent do3n# The entrance of 6 into the field of ! 3ill call for notice later# (m) ) . Cf# the Sans'rit pr and the Oend fra, )othic fra, (ith*anian pra, (atin pro, )erman f@r1 vor, En"lish for (for=3ard), fore (fore=front)# The case of ) is not 'no3n, tho*"h it occ*rs a fe3 times in Homer as an ad erb#- Cf# ) and 6)# The (atin prod is !robabl& remodelled from an old ]pro li'e an ablati e, as prae is dati e (or locati e)# +# ,!e -ri inal Meanin # It is therefore !lain eno*"h# It is sim!l& Lfore,> Lbefore#> It is rather more "eneral in idea than ! and has a more aried de elo!ment#A In ) B ' (Ac# +6?B) the sim!le idea is clear# 6# 8n .omposition# It is common also in com!osition, as in @'# ($'# +-?BE), Lfore=co*rt#> Other *ses in com!osition "ro3 o*t of this idea of Lfore,> as @"'! ($t# -?6+), Lto "o on> (Lfor=3ards>), @) ()al# +?+-), @. ($'# ++?GJ cf# @# in contrast), @%(# (+ Tim# A?6-), Lo!enl& manifest,> Lbefore all> (cf# )al# ,?+, @. ()J @ (Ro# ,?G), Lto s*r!ass>J @'' (6 Cor# +6?6+), Lto sin before,> L!re io*sl&>J @!& (Ro# E?6G), to L!re=ordain#> Cf# )@' (+ Tim# A?6+), L!re=K*d"ment#> In these res!ects the N# T# merel& follo3s in the 3a'e of the
1 5.:)h., p. .&9. # +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-.. - I<. . Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1.9. 5 @.:G., I, p. .5.. Cf. ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /19.

older )ree'#+ One ma& ill*strate ) still f*rther b& the com!arati e )@ and the s*!erlati e E@ (cf# 0oric A@)# Cf# also )@, @# ,# ,!e .ases ;sed #it! )# These call for little comment# It is barel& !ossible that ?') ) in Homer ma& be a remnant of a locati e *se#6 2r*"mann, thin's that a tr*e "eniti e is seen in J%C, b*t this is not certain# 2*t the ablati e is !robabl& the case# In er& late )ree' ) e en a!!ears 3ith the acc*sati e#- It is not in the modern )ree' ernac*lar# The ablati e is d*e to the idea of com!arison and is fo*nd also 3ith the (atin pro#A ) occ*rs onl& -E times in the N# T# and is almost confined to $atthe3>s and Mohn>s )os!els, (*'e>s 3ritin"s and Pa*l>s E!istles (+6 times)# -# +lace# Th*s it occ*rs onl& in fo*r instances, B ' (Ac# +6?B), E E (Mas# A?G), C #E (Ac# +6?+-), B )# (+-?+,)# Cf# 2 ($t# A?6-), 3hich is more common in this sense in the N# T# Some $SS# ha e ) in Ac# A?6,# In C&!r*s (borro3in" from the literar& lan"*a"e) to=da& 3e still ha e '#B, Lat the head of the table> (Th*mb, Handb., !# GE)# A# ,ime# This is the more common idea 3ith ) in the N# T# Th*s 3e find s*ch e7!ressions as T 6E ($t# A?+6), 'C (E?6G), C ''#C ($t# 6-?,E), C ! ((*# ++?,E), C ' (Mo# ++?AA), E '5/ (+ Cor# 6?D), E (6 Tim# -?6+)# This is all !lain sailin"# Nor need one st*mble m*ch at the com!o*nd !re!osition (translation Hebraism) / ($'# +?6 and !arallels)# Cf# Ac# +,?6-J (*# G?A6# Nine times 3e ha e C 3ith the infiniti e, as in (*# 6?6+J 66?+AJ Mo# +?-E# Here this !hrase neatl& e7!resses a s*bordinate cla*se of time (antecedent)# Cf# ante quam# A real diffic*lt& a!!ears in 3 UE C ' (Mo# +6?+), 3hich does loo' li'e the (atin idiom in ante diem tertium >alendas# Mannaris+ attrib*tes this common idiom in the late )ree' 3riters to the !re alence of the Roman s&stem of datin"# This has been the common e7!lanation# 2*t $o*lton6 thro3s do*bt on this 4!la*sible (atinism5 b& sho3in" that this idiom a!!ears in a 0oric inscri!tion of the first cent*r& 2#C# ($ichel, BG-), bA %' E (!# The idiom occ*rs also in the inscri!tions, k'#'%E |?., I#$#A# iii# ,6A (iiUA#0#), and the !a!&ri, P % U, ;#P# ++E (iiUA#0#)# So $o*lton !ro es his !oint that it is a !arallel "ro3th li'e the (atin# Ro*ffiac (:ec!erc!es, !# 6G) re=enforces it b& three citations from the Priene inscri!tions# Cf# also ##E UE Acta %. ,!eo n., !# +H6# $o*lton thin's that it is a nat*ral de elo!ment from the ablati e case 3ith ), Lstartin" from,> and refers to GN '"" in $t# 6E?+ as !arallel# $a& it not be "en*ine )ree' and &et ha e res!onded some3hat to the (atin infl*ence as to the fre9*enc& (cf# (XX and the N# T#)8 Similarl& $E
1 +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. ..9. # Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1.9. Cf. ;el<r=*k, 0ie )r*ndl#, p. 1-#. )he ins*r. shoG the lo*. also. Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -9-. - Grie*h. Gr., p. ..9. . Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -9-. 5 Cf. ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /##. 1 ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -9.. Cf. >iere*k, Sermo )raec*s, p. 1# f. # Prol., pp. 1&& ff. ,e refers also to the nu erous eC. in 5. S*hul0e, Grae*. Lat., pp. 1.819.

%' (6 Cor# +6?6), Lfo*rteen &ears before (a"o)#> Abbott, considers it a trans!osin" of ), b*t it is do*btf*l if the )ree' came at it in that 3a&# Simco7- calls attention to the do*ble "eniti e 3ith ) in Mo# +6?+, reall& an ablati e and a "eniti e# B# %uperiorit&# ) occ*rs in the sense of s*!eriorit& also, as in (Mas# A?+6J + Pet# -?E)# In Col# +?+D is !robabl& time, as in $C (Mo# +H?EJ Rom# +B?D)# Cf# in (*# 6+?+6# (n) ) . The et&molo"& of ) is not !erfectl& clear# It seems to be itself a !honetic ariationA of ! 3hich is fo*nd in Homer as 3ell as the form ! (Arcad# ), ) in 2Yotian, etc#)# 1hat the relation is bet3een ! and ! is not certain#B The Sans'rit prti is in the locati e case# The connection, if an&, bet3een ) and ) is not made o*t, e7ce!t that @! and pr-ti both corres!ond to ) and pr# Tha&er considers >! an ad erbial s*ffi7# +# ,!e Meanin #D It is the same as ! and !# The root=idea is Lnear,> Lnear b&,> accordin" to 0elbr@c',E tho*"h 2r*"mannG inclines to Lto3ards#> In Homer ) has an ad erbial *se, %, 3ith the notion of Lbesides#>+ LNear,> rather than Lto3ards,> seems to e7!lain the res*ltant meanin"s more satisfactoril&# The idea seems to be Lfacin",> )erman e en# Cf# )# In J #). Y ) (Mo# +?+) the literal idea comes o*t 3ell, Lface to face 3ith )od#> 6# 8n .omposition# Probabl& one sees the ori"inal notion in @%, Lto sit near> (cf# E*ri!#, etc#)# Some $SS# read this erb in + Cor# G?+,, tho*"h the best $SS# ha e '%# 2*t 3e do ha e @ #' ($'# -?,E) and @ ($t# +A?,6J + Tim# A?A)# Cf# also @ . (Mo# 6+?A), and @!& ($'# B?A,)# The other res*ltant meanin"s a!!ear in com!osition also as Lto3ards> in @. ((*# G?-+), Lto> in @## (E!h# A?,+), Lbesides> in @ !# (Phil# +G), Lfor> in )@' ($t# +,?6+)# This !re!osition is common in com!osition and sometimes the idea is sim!l& 4!erfecti e,5 as in @' (Ac# +?+-), )@ (Ac# +H?+H)# ,# -ri inall& #it! /ive .ases# The cases *sed 3ith ) 3ere !robabl& ori"inall& fi e accordin" to 2r*"mann,6 iC# locati e, dati e, ablati e, "eniti e, acc*sati e# The onl& do*bt is as to the tr*e dati e and the tr*e "eniti e# 0elbr@c', also thin's that a fe3
- Foh. Gr., p. ##/. . Lan". of the 6. )., p. 15- f. 5 +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. ..9. 9 I<. / ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /#9. Cf. +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. ..9. 1 0ie )r*ndl#, p. 1-#. 9 Grie*h. Gr., p. ..9. 1 ;el<r=*k, >er"l. Synt., I, p. /#1. ), as Gell as , still appears as a$!. in Poly<. Cf. @aelker, Nuest. $e Elo*. Poly<., p. #1-. # Grie*h. Gr., p. ..1 f. - >er"l. Synt., I, p. /#9 f.

"en*ine dati es and "eniti es occ*r# )reen- (cf# ), ,) s!ea's of 4the tr*e "eniti e5 3ith )J it is onl& rarel& tr*e of ) and 6# The "eniti e 3ith ) is 3antin" in the !a!&ri and the Per"amon inscri!tions (Radermacher, 0. ,. Gr., !# ++D)# And in the N# T# no e7am!le of the "eniti e or dati e a!!ears# In (*# +G?,D D ''" mi"ht !ossibl& be re"arded as dati e 3ith $..!&J b*t it is better 3ith the Re ised %ersion to s*!!l& 4e en5 and re"ard it as a locati e# In com!osition ( p'F, (*# +6?+) the dati e is common# 6 $accabees sho3s the literar& *se of ) 3ith dati e of n*mbers (Thac'era&, Gr., !# +EE)# -# ,!e Ablative# There is onl& one e7am!le of the ablati e in the N# T# and this occ*rs in Ac# 6D?,-, C B 6' (!' 6# This meta!horical *sa"e means Lfrom the !oint of ie3 of &o*r ad anta"e#> It is !ossible also to e7!lain it as tr*e "eniti e, Lon the side of#> This is a classical idiom# So then ) in the N# T# is nearl& confined to t3o cases# $o*ltonA a"rees 3ith 2lass+ that this is a remnant of the literar& st&le in (*'e# $o*lton finds the "eniti e (ablati e) 6, times in the (XX# The tr*e "eniti e a!!eared in e7am!les li'e C 'C, Lb& the ri er> or Lto3ards the ri er#> In the modern )ree' ernac*lar ) fades6 before 5 and ) as the ablati e *se is "oin" in the N# T# It is rarel& *sed of !lace and time, and e en so the *sa"e is d*e to the literar& lan"*a"e (Th*mb, Handbook, !# +HB)# A# Wit! t!e (ocative# ) indeed occ*rs in the N# T# 3ith the locati e onl& se en times, so that it is alread& !rett& nearl& a one=case !re!osition# These se en e7am!les are all of !lace and call for little remar'# Cf# L : ($'# A?++), L (!M (Mo# 6H?++)# The& are all 3ith erbs of rest sa e the *se 3ith $..!& in (*# +G?,D# See *nder ,# The correct te7t "i es the locati e in $'# A?++ and Mo# 6H?++, else 3e sho*ld ha e onl& fi e, and 0 reads the acc*sati e in (*# +G?,D# These se en e7am!les ill*strate 3ell the et&molo"ical meanin" of ) as Lnear> or Lfacin"#> $o*lton co*nts +H- e7am!les of ) and the dati e (locati e) in the (XX# ;o*r of these se en
Green G7EE6, +., 6otes on Greek an$ Latin SyntaC %119/'. . 6otes on Gk. an$ Lat. Synt., p. 19-. 5 Prol., p. 1&9. 1 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1.&. # Fann., Gk. Gr., p. -99. Moulton MEAL)E6, F. ,., A Gra ar of 6. ). Greek. >ol. I, Prole"o ena %19&9'. -$ e$. %19&1'.

(((, Chara*teristi*s of 6. ). Greek %)he ECpositor, 19&.'. (((, Einleit*n" in die S!rache des N# T# %1911'. (((, Gra ati*al 6otes fro the Papyri %)he ECpositor, 19&1, pp. #/18#1#D 19&-, pp. 1&.81#1, .#-8.-9. )he Classi*al 7e!ieG, 19&1, pp. -18-/, .-.8..1D 19&., pp. 1&98 11#, 1518155'. (((, Intro$u*tion to 6. ). Greek %1195'. #$ e$. %19&.'. (((, Lan"ua"e of Christ %,astin"sH Ene:!ol. ;. +., 19&9'.

e7am!les are in Mohn>s 3ritin"s# Cf# es!eciall& Mo# 6H?+6# $o*lton (+rol., !# +HB) notes 4P# ;i# A L #E, as late as 6-A A#0#5 B# Wit! t!e Accusative# It 3as e7ceedin"l& common in Homer and al3a&s in the literal local sense#, The meta!horical *sa"e 3ith the acc*sati e de elo!ed later# Ho3 common the acc*sati e is 3ith ) in the N# T# is seen 3hen one notes that the n*mber is BDG#- This 3as the classic idiomA 3ith ) both literall& and meta!horicall&# It is not necessar& to sa& that ) 3ith the acc*sati e means Lto3ards#> The acc*sati e case im!lies e7tension and 3ith erbs of motion ) (Lnear>) nat*rall& blends 3ith the rest into the res*ltant idea of Lto3ards#> This is in tr*th a er& nat*ral *se of ) 3ith the acc*sati e, as in /( S #'' ($'# ,?D)# In $'# ++?+ note both 5 ;H)#'< and ) ; :< 3ith $..!&# In Phil# A (1# H#) the mar"in has both 3ith !ersons# Here (i"htfoot (in loco) sees a !ro!riet& in the faith 3hich is to3ards ()) Christ and the lo e e7erted *!on (5) men# 2*t that distinction hardl&B a!!lies in Ro# ,?6A f#J E!h# -?+6# Cf# $'# A?+G# In $'# G?+D 1# H# and Nestle accent # There seems to be somethin" almost intimate, as 3ell as !ersonal, in some of the e7am!les of )# The e7am!les of ) 3ith !ersons are er& n*mero*s, as in $3 '?) ($t# ,?A), %C ) ($t# ++?6E), etc# 2*t one m*st not thin' that the notion of motion is essential to the *se of ) and the acc*sati e (cf# 5 and $)# Th*s in $'# -?+, A J :# S #'' $Q B .B Y', note both $! and ) and the ob io*s distinction# Cf# also ') E ($'# +-?A-)# It is not stran"e, therefore, to find UA 5! ($t# +,?AB), N E ' (6B?+E)# Cf# also * S ' in $'# 6?6# The acc*sati e 3ith ) is not indeed e7actl& 3hat the locati e 3o*ld be, es!eciall& 3ith !ersons# In $'# +-?-G 3e find '7 U' Z( 6A $ L oL %%# Abbott+ !ro!erl& ill*strates Mo# +?+, J #). Y ) 3ith this !assa"e in $'# and 3ith 6 Cor# A?E, $%(B'
(((, 6. ). Greek in the Li"ht of Mo$ern ;is*o!ery %Ca <r. +i<l. Essays, 19&9, pp. .918 5&5'. (((, )he S*ien*e of Lan"ua"e %19&-'. MEAL)E6, 5. F., an$ GE;E6, A. S., A Con*or$an*e to the Greek )esta ent %119/'. MEAL)E6 an$ MILLIGA6, LeCi*al 6otes fro the Papyri %)he ECpos., 19&1('. the Papyri an$ other 6on:Literary

(((, )he >o*a<ulary of the 6. ). Illustrate$ fro Sour*es. Part I %191.', II, III. - Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1.#. . Moulton, Prol., p. 1&9. 5 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -9.. 9 Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 155. A<<ott

A++E)), E. A., Clue. A Gui$e throu"h Greek to ,e<reG %19&.'. (((, Fohannine Gra ar %19&9'.

(((, Fohannine >o*a<ulary %19&5'.

# It is the face=to=face con erse 3ith the (ord that Pa*l has in mind# So Mohn th*s concei es the fello3shi! bet3een the (o"os and )od# Cf# )' )' 6 Mo# +6, , Mo# +- and ) ) in + Cor# +,?+6# 2*t, 3hile this *se of ) 3ith 3ords of rest is in !erfect harmon& 3ith the root=idea of the !re!osition itself, it does not occ*r in the older )ree' 3riters nor in the (XX#6 Mannaris, is onl& able to find it in $alalas# Certainl& the more common )ree' idiom 3o*ld ha e been ', 3hile and mi"ht ha e been em!lo&ed# Abbott,- ho3e er, ri"htl& calls attention to the fre9*ent *se of ) 3ith erbs of s!ea'in" li'e #., #'#, etc#, and 0emosthenes has it 3ith &# So then it is a nat*ral ste! to find ) em!lo&ed for li in" relationshi!, intimate con erse# T3o er& interestin" e7am!les of this !ersonal interco*rse occ*r in (*# 6-?+-, =!# ##4#, and erse +D, "## ##4## Cf# also ) 3ith ' (Col# -?A), !' (6 Cor# B?+-), %'4( (Ac# ,?6A as in ancient )ree'), #). (Heb# -?+,), etc# Certainl& nothin" anomalo*s e7ists in ! T )%' ($'# A?66) and )GO #! ($t# -?B)# ) is not *sed often 3ith e7!ressions of time, and the notion of e7tension is in harmon& 3ith the acc*sati e case# Cf# ') in (*# E?+,, c' in Mo# A?,A, #!.' U' in Heb# +6?+H# In p' ((*# 6-?6G) the res*ltant notion is Lto3ard,> rather than Lfor#> 2lassA !oints o*t that ') (Heb# +6?++) is classical# The meta!horical *ses of ) are nat*rall& n*mero*s# 0is!osition to3ards one is often e7!ressed b& ), 3hether it be friendl& as in 'F ' (+ Th# A?+-) or hostile as in $ 2^ : '6 ((*# 6,?+6)# Cf# 7 ##4# (ib.)# ) does not of itself mean La"ainst,> tho*"h that ma& be the res*ltant idea as in ...V T 9"'! (Ac# B?+)# Cf# also #(S B ') (Col# 6?6,) and T #R (6 Cor# A?+6)# Sometimes ) adds nothin" to the a"*e notion of e7tension in the acc*sati e case and the idea is sim!l& L3ith reference to#> Th*s T ..# #. (Heb# +?D)# Cf# also (*# 6H?+G# ) in the 4 shares 3ith 5 and ! the tas' of s*!!lantin" the disa!!earin" dati e (Radermacher, 0. ,. Gr., !# ++6)# In !artic*lar '?) ;>< ta'es the !lace of '?L ;>F< after #., +, !', as sho3n b& !arallel !assa"es in the S&no!tic )os!els, as in (*# ,?+-, 3here $SS# ar& bet3een '?F and '?# AdKecti es ma& ha e ) in this "eneral sense of fitness, li'e .') (E!h# -?6G), %' (6 Cor# +H?-), o') (6 Cor# 6?+B), #'Q ) (Mo# -?,A), etc# Cf# also * ) (Ro# +A?+D)#
1 Foh. Gr., p. #/- f. # I<. Fannaris FA66A7IS, A. 6., A ,istori*al Greek Gra ar %119/'.

(((, En the )rue Meanin" of the k4 %Class. 7e!., 19&-, pp. 9- ff.'. - ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -95. . Foh. Gr., p. #/5. 5 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-9. 7a$er a*her 7A;E7MAC,E7, L., Ne*t# )rammati'# 0as )riechisch des N# T# im O*sammenhan" mit der %ol'ss!rache %1911'.

The !hrase ! UA2 ($t# 6D?-) has ancient )ree' s*!!ort#+ The notion of aim or end nat*rall& de elo!s also as in $. ( !' UE (+ Cor# +H?++), ! + (Mo# +,?6E), S $#(( '4 (Ac# ,?+H)# Cf# + Cor# +-?6BJ +A?,-# Some e7am!les of the infiniti e occ*r also in this connection, li'e 'B' '?F ($t# B?+), '''C' '? (+,?,H), etc# In %F ' ((*# +E?+) the notion is hardl& so stron" as L!*r!ose#> 2*t see Infiniti e# Then a"ain ca*se ma& be the res*lt in certain conte7ts as in aB S #('%!' 6E $G ($t# +G?E)# There is no diffic*lt& abo*t the notion of com!arison# It ma& be merel& "eneral accord as in #(' '?C ((*# +6?-D), S #4' ()al# 6?+-), or more technical com!arison as in ? 3' * '4'' C C 'C S ##' %)3' '# B' (Ro# E?+E)# 1ith this ma& be com!ared ) in Mas# -?A, 3here the !hrase has an ad erbial force# (o) . The older form 3 (old Attic) a!!ears in some $SS# in + Pet# -?+6 (2eCa !*t it in his te7t here)# This form 3 is seen in 3)# In '@3 both and 3;< are combined#6 0elbr@c', is indeed in do*bt as to the ori"in of , b*t see $ommsen,and some ()iles, .omp. +!ilol., !# ,-,) consider 3 and different# +# ,!e Meanin # This is in little dis!*te# It is Lto"ether 3ith#>A Cf# (atin cum and En"lish con=comitant# The associati e instr*mental is the case *sed 3ith as 3ith
1 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-9. # +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .5.. ;el<r=*k ;EL+7?C@, +., Ablati (ocalis Instr*mentalis %119/'. (((, )r*ndriF der er"l# )ramm# d# indo"# S!rachen# S&nta7# 2de# III8> %119-, 119/, 19&&'. (((, Intro$u*tion to the Stu$y of Lan"ua"e %111#'. Einleit*n" in das S!rachst*di*m# -# A*fl# (+GH-)# A# A*fl# %191-'. (((, S&nta'tische ;orsch*n"en# A 2de# %11/181111'. - >er"l. Synt., I, p. /-&. Mo sen

MEMMSE6, )., 2eitrN"e C*r (ehre der "riech# PrN!ositionen %111981195'. (((, 0ie PrN!# *nd bei den nachhom# E!i'ern %11/9'. . Ent3ic'# eini"er )esetCe f@r d# )ebr# d# "riech# PrN!# , an$ 1', p. .... Giles GILES, P., A Short Manual of Co parati!e Philolo"y. #$ e$. %19&1'. (((, )he Greek Lan"ua"e %En*y*. +ritanni*a, 191&'. 5 +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .5..

1' and it is K*st that idea that it 3as *sed to e7!ress ori"inall&# + It ne er de!arted from this idea, for 3hen the notion of hel! is !resent it "ro3s nat*rall& o*t of that of association# The Attic, accordin" to 2lass,6 confines to the notion of Lincl*din",> b*t the Ionic 'e!t it alon" 3ith for L3ith#> 6# Histor&# It is not 3itho*t interest# In Homer it is sometimes an ad erb (tmesis)# Indeed it ne er made head3a& o*tside of !oetr& sa e in Xeno!hon, stran"e to sa&# The Attic !rose 3riters *se rather than # Th*s in BHH !a"es of Th*c&dides 3e find -HH times and 3 ,D, 3hile Xeno!hon has more than # In 0emosthenes the fi"*res r*n ,-B of and +A of , 3hile Aristotle has ,HH and E res!ecti el&# , $ onro- thin's that dis!laced in the ernac*lar 3hile held on in the !oets as the res*lt of Homer>s infl*ence and finall& became a sort of inse!arable !re!osition li'e dis- in (atin (cf# > in N# T#)# In the modern )ree' ernac*lar is dis!laced b& ;< and sometimes b& 1'#A The rarit& of in the N# T# therefore is in harmon& 3ith the histor& of the lan"*a"e# Its *se in the N# T# is lar"el& confined to (*'e>s )os!el and Acts and is entirel& absent from Mohn>s E!istles and the A!ocal&!se as it is also from Hebre3s and + Peter, not to mention 6 Thessalonians, Philemon and the Pastoral E!istles# It is scarce in the rest of Pa*l>s 3ritin"s and in $ar' and $atthe3,B and Mohn>s )os!el has it onl& three times (+6?6J +E?+J 6+?,)# It occ*rs in the N# T# abo*t +,H times (o er t3o=thirds in (*'e and Acts), the $SS# ar&in" in a fe3 instances# ,# 8n .omposition# Here is e7tremel& common# See list of these erbs in cha!ter on Cases (Instr*mental)# Cf# Tha&er>s (e7icon *nder # The *se in com!osition ill*strates the associati e idea mainl& as in @. ($t# 6?-), @' ($'# ,?6H), tho*"h the notion of hel! is !resent also, as in @'@#'"' ((*# +H?-H), @ . (+ Cor# +B?+B)# Cf# '! 'Q .'! (Ph# 6?+D f#)# The 4!erfecti e5 *se of is seen in @'# ((*# +6?6), @#! (Ro# ++?,6), @ ((*# +,?++)# Cf# #, (, etc# In %' the 'no3in" ma& be either 3ith another, as !ossibl& Ac# A?6, or 3ith one>s self, as in + Cor# -?-# The erb ((*# 66?B,J Ac# +E?A) is fo*nd in the !a!&ri (0eissmann, "ible %tudies, !# +BH# Cf# $o*lton and $illi"an, 5xpositor, +G++, !# 6DE)# As alread& e7!lained, the case *sed is the associati e=

1 ;el<r=*k, 0ie )r*ndl#, p. 1--. # Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-#. - Cf. Mo sen, EntG. et*., p. . f. ar %111#'. #$ e$. %1191'. First e$. use$.

Monro ME67E, ;. +., ,o eri* Gra . ,o . Gr., p. 1./. 5 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -99. 9 Cf. on the Ghole su<Re*t Mo )hayer

sen, EntG., p. -95.

),AKE7, F. ,., Greek:En"lish LeCi*on of the 6. ). %111/'. (((, Lan"ua"e of the 6. ). %,astin"sH ;. +., 19&&'. ;eiss ann

instr*mental# In the er& late )ree' the acc*sati e be"ins to a!!ear 3ith (as indeed alread& in the (XXR) and both and ' sho3+ e7am!les of the "eniti e li'e # -# 0. ,. ;sa e# There is er& little comment needed on the N# T# *sa"e of the !re!osition be&ond 3hat has alread& been "i en#6 The b*l' of the !assa"es ha e the notion of accom!animent, li'e T Q 'F ($t# 6B?,A)# So it occ*rs 3ith ((*# +?AB), '!' (Ac# E?,+), etc# Cf# also T i#O D $#(!^ (Ac# +A?66), 3here the *se of ma& s*bordinate the ch*rch a bit to the A!ostles (Tha&er)#, Cf# also Ac# +-?AJ (*# 6,?++, 3here '! rather than mi"ht ha e occ*rred# As a!!lied to Christ, , li'e $, ma& e7!ress the intimate m&stic *nion, as in ' T L jL $ L L (Col# ,?,)# The !hrase o is *sed m*ch li'e o ', o !, o # Th*s 'Q o T '?L ((*# G?,6)# Cf# (*# A?G and $'# 6?6B# Once occ*rs in a conte7t 3here the idea is Lbesides,> ## . 'Q T A ((*# 6-?6+)# Cf# Neh# A?+E# So !robabl& also Ph# +?+# It a!!ears in the !a!&ri in this sense also# Cf# $o*lton and $illi"an, 4(e7ical Notes on the Pa!&ri,5 ,!e 5xpositor, +G++, !# 6DB# In $t# E?,Te7t# Rec# reads 5 ( L H(C 3here critical te7t has 6># The case of
;EISSMA66, A., +i<le Stu$ies %19&1'. )r. <y A. Grie!eD *f. 2ibelst*dien %1195' an$ Ne*e 2ibelst*dien %119/'. (((, 2iblische )rNcitNt etc# %)heol. 7un$s*hau, Ekt. 191#'. (((, 0ie Hellenisier*n" des semitischen $onotheism*s %6. Fahr<. f. $. kl. Alt., 19&-'. (((, 0ie ne*t# ;ormel 3in Christo4 %119#'. (((, 0ie S!rache d# "riech# 2ibel %)heol. 7un$s*hau, 19&9, 6o. 119'. (((, 0ie /r"eschichte des Christent*ms im (ichte der S!rachforsch*n" %Intern. 5o*h., -&. Ekt. 19&9'. (((, Hellenistisches )riechisch %,er0o":,au*kHs 7ealen*y*., >II, 1199'. (((, (icht om Osten %19&1'. (((, Li"ht fro the An*ient East %191&'. )r. <y Stra*han.

(((, 6eG Li"ht on the 6. ). %19&/'. )r. <y Stra*han. (((, Papyri %En*y*. +i<l., III, 19&#'. (((, St. Paul in the Li"ht of So*ial an$ 7eli"ious ,istory %191#'. Moulton an$ Milli"an MEAL)E6 an$ MILLIGA6, LeCi*al 6otes fro the Papyri %)he ECpos., 19&1('. the Papyri an$ other 6on:Literary

(((, )he >o*a<ulary of the 6. ). Illustrate$ fro Sour*es. Part I %191.', II, III.

1 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -99 f.D Four. of ,ell. Stu$., JIJ, pp. #1/8#11. # Cf. 5est*ott on Fo. 12# for $is*ussion of $istin*tion <etGeen an$ . - Cf. the use of T '! in the pap. ;eiss., +. S., p. #95 f.

H(C is associati e=instr*mental in either instance# $SS# "i e > in other !assa"es# The *se of T D % C ! (+ Cor# A?-) has a technical sense (Lto"ether 3ith>) seen in the ma"ical !a!&ri and in an Attic c*rsin" tablet (iiiU2#C#)# Cf# 0eissmann, (i !t, etc#, !# ,H- f# See also 0eissmann>s Die neut. /ormel 6in .!risto )esu7 for disc*ssion of T jL, the notion of fello3shi! in Ph# +?6,# He no3 cites a raffito 3ith these 3ords to a deceased !erson, ' .P $ T Q +' ((i !t, !# ,HA)# Cf# Col# ,?,# In + Th# -?+D note 1' T '?F and in A?+H 1' T '?L li'e o*r 4to"ether 3ith,5 3hich sho3s also the retreat of before 1'# ;or @ and ' see Ac# +B?66# (p) . In Homer, b& anastro!he, sometimes 3e ha e -# Cf# Sans'rit upri (locati e case of upar), Oend upairi, (atin super, )othic ufar, )erman @ber, An"lo= Sa7on !fer, En"lish over# The oldest Indo=E*r# locati e+ 3as 3itho*t i# A lon"er com!arati e occ*rs in 6, and a s*!erlati e 6' shortened into '# Cf# (atin superus1 summus, and En"lish up1 upper1 uppermost# +# ,!e Meanin # It is therefore clear eno*"h# It is the er& En"lish 3ord Lo er> or L*!!er#> Cha*cer *ses Lo er> in the sense of L*!!er#> As an ad erb it does not occ*r in Homer, tho*"h E*ri!ides (Medea, B6D) has 6N .'# Mannaris6 calls - (2lass 6N) $./ (6 Cor# ++?6,) 4the monstro*s constr*ction,5 3hich is rather o erdoin" the matter# The *se of the !re!osition is not remar'abl& ab*ndant in the N# T# 6# 8n .omposition# The N# T# has also the com!o*nd !re!ositions 6 (E!h# +?6+), 6C (E!h# ,?6H), 6' (6 Cor# +H?+B) and the ad erbs 6#!' (6 Cor# ++?A), 6"'##) (6 Cor# ++?6,)# The literal meanin" of 6 (Lo er>) a!!ears in 6@ (Heb# G?A), 6N '?4 (ib. 0), 6@L (L*!!er room,> Ac# +?+,)# The notion of Le7cess,> Lmore than> (com!arison), a!!ears in 6@'! (6 Cor# +6?D), 6@C (+ Th# ,?+H), 6@ (Ph# -?D), 6@ (Ro# E?,D), 6@G) (Ph# 6?G), 6@ (Ro# +6?,)# L2e&ond> is rather common also, as in 6@' (+ Cor# D?,B), 6@'3 (6 Th# +?,), 6@"'! (+ Th# -?B), 6@ ! in 6 Cor# +H?+-, 6@' (+H?+B), and this "ro3s into the 4!erfecti e5 idea as in 6@4 ' (Ro# +?,H), 6@G (Ph# 6?G), 6@4 (+ Tim# 6?6), 6@ #& (+ Tim# +?+-)# Cf# En"lish 4o er=Cealo*s,5 4o er=an7io*s,5 etc# The ne"ati e notion of Lo erloo'> a!!ears in 6@F% (Ac# +D?,H)# The idea of Ldefence,> Lin behalf of,> Lbendin" o er to !rotect,> occ*rs in 6@. (Ro# E?6B)# In the late )ree' ernac*lar 6 fades, before 6 and % and alread& in the N# T# the distinction bet3een ! and 6 is not er& mar'ed in some *sa"es, !artl& d*e to the affinit& in so*nd and sense#- Passa"es 3here the $SS# ar& bet3een 6 and ! are $'# +-?6-J Mo# +?,HJ Ac# +6?AJ Ro# +?EJ )al# +?-, etc# ,# Wit! Genitive< A 3ord is needed abo*t the cases *sed 3ith 6# There is no tro*ble as to the acc*sati e, b*t it is a mooted 9*estion 3hether 3e ha e the tr*e

1 Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1.9D +ru" ann, Grie*h. Gr., p. ##1. # ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -91. - Fann., i<., p. -99. . I<., p. -91.

"eniti e or the ablati e# 2r*"mannA ie3s the case as "eniti e 3itho*t hesitation and cites the Sans'rit *se of upari in s*!!ort of his !osition# 2*t on the side of the ablati e 3e note I@hner=)erth+ and $onro,6 3hile 0elbr@c', admits that either is !ossible, tho*"h leanin" to the "eniti e# 1here s*ch doctors disa"ree, 3ho shall decide8 The Sans'rit can be 9*oted for both sides# The main ar"*ment for the ablati e is the com!arati e idea in 6 3hich nat*rall& "oes 3ith the ablati e# On the 3hole, therefore, it seems to me that the ablati e has the best of it 3ith 6# -# Wit! Ablative# Certainl& as bet3een the ablati e and the acc*sati e, the ablati e is far in the lead# The fi"*res- are, ablati e +6B, acc*sati e +G# On the 3hole, therefore, 6 dro!s bac' alon" 3ith 6)# There is no e7am!le of the strictl& local *se of 6 in the N# T# *nless o "'&) 6N E E (+ Cor# +A?6G) be so *nderstood, 3hich is 9*ite *nli'el&#A This obsc*re !assa"e still remains a !*CCle to the inter!reter, tho*"h no diffic*lt& arises on the "rammatical side to this or the other senses of 6# The N# T# e7am!les are th*s meta!horical# These *ses fall into fo*r di isions# The most common is the "eneral notion of Lin behalf of,> Lfor one>s benefit#> This "ro3s easil& o*t of the root=idea of Lo er> in the sense of !rotection or defence# Th*s in "eneral 3ith ' ($t# A?--), %' (Ac# E?6-), .!&' (Col# -?+6), '!'' (Heb# A?+), (ib.), etc# The !oint comes o*t 3ith s!ecial force in instances 3here ' is contrasted 3ith 6 as in , 6N C p C '* C p (+ Cor# -?B)# Cf# also $'# G?-HJ Ro# E?,+# 1e m*st not, ho3e er, ma'e the mista'e of thin'in" that 6 of itself literall& means Lin behalf of#> It means Lo er#>

+ru" ann +7AGMA66, @., Ele ents of Co parati!e Gra %translation <y 5ri"ht, 1195'. ar of the In$o:Ger ani* Lan"ua"es

(((, )riechische )rammati'# ,# A*fl# %19&&', the e$. Buote$. %ierte ermehrte A*fl# of A. )hu < %191-'. (((, )r*ndriF der er"l# )r# d# indo"# S!rachen# 6# A*fl#, 2de# I, II %119/8191-'. (((, I*rCe er"leichende )rammati' der indo"ermanischen S!rachen %19&.'. 5 Grie*h. Gr., p. .51D I*rCe er"l# )r#, II, p. .9.. @=hner:Gerth @?,6E7:GE7),, A*sf# )ramm# d# "riech# S!r# ,# A*fl# of I@hner# Tl# II, 2de# I, II %1191, 19&.'. 1 I, p. .19. # ,o . Gr., p. 1./. - >er"l. Synt., I, p. /.9. . Moulton, Prol., p. 1&5. 5 Cf. 5.:)h., p. -1#.

It is sometimes said that ! means literall& Linstead> and 6 Lin behalf of#>B 2*t inerD sees more clearl& 3hen he sa&s? 4In most cases one 3ho acts in behalf of another ta'es his !lace#5 1hether he does or not de!ends on the nat*re of the action, not on ! or 6# In the Gor ias of Plato (A+A C#) 3e ha e 6N C for the notion of Linstead#> Neither does ) (nor (atin pro) in itself mean Linstead#> In the Alcestis of E*ri!ides, 3here the !oint t*rns on the s*bstit*tionar& death of Alcestis for her h*sband, 6 occ*rs se en times, more than ! and ) to"ether# Cf# Th*c&dides I, +-+ and Xeno!hon Anab. D?-, G for the s*bstit*tionar& *se of 6# In the E!istle to 0io"net*s (!# E-) 3e note # 6N UE and a fe3 lines f*rther the e7!ression is '##'.4# Pa*l>s combination in + Tim# 6?B is 3orth notin", !# 6N , 3here the notion of s*bstit*tion is manifest# There are a fe3 other !assa"es 3here 6 has the res*ltant notion of Linstead> and onl& iolence to the conte7t can "et rid of it# One of these is )al# ,?+,# In erse +H Pa*l has said that those *nder the la3 3ere *nder a c*rse (6 '')# In erse +, he carries on the same ima"e# Christ bo*"ht *s 4o*t from *nder5 the c*rse ($ B '' C )) of the la3 b& becomin" a c*rse 4o er5 *s (.) 6N UE '')# In a 3ord, 3e 3ere under the c*rseJ Christ too' the c*rse on himself and th*s over *s (bet3een the s*s!ended c*rse and *s) and th*s resc*ed *s out from under the c*rse# 1e 3ent free 3hile he 3as considered acc*rsed ( erse +,)# It is not a !oint here as to 3hether one a"rees 3ith Pa*l>s theolo"& or not, b*t 3hat is his meanin"# In this !assa"e 6 has the res*ltant meanin" of Linstead#> The matter calls for this m*ch of disc*ssion beca*se of the central nat*re of the teachin" in ol ed# In Mo# ++?AH 3e find another !assa"e 3here 6 is e7!lained as meanin" s*bstit*tion, u' , O 6N C #'C 'Q S i# 2 )#('# Indeed Abbott+ thin's that 4in almost all the Mohannine instances it refers to the death of one for the man&#5 In Philemon +,, 6N C %'D, the more ob io*s notion is Linstead#> One ma& note 2.'G' 6N '?C S 5%) .'', P# O7&# 6DA (A#0# BB), 3here the meanin" is ob io*sl& Linstead of him since he does not 'no3 letters#> 0eissmann ((i !t, !# +A6 f#) finds it th*s (2.'G 6N '?C) in an ostracon from Thebes, as in man& others, and ta'es 6 to mean Lfor> or Las re!resentati e of,> and adds that it 4is not 3itho*t bearin" on the 9*estion of 6 in the N# T#5 Cf# 2.'G' 6N '?C .', 2#/# BB- (iUA#0#)# In the !a!&ri and the ostraca 6 often bore the sense of Linstead of#> In 6 Cor# A?+A the notion of s*bstit*tion m*st be *nderstood beca*se of Pa*l>s *se of ' o ' as the concl*sion6 from ,
1

9 Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 159. 5iner %5.:)h., p. -1' i plies the sa e thin". 5iner 5I6E7, G. +., 0e erbor*m c*m !rae!# com!os# in N# T# /s* %11-.811.-'. (((, )ramm# d# ne*t# S!rachidioms (+E66)# D# A*fl# on (@nemann %l19/'. / I<. +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-5, has nothin" on this use of 6. Moulton, Prol., p. 1&5, erely *alls 6 3the ore *olourless4 as *o pare$ Gith !. 1 Foh. Gr., p. #/9. # Cf. )hayer, p. -, un$er 6. In Pausanias %7="er, 0ie PrN!# bei Pa*s#, 1119, p. 1#' 6 o**urs a<out tGi*e as often as !. A. )hei er %2eitr# C*r Ienntn# des S!rach"eb# im N# T#, 19&1, p. #5', speakin" of Fo. 1125&, says2 30er O*satC S i# 2 )#(' die 2ede*t*n" an Stelle anstatt.4

6N '# There remain a n*mber of !assa"es 3here the notion of s*bstit*tion is !erfectl& nat*ral from the nat*re of the case# 2*t in these !assa"es one ma& sto! in translation 3ith Lin behalf of> if he 3ishes# 2*t there is no inherent obKection in 6 itself to its con e&in" the notion of Linstead> as a res*ltant idea# In fact it is per se as nat*ral as 3ith !# In the li"ht of the abo e one finds little diffic*lt& 3ith !assa"es li'e Ro# A?B f#J E?,6J )al# 6?6HJ Mo# +H?++, +AJ Heb# 6?GJ Tit# 6?+-, etc# In $'# +H?-A 3e ha e # Q ##E and in +-?6- ', V $) 6N ##E# 2*t one ma& ar"*e from + Mo# ,?+B that 6 in case of death does not necessaril& in ol e s*bstit*tion# S*rel& the er& obKect of s*ch death is to sa e life# The t3o other *ses of 6 ma& be briefl& treated# Sometimes the res*ltant notion ma& be merel& Lfor the sa'e of,> as in 6N B %)3( C C (Mo# ++?-), 6N #(!' C (Ro# +A?E), 6N C )' (Ac# A?-+), 6N jC (Ph# +?6G), etc# This is nat*ral in relations of intimate lo e# A more "eneral idea is that of Labo*t> or Lconcernin"#> Here 6 encroaches on the !ro ince of !# Cf# 6 Cor# E?6,, 6N l!, 6 Th# 6?+, 6N B '!' C !# Perha!s + Cor# +A?6G comes in here also# $o*lton+ finds commercial acco*nts in the !a!&ri, scores of them, 3ith 6 in the sense of Lto#> 1e see the free *se (Lconcernin">) 3ith erbs li'e '' (6 Cor# D?+-), (Ph# +?D), & (Ro# G?6D), $ (6 Th# 6?+), etc# The (atin super is in line 3ith this idiom also# Cf# Mo# +?,H, 6N { $.P +# In + Cor# +H?,H, ! "#' (C' 6N { $.P ?'E, the !re!osition s*its antecedent as 3ell as relati e# In 6 Cor# +?B and Ph# 6?+, 6 s*""ests the obKect at 3hich one is aimin"# Cf# 6N d "#)' #', P# ) oods!eed - (iiU2#C#)J 6N { #., P# O7&#,D (A#0# -G)J 6N '"E, P# )renf# ii# BD (A#0# 6,D), Lb& 3a& of earnest=mone&#> A# ,!e Accusative #it! 6 calls for little remar'# The literal local *se of 6 occ*rs in 0 in Heb# G?A, 6N %7 '?4, 4an *n!aralleled *se,56 in the sense of Labo e,> the other $SS# ha in" 6# The acc*sati e 3ith 6 has the meta!horical sense of Labo e> or Lo er,> as in ? 2 '(S 6N %%'# ($t# +H?6-)# Cf# also :' 6N A :' (Ph# 6?G), '#S 6N ' (E!h# +?66), ? = %C# ##* 6N %C# (Phil# +B)# This notion easil& "ets into that of Lbe&ond> in harmon& 3ith the acc*sati e case# Th*s 6N n ..'' (+ Cor# -?B), 'B' 6N \ %' (+ Cor# +H?+,)# Cf# 6N %' (6 Cor# +?E), 6N ## ()al# +?+-), 6N S #')(' (Ac# 6B?+,)# Classical )ree' onl& sho3s the be"innin" of the *se of 6 3ith com!arati es,+ b*t the N# T# has se eral instances# Th*s the (XX often *ses it 3ith com!arati es, !artl& beca*se the Hebre3 had no s!ecial form for the com!arati e de"ree#6 2*t the 4 sho3s the idiom# So 3e find / 6N T o ((*# +B?E), / 6N A' '' (Heb# -?+6)# In Mo# +6?-, 1# H# read Z in te7t and 6 in mar"in after A### 2*t 6 has the com!arati e sense of Lmore than> after erbs, as J #E '' ` (' 6N $ ($t# +H?,D)# In the
1 Prol., p. 1&5. Goo$spee$ GEE;SPEE;, E. F., ;i$ AleCan$ria Influen*e the 6auti*al Lan"ua"e of St. LukeS %)he ECpositor, >III, 19&-, pp. 1-&81.1'. # +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. -1-. 1 I<., p. 1&1. # C. an$ S., Sel. fro LJJ, p. 1..

(XX the !ositi e adKecti e occ*rs 3ith 6, as 2%3 6N T %# (+ Chron# -?G)# In Ro# +6?,, S 6 F '7 \ %F F, note the conK*nction of 6 and '# $o*lton (+rol., !# 6,D) cites 6N p' F, T#P# E (iiU2#C#)# 2lass, do*bts 3hether 6#!', 6C can be !ro!erl& re"arded as com!o*nds# He 3o*ld se!arate 6 as an ad erb, 6N #!'# 2*t the modern editors are a"ainst him# It has disa!!eared in modern )ree' ernac*lar before . (Th*mb, Handb., !# +HA)# (q) ) . (ittle is called for b& 3a& of et&molo"& since 6) is the !ositi e of 6# Cf# the Sans'rit pa, (atin sub, )othic uf, !ossibl& also )erman auf, En"lish up, ab= ove# The form 6) is of *n'no3n case, b*t the Elean dialect- has ?'>, and HomerA has also 6'! (dati e#) +# ,!e -ri inal Meanin #B This 3as !robabl& L*!3ards> or Lfrom *nder#> /nli'e ', 6) ne er means Ldo3n3ards#> As a matter of fact, L*!> and L*nder> are merel& relati e terms# The er& En"lish 3ord up is !robabl& 6)# Cf# -G Laloft,> -@ Lfacin" *!3ards,> -@' L*!!ermost,> -G# The meanin" of *nder or beneath is common in the N# T#, as 6 )% ($t# A?+A)# 6# 8n .omposition# Here 6) a!!ears sim!l& 3ith the notion of L*nder> as in 6@ ($'# D?6E), 6@& (+ Cor# G?6D), 6@.') (+ Pet# 6?6+), 6@)% ($t# A?,A), 6@% ($'# B?G)# Cf# also 6)@%.' (Mo# +,?+A), 6@&. ($t# 6+?A)# In 6)@ ($t# 6,?6E), 6@4 ($t# B?6) the notion of an actor *nder a mas' lies behind the res*ltant idea# The idea of hos!italit& (*nder one>s roof) is nat*ral 3ith 6@ %' ((*# +H?,E), 6@#'" (, Mo# E)# In Ro# +B?- 6@!( has the idea of L!*t *nder,> as 6@&/ (Ac# 6D?+D), L*nder"ird#> In 6@#'"P + ((*# +H?,H) the notion of interr*!tin" or follo3in" a s!eech comes from the idea of L*!> in 6), ta'in" *! the tal', etc# The 4!erfecti e5 idea a!!ears in 6@#! (Ro# ++?,), Llea e behind or o er#> So 3ith 6@ (Ac# 6D?+B), Lr*n *nder or !ast#> Cf# 6@# (Ac# 6D?-, D), Lsail close b&#> 2*t in 6@ (Ac# 6D?+,) the !re!osition minimiCes the force of the erb, Lblo3 softl&#> Cf# o*r sus!icion, the ;rench soupAon# So 3ith under=
- Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-5. )hu < ),AM+, A., 0ie ;orsch# @ber die hellen# S!r# in den Mahren 19&#819&. %Ar*h. f. Pap. -, pp. ..-8 ./-'. (((, 0ie "riech# S!rache im Oeitalter des Hellenism*s %19&1'. (((, 0ie s!rach"esch# Stell# des bibl# )riech# %)heol. 7un$., 19&#'. (((, Handb*ch der "riech# ;ial. %19&9'. (((, Handb*ch d# ne*"riech# %ol'ss!rache# 6# A*fl# %191&'. (((, Handb*ch des Sans'rits. I, Gra atik %19&5'.

(((, /nters# @ber d# S!# As!er im )riech# %1119'. . +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .5#. 5 Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1-9. 9 I<. Cf. +ru"., i<.

estimate# In 6@"## (Ac# B?++) the notion of s*""estion has an e il t*rn, b*t in 6@ 4 (Mo# +-?6B) there is no s*ch colo*r# The idea of s*bKection (note ho3 these ideas a!!ear in En"lish *sa"e all alon") occ*rs in 6@' (Ph# 6?+6), 6@! (Heb# +,?+D), etc# In 6@' ($t# E?6E) the s!ecial force of 6) has rather disa!!eared# Cf# o*r *l"ar 4meet *!5 3ith one# So 6@'! (Col# 6?+-)# ,# ,!e .ases -nce ;sed #it! 6)# The locati e 3as ori"inall& er& common 3ith 6), as in Homer, e en 3ith erbs of motion#+ As a matter of fact, ho3e er, in the historical 3riters the locati e and acc*sati e 3ith 6) are er& rare as com!ared 3ith the ablati e,6 tho*"h A!!ian and Herodian *se the locati e more than the acc*sati e#, 2*t the locati e retreated- before the acc*sati e 3ith 6) till in the N# T# and the modern )ree' it has disa!!eared# In the N# T#A the acc*sati e sho3s AH e7am!les and the ablati e +BA, b*t in the ernac*lar of the 2&Cantine )ree' the acc*sati e 3ith 6) disa!!ears before and 6#B In the modern )ree' ernac*lar ) has dis!laced 6) (Th*mb, Handb., !# +H6)# 2r*"mannD e en thin's that 6) once occ*rred 3ith the instr*mental case, and he is clear that the ablati e, as 3ell as the "eniti e, 3as fo*nd 3ith it# 0elbr@c'E a"rees to both ablati e and "eniti e# Th*s ori"inall& 6) occ*rred 3ith fi e cases (loc#, instr#, acc#, abl#, "en#)# In the N# T# 3e meet onl& the acc*sati e and ablati e# No e7am!le of the !*re "eniti e 3ith 6) occ*rs in the N# T# In Mo# +?AH 3e find +%) 6 B B, b*t not 6)# So also in some other N# T# !assa"es 3here a "eniti e 3ith 6) mi"ht ha e been *sed# Cf# $'# D?6EJ (*# E?+B, etc# The acc*sati e 3ith 6), as in :' 6 S B (Mo# +?-E), s*!!lants the "eniti e also in the N# T# The *se of 6) for a"enc& and ca*se is ablati e li'e the (atin *sa"e 3ith ab (a)# -# Wit! t!e Accusative# It is considered b& 1iner+ to be the ori"inal *se of 6)# This indeed 3o*ld accord 3ith the notion of L*!3ards,> L*! from *nder#> 2*t in the N# T#, as in the later )ree', the acc*sati e occ*rs 3ith the notion of rest (cf# 5)#6 The acc*sati e in the N# T# ta'es the !lace of the local *se of 6) 3ith locati e and "eniti e#, Th*s 3e find (motion) ' '? 6 )% ($t# A?+A), b*t also (rest) :' 6 S B (Mo# +?-E)# Other e7am!les 3ith erbs of rest are 6 S * ''(F ($'# -?,6), 6 ?') (Ac# -?+6), 3ith 5!, 3e ha e 6 * !#( (Ro# ,?+,),
1 Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 1.&. # ,el<in", 0ie PrN!# bei Herod# *nd and# Histor#, p. ##. - Moulton, Prol., p. 9-. . Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -99. Cf. Fe<< in >. an$ ;., ,an$<. to Mo$. Gk., p. -1-. 5 Moulton, Prol., p. 1&5. 9 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -91 f. / Grie*h. Gr., p. .5# f. 1 >er"l. Synt., I, p. 991. 1 5.:)h., p. .&/. # Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -91. - +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-5.

6 ) (Ro# B?+- f#), 6 '%'..) ()al# ,?6A), etc# These e7am!les are as freel& *sed as those li'e u' 6 S .( 5#O ($t# E?E)# The e7am!les are both local as 3ith $. ((*# +,?,-) and fi"*rati e as 3ith ') (+ Pet# A?B)# Cf# Ac# -?+6 6 ?') 3ith 6 W!' tB # $Q # P# O7&# -E, -G, D66 (A#0# EB, +HH, G+)# Cf# 0eissmann, (i !t, etc#, !# ,,6# Onl& one instance of the *se of 6) 3ith time a!!ears in the N# T#, 6 i (Ac# A?6+), 3here it has the notion of Labo*t> (or Lclose *!on>) da3n# Mohn *ses 6) 3ith the acc*sati e onl& once- (Mo# +?-E) and 3ith the ablati e onl& fi e times (Mo# +-?6+J , Mo# +6 bis2 Re # B?E, +,), an incidental ar"*ment for *nit& of a*thorshi!# A# Wit! t!e Ablative# In the sense of efficient ca*se or a"ent it 3as the commonest classical *sa"e and it contin*es so in the N# T#A The local and tem!oral *ses do not occ*r, b*t onl& the meta!horical# These occ*r after !assi e or ne*ter erbs# AbbottB thin's that Mohn !referred to re!resent the a"ent as !erformin" the act and so a oided 6)# The ancient )ree' indeed *sed 6) chiefl& in this sense of a"ent# The *se of 4 6) as the correlati e of ! is 3ell 'no3n#D In the N# T# once (Re # B?E) 6) act*all& occ*rs 3ith the acti e of ! ;F' $ '!^V 'Q 6 E (!# This is !robabl& d*e to the desire to distin"*ish bet3een the li in" a"ent and the lifeless ca*ses !recedin"#E 2*t the N# T# has ne*ter erbs 3ith 6), li'e )##' (+ Cor# +H?G), #'" (6 Cor# ++?6-), ($'# A?6B), 6 (Heb# +6?,)# In the case of !assi e erbs the *sa"e follo3s the traditional lines# Cf# $t# -?+ for t3o e7am!les, 4( 6 C ', 'B' 6 C %'")## It is to be noted that in (*# G?E 6) is not re!eated 3ith ### The b*l' of the N# T# instances of 6) occ*r of !ersonal a"enc& li'e $"'!& 67 '?C ($t# ,?B), %' 67 '?C ($'# A?-), etc# Sometimes, 3hen % is added to 6), a distinction is made bet3een the intermediate and the mediate a"ent, as in (N 6 ! %* C 4 ($t# +?66)# Cf# 6?+A# There is nothin" !ec*liar abo*t the *se of 6) in 6 Pet# +?+D, B $!( 6 B .'#C %)3(#+ 2*t 6) is not the onl& 3a& of e7!ressin" the a"ent# 2esides % for the indirect a"ent ) is the most common6 s*bstit*te for 6), tho*"h $ and ' both are fo*nd for the notion of a"enc&# Radermacher (0. ,. Gr., !# ++B) s!ea's of ) as 4die ei"entlich !rNdestinierte Parti'el#5 The instr*mental case and $ and the locati e m*st also be recalled# 2*t % 3ith the acc*sati e (moti e or ca*se) m*st not be confo*nded 3ith this idea# Cf# (*# 6+?+D for 6) 3ith ablati e and % 3ith the acc*sati e# The !re!ositions 3ill richl& re!a& one>s st*d&, and often the 3hole !oint of a sentence t*rns on the !re!ositions# In (*# A?+G ei"ht !re!ositions occ*r, co*ntin" 2, and man& s*ch !assa"es are fo*nd as )al# 6?+, 6# Cf# Mo&, -n t!e %&ntax of %ome +repositions in t!e Greek Dialects (+GH-)#
. A<<ott, Foh. Gr., p. #/1. 5 Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 15/. 9 Foh. Gr., p. #/9. / Moulton, Prol., p. 159. 1 Si *oC, Lan". of the 6. )., p. 15/. 1 5.:)h., p. -99. # +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#9. +ut ) o**urs in this sense in Jen. Cf. 5.:)h., p. -99.

VIII. The !d"erbia#$ Prepositions. The list in the N# T# of those !re!ositions 3hich do not occ*r in com!osition 3ith erbs is considerable# As alread& remar'ed in the be"innin" of this cha!ter, 3hat are called 4!ro!er5 !re!ositions 3ere ori"inall& ad erbs, fi7ed case=forms 3hich came to be *sed 3ith no*ns and in com!osition 3ith erbs# 1e ha e follo3ed the aried histor& of this most interestin" "ro*! of 3ords# Homer, in !artic*lar *sed most of them at times merel& ad erbiall&# In Homer the 4re"*lar5 !re!ositions often retain this ad erbial force, as $ %, '* %, and this se!aration from a erb is no lon"er considered a 4s*r"ical o!eration5 (tmesis)# Cf# S e&mo*r, Homeric (an ua e and $erse, 6A, DE# Some of these !re!ositions "rad*all& disa!!eared, b*t the total *se of !re!ositions "reatl& increased# This increase 3as d*e to the 3ider *se of the remainin" !re!ositions and the increasin" *se of so=called 4im!ro!er5 !re!ositions, ad erbs 3ith cases that ne er came to be *sed in com!osition 3ith erbs# The Sans'rit- had no !ro!er class of !re!ositions, b*t a n*mber of ad erbs 3hich 3ere sometimes *sed 3ith cases# These ad erbial !re!ositions aried constantl& in the histor& of the )ree'# Some of them, li'e , $.., X', come ri"ht on do3n from Homer# Others dro! b& the 3a& 3hile each a"e sees a ne3 cro! comin" on# 2*t in the late ernac*lar a n*mber of these !re!ositional ad erbs are follo3ed b& the !re!osition+ before the case, li'e )# In the modern )ree' the im!ro!er !re!ositions are *sed either 3ith the "eniti e (onl& 3ith enclitic !rono*n) or b& the addition of 7, ), 3ith the acc*sati e# The& are 9*ite ne3 formations, b*t made from ancient )ree' material (Th*mb, Handb., !# +HD)# ;rom o*r !oint of ie3 an& ad erb that occ*rs 3ith a case ma& be re"arded as a !re!ositional ad erb,6 li'e 3! C ?'..#! (Ph# +?6D)# Some of these !re!ositional ad erbs, as alread& sho3n, occ*r both as ad erbs, as 1' 'Q $#!& (Ac# 6-?6B), and as !re!ositions, as 1' '?F ($t# +,?6G), 3hile others a!!ear onl& as !re!ositions 3ith cases, as C ') ($t# +H?6G)# 2*t it is not necessar& to ma'e a se!arate list on this basis# 2lass,, 3ho treats these 3ords er& scantil&, is ri"ht in sa&in" that no hard and fast line can be dra3n bet3een ad erb and !re!osition here# The (XX sho3s some ad erbial !re!ositions 3hich do not occ*r in the N# T#- Th*s (M*d"es +B?6H) ma& be com!ared 3ith $ (classical also), and 6 (0e*t# G?+-), 3hich in
Foy FEK, En the SyntaC of So e Prepositions in the Greek ;iale*ts %19&5'. - Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 151. Sey our SEKMEA7, ). ;., ,o eri* Lan"ua"e an$ >erse %19&#'. (((, Life in the ,o eri* A"e %19&/'. (((, )he Ase of the Gk. Aor. Part. %)rans. A . Phil. Asso*., JII, 1111, pp. 11 ff.'. . 5hitney, Sans. Gr., p. .1.. 1 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -99. # Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 15&. - Gr. of 6. ). Gk., pp. 1##, 1#/ f. . C. an$ S., Sel. fro LJJ, p. 19 f.

ancient )ree' is onl& an ad erb# Simco7A caref*ll& e7!lains $/, so common in the

(XX, as a translation and imitation of as as , b*t e en Con&beare and Stoc'B s*rrender this 3ord as not a Hebraism before 0eissmann>s !roof#D The N# T#, li'e the 4 in "eneral, ma'es free *se of these !re!ositional ad erbs# I ha e "i en the list in m& %!ort Grammar of t!e Greek 0e# ,estament (, ed#, +G+6, !# ++B f#), fort&=t3o in all, more than t3ice as man& as the 4re"*lar5 !re!ositions#E 03! noted abo e is not incl*ded# Cf# 1'3 C $'C (Heb# G?D)# Con&beare and Stoc' (!# ED) e en co*nt $)' ' (Ps# +-H?B), b*t s*rel& that is "oin" too far# Cf# * !' 'Q $)' (!' (Heb# B?G)# There is more e7c*se for claimin" $/ B #"4' (Is# 66?++)# It 3ill !a& *s to ta'e *! briefl& these ad erbial !re!ositions# All of them *se the "eniti e or the ablati e case e7ce!t 1' (instr*mental) and $.. (dati e)# +# '# It is !robabl& in the instr*mental case itself# 2r*"mann+ connects the 3ord 3ith the root of ,, !', X as seen in @'3, *@#C, Cretan , (atin semel, Sans'rit sama, En"lish same# Cf# also C, N@')# It occ*rs in Homer 3ith the associati e=instr*mental case#6 The 3ord occ*rs in the N# T# onl& ten times and *s*all& as ad erb, either merel& 3ith the erb as in Ro# ,?+6, (XX, or 3ith %N '! (+ Tim# A?+,J Phil# 66)# Cf# '! in Col# -?,# Three of the e7am!les are 3ith !artici!les (Col# -?, abo e and Ac# 6-?6BJ 6D?-H)# T3ice 3e find 1' 3ith the instr*mental, a sort of do*ble !re!osition after the manner of the later )ree' (+ Th# -?+DJ A?+H) and once 1' ! 3ith ad erb ($t# 6H?+)# The *se of 1' Tha&er e7!lains b& ta'in" 1' as an ad erb 3ith the erb# Onl& once does it occ*r as a sim!le !re!osition 3ith the instr*mental, 1' '?F ($t# +,?6G)# ;or the later re i al of 1' and *se li'e see Mannaris#, In 6 Esdr# +D?, is translated b& 1'# In the Acta 0erei 1' is *sed onl& 3ith the "eniti e (Radermacher, 0. ,. Gr., !# ++G)#
Si *oC SIMCEJ, 5. ,., )he Lan"ua"e of the 6. ). %119&'. (((, )he 5riters of the 6. ). 5 Lan". of the 6. )., p. 159. Cony<eare an$ Sto*k CE6K+EA7E an$ S)EC@, Sele*tions fro Intro$u*tion %19&5'. 9 Sel., p. 1/. / +. S., p. #1- f. 1 @re<s, 0ie PrN!ositionsad erbien in der s!Nteren hist# )rNc# , I. )l., p. . f., "i!es a list of 91, an$ -1 of his list $o not appear in the 6. )., Ghile 1# are in the 6. ). that he $oes not ention, !i0. 2', $/, '', '/, #), , !, G, ''#4, '), 6', 6C . )his list <y @re<s shoGs the free$o in the 4 $e!elop ent of a$!. prep. 1 Grie*h. Gr., pp. 15, #11, #-&. # Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 151D +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .59. - ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -9/. the LJJ. A Gra ati*al

6# # It is of *ncertain et&molo"&#- Homer has another form, , the Eleatic @, the E!ida*rian @, the $e"arian # There is, ho3e er, no do*bt as to the meanin", L3itho*t> or Lbesides,> and the case *sed is the ablati e# There are onl& three e7am!les in the N# T#, not co*ntin" $'# +,?6, 3here 1# H# and Nestle reKect E# T3o of these (+ Pet# ,?+J -?G) occ*r 3ith abstract 3ords, and one ($t# +H?6G) 3ith C ')# The 3ord is rare in the late )ree', es!eciall& 3ith a case#A ,# (some editors )# It is a com!o*nd form that ori"inall& meant Lstrai"ht on,> b*t in later )ree' occ*rs in the sense of Lo!!osite,> Lface to face#> It 3as common in the ancient )ree' as ad erb of !lace or as !re!osition# In the N# T# 3e find it onl& once (Ac# 6H?+A) and the case *sed is the "eniti e, j!# It occ*rs in modern )ree' ernac*lar (Th*mb, Handb., !# +HG)# -# 0!' (@', Pol&bi*s, etc#)# It is K*st ! and ' combined# Th*c&dides *ses ' as ad erbial !re!osition# Onl& one e7am!le occ*rs in the N# T# ((*# E?6B), !' B t'##'!'# The case is o!en to dis!*te, since ! comes 3ith the "eniti e and ' 3ith the ablati e# LO er a"ainst> 3o*ld be "eniti e, Lon the other side of> 3o*ld be ablati e# Either 3ill ma'e sense in (*# E?6B# Probabl& "eniti e is the case here# A# 0'# It is a tri!le com!o*nd of ), $, !# A n*mber of ad erbial !re!ositions 3ere formed on ! as a base# In the N#T# 3e find also 2', $'!, ''# These are late, e7ce!t $'! (from Homer on# Cf# ', 2@'')# Pol&bi*s *ses ' 3ith the "eniti e, and it is common 3ith this case in the (XX+ (cf# )en# ,?6-)# In the N# T# it occ*rs onl& si7 times, and in t3o of these ($t# 6D?6-J $'# +6?-+) 1# H# !*t '' in the te7t and ' in the mar"# Of the remainin" fo*r e7am!les t3o (Ac# ,?+BJ Ro# ,?+E) ha e the sense merel& of Lbefore,> Lin the si"ht or !resence of#> One ($t# 6D?B+) has the notion of Lo!!osite> or Lo er a"ainst,> 3hile the fo*rth (Ac# +D?D) ta'es on a hostile idea, La"ainst#> These res*ltant ideas all come nat*rall& o*t of the threefold combination# The other com!o*nds 3ith ! 3ill be noted later# B# # This 3ord is of *n'no3n ori"in, b*t com!are Old Sa7on sundir, Old Hi"h )erman suntar, Sans'rit sanutr# It is common in Homer and the !oets "enerall&# (ater !rose *ses it# 2*t it occ*rs onl& once in the (XX (6 $acc# +6?+A) and t3ice in the N# T# ((*# 66?B, ,A)# The case is clearl& the ablati e, and the meanin" is L3itho*t#> One e7am!le, :#, is 3ith !ersons and the other, "'##'!, is 3ith a thin"# D# ;<# It is related to !;< 3hate er its ori"in# Cf# usque in (atin and 5 li'e usque ad# As a mere ad erb it no lon"er occ*rs in the N# T#, b*t it is common both as a !re!osition and as a conK*nction# In the form { (Ac# D?+E) and f U' ($t# 6-?,E) it is both !re!osition and conK*nction (res*ltant tem!oral !hrase)# (ea in" o*t these e7am!les, is fo*nd ,H times in the N# T# (1# H# te7t) and some $SS# read in Ac# +?66 and 6H?-, 3hile in $t# +,?,H the $SS# ar& bet3een , and X (1# H#)# The meanin" is L*! to> and the case *sed is the "eniti e# It occ*rs 3ith !lace (Ac# +,?B), !ersons (Ac# ++?A), time (Ac# +,?++) and abstract ideas (Ac# 66?-, 66)# It occ*rs mainl& in Acts, Pa*l>s 3ritin"s and Re elation# Cf# its *se 3ith the ad erb C C (Ro# E?66)#
. +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .59. 5 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. --/. In Eleati* o**urs Gith the a**. 1 C. an$ S., Sel. fro the LJJ, p. 19.

E# 9..# It is a mere ad erb (see com!# $.., s*!erl# X..') !ossibl& related to $.@.(# It is common in Homer both as ad erb and 3ith the "eniti e# The late )ree' added the tr*e dati e and all three *ses (ad erb, "en#, dat#) occ*r in the N# T# There are nineteen e7am!les of the !*re ad erb in the N# T# (cf# $t# 6-?,6), one the com!arati e (Ro# +,?++) and the s*!erlati e in some $SS# in $'# B?,B# There are ei"ht e7am!les of the "eniti e 3ith $.. (cf# Mo# ++?A-)# Onl& fo*r times does $.. ha e the dati e (Ac# G?,EJ 6D?E), co*ntin" the indeclinable H'#4 ((*# +G?++J Ac# +?+6), in 3hich case (*'e (-) 3o*ld ha e the dati e *niforml& and Mohn (B) and Heb# (6) the "eniti e (H# Scott)# Once (Heb# B?E) it is !ost!ositi e# G# 9)# It is a combination of $ and the ad erbial endin" > 3ith 3hich ma& be com!ared (atin coelitus#+ The case *sed 3ith it is, of co*rse, the ablati e and it is K*st a f*ller e7!ression of $, meanin" L3itho*t#> In the N# T# 3e find it onl& ei"ht times, fo*r of these 3ith the ablati e, as in + Cor# B?+E (cf# 3ith the relati e in Ac# 6B?66)# Note !osition of $ #. 8 in Ac# 6B?66# Three times 3e ha e $ 5 4 (+ Cor# +-?AJ +A?6J + Tim# A?+G), 3hich is a !leonasm d*e first to the *se of $ 5# 0eissmann ("ible %tudies, !# ++E) cites an inscri!tion of $o!s*estia for 4this K*mbled !hrase,5 !ec*liarl& apropos since Pa*l 3as Cilician, $ 5 S $* a.' )( #4O# Once ($t# 6,?6B) $) is !robabl& a mere ad erb *sed as a s*bstanti e, tho*"h e en here it ma& be re"arded as a !re!osition# +H# # This is merel& $ and ) 3hich ad erb *sed the ablati e6 3hen it had a case# In the N# T# it is still fo*r times a mere ad erb of !lace, as in Re # -?B, b*t it is *s*all& a !re!osition 3ith the ablati e# It occ*rs 3ith 3ords of !lace, as in $t# A?6-, 3ith !ersons ($t# A?+B), and sometimes 3ith the notion of ran' (Mo# +?+A)# As a !re!osition it a!!ears -- times in the N# T# ++# '# (Cf# 2'' in Homer#) It is one of the ! com!o*nds and is fo*nd 3ith the "eniti e case 3hen it has a case# It is er& common in the (XX e en after S 3ete, has !ro!erl& re!laced it often b& $'!# The old )ree' did not *se it# In the N# T#, 1# H# acce!t it in (*# +?E and Ac# E?6+ (tho*"h some $SS# in both !laces read $'!) and reKect it in Ac# D?+H# It is not fo*nd in the N# T# as a mere ad erb# +6# 9'!# This is, of co*rse, merel& the ne*ter sin"*lar of $'! (cf# $'# B?-E), and is common in the older )ree' as in the (XX# ;or the !a!&ri see $'! %E E P# Ele!h# + (2#C# ,++)# In the N# T# it does not occ*r as a mere ad erb, b*t 3e find it fi e times as a !re!osition 3ith the "eniti e (cf# (*# +?B), all 3ith !ersons (cf# (atin coram)# +,# '# It occ*rs in three forms in the N# T#, either X' ((*# B?66), X (G?6-) or u (+E?6G), b*t al3a&s as a !re!osition (Lfor the sa'e of>), ne er as mere
1 +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., pp. 191, #5.. # I<., p. .59. SGete S5E)E, ,. +., Intro$u*tion to the E. ). in Greek %19&&'. # E$., H1.. (((, )he Apo*alypse of St. Fohn %19&9'. (((, )he E. ). in Greek a**or$in" to the Septua"int %111/'. - !ols. - C. an$ S., Sel. fro LJJ, p. 1/. )he LJJ use$ a nu <er of prep. to transl. SGete, Intr. to the E. ). in Gk., p. -&1.

. Cf.

ad erb# These ariations e7isted in the earlier )ree' also# In the 4, X is the more *s*al (Sch3eiCer, +er . 8nsc!r., !# ,A)# Onl& t3ice, ho3e er, is it !ost!ositi e in the N# T#, and this after the interro"ati e (Ac# +G?,6) or the relati e ((*# -?+E, (XX)# The case *sed is the "eniti e# The et&molo"& is 9*ite *ncertain, b*t the form u is Ionic and !artiall& in the 4 s*!ersedes the Attic#+ The !re!osition occ*rs 6B times in the N# T# Once (6 Cor# D?+6) 3e find it *sed 3ith C and the infiniti e# Cf# X and % (*# 6+?+6, +D# +-# 9)# It is li'e the (atin in-tus (o!!osite of $)) and has the same endin" > # It means L3ithin> and as a !re!osition is *sed 3ith the "eniti e# The 3ord occ*rs onl& t3ice in the N# T#, once as an ad erb 3ith the article ($t# 6,?6B), tho*"h e en this ma& be re"arded as a !re!osition 3ith the article and the "eniti e (cf# $), $t# 6,?6B), and once as a !re!osition ((*# +D?6+) 3ith the "eniti e# Tha&er cites t3o !assa"es from Xeno!hon 3here $) ma& ha e the idea of Lamon"> and claims that this is the idea in (*# +D?6+, beca*se of the conte7t# 2*t the meanin" in Xeno!hon is dis!*ted and (iddell and Scott "i e onl& L3ithin> for $)# 2esides, in one of the ne3 (o ia6 of )esus 3e ha e a similar sa&in" in a conte7t that ma'es L3ithin> necessar& and 3o*ld seem to settle the !oint abo*t the !assa"e in (*'e? U "'#!' E ?'E $ 6E $!# +A# 9/# This is the ne*ter sin"*lar of the adKecti e $/ 3hich (Tha&er) is from the !hrase $ r! ;J $ rQ q<# Homer *ses * $/', b*t no e7am!le of the ad erb or !re!osition $/ occ*rs before the time of the (XX# 0eissmann, thin's it !ossible, b*t not !robable, that it 3as first *sed in this sense as a translation of the Hebre3 as # A !a!&r*s of the Thebaid from the second or third cent*r& 2#C# has it also# As a !re!osition it is er& common- in the (XX and in the N# T# also# C*rio*sl& eno*"h it does not occ*r in $atthe3 and $ar', tho*"h er& common in (*'e>s 3ritin"s and Re elation# The )os!el of Mohn has onl& one e7am!le and the Mohannine E!istles t3o# Cf# also '/# In the N# T#, $/ is al3a&s a !re!osition 3ith the "eniti e and it occ*rs G6 times# It a!!ears sometimes 3ith !lace (Re # -?+H), b*t *s*all& 3ith !ersons ((*# A?6AJ +6?G bis), and es!eciall& of )od (+?+A)# Sometimes the notion is
S*hGei0er SC,5EIOE7, E., 2ericht @ber die ;orsch*n"en a*f dem )ebiet der "riech# S!rach3# mit A*sschl*F der Ioin: *nd der 0iale'te in den Mahren 119&819&- %+ursianHs Fahres<eri*ht, *CC, 19&., pp. 1815#'. (((, 0ie "riech# S!rache in Oeit d# Hellen# %6. Fahr<. f. kl. Alt., 19&1, !ii, !iii'. (((, )rammati' der !er"amen . Ins*hriften %1191'. (((, Ne*"riech# S&nta7 *nd alt"riech. %6. Fahr<. f. kl. Alt., 19&1, pp. .9185&/'. 1 +ru"., Grie*h. Gr., p. .5/. Li$$ell an$ S*ott LI;;ELL an$ SCE)), Greek:En"lish LeCi*on. 1th e$. %111#'. # C. )aylor, )he ECyrhyn. Sayin"s of Fesus, 19&5, pp. /, 11. +esi$es in Poly<. $) is alGays the opposite of $). Cf. )hie ann, Nuest. Poly<., 111#, p. #-. - +. S., p. #1-. . C. an$ S., p. 1/.

that of K*d"ment, as in + Tim# 6?,# See 1i'enha*ser, 9/V$/V'/ (2ibl# O#, +G+H, !!# 6B,S6DH)# +B# 3# It is an ad erb from $3 (cf# 2, $) and is !robabl& in the ablati e case li'e -;<# As ad erb and !re!osition it is common in the N# T# (+B times) as in the older )ree'# It is fo*nd as !re!osition onl& 3ith the ablati e and that +G times# It means Lo*tside> or L3itho*t> and is *sed in the N# T# onl& 3ith !laces, li'e 23 B 5!' ($t# +H?+-)# Mohn>s )os!el has it +, times, first E!# +, Re # 6J Pa*l has it A, and onl& as ad erb# +D# 3# It is the same 3ord !l*s the s*ffi7 >, Lfrom 3itho*t,> and 3as common in the !oets (cf# 2)# The case *sed is the ablati e# In the N# T# it is m*ch less fre9*ent (+, times) both as ad erb and !re!osition than 23# Indeed, if 23 C (! ($t# 6,?6AJ (*# ++?,G) be not considered the !re!ositional *sa"e, there 3o*ld be onl& three left ($'# D?+AJ Re # ++?6J +-?6H)# There is the same ambi"*it& in the t3o !assa"es abo e that 3as noted abo*t $) and $) ($t# 6,?6BW(*# ++?-H)# Cf# A-D i# +E# 9@# This is K*st the !re!osition $! and the ad erb # It occ*rs in Attic )ree' both as ad erb and as !re!osition# As an ad erb it is rare in the N# T# (- times), once 3ith the relati e ad erb { ($t# 6?G), once 3ith a n*meral 3ith no effect on the case (+ Cor# +A?BJ cf# $'# +-?A 3here the case ma& arise from 'B'), once 3here a !rono*n is reall& im!lied ((*# ++?--)# As a !re!osition 3e find it fifteen times in the N# T# Cf# $ : ($t# A?+-) 3here it has the some3hat 3ea'ened+ sense of L*!on> rather than Labo e#> The case *sed is the "eniti e# $odern )ree' ernac*lar *ses it as ;< 7 (Th*mb, Handbook, !# +HG)# +G# 9'# It is merel& $! and $F'# Tha&er s*""ests the elli!sis of (# It occ*rs in the Attic )ree' both as ad erb and as !re!osition# In the N# T# it a!!ears onl& once in a 9*otation from Amos A?6D and as a !re!osition 3ith the ablati e in the sense of Lbe&ond> (Ac# D?-,# Cf# 6')# 6H# # It is the ad erb of $ (cf# 23) and is in the ablati e case# The form I ;5< does not occ*r in the N# T# nor in the (XX# Indeed the 3ord 2 is fo*nd onl& nine times in the N# T# and onl& one, 2 B '?#B ($'# +A?+B), is the !re!ositional *se# The case *sed 3ith it is the "eniti e# This, ho3e er, is a "en*ine e7am!le, 3hile 2 (+6 times) is ne er a !re!osition in the N# T#, *nless in (*# ++?,G, 2 6E (see !# B-6)# Cf# $/ B #"4' (Is# 66?++)# 6+# # In Homer it is both demonstrati e and relati e ad erb (from ,, u)#+ Cf# c and =# The *se of X as a !re!osition a!!ears in 0emosthenes, Aristotle, Pol&bi*s, etc# In Northern En"land and Scotland 43hile5 is *sed as 4till5 ((iddell and Scott) and ill*strates ho3 X as conK*nction is *sed in the N# T# It is more common in the N# T# as !re!osition than conK*nction, if the !hrases X {, X i be treated as conK*nctions, as indeed the& are, tho*"h technicall& com!osed of the !re!osition X 3ith the "eniti e of the relati e# It is in the later )ree' mainl&, therefore, that it a!!ears as a !re!osition (cf# (XX and !a!&ri)# The case *sed 3ith it is the "eniti e (b*t er& late )ree' sho3s acc*sati e sometimes), and it is fo*nd EB times in the N# T# and A+ of the e7am!les are in the S&no!tic )os!els# The !re!osition is *sed 3ith !laces, li'e X m% ($t# ++?6,), X ?'C ((*# +H?+A), X 0!' (Ac# ++?66)J 3ith !ersons, li'e X '?C ((*# -?-6)J 3ith e7!ressions of time, li'e X B 4 ($t# 6D?E), X c' $( (6D?-A)J 3ith abstract e7!ressions, li'e X ' ($t# 6B?,E)J 3ith
1 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#9. 1 Monro, ,o . Gr., p. 151.

notion of meas*re, li'e X U! ($'# B?6,)# See Rom# ,?+6 X p) ((XX)# Cf# )VX in $t# +?+DJ 6H?EJ 6D?A+# Se enteen of the e7am!les are *ses of X 3ith an ad erb, li'e X ($t# 6D?A+), X (Mo# 6?+H), 3hile se en instances of X ) occ*r, li'e $t# +D?+D# ;o*r times X occ*rs 3ith another !re!osition, li'e X ) ((*# 6-?AH), X $! (Ac# +D?+-), X 23 (6+?A)# In $'# +-?A- note X 2 5# Once (cf# 0emosthenes, Aristotle, (XX) 3e find it 3ith the article and the infiniti e X C $#F (Ac# E?-H)# In X # (6 Cor# +?+,), the !hrase is almost ad erbial# In 0 (Ac# +G?6B), X 9 , 2lass6 finds the notion of L3ithin#> In the (XX 6 [Heb#\ Esdr# B?6H, X , , and + Chron# A?+H A, X , 0eissmann (". %., !# +,G) sees a Hebraism# 66# k''# It is not fo*nd in the older )ree', b*t a!!ears in the (XX and the N# T# It is es!eciall& fre9*ent in the 2oo' of Sirach#, 2*t in !oetr& 3e find ''' and the 3ord is merel& the threefold !re!osition ', $, !# The $SS# in the N# T# often ar&+ bet3een '' and ' as in $t# 6+?6J 6D?6-J Ac# ,?+B, etc# In $t# 6D?6- and $'# +6?-+ 1# H# !*t ' in the mar"in# k''!, fo*nd in Hesiod and Herodot*s, does not occ*r in the N# T# There are onl& nine e7am!les of '' in the N# T# One of these ((*# +G?,H) is merel& ad erbial, 3hile the rest are !re!ositional# The idea is Lbefore,> Lo er a"ainst,> Lin the !resence of,> and the case *sed 3ith it is the "eniti e# It occ*rs 3ith !lace ($'# +,?,) and !ersons ($t# 6D?6-)# Cf# '' C $ jL (6 Cor# 6?+DJ +6?+G) and the attraction of relati e () in the dati e to the "eniti e case of C, the incor!orated antecedent (Ro# -?+D)# 6,# k'/# It is K*st $/ (see abo e) and '# Homer *ses '' 3ith the "eniti e, b*t '/ a!!ears in the (XX# The N# T# sho3s onl& three e7am!les (cf# the fre9*enc& of $/), t3o 3ith !ersons (E!h# +?-J Col# +?66), one 3ith abstract 3ord (M*# 6-)# The case *sed is the "eniti e and the 3ord means Lin the !resence of#> 6-# k#)# It is an old ad erb in > that occasionall& occ*rs in the (XX (Mer# +D?6B) as a !re!osition# In the N# T# it a!!ears as a !re!osition t3ice 3ith the "eniti e ) (Re # -?, f#) and once as an ad erb (-?E)# 6A# k#M is, of co*rse, merel& an ad erb in the instr*mental case and is common from Homer do3n# In the (XX it is e7tremel& fre9*ent and occasionall& as a !re!osition 3ith the "eniti e (Is# B?6)# In the N# T# it is merel& an ad erb e7ce!t 3ith C ) (Re # -?BJ A?++J D?++)# Cf# #M (Ro# +A?+G)# 6B# a# As a !re!osition it occ*rs in Herodot*s D, +DH, b*t 3as not common# It a!!ears in the late )ree' 3riters and the !a!&ri#6 $an& ad erbial !hrases 3ere made from 3hich 3ere *sed as !re!ositions, some of 3hich s*r i e in the N# T#, li'e * , %* ;><, 5 (and 5 ), $ M (and $ M), $ , '* # 2*t these 3ill be disc*ssed later# The adKecti e occ*rs 3ith the "eniti e ((*# 66?AAJ Mo# +?6B), so that it is not stran"e to find the ad erb 3ith the "eniti e as in Ph# 6?+A, .A# In $t# +-?6- 1# H# !*t in the mar"in and 0 reads in (*# E?DJ +H?,# See HatCida'is, 5inl., !# 6+-, for e7am!les# Cf# Homeric
# Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#/. - C. an$ S., p. 1/. 1 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#1. # Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -/..

(.# The modern )ree' ernac*lar *ses ' 7, 7 ) (Th*mb, Handbook, !# +HE)# 6D# a'3# (i'e so man& of the ad erbial !re!ositions, it is a com!o*nd (, 3)# As a mere ad erb, 3e meet it onl& t3ice in the N# T#, once in the sense of Lmean3hile> (Mo# -?,+), once in the sense of Lafter3ards> (Ac# +,?-6), as commonl& in the later )ree'#+ Cf# t3ofold *se of # As a !re!osition it occ*rs se en times in the N# T#, 3ith !laces ($t# 6,?,A), !ersons ($t# +E?+A) and in abstract relations (Ro# 6?+A)# A "ood e7am!le occ*rs in Ac# +A?G 3here both % and '3 a!!ear# 6E# a# (i'e and X, it is both !re!osition and conK*nction as 3ell as ori"inall& ad erb# No e7am!le of the mere ad erb is fo*nd in the N# T#, as it 3as rare in the older )ree'# The form is a'in to and the sense is the same# If { be treated as a conK*nction (cf# {, X {), the !re!osition 3ith the "eniti e a!!ears fifteen times 3ith another do*btf*l readin" in $t# +,?,H# It is *sed 3ith !laces (Ro# +A?+G), !ersons ((*# +B?+B), time (Ac# +H?,H), abstract e7!ressions (Ph# 6?E)# (i'e 1, the notion of Lmeas*re> or Lde"ree> is sometimes !resent (Heb# +6?-)# 6G# # It is of *ncertain et&molo"&, !erha!s related to $!# It occ*rs in Homer both as ad erb and as !re!osition# In the N# T# 3e find it fi e times as ad erb and t3ice as !re!osition, and some $SS# ha e it in Re # +?+H# The case *sed 3ith it is the ablati e# So : C H(C ((*# 6,?6B)# It means Lfrom behind> and so Lafter> ($t# +A?6,)# It is the o!!osite of 2# ,H# z!# It is the o!!osite of ) (cf# )) and is an ablati e ad erb from : (as abo e)# It is er& common in the older )ree' as an ad erb, b*t it is e7tremel& common in the (XX as a !re!osition#6 In the N# T# ! occ*rs alone as an ad erb onl& t3ice ($t# 6-?+EJ (*# D?,E), tho*"h 3e meet * ! se en times as in $'# +,?+B# 2*t as a !re!osition 3e find it 6B times, mostl& 3ith !ersons, as in the common ! ($t# ,?++)# It is *sed 3ith the ablati e, Lbehind#> Cf# %C ! in $t# -?+G# ,+# zG# This 3ord seems to be another ariation of : and occ*rs in the ancient )ree', both as an ad erb and as a !re!osition 3ith the "eniti e (Th*c# -, G,) 3ith the sense of Llate on#> 2*t Philostrat*s sho3s e7am!les 3here G 3ith the ablati e has the sense of Lafter,> li'e GN WLafter these thin"s#>, Philostrat*s *ses it also in the sense of Llate on#> The !a!&ri *se it in the sense of Llate on> 3ith the "eniti e#- So GN B c' P# Par# ,D (iiU2#C#)# Hence in $t# 6E?+, GN '"" ma& be either late on the Sabbath or after the Sabbath# Either has "ood s*!!ort# $o*lton+ is *ncertain, 3hile 2lass6 !refers Lafter#> It is a !oint for e7e"esis, not for "rammar, to decide# If $atthe3 has in mind K*st before s*nset, Llate on> 3o*ld be his ideaJ if he means after s*nset, then Lafter> is correct# Cf# %Q C '"" ((*# +E?+6)#
,at0i$akis ,A)OI;A@IS, G. 6., Einleit*n" in die ne*"riechische )rammati' %119#'. 1 +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#9. # C. an$ S., p. 1/. - +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. -1#. . Moulton, Prol., p. /# f. 1 Moulton, Prol., p. /# f. # Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 9/.

,6# ''@#4# It is merel& the ne*ter of the adKecti e ''#4# This adKecti e *s*all& had the associati e=instr*mental, seldom the "eniti e# 2*t the one e7am!le of the ad erbial !re!osition in the N# T# (Ph# 6?6D), ', has the "eniti e# See #(!# ,,# '@)# It is a late com!o*nd for the earlier '# It a!!ears in the N# T# onl& three times, sa e in the mar"in of $t# +G?G of 1# H#>s te7t# Once it is a mere ad erb (6 Cor# ++?6E), and t3ice it is a !re!osition 3ith the ablati e ($t# A?,6J Ac# 6B?6G) meanin" L3itho*t#> ,-# '# It comes from the root (cf# , Lfare,> Lferr&,> etc#), Ionic (# It is an ad erb (cf# ad # ), !robabl& acc*sati e case# 2oth as ad erb and as !re!osition 3ith ablati e (sometimes 3ith acc*sati e), it s*r i es from Homer# In the N# T# it occ*rs ten times as an ad erb in the !hrase 5 ' ($t# E?+E)# It is fo*nd +, times as a !re!osition 3ith the ablati e, chiefl& in the e7!ression ' C H% ($t# -?+A)# ,A# #4, Doric ## It is !robabl& from #, Lmore,> and so is *sed 3ith the ablati e# In the N# T# it occ*rs onl& fo*r times as a !re!osition 3ith the ablati e and in one of these 3e find #V#S (Ac# +A?6E)# T3ice it is a mere ad erb, #S i (Ac# 6H?6,J Ph# +?+E), *nless indeed the i cla*se is in the ablati e# Cf# En"lish 4e7ce!t that#5 In all the other rather n*mero*s instances #4 is an ad ersati e conK*nction at the be"innin" of a cla*se (cf# %) as in $t# ++?66# These three *sa"es come on do3n from the older )ree'# ,B# #(!, 0oric #'!# The 3ord is allied to #' and is ne*ter adK# from #(!# In the older )ree' the ad erb occ*rs absol*tel& or 3ith the art# J #(!, Lnei"hbo*r,> as in the N# T# ($t# A?-,)# As a !re!osition it a!!ears 3ith the associati e= instr*mental or 3ith the "eniti e# 2*t in the N# T#, it is fo*nd onl& once and 3ith the "eniti e in Mo# -?A# In (*# +H?6G, ,B, the "eniti e is also fo*nd 3ith #(!, b*t the 3ord here has more of the s*bstanti e idea (Lnei"hbo*r>) than the !re!ositional *sa"e# ,D# @# It is a sim!le com!o*nd that in the late )ree' "rad*all& dis!laced+ 6# It occ*rs in 3riters from Aristotle on both as ad erb and as !re!osition and is common in the (XX#6 In the N# T# 3e find it onl& three times and 3ith the ablati e each time# T3ice it occ*rs literall& of !lace (Heb# G?AJ E!h# -?+H) and once of ran' (E!h# +?6+)# ,E# @'# It is merel& 6 and the !rono*n $F' (cf# $@' in Ac# D?-,) 3hich a!!ears in the 2&Cantine )ree'# It occ*rs onl& once in the N# T# (6 Cor# +H?+B), 5 * 6' 6E, 3ith the ablati e in the sense of Lbe&ond,> Linto the (re"ions) be&ond &o*#> ,G# @@C# It is 3ritten se!aratel& in (iddell and Scott and some N# T# editors !rint it 6N $C# It is fo*nd in 0an# ,?66 (Ald.1 .ompl.)# 1# H# read it three times (E!h# ,?6HJ + Th# ,?+HJ A?+,), tho*"h in the last !assa"e 6E is !*t in the mar"in b& 1# H# As a !re!osition 3ith the ablati e, 3e find it onl& in E!h# ,?6H (d attracted to case of omitted antecedent)# -H# @# It is another com!o*nd 3ord 3hich in the ancient )ree' 3as *sed both as ad erb and as !re!osition and es!eciall& in the 4 3riters (Pol&bi*s, 0iodor*s, Pl*tarch)# In the late )ree' it "rad*all&, dis!laced 6)# In the (XX both
1 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., pp. -9/, -9/. # Cf. ;eiss., +. S., p. #1- f. - Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. -99.

6 and 6 occ*r as !re!ositions as 3ell as ')#- In the N# T# it is no lon"er ad erb, b*t a!!ears as !re!osition ele en times 3ith the ablati e, fi e of them 3ith E %E (as $'# B?++)# The e7am!les are all literal, not meta!horical# Cf# 6 B '3( ($'# D?6E)# -+# j# This 3ord is K*st the acc*sati e of and it is still common as the s*bstanti e in the acc*sati e ((*# +?,H)# The ancients *sed it freel& 3ith the "eniti e and 3ith the !ossessi e !rono*n, $S # The idea of Lfor the sa'e of> (cf# (atin ratia) ma& be d*e to a!!osition ori"inall&# The *sa"e contin*es in the late )ree'#A Amon" the ancients it 3as "enerall& !ost!ositi e, b*t in the (XX it is no3 one 3a&, no3 the other# In the N# T# it occ*rs nine times, and is !ost!ositi e (as )al# ,?+G) al3a&s e7ce!t + Mo# ,?+6 3ith interro"ati e# It is onl& once in the )os!els ((*# D?-D)# -6# j!# It is of do*btf*l et&molo"& (cf# , 4'), b*t a!!ears in Homer freel& as an ad erb and in Pindar as a !re!osition# It holds on steadil& in both senses# In the N# T# 3e ha e onl& one !*re ad erbial *se (Mo# 6H?D), 3hile as a !re!osition 3ith the ablati e 3e find it -H times# The *sa"e is chiefl& 3ith !ersons ($t# +-?6+) or abstract relations ($t# +,?,-), tho*"h it ma& be *sed 3ith !lace ((*# B?-G)# In Ro# +H?+- note Q ( 3itho*t the article# It is !ost!ositi e once, { ! (Heb# +6?+-)# R amsa&, .. and "., II, ,G+ (No# 6A-), cites from the inscri!tions Q 5 4 O ($o*lton, +rol., !# 6,G)# Of these -6 3ords in the N# T# the follo3in" are onl& *sed as !re!ositions? , !', ', , 2', ', $/, $', '/, ''#4, 6$', 6, 6# Of the rest is also adKecti eJ s*bstanti eJ #(! s*bstanti e and adKecti eJ , 2, , #4 conK*nctionsJ and the rest are also ad erbs# I%. Compound Prepositions. A considerable n*mber of these ad erbial !re!ositions are com!o*nd 3ords# So are @?;<, !@', @@', 2@ , 2@', $@'!, $@/, $@, $@', '@3, ''@#4, '@), 6@, 6@@C, 6@# The modern )ree' ernac*lar sho3s similar forms in ), ! ), 3 ) (Th*mb, Handb., !# ++H)# See cha!ter XII, %I# %. Prepositiona# Circum#ocutions. 2lass calls these Hebraisms and it is tr*e that the fre9*enc& of these !hrases in the (XX and the N# T# is d*e to the infl*ence of the Hebre3 idiom# 2*t the constr*ction itself is "ood )ree', tho*"h not so common, as the !a!&ri sho3#+ (a) a# This 3ord f*rnishes a n*mber, one of 3hich, * , 4has t*rned *! ab*ndantl& in the !a!&ri#56 In the N# T# 3e find this com!o*nd !re!osition onl& fo*r
. C. an$ S., p. 19 f. 5 Fann., ,ist. Gk. Gr., p. --/. j as a prep. is in poetry till 5& +.C., Ghen it appears first in prose. Cf. Meisterh., p. ###. ,e "i!es an interestin" eC. of the prep. in Atti* ins*r. 7a say 7AMSAK, 5. M., Cities an$ +ishopri*s of Phry"ia. # !ols. %1195, 119/'. (((, St. Paul the )ra!eller %1199'. 1 Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#9 f. # Moulton, Prol., p. 99 f.

times# $o*lton thin's that in + Cor# B?A, %'F' * C %# C, the te7t is corr*!t, b*t !robabl& the !hrase is not to be ta'en too literall& and et&molo"icall& (cf# % here)# W* is read once ((*# +D?++) and %* once in 1# H# ((*# -?,H)# 5 ($'# +-?BH) a!!ears once, b*t 5 ((*# -?,A) si7 times# 9 , li'e all the circ*mloc*tions 3ith , is follo3ed b& the "eniti e ($t# +,?-G) and it occ*rs D times# k'* is fo*nd once (Ac# 6D?6D)# The commonest (6D times) of these circ*mloc*tions is $ M ($M some $SS#) as in $t# +H?+B# 9 L $M ($t# +-?BJ Ac# -?D) is not a !re!ositional !hrase# Cf# $ C (Col# 6?+-)# See also cha!ter XII, X, (b)# (b) '# It is sometimes add*ced as an e7am!le of a !re!ositional circ*mloc*tion and as a !*re Hebraism# 0eissmann+ has "i en ab*ndant ill*strations from the !a!&ri to sho3 that the *se of 5 :', $ L )' is common eno*"h in the ernac*lar 4 3here, as in the (XX and the N# T#, i' re!resents the !erson# It is more than do*btf*l if 3e are K*stified in considerin" these !hrases as mere !re!ositional circ*mloc*tions 3ith the "eniti e# The e7am!les that come nearest to it are 5 :' 4, 5 :' %'!, 5 :' '(C ($t# +H?-+ f#), b*t e en here :' brin"s o*t the notion that one has the name or character of !ro!het, ri"hteo*s man, disci!le# In $t# 6E?+G, :' has the idea of Lthe a*thorit& of#> (c) )# This 3ord also f*rnishes a n*mber of s*ch !hrases 3hich in the (XX seem to be based on Hebre3 ori"inals (translation Hebraisms)#6 Th*s / C ! (Ac# ,?+G) is li'e as , 3hile / is li'e as , and '* ) # (Ac# ,?+,) 2lass, finds li'e as # Cf# ) ) (+ Cor# +,?+6)# (d) )'# This a"ain is a Hebraism in the (XX d*e to translation# In $t# -?- 3e ha e %* )' C, a 9*otation from 0e*t# E?,# In $t# +E?+B, $Q )' % ' is li'e3ise from 0e*t# +G?+A# So in $t# 6+?+B, $ )' (! is from Ps# E?,# Cf# also C )' '?C ((*# 66?D+), $ L )'! (Ro# +H?E from 0e*t# ,H?+-)# 2*t this !ict*res9*e !hraseolo"& belon"s to all lan"*a"e as a matter of fact# (e) j!# It sho3s se eral similar e7am!les# Th*s %* '?E (Ac# +A?6,), %* E E '?E (Ac# +-?,), 5 F' ((*# 6-?D), 5 S F' '?C ((*# +A?66), $ ((*# +?D+), $ D Q '?C (Mo# ,?,A), T Q ..# (Ac# D?,A)# Here a"ain the )ree' idiom follo3s the Hebre3 !artic*larit&, b*t 3ith !erfect ease# The classical )ree' is not 3itho*t e7am!les- of this *se of ! and one ma& note the En"lish idiom also#A See 6 Sam# +A?6, * F' B J%C B #(# See also $3 $'!' '?C ($'# +A?,G) and ' #). !' in the mar"in (1# H#) of $t# +G?G#

1 +. S., pp. 1.9 f., 19/. Cf. Moulton, Prol., p. 1&&. See also ,eit =llerHs proof, I 6a en Fesu, pp. 1&& ff. # Moulton, Prol., pp. 11, 99D +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1#9 f. - I<. . +lass, Gr. of 6. ). Gk., p. 1-&. 5 Cf. for the LJJ, SGete, Intr. to E. ). in Gk., p. -&1.