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FUNCTIONAL STYLES 1. Main concepts and definitions 1.1. Definitions of style 1.2. Definitions of stylistics 1.3.

The scope of stylistic study 1.4. Stylistics and language 2. Varieties of the En !ish !an "a e 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Variation according to language user 2.2.1. Regional variation: dialects 2.2.2. Social variation: Standard nglish 2.2.3. Variation according to age and gender 2.3. Variation according to language use: register 2.3.1. !ttitude "style or tenor# 2.3.2. $ediu% "%ode# 2.3.3. &ield of discourse "do%ain# #. The f"nctiona! st$!es of the En !ish !an "a e #.1. The st$!e of fiction 3.1.1. 'eneral considerations 3.1.2. (inguistic features 3.1.3. Types of %eaning Denotative %eaning )onnotative %eaning &igurative %eaning Sy%*olic %eaning 3.1.4. The stylistic analysis of fiction 'eneral considerations !reas of stylistic analysis 3.1.+. (inguistic patterns in fictional prose 3.1.+.1. The Great Gatsby *y S. &it,gerald 3.1.+.2. Bleak House *y )h Dic-ens ..1.+.3. The Rainbow *y D./. (a0rence 3.1... (inguistic patterns in poetry 3.1...1. Heaven Haven *y '.$. /op-ins 3.1...2. Off course *y . $organ #.2. The st$!e of ne%spapers& 'o"rna!is( 3.2.1. 'eneral considerations 3.2.2. (inguistic characteristics 3.2.3. 1rief ne0s ite%s Syntactic structures (e2ical features 3.2.4. !dvertise%ents and announce%ents Syntactic structures (e2ical features Rhetorical devices 3.2.+. The /eadline

3.2.+.1. 'eneral considerations 3.2.+.2. Syntactic features 3.2.+.3. (e2ical features 3.2... The ditorial #.#. The st$!e of scientific prose 3.3.1. 'eneral considerations 3.3.2. (inguistic features (e2ical features 'ra%%atical features 3.). The st$!e of officia! doc"(ents 3.4.1. 'eneral considerations 3.4.2. The language of *usiness 'eneral considerations 'ra%%atical features (e2ical features )o%positional patterns 3.4.3. The language of legal docu%ents (e2ical features 'ra%%atical features R & R 3) S

1. MAIN CONCE*TS AN+ +EFINITIONS 1.1. +efinitions of St$!e Scholars consider that the concept 4style5 is so *road that it is hardly possi*le to *e regarded as a ter%. ven in linguistics the 0ord 4style5 is used so e2tensively that it needs so%e interpretation. $ost linguists 0ho deal 0ith the su*6ect of style agree that the ter% can

*e applied to several fields of investigation: the aesthetic function of language7 e2pressive %eans in language7 synony%ous 0ays of rendering one and the sa%e idea7 the e%otional colouring of language7 the syste% of special devices called stylistic devices7 the individual %anner of an author in %a-ing use of language. The understanding of the ter% 4style5 influences the characteristics given to St$!istics considered an i%portant linguistic discipline. So%e of the %ost salient characteristics of style are presented *elo0 "fro% 8atie 9ales: A Dictionary of Stylistics: 2;;1: 3<;=3<2#: i. Style refers to the perceived distinctive (anner of e,pression in 0riting or spea-ing: 6ust as there is a perceived %anner of doing things: li-e playing s>uash or painting. 9e %ight tal- of so%eone 0riting in an 4ornate style5 or spea-ing in a 4co%ic style5. &or so%e people style has evaluative connotations: as it can *e 4good5 or 4*ad5. ii. There are different styles in different situations "e.g. co%ic vs. turgid#7 also: the sa%e activity can produce stylistic variation "for e2a%ple: no t0o people 0ill have the sa%e style in 0riting an essay#. So style can *e seen as -ariation in !an "a e "se: 0hether literary or non= literary. The ter% re ister is co%%only used for those syste%ic variations in linguistic features co%%on to particular non=literary situations: e.g. legal language: advertising: ne0spaper reporting: etc. Style %ay vary not only fro% situation to situation *ut also according to (edi"( and de ree of for(a!it$: this *eing so%eti%es ter%ed st$!e.shiftin . ?n a larger scale: style %ay vary: in literary language: fro% one genre to another: or fro% one period to another "e.g.: 0e %ay tal- of the style of !ugustan poetry: etc.# Style is thus seen against a *ac-ground of larger or s%aller do%ains or conte2ts. iii. In each case: style is seen as the su% of distinctive !in "istic feat"res that see% to *e characteristic of a particular register: genre or period: etc. Style is very co%%only defined in this 0ay: especially at the level of te2t: e.g.: 0e %ay refer to the style of @ohn 8eats5 Ode to a Ni htin ale! or that of @ane !usten5s "##a$ Since st$!istic feat"res are *asically feat"res of !an "a e: style is in one sense synony%ous 0ith language "thus: 0e can spea- e>ually of the language of Ode to a Ni htin ale%$ 9hen applied to the do%ain of an author5s entire 0or-: style is the set of features peculiar to: or characteristic of that author: his Aher language ha*its or idiolects. So 0e spea- of $iltonic style: or @ohnsonese "i.e. the literary style of Dr. Sa%uel @ohnson: characteri,ed *y erudition: (atinis%s: po%posity: etc#. i-. Since each author %a-es use of the general stoc- of the language in any given period: 0hat %a-es style distinctive is the choice of ite(s: as 0ell as their distri*ution and patterning. Style is thus defined in ter%s of choice of ite%s: the selection of features *eing partly deter%ined *y the de%ands of genre: for%: the%e: etc. It is considered that all utterances have a style: even if they %ight see% relatively 4plain5 or 4un%ar-ed5: a plain style is itself a style "i.e. ,ero degree#. -. In another approach to style: so%e scholars "see 3. n-vist: 1B<3# co%pare one set of features 0ith another in ter%s of a de-iation fro( a nor(. It 0ould *e 0rong to i%ply that style itself is deviant in the sense of 4a*nor%al5: even though there are certain %ar-ed poetic idiolects li-e those of 'erard $. /op-ins: Dylan Tho%as and e.e. cu%%ins. 9hat 0e have to do is %atch a te2t or piece of language against the linguistic nor%s of its genre: or its period: and the co%%on core of the language as a 0hole. Different te2ts 0ill reveal different patterns of do%inant or foregrounded features. 1.2. +efinitions of St$!istics !ccording to 'eoffrey &inch: stylistics is concerned 0ith using the %ethodology of linguistics to study the concept of 4style5 in language. very ti%e 0e use language 0e

necessarily adopt a style of so%e sort: 0e %a-e a selection fro% a range of syntactic and le2ical possi*ilities according to the purpose of the co%%unication "'. &inch: 2;;;: 1CB# Stylistics in the 2;th century replaced and e2panded on the earlier discipline -no0n as rhetoric or e!oc"tion in rhetoric. &ollo0ing the pu*lication of a t0o=volu%e treatise on &rench stylistics *y )h. 1ally "1B;B: Trait& de stylisti'ue fran(aise#: 0ho 0as a pupil of the structuralist &erdinand de Saussure: interest in stylistics gradually spread across urope. It 0as in the 1B.;s that it really *egan to flourish in 1ritain and also the Dnited States: *eing given i%petus fro% post=0ar develop%ents in descriptive linguistics: gra%%ar in particular. In %any respects: ho0ever: stylistics is close to literary criticis%: since *y far the %ost co%%on -ind of %aterial studied is literary: and since attention is largely te2t=centred. The goal of %ost stylistic studies is not si%ply to descri*e the for%al features of te2ts for their o0n sa-e: *ut in order to sho0 their f"nctiona! si nificance for the interpretation of the te2t7 or in order to relate literary effects or the%es to linguistic 4triggers5 0here these are felt to *e relevant "9ales: 2;;1: 3<3#. Stylistics dra0s on the %odels and ter%inology provided *y 0hichever aspects of linguistics are felt to *e relevant. Thus: in the late 1B.;s enerati-e ra((ar 0as influential7 in the 1B<;s and 1BC;s disco"rse ana!$sis and pra (atics had a %a6or i%pact on stylistics/ in the 1BB;s critica! disco"rse ana!$sis and co niti-e !in "istics 0ere e2tre%ely influential. Stylistics also dra0s eclectically on trends in !iterar$ theor$: so the 1B<;s sa0 a shift a0ay fro% the te2t itself to the reader and hisAher responses to the te2t "0e can see: in this respect: theories such as affecti-e st$!istics: or reception theor$& aesthetics#. 1.#. The Scope of St$!istic St"d$ There are various su*=*ranches of stylistics: reflecting the diversity of approaches 0hich e2ist 0ithin the field itself. These approaches in conte%porary stylistics are as follo0s: i. ! contrast is often dra0n *et0een !iterar$ st$!istics and !in "istic st$!istics0 . !iterar$ 1poetic2 st$!istics tends to focus on literary te2ts: atte%pting to give an o*6ectively= *ased account of literary %erit: or 0orth. . !in "istic st$!istics uses %odels dra0n fro% linguistics. )o%%enting on the distinction *et0een lin uistic stylistics and literary stylistics: on aspects at the interface *et0een language and literature: as 0ell as on certain difficulties of dividing the t0o su*=*ranches of stylistics: $ic- Short points out that EFstylistics can so%eti%es loo- li-e either linguistics or literary criticis% depending upon 0here you are standing 0hen loo-ing at it.G "1BB.: 1#. ! detailed discussion of the directions of research 0ithin linguistic stylistics is provided in the *oo- edited *y @ean @ac>ues 9e*er "The Stylistics Reader) *ro# Ro#an +akobson to the ,resent! 1BB.#. ii. 3enera! st$!istics is used as a cover ter% for the analysis of non=literary varieties of language: or registers "see D. )rystal and D. Davy: -nvesti atin "n lish Style! 1B.B#. The %ain focus of such studies is on esta*lishing principles 0hich can account for the choices %ade *y individuals and social groups in their use of language. iii. 1ecause of this *road scope stylistics is closely associated 0ith socio!in "istics. Thus: in the %ost recent decades: stylistic e2plorations 0hich have *een developing 0ithin the fra%e0or- of sociolinguistics: ter%ed sociost$!istics4 study: for instance: the language of 0riters as social groups "e.g. the li,a*ethan university 0its7 pa%phleteers#7 or various 4fashions5 in language. i-. For(a!ist st$!istics and f"nctiona! st$!istics0 ! distinction has *een %ade *et0een for(a!ist st$!istics and f"nctiona! st$!istics *ased on the opposition *et0een for%alist and functionalist approaches in linguistic studies. . &or%alist stylistics is represented *y the 0or-s of Ro%an @a-o*son7 f"nctiona! stylistics is *ased on 8. 1Hhler5s and R. @a-o*son5s theories regarding the functions of language: its role to descri*e and e2plain functional styles as 0ell

as individual and collective %odalities of using language according to different conte2ts. !t present: functional stylistics is represented %ainly *y $. !.8 /alliday. -. +isco"rse st$!istics *eca%e popular in the 1BB;s: %ar-ing a ne0 direction in stylistics: a direction a0ay fro% for%al analyses to %ore conte2tuali,ed: discourse=oriented approaches: such as: sociolinguistic: prag%atic and fe%inist approaches. This approach to stylistics is represented *y recent 0or- of $ic- Short: $ary (ouise Iratt and Ieter Verdon- "2;;2: Stylistics%. !lso: Vi%ala /er%an5s e2tensive study of dra%a discourse "1BB.: Dra#atic Discourse) Dialo ue as -nteraction in ,lays # includes a discussion of the 0ay principles of social interaction can *e applied to the interpretation of play dialogue. -i. Affecti-e st$!istics is associated 0ith critics such as Stanley &ish "1B<;: (iterature in the reader: affective stylistics#: 0ho are interested not only in e%otional responses: *ut %ore particularly in the %ental operations involved in the process of reading. -ii. Co niti-e st$!istics& poetics e%erged in the 1BB;s: *eing generally concerned 0ith the cognitive effects of style: and especially concerned 0ith %etaphor. Dseful theoretical infor%ation for cognitive stylistics is provided *y @oanna 'avins and 'erard Steen "2;;3: .o nitive ,oetics in ,ractice#7 *y lena Se%ino and @onathan )ulpeper "2;;2: .o nitive Stylistics: /an ua e and .o nition in Te0t Analysis%1 also: 8atie 9ales in The /an ua e of +a#es +oyce "1BB2# uses the cognitive perspective in the treat%ent of the style of @a%es @oyce. -iii. *eda o ica! st$!istics focuses on ho0 concepts and %ethods fro% stylistics can enrich the teaching of te2ts in the *eginning: inter%ediate and advanced levels of native and foreign language study. Iedagogical stylistics is represented *y the 0or- of /enry '. 9iddo0son "1BB2: ,ractical Stylistics#: Ronald )arter and Iaul Si%pson "1BCB: /an ua e! Discourse and /iterature$ An -ntroductory Reader in Discourse Stylistics#. 1. ). St$!istics and !an "a e Stylistics is a %ethod of te2tual interpretation in 0hich pri%acy of place is assigned to language. (anguage is e2tre%ely i%portant to stylisticians *ecause the various for%s: patterns and levels that constitute linguistic structure are a significant inde2 of the function of the te2t. !ccording to Iaul Si%pson "2;;.: 3=+#: to do stylistics is to e2plore language: and: %ore specifically: to e2plore creativity in language use. (anguage in its *roadest conceptuali,ation is not a disorgani,ed %ass of sounds and sy%*ols: *ut is instead an intricate 0e* of levels: layers and lin-s. /ere is a list of the %a6or !e-e!s of !an "a e and their related technical ter%s in language study: along 0ith a *rief description of 0hat each level covers: Le-e! of !an "a e The sound of spo-en language7 the 0ay 0ords are pronounced. 5ranch of !an "a e st"d$ Ihonology7 phonetics 'raphology $orphology Synta27 gra%%ar (e2ical analysis: le2icology

The patterns of written language7 the shape of language on the page. The 0ay 0ords are constructed7 0ords and their constituent structures. The 0ay 0ords co%*ine 0ith other 0ords to for% phrases and sentences The 0ords 0e use7 the voca*ulary of a language

The #eanin of 0ords and sentences

Se%antics the %eaning of

The 0ay 0ords and sentences are Irag%atics7 used in everyday situations7 discourse analysis language in conte2t

!ccording to I. Si%pson "2;;.: +#: these *asic levels of language can *e identified and teased out in the stylistic analysis of te2t: 0hich in turn %a-es the analysis itself %ore organi,ed and principled.

2. VA6IETIES OF T7E EN3LIS7 LAN3UA3E 2.1. Introd"ction The ter% -ariet$ is used in sociolinguistics and stylistics to refer to any syste% of linguistic e2pression 0hose use is governed *y situational varia*les. In so%e cases: the situational varia*les of the language %ay *e easily stated: as in %any regional and occupational varieties "e.g. (ondon nglish: religious nglish#7 in other cases: as in studies of social class: the varieties are %ore difficult to define: involving the intersection of several varia*les "e.g. se2: age: occupation#. (inguists recogni,e five %a6or types of language variation: 112 re ion: 122 socia! ro"p: 1#2 attit"de "or tenor#: 1)2 (edi"( "or (ode#: 182 fie!d of disco"rse "or do(ain# "see: for e2a%ple: S. 'reen*au% and R. Juir-: A Student2s Gra##ar of the "n lish /an ua e$ 1BB;: 4=+7 '. (eech et al$! "n lish Gra##ar for Today$ A New -ntroduction$ 2;;.: <=1;#. This section discusses a %odel that provides an approach to the variations 0e find in nglish in ter%s of t0o large categories: na%ely: the people 0ho use the language "the !an "a e "sers# and the situations 0hich people find the%selves in "the !an "a e "ses#. The %ore per%anent characteristics: referring to language users: are called dia!ects4 0hile the various situational factors that influence language use are collectively referred to as re isters. The first t0o types of variation "i.e.: region and social group# relate pri%arily to the !an "a e "ser. Ieople use a regional variety *ecause they live in a region or have once lived in that region. Si%ilarly: people use a social variety *ecause of their affiliation 0ith a social group. These varieties are relatively per%anent for the language user. The last three types of variation "i.e.: attitude Atenor#: %ediu% A%ode#: field of discourse "do%ain# refer to the !an "a e "se. Ieople select a type of variety according to the situation and the purpose of the co%%unication. Thus: the attitude "or tenor#: e2pressed through language is conditioned *y the relationship of the participants in the particular situation. The %ediu% "or %ode# %ay *e spo-en or 0ritten: generally depending on the pro2i%ity of the participants in the co%%unication. The field of discourse "or do%ain# relates to the activity in 0hich they are engaged. In spite of the diversity of these varieties: there is a co((on core "represented *y a set of gra%%atical le2ical features# present in all of the%: 0hich 6ustifies the application of the na%e 4 nglish5 to all the varieties. In the sections *elo0 0e consider these variations in language in %ore detail. 2.2. Variation accordin to !an "a e "ser

The characteristics of the language user 0hich can affect language include the follo0ing: regional origin7 social=class %e%*ership7 age7 gender. 2.2.1. 6e iona! -ariation0 dia!ects Varieties according to region are usually referred to as dia!ects. There are various types of dialects: including te%poral: regional: social and individual criteria. Te(pora! dialects refer to the older for%s of the nglish language: such as ?ld or $iddle nglish. So%e -no0ledge of the te%poral dialects: or of the earlier stages of nglish: is relevant to a full and correct understanding of the present=day language. Thus: reading Sha-espeare or trying to understand ite%s li-e kith and kin and ye olde tea sho33e re>uires historical infor%ation 0hich can *e found in reference *oo-s on the history of the nglish language or in ety%ological dictionaries. 6e iona! and socia! dia!ects reflect the geographic variation 0hich is e2tre%ely pro%inent in nglish. This variation %ay include regions 0ithin a single country or it %ay involve the national varieties of nglish. &urther%ore: the ur*an = rural divide continues to *e a %a6or source of variation. The %ost i%portant e2a%ples of regional studies of nglish are represented *y the dialect studies carried out in the Dnited States and )anada "The /in uistic Atlas of the 4nited States and .anada: acrony% /A4S.! ed. /. 8urath: 1B+4#: in ngland "The Survey of "n lish Dialects: S"D: ed. /. ?rton: 1B.2#: as 0ell as in Scotland "The /in uistic Atlas of Scotland! in 3 volu%es: ed. @. K. $athar: 1BC+#. &or e2a%ple: The Survey of "n lish Dialects largely ignored age and social differences: e%phasis *eing placed on far%ing culture. The o*6ect of the survey 0as to deter%ine phonetic: %orphological: syntactic and le2ical points using such %ethods as na%ing: co%pleting: tal-ing: converting "for e2a%ple: present to past tense#: and reverse >uestions "E9hat does corn %eanLG# in direct intervie0s. 'eographical dispersion is in fact the classic *asis for linguistic variation: and in the course of ti%e: 0ith poor co%%unications and relative re%oteness: such dispersion resulted in dialects *eco%ing so distinct that 0e regard the% as different languages. This latter stage 0as long ago reached 0ith the 'er%anic dialects that are no0 distinct languages: Dutch: nglish: 'er%an: S0edish: etc.: *ut it has not *een reached "and %ay not necessarily ever *e reached: given the %odern ease and range of co%%unication# 0ith the dialects of nglish that have resulted fro% the regional separation of co%%unities 0ithin the 1ritish Isles "e.g. 9elsh: Scottish#. The ter% 4dialect5 is often used to reflect regional origin: as in: for e2a%ple: 3e0 ngland dialect: )oc-ney "(ondon# dialect: *ut can *e used to refer to any language variety related to the personal characteristics listed a*ove. 9e can often tell 0here a person co%es fro% *y the 0ay sAhe spea-s. Depending on ho0 fa%iliar 0e are 0ith the variety of a given region: 0e %ay *e a*le to identify: for e2a%ple: )oc-ney "the dialect spo-en *y a native of (ondon: especially of the ast nd#: 'las0egian "the dialect used *y an inha*itant of 'lasgo0# or Scouse "the dialect of nglish spo-en in and around (iverpool#. ?n an international level: 0e %ay *e a*le to identify: dialect features of !ustralian: )anadian: )ari**ean or Singaporean nglish. 9e can identify speech on the *asis of its pronunciation: voca*ulary or gra%%ar. &or e2a%ple: in Kor-shire dialect: as in so%e other northern nglish dialects: the 0ords 3ut and 3utt are pronounced ali-e *ecause the vo0el MNO found in the standard or southern pronunciation of 0ords such as 3utt: cu3! bus: etc. is not used. Kor-shire dialect also has its o0n voca*ulary: for e2a%ple the use of the 0ord ha33en to %ean 3erha3s$ ?n the level of gra%%ar: the dialect has were as the past tense of the ver* be in all its for%s: so that: for e2a%ple: he were is co%%only heard instead of he was.

Idio!ect 1or a person5s indi-id"a! dia!ect2 refers not so %uch to a different sort of dialect as to a selection of dialects: 0hich together %a-e up a large part of a person5s linguistic individuality. !lthough idiolect can contain a fe0 ite%s that only this person uses: it usually consists of the esta*lished voca*ulary co%%on to %ost spea-ers of the person5s speech co%%unity. It is >uite difficult to descri*e so%eone5s idiolect as it tends to change over ti%e and according to the circu%stances he or she finds herself or hi%self in. Idiolect 0ill: for e2a%ple: reflect a person5s gender in the choice of le2is and it %ay 0ell sho0 regional %i2es of one -ind or another. !%erican 0riters: for e2a%ple: %ay use 1ritish ite%s li-e tarted u3 or roof rack: or use native faucet *eside ta3$ Idiolects are therefore not fi2ed once and for all: *ut are dyna%ic: changing according to ti%e: place: occasion: etc. 2.2.2. Socia! -ariation0 Standard -s. non.standard En !ish 9ithin each of the dialects there is considera*le variation in speech according to education: socio=econo%ic group: and ethnic group. So%e differences correlate 0ith age and se2. There is an i%portant polarity *et0een uneducated and educated speech in 0hich the for%er can *e identified 0ith the nonstandard regional dialect"s# %ost co%pletely 0hile the latter %oves a0ay fro% regional usage to a for% of nglish that cuts across various regional *oundaries. @ust as educated nglish - saw cuts across regional *oundaries: so do %any features of uneducated use: a typical e2a%ple is the dou*le negative: as in He didn2t see nothin : 0hich is regarded as unaccepta*le in Standard nglish: *ut 0hich continues to *e used as an e%phatic for% in uneducated speech 0herever nglish is spo-en "'reen*au% P Juir-: 1BB;: +#. ?ne should also note that educated nglish naturally tends to *e given the additional prestige of govern%ent agencies: the professions: the political parties: the press: the la0 court: and the clergy: i.e. any institution 0hich %ust atte%pt to address itself to a pu*lic *eyond the s%allest dialectal co%%unity. 1ecause educated nglish is thus accorded i%plicit social and political sanction: it co%es to *e referred to as Standard En !ish. Standard En !ish is the variety of nglish found in ne0spapers and *oo-s: 0idely used in the %ass %edia and taught in %ost schools "0here nglish is studied as a second or foreign language#. It is clearly associated 0ith education and *roadcasting in pu*lic conte2ts and is %ore nor%ally descri*ed in ter%s of the 0ritten language "i.e. voca*ulary: spelling: gra%%ar# than the spo-en language. !ccording to (eech et al$! Ethe standard language is in fact 6ust another variety or dialect: in nglish use throughout the 0orld: there are si%ilar 4standardi,ed5 varieties 0idely accepted as the %ost suita*le for pu*lic co%%unication. 1eginning in 1ritain %ore than five hundred years ago: Standard nglish *eca%e esta*lished as that variety 0hich 0as generally used *y southern 1ritish: educated spea-ers of the language: and in 0riting and in pu*lic usage including: no0adays: radio and television. Standard nglish is so%eti%es -no0n as 411) nglish5 or even 4The Jueen5s nglish5. ! si%ilar standard "0ith so%e differences: for e2a%ple: in spelling and pronunciation# e2ists for !%erican nglish. Standard nglish is not inherently *etter or %ore 4gra%%atical5 than non=standard nglish Q all varieties are gra%%atical in that they follo0 rules. )learly: Standard nglish gained prestige for social rather than linguistic reasons. It 0as ulti%ately *ased on the usage of educated people living in the south=east of ngland: 0here the i%portant institutions of govern%ent and education *eca%e esta*lishedG "(eech et al.: 2;;.: C#. In contrast 0ith Standard nglish: for%s that are especially associated 0ith uneducated "rather than dialectal# use are generally called Non.standard. 3on=standard for%s are those for%s 0hich are different fro% the usage of educated spea-ers and considered *y so%e incorrect and not accepted in Standard nglish.

2.2.#. Variation accordin to a e and ender Scholars ad%it that little is -no0n a*out the effect of a e on language variation: *ut there are gra%%atical features 0hich distinguish age dialects to so%e e2tent. &or e2a%ple: the >uestion Have you any #oneyL is %ore li-ely to *e as-ed *y an older spea-er of 1ritish nglish than a younger spea-er: 0ho 0ould *e %ore li-ely to use the construction "nor%al for !%erican nglish#: Do you have any #oneyL 3ender and the use of linguistic varieties: differences of language *ehaviour *et0een %ale and fe%ale spea-ers have *een the focus of great interest in recent years. 3ota*ly: (eech et al. "2;;.: B# provide so%e e2a%ples of typical linguistic differences *et0een %ale and fe%ale spea-ers: = &e%ale spea-ers sho0 a tendency to use %ore standard pronunciation than %en. &or e2a%ple: in 0ords such as ettin ! s3eakin : etc.: 0o%en are %ore inclined to use the standard pronunciation of Qin as AiRA: unli-e %en 0ho tend to use the pronunciations of Q in as AinA. = $ales sho0 a stronger tendency to use non=standard gra%%ar: for e2a%ple: dou*le negative constructions: as in - ain2t doin nothin ! - didn2t want no trouble$ 5 $ales also sho0 a stronger tendency to use ta*oo 0ords "0ords that people avoid *ecause they are e2tre%ely offensive or e%*arrassing# and 4rude5 e2pressions. = !nother difference is a tendency a%ong %ales to use less polite language "i.e. *ald=on record strategies#: such as plain i%perative for%s: e.g.: Sit down. &e%ale spea-ers: on the other hand: sho0 a preference for hedging: for less confrontational "or less aggressive# strategies: such as /et2s sit down: 6ould you like to sit down: etc. 9e conclude this section *y pointing out that all these characteristics of the language user can co%*ine and interact 0ith one another: so that any individual 0ill spea- a language variety %ade up of features associated 0ith several factors. &or e2a%ple: ta*oo e2pressions are associated 0ith: "i# gender differences "%ales rather than fe%ales#7 "ii# social stratification "lo0er social strata rather than higher#7 "iii# age variation "younger people rather than older#. 2.#. Variation accordin to !an "a e "se0 re ister Variation in language depends on 0hen and 0here so%eone lives as 0ell as on 0hat his or her gender and social class identities are: *ut it also depends on E0hat you are spea-ing a*out7 0ho your addressees are7 ho0 0ell you -no0 the%7 0hether you are addressing the% orally or in 0ritingG "Juir- P Stein: 1BB;: 41#. This second set of factors relates not so %uch to the individual user as to language use in certain situations. 9hile the ter% 4dialect5 nor%ally refers to language variation according to the user: the ter% 4re ister5 refers to variation according to use "diatype or 4style5 in a general sense#. Register can *e su*divided into three factors of language use: each of 0hich %ay affect the language variety: na%ely: "i# Attit"de "st$!e or tenor#7 "ii# Medi"( "or (ode#7 "iii# Fie!d of disco"rse "or do(ain# 2.#.1. Attit"de 1St$!e or tenor# The nature of our relation to others: as conveyed *y Ethose features 0hich are restricted to a certain social conte2tG ")rystal P Davy: 1B.B: .;#: so%eti%es ter%ed persona! tenor: is e2pressed in the st$!e of our co%%unication. Varieties according to attitude "tenor# or according to the relationship *et0een a spea-er and the addressee"s# in a given situation: e2pressed *y greater or less for%ality: are often called 4stylistic5. These varieties refer to the choice that depends on our attitude to the hearer "or reader#: to the topic: and to the purpose of our co%%unication.

Style involves a nu%*er of factors 0hich can *e divided up into a nu%*er of different levels. ?ne of the %ost 0idely accepted criteria of style is that of for(a!it$: 0ith a *asic opposition *et0een for(a! and infor(a!. So%e linguists suggest further: finer distinctions 0ithin the for(a! Ainfor(a! opposition. !ccording to (eech et al. "2;;.: B#: there is a gradient in attitude *et0een for(a! "relatively stiff: cold: polite: i%personal# and infor(a! "relatively rela2ed: 0ar%: casual: friendly#7 in= *et0een: there is a neutral nglish level *earing no o*vious attitudinal colouring: 0hich *elongs to the co%%on core of nglish. &or e2a%ple: a re>uest to close the 0indo0 %ight *e e2pressed *y 6ould you be so kind as to close the window7 in a very for%al situation: co%pared 0ith Shut the window! To# 5 in an infor%al situation. The relationship *et0een the participants in the situation 0ill affect the -ind of language chosen: particularly in ter%s of the degree of for%ality: 0e can contrast an intervie0 for a 6o*: a chat a%ong friends: a research article on outer space: etc. There are significant choices of !e,ica! ite(s: for instance: inti%ate and collo>uial voca*ulary occurring in the chat a%ong friends: contrasting 0ith a high degree of technical: speciali,ed language in the research article. !s already pointed out: for%ality also has the effect of producing speech 0hich is closer to the standard. &or e2a%ple: a 0itness in court %ight *e careful to say He didn2t do it! 8our Honour: rather than 9" never done it: 0hich %ight *e said to )oc-ney=spea-ing friends outside the courtroo%. The conclusion to *e dra0n fro% these e2a%ples is that a spea-er has to -no0 the right -ind of language 0hich should *e used in certain circu%stances: though so%eti%es the 0rong choice %ay *e %ade deli*erately: for instance: for hu%orous or ironic effect. So%e linguists: such as R. Juir- et al$ "1BC+#: avoid the rather a%*iguous ter% EstyleG and replace it 0ith EattitudeG. This ter% has the advantage of allo0ing us to include attitudinal aspects li-e EderogatoryG or Ehu%orousG: even though it %a-es personal tenor a polyvalent field. The preference for the ter% EattitudeG rather than EstyleG lies in the scholars5 0ish to e%phasi,e the fact that the persona! tenor *et0een people co%%unicating involves a great deal %ore than the degree of for%ality: as suggested *y their scale presented in &igure 1. *elo0 "Juir- et al$ 1BC+: 1.33#. very for%al Q &?R$!( Q neutral Q I3&?R$!( Q very infor%al fro,en S=====================================T casual rigid fa%iliar The use of s%all caps for &?R$!( and I3&?R$!( is intended to indicate that these are the ter%s chiefly e%ployed. Fi "re 10 Attit"de 9St$!e: "fro% R. Juir- et al. 1BC+# There are other factors that should *e ta-en into account in esti%ating style: na%ely distance "including politeness as %ore distant and slang as a sign of in=group closeness# as 0ell as attitude "including ironic: angry: negative=derogatory: hu%orous: and %uch %ore#. Distinctions in attitude "or tenor: style#: referring to the for%ality of any given piece of language: are also found in dictionaries 0hich have such !a;e!s as for#al! fa#iliar! infor#al: collo'uial! slan . $ost le2ical ite%s are not la*elled *ecause they are stylistically neutral. There is often little agree%ent on 0hether an ite% is collo'uial or slan : or on ho0 %any levels ought to *e set up.

! 0ell=-no0n %odel for this type of variety is the study of style proposed *y the Dutch linguist $artin @oos. In his *oo-: The *ive .locks "1B.1#: @oos ta-es a variety of factors into account including social relationships: voca*ulary and gra%%ar. /e descri*es five distinctive conte2t=related styles that spea-ers of the nglish language use on a regular *asis: these are the five cloc-s: or registers or levels of nglish usage. The five styles of nglish usage recogni,ed *y @oos are: fro,en: for%al: consultative: casual: and inti%ate: descri*ed as follo0s: The fro,en style is used for print and decla%ation7 people re%ain social strangers: since there is no t0o=0ay participation. Voca*ulary contains archais%s and e2tre%ely for%al 0ords. The for%al style is descri*ed as follo0s: EThus conversations *et0een strangers *egin in for%al style7 a%ong ur*ane strangers in nglish=spea-ing cultures: the for%al span is only the cere%ony of introduction: 0hose function is to insure that no real *usiness shall *e i%peded *y for%ality7 it then lasts for one consultative speech=span: appro2i%ately si2 secondsFG "@oos: 1B.1: 3+# In this style: e%phasis is put on e2act voca*ulary. The consultative style is characteri,ed *y t0o defining features: "i# The spea-er supplies *ac-ground infor%ation Q he does not assu%e that he 0ill *e understood 0ithout itF "ii# The addressee participates continuously: %ar-ed *y a special type of *ac-channel *ehaviour: e.g. the participant5s use of yes! yeah! that2s ri ht! oh! - see! yes! - know : etc. to indicate active listening. 1ecause of these t0o features: consultative style is our nor% for co%ing to ter%s 0ith strangersF "@oos: 1B.1: 23# Voca*ulary includes all=purpose 0ords li-e thin : and %ore specific or e2act ones li-e ite#! 3lan! 3roble#! event: etc. The casual style is for friends: ac>uaintances: EFthere is a*sence of *ac-ground infor%ation and no reliance on listeners5 participation. This is not rudeness7 it pays the addressee the co%pli%ent of supposing that he 0ill understand 0ithout those aids. 9e have t0o devices 0hich do the sa%e 6o* directly: ellipsis: and slang: the t0o defining features of casual styleG "i*id: 23# Voca*ulary contains nu%erous le2ical ite%s characteri,ed as collo'uial or slan . The inti%ate style is not used for pu*lic infor%ation: the %essage %eaning is in the intonation: not the 0ording or gra%%ar "0hich are %ini%al#. This *revity is not rudeness: *ut the highest co%pli%ent "i*id: 31# Voca*ulary includes private language: 0hich Eis not ephe%eral: *ut part of the per%anent code of this group Q it has to *e: for inti%acy does not tolerate the slang i%putation that the addressee needs to *e told that she is an insider.G "i*id: 32# The five=ter% %odel of style proposed *y $. @oos can *e illustrated in this 0ay: St$!e E,a(p!e &ro,en style: :isitors should #ake their way at once to the u33er floor by way of the staircase$ &or%al: :isitors should o u3 the stairs at once. )onsultative: 6ould you #ind oin u3stairs! ri ht away! 3lease. )asual: Ti#e you all went u3stairs! now$ Inti%ate: 43 you o! cha3s; !s 0e can notice: a change in tenor involves %uch %ore than a si%ple change in the stylistic level of the le2e%es " visitors vs. cha3s#. There is: for e2a%ple: a change in the length and e2plicitness of the %essage: fro% #ake their way to o! and fro% the u33er floor to u3$ &or%ality choices often go hand in hand 0ith %ediu% differences: *ut they are ulti%ately deter%ined *y the relationship *et0een the people concerned. The closer the sender "spea-er or 0riter# feels to his or her addressee"s#: the %ore infor%al the language 0hich the sender can use. )onversely: the %ore distant the personal relationship: the %ore for%al the personal

tenor is li-ely to *e. The fro,en and for%al versions a*ove are li-ely to *e announce%ents over a ship5s I! syste% "i.e. pu*lic address syste%#: 0here the spea-er does not see his or her addressees: 0hile the other three versions can only *e uttered 0hen the spea-er and hearer see each other. Iersonal tenor is thus often deter%ined *y physical closeness or distance. &oreign learners should *e careful of using very infor%al or potentially offensive le2e%es 0ith people they do not -no0 0ell. The approaches revie0ed in his section ")rystal P Davy: Juir- et al$: (eech et al.: $. @oos# offer a differentiated understanding of style. In %ost dictionaries the la*els for#al and infor#al predo%inate and can *e associated 0ith the sa%e in Juir- et al$ or 0ith for%al and casual in @oos. ntries %ar-ed as archaic! obsolete! old5fashioned! 3oetic! or 3o#3ous "often a**reviated# are all e2a%ples of very for%alAfro,en. (a*els li-e collo'uial! dero atory! slan ! taboo! vul ar are less clear and overlap 0ith areas covered *y *oth infor%alAcasual and very infor%alAinti%ate. 2.#.2. Medi"( "or (ode2 Medi"( is often used synony%ously 0ith the ter% channe!. (anguage is pri%arily trans%itted via the %ediu% of speech "or phonic (edi"(# along the channel or 4route5 of sound=0aves in the air7 and secondarily via the %ediu% of %ritin "or raphic (edi"(# along the channel or 4route5 of the 0ritten or printed page. (anguage is %uch affected *y %ediu%: stress and intonation are conveyed in speech: *ut not in 0riting7 0riting: 0hich can *e read and re=read across distances of space and ti%e: tends to *e %ore for%al and %ore co%ple2 in structure and %eaning than speech. The %ain differences *et0een spo-en and 0ritten nglish derive fro% t0o sources: i. The sit"ation of co%%unication: since the use of a 0ritten %ediu% nor%ally presupposes the a*sence of the person"s# addressed: 0riters %ust *e far %ore e2plicit to ensure that they are understood. ii. $any of the de-ices 0e use to trans%it language *y speech "stress: rhyth%: intonation: te%po# are i%possi*le to represent 0ith the relatively li%ited repertoire of conventional orthography. In conse>uence: 0riters often have to refor%ulate their sentences to convey fully and successfully 0hat they 0ant to e2press 0ithin the orthographic syste% availa*le to the%. !n illustration of this variety is provided *y (eech et al. "2;;.: 1;# 0ho point out that spo<en language used in face=to=face situations relies on %any =non=ver*al5 signals such as gestures and facial e2pressions. ?n the telephone: ho0ever: the visual channel is not availa*le so that: for e2a%ple: 8es or 8eah has to *e su*stituted for head=nodding. In 0riting: only the visual channel is availa*le so the effect of intonation: or 4tone of voice5 cannot *e conveyed: e2cept: in part: *y graphic %eans such as e2cla%ation %ar-s and >uestion %ar-s "U: L#. >ritten language usually involves addressees 0ho are not present and so cannot respond i%%ediately: and this has an effect on the language. &or e2a%ple: in letters or e=%ail %essages: direct and shortened >uestions tend to *e less co%%on than in conversation: so that one %ight *e %ore li-ely to 0rite so%ething li-e /et #e know whether you are co#in rather than .o#in L Scholars have noticed that there is a fascinating %erger of these %odes "0ritten and spo-en language#: represented *y electronic co%%unication: using the internet. 2.#.#. Fie!d of disco"rse 1or do(ain2 The field of discourse& do%ain "also called pro-ince# reflects ho0 language varies according to the hu%an occupational or professional activity in 0hich it plays a part. It also reflects the fact that one needs different 0ords to tal- a*out different su*6ects. There are %any ter%s that characteri,e particular su*6ects: for e2a%ple: ety#olo y and le0e#e are found in linguistics7 others ta-e on special %eanings: for e2a%ple to boot u3 and hardware in

co%puting: etc. There are also co%*inations of le2ical ite%s that are typical of certain fields: e.g. desirable residence! or co#3act 3atio5style arden! 0hich are found in the advertise%ents of property agents in ngland. 9hen 0e carry on a general conversation a*out ho**ies: people: the 0eather: our holidays: etc.: these everyday uses of language are easy *ecause they do not %a-e great de%ands on our %inds or linguistic a*ilities. 1ut 0hen 0e %ove fro% the general field of everyday conversation to speciali,ed fields: such as: che%istry: engineering: or surgery: the nu%*er of people 0ho understand the language: or could the%selves use it: is rather %ore li%ited. ! spea-er has a repertoire of varieties: according to field and s0itches to the appropriate one as occasion de%ands. ! se%inar a*out che%istry: for e2a%ple: 0ill involve a 0ider range of voca*ulary: %ore technical ter%s and possi*ly longer sentences than a conversation a*out our holidays. Si%ilarly: the language of a legal docu%ent 0ill *e different fro% that of an advertise%ent: and the language of a religious service 0ill *e different fro% that of ne0spaper reporting. 9e can thus refer to do%ains of la0: engineering: che%istry: religion: sports: and so on. There are very %any fields depending on ho0 detailed 0e 0ish our analysis to *e. The categories of register variation interact 0ith other categories since *oth the di%ensions of user and use are al0ays present. 'eneral language is distinguished fro% technical language *y its le2is "typically represented *y a particular set of le2ical ite%s#: though other factors are also i%portant. 9hile a co%%and of various technical voca*ularies is a %atter of education and e2perience: their actual use is conditioned *y various factors. Technical ter%s used *y a surgeon in a hospital or a la0yer in a court of la0 are of course a convenient and precise %eans of co%%unication. /o0ever: 0hen e2perts use technical ter%s 0ith %e%*ers of the general pu*lic things are rather different: either they are incapa*le or un0illing to ad6ust their language: perhaps *ecause they 0ant to put distance *et0een the% and their interlocutors in order to i%press or e2clude the%. This is an illustration of language used as social po0er: since solidarity 0ith other people 0ould sho0 in 0ords that every*ody can understand. E,ercise: Identify the categories of language use "!ttitude ATenor7 $ediu% A $ode7 &ield of discourseA Do%ain# in the follo0ing sa%ples of language: 1. After readin this! other central heatin syste#s won2t look so hot$ 2. ST4NN-NG Rachel Hunter has du#3ed 3o3 su3erstar Robbie 6illia#s because she can no lon er co3e with his 93aranoia2$ The Sun can reveal$ <The Sun =>>?% 3. ,raise and lory and wisdo#! thanks ivin and honour! 3ower and #i ht! be to our God for ever and ever; A#en$ 4. A#erica has entered a reat stru le that tests our stren th! and even #ore our resolve$ Our nation is 3atient and steadfast$ +. @SN @essen er) the #ost 3o3ular! fun and 3ersonal way to chat online$ .. So what2s likely to ha33en now7 6ell the re3ort has been sent to the director of ,ublic ,rosecutions! in view of er certain evidence$ E,a(p!e0 After readin this! other central heatin syste#s won2t look so hot

Tenor: infor%al7 Mode: 0ritten7 +o(ain: advertising

?. T7E FUNCTIONAL STYLES OF T7E EN3LIS7 LAN3UA3E The functional style of the language represents the choice of speech %eans that characterise a special for% of speech activity. The choice of speech %eans depends on the spea-er5s esti%ation of the speech situation itself. This esti%ation co%prises several aspects: i. The situation of the given speech act: the spea-er5s attitude to the addressee Q 0hether it is official or inti%ate: sole%n or natural "free and easy going#: etc.: represented *y attit"de "tenor#. ii. The %echanis% of co%%unication %ay *e different: it %ay *e either in 0ritten or oral for%: i.e. (edi"( "(ode#. iii. The reali,ation of purposes of co%%unication: that %ay *e different Q *usiness infor%ation: scientific e2planation: spea-er5s e%otional attitude to0ards the o*6ect of speech: official agree%ent: etc.: represented *y fie!d of disco"rse Referring to the diversity of styles: 8atie 9ales states that Ethere are different styles in different situations7 also the sa%e activity can produce stylistic variation. So style can *e seen as variation in language use: 0hether literary or non=literary. The ter% re ister is also used for those syste%atic variations in linguistic features co%%on to particular non=literary situations: e.g. advertising: legal language: sports co%%entaryG "9ales: 2;;1: 3<1#. Dsed e2tensively in stylistics and sociolinguistics: the ter% re ister refers to a variety of language defined according to the sit"ation. The ter% itself suggests a scale of differences: of degrees of for%ality: appropriate to different social uses of language. It is part of the co%%unicative co%petence of every spea-er that sAhe 0ill constantly s0itch usages: 0ill select certain features of gra%%ar or le2is: in the different situations of everyday life: such as: a che%istry se%inar: a chat a%ong friends: a *usiness letter: a ser%on: a telephone conversation: etc.: since all these uses of language serve different social roles. In the last fe0 decades: there has *een increased interest in these aspects of language. !s 0e pointed out in chapter t0o of this *oo- "Varieties of the nglish language: pp. 1.=31#: the choice of situational features depends on three %ain varia*les: na%ely: attitude or tenor: i.e. the relations *et0een participants "e.g. social roles# 0hich %ay influence degrees of for%ality7 %ediu% or %ode "e.g. speech or 0riting: for%at#7 field or su*6ect %atter. !nother feature to *e added to these varia*les is the function of the variety "9ales: 2;;1: 33<#: such as e2pository: didactic: etc. Thus: a TV sports co%%entary is considered a distinctive variety: 0ith a special voca*ulary reflecting the su*6ect %atter: the functions of descri*ing and evaluating: and the fairly infor%al relations *et0een the co%%entator and the audience. (inguists have dra0n attention to the fact that different registers %ay overlap 0ith each other

in ter%s of function or %ediu%: 0ith the result that %any linguistic features 0ill *e co%%on to several registers. These distinctions in varieties of language are also seen in pheno%ena of register= s0itching: register=%i2ing or register=*orro0ing. !n illustration of register=*orro0ing is usually found in the novel: 0hich can a*sor* the conventions of non=literary varieties for %i%etic: i%itative effects: e.g. 4reproducing5 ne0spaper articles: telegra%s: etc. This aspect is also central in the theory of interte,t"a!it$ "co%%on in te2t linguistics# 0hich can *e defined as a te2t in relation to other te2ts: so that even 0ithin a single te2t there can *e a continual 4dialogue5 *et0een the given te2t and other te2ts that e2ist outside it: literary or non=literary. D. )rystal and D. Davy analyse five types of style: the language of conversation: the language of unscripted co%%entary: the language of religion: the language of ne0spaper reporting: the language of legal docu%ents. !s suggestions for further analysis: the t0o linguists propose: the language of television advertising: the language of press advertising: the language of pu*lic spea-ing: the language of 0ritten instructions: civil service language: spo-en legal language: the language of *roadcast tal-s and ne0s: the language of science ")rystal P Davy: 1B.B: 21C=2+1#. In this chapter: 0e discuss general characteristics of the follo0ing styles: the style of fiction "the literary style# "..1.#: the style of ne0spapersA6ournalis% "..2.#: scientific style "..3.# and the style of official docu%ents "legal: ad%inistrative: *usiness# "..4#. #.1 T7E STYLE OF FICTION #.1.1. 3enera! considerations !ccording to 8. 9ales "2;;1: 1+;#: fiction is thought of as a genre consisting of i%aginary and i%aginative prose narratives: chiefly novels: *ut also short stories: in other 0ords: the essence of literature. She further dra0s attention to the fact that: actually: fictional literature is not all fiction "e.g. so%e novels %ay refer to 4real5 events or people not fictitious#7 another aspect pointing to the diversity of this genre is that not all literature is fiction "there is poetry and dra%a as 0ell as the novel: and lyric as 0ell as narrative poetry#7 nor is all literature fictional "0e %ay study @ohn Donne5s ser%ons: or the !uthori,ed Version of the 1i*le as literature#. The style of fiction refers to the language of literature: represented *y prose: poetry and dra%a. ach of these su*styles has certain co%%on features: typical of the style of literature or literary fiction. !t the sa%e ti%e: each of these su*styles also has certain individual features and characteristics. The %ain feature: 0hich all su*styles *elonging to the style of fiction have in co%%on: is the niti-e f"nction. It is a dou*le f"nction that ai%s at the cognitive process: 0hich secures the gradual unfolding of the idea to the reader: and at the sa%e ti%e evo-es Efeelings of pleasureG and satisfaction 0hich a reader e2periences *ecause he is a*le to penetrate into the author5s idea and to for% his o0n conclusions. "$iVVW-ovX: 2;;3: 11+#. In other 0ords: the functions of this style ai% to arouse e%otions: to sti%ulate people5s thin-ing: i%agination: also to entertain. #.1.2. Lin "istic feat"res of the !iterar$ st$!e The literary style co%prises poetry: fiction or "e%otive# prose and dra%a: 1a2 The !an "a e of poetr$ is characteri,ed *y its orderly for%: 0hich is *ased %ainly on the rhyth%ic and phonetic arrange%ent of the utterances. The rhyth%ic aspect calls forth syntactic and se%antic peculiarities. There are certain restrictions 0hich result in *revity of

e2pression: epigra%=li-e utterances and fresh: une2pected i%agery. !t a syntactic level: this *revity is sho0n in elliptical sentences: in detached constructions: in inversion: etc. 1;2 The !an "a e of fictiona! prose 1or prose fiction2 shares the sa%e co%%on features: *ut these features are correlated differently than in poetry. The i%agery is not so rich as in poetry7 the percentage of 0ords 0ith conte2tual %eaning so not so high. &ictional prose displays the co%*ination of the literary variant of the language: *oth in 0ords and in synta2: 0ith the collo>uial variant. 1ut the collo>uial variant in this style is not a si%ple reproduction of the natural speech: it has undergone changes introduced *y the 0riter and has *een %ade Eliterature=li-eG. There are al0ays t0o for%s of co%%unication present in fictional prose: %onologue "the 0riter5s speech# and dialogue "the speech of the characters#. !lthough prose fiction allo0s the use of ele%ents fro% other styles as 0ell: these styles undergo a -ind of transfor%ation under the influence of fictional prose. Iassages 0ritten in other styles %ay *e vie0ed only as interpolations: additions and not as constituents of the style. 1c2 The !an "a e of dra(a is entirely dialogue. The author5s speech is al%ost entirely e2cluded e2cept for the play0right5s re%ar-s and stage directions. 1ut the language of the characters is not the e2act reproduction of the nor%s of collo>uial language. !ny variety of the style of fiction 0ill use the nor%s of the literary language of the given period. The language of plays is al0ays styli,ed: striving to retain the features of literary nglish. The %ain linguistic features of the fictional style can *e su%%ari,ed as follo0s: i. The fictional style is highly e%otional: su*6ective and e2pressive7 ii. There is focus on structure 0hich helps to support the the%e: to create a particular effect: to evo-e e%otions7 iii. So%e literary pieces have strictly defined for% and characteristic layout: especially in poetry7 iv. !n i%portant linguistic feature of the fictional style is represented *y genuine "not trite# i%agery: also %eanings and %essages encoded 4*et0een the lines5: as 0ell as a specific discourse situation *et0een the author and the reader: achieved *y %eans of particular linguistic devices. v. !nother e2tre%ely conspicuous feature is the e2tensive use of le2ical ite%s in a conte2t %eaning: very often in %ore than one dictionary %eaning: or at least greatly influenced *y the le2ical environ%ent. vi. The voca*ulary occurring in the fictional style 0ill reflect to a greater or lesser e2tent the author5s personal evaluation of things and pheno%ena. There is a peculiar individual selection of voca*ulary: and synta2: a -ind of le2ical and syntactic idiosyncrasy. vii. le%ents of collo>uial language appear to a large e2tent in dra%a: to a lesser e2tent in prose: and to a very slight degree: if any in poetry. #.1.#. T$pes of (eanin In this section 0e discuss four types of %eaning used *y 0riters in the fictional style: na%ely: denotative: connotative: figurative and sy%*olic %eaning. #.1.#.1. +enotati-e (eanin +enotation 1denotati-e2 is a ter% used in se%antics as part of the classification of types of %eaning: *eing opposed to connotation. 4Denotative #eanin 2 involves the relationship *et0een a linguistic unit "especially a le2ical ite%# and the non=linguistic entities to 0hich it refers: *eing thus e>uivalent to referentia! %eaning. &or e2a%ple: the denotation of the noun do is its dictionary definition of 4canine >uadruped5: etc7 its connotations %ight include 4friend5: 4helper5: 4co%petition5: etc. ")rystal: 1BB2: B<#. Denotative %eaning can *e also defined "9ales: 2;;1: 1;;# as the *asic: central: conceptual or referential %eaning of 0ords: 0ithout the associations "connotations# or

%etaphoric %eanings 0hich they can ac>uire in particular conte2ts. In popular speech: this type of %eaning is ter%ed !itera! %eaning. In everyday interchange: our usual e2pectation is that literal %eanings are the nor%: 0e only loo- for a non=literal interpretation of an utterance if 0e can5t other0ise %a-e sense of it. #.1.#.2. Connotati-e (eanin Connotati-e (eanin is co%%only used to refer to all -inds of associations 0ords evo-e: e%otional: situational: etc.: particularly in certain conte2ts: over and a*ove the *asic denotational or conceptual %eaning. !lternative ter%s for 4connotative %eaning5 include affecti-e and e(oti-e. Thus ho#e defined as 4d0elling place5 has to %any people connotations of 4do%esticity5 and 40ar%th5. In literature: such connotative %eanings are particularly e2ploited: thus: in horror stories ni ht and thunder connote evil and %ystery7 in poetry dew5dro3s connote fragility: stars steadfastness: and various other %eanings pro%pted *y the conte2t. !s S. Ioole re%ar-s: the su*6ective association *et0een a le2e%e and a concept can arise fro% a person5s attitudes: or e2periences: &or instance: 0e thin- of the le2e%e turkey as denoting a particular -ind of *ird and connoting a particular festival "e.g. )hrist%as: Than-sgiving#7 also: the le2e%e school %ight connote *oredo% for so%e children "S. Ioole: 1BBB: 1CC#. The e2tent to 0hich connotations can *e distinguished fro% the 4*asic5 %eaning is controversial. In 0ords li-e woe! billow: a poetic >uality see%s part of the *asic %eaning. $any 0ords see% to have either a favoura*le %eaning "He e03ired#: or a derogatory %eaning "He snuffed it#. )ertainly connotations are often said to distinguish apparent synony%s. Thus: although house %eans a 4d0elling place5: 6ust li-e ho#e! it does not have the sa%e connotations as ho#e$ #.1.#.#. Fi "rati-e (eanin &igurative %eaning descri*es a very co%%on type of e2tension of %eaning for a 0ord "resulting in polyse%y or %ultiple %eaning#: i.e. *y %etaphoric transfer of senses. So: 0ords li-e #outh! head and foot have a literal: *asic or conceptual %eaning "0hich corresponds nor%ally to the *asic definitions in dictionaries#: and also a figurative or %etaphorical %eaning: as in phrases li-e #outh of the river1 head of the school! and foot of the bed$ !ccording to the representatives of deconstr"ction theory "e.g.: Iaul de $an in Alle ories of readin ) fi ural lan ua e in Rousseau! NietAche! Rilke and ,roust : 1B<B# there is no clear=cut distinction *et0een literal and figurative %eaning: that is to say: figurative language is not seen as pri%arily literary: all language is figurative. )ognitive linguists: such as '. (a-off and $. @ohnson " @eta3hors we live by: 1BC;# or R. 'i**s "The 3oetics of #ind) fi urative thou ht! lan ua e and understandin ! 1BB4# go further than deconstructionists and argue not only for the funda%ental i%portance of figurative language: u*i>uitous and not deviant: *ut also of 0hat they ter% fi "ration: for hu%an thought. The %ind is not seen as inherently literal: figurative processes *eing *asic to %any of our conceptuali,ations of e2perience. They further argue that: therefore: figurative language isn5t necessarily %ore difficult to produce and understand than literal language. &igurative can *e closely identified 0ith (etaphorica!4 and figurative language is fre>uently used to %ean si%ply %etaphorical language7 or else: %etaphor is seen as a very i%portant or *asic aspect of figurative language. &or e2a%ple: '. (eech " A /in uistic Guide to "n lish ,oetry! 1B.B: 1+;=3# considers synecdoche: %etaphor: and %etony%y under this heading of figurative language. $ore generally still: figurative language so%eti%es e%*races in literary criticis% all -inds of devices or features 0hich are se%antically or gra%%atically %ar-ed or unusual in so%e

0ay: nota*ly all the rhetorical figures of speech as 0ell as %etaphor: %etony%y and synecdoche. In this sense: figurative language can *e seen to *e characteristic of literary: especially poetic: language although it is also associated 0ith advertising. /ere si%iles: puns and other 0ordplay are particularly stri-ing for persuasive or eye=catching effects "e.g. cool as a #ountain strea#! etc.#. 1ut as cognitive linguists "'. (a-off: $. @ohnson: R. 'i**s# point out: even in ordinary conversation figurative language is >uite fre>uent: as in the for% of racy slang %etaphors "e.g. 3ickled! canned! stewed for 4drun-5#: or in hyper*ole or e2aggeration "was scared to death#: si%ile "as hard as nails! <as% cool as a cucu#ber#: etc. #.1.#.). S$(;o!ic (eanin Sy%*olic %eaning is usually characteristic for a culture or a certain conte2t. Different do%ains 0ithin each culture evolve their o0n special sets of s$(;o!s or s$(;o!is(. (iterature: for instance: dra0s on general sy%*ols " s3rin as a sy%*ol of life and *irth: winter as the sy%*ol of death: etc.#: and also 4literary5 sy%*ols: a popular field of study in literary criticis%. These %ay *e part of the literary heritage "e.g. the rose sy%*oli,ing *eauty and love: also swan sy%*oli,ing grace: elegance! the sun sy%*oli,ing glory: *rilliance: authority: life: etc.#7 other sy%*ols %ay *e idiolectal: i.e. created *y an individual 0riter: for instance: the sy%*olis% of 9illia% 1la-e "the tygerAtiger: the la%*# or the sy%*olis% of 9illia% 1utler Keats "the Second )o%ing Q the sy%*ol of the death of @esus )hrist#: etc. !ccording to 8. 9ales "2;;1: 3C;#: it is part of our literary co%petence that 0e tease out the sy%*olis% and 0hat it stands for fro% our interpretation of the i%agery: for e2a%ple: and fro% the conte2t. Ioetic sy%*ols are characteristically %etaphoric in structure. In novels: sy%*olis% %ay *e %ore diffuse in its reali,ation: characters: o*6ects or *uildings "e.g. Bleak House *y )h. Dic-ens# can ac>uire a sy%*olic force: a %ore a*stract or generali,ed significance: and so help to0ards an understanding of the the%e of the 0or- as a 0hole. ! te2t 0hich has a syste%atic level of %eaning other than the narrative is often ter%ed an alle ory! sy%*olis% *eing fre>uently associated 0ith it. In the %edieval drea%=vision poe% ,iers ,low#an: *y 9illia% (angland: there are allegorical characters such as (ady $ead and /unger: personifications of vices and virtues7 and sy%*olic characters li-e Iiers the plough%an hi%self: 0hose significance shifts in different parts of the poe%: Ieter the !postle: @esus )hrist: %an-ind. The style of fiction is individual in essence: indi-id"a!it$ *eing one of its %ost distinctive properties. Individuality 0hich is reflected in the selection of the language %eans "including stylistic devices# is highly apparent in the poetic style: in co%parison 0ith other styles found in ne0spapers: scientific prose: or in official docu%ents: 0here it is hardly noticea*le. The relationship *et0een the general and the particular assu%es different for%s in different styles: this relationship *eing differently %ateriali,ed even 0ithin one and the sa%e style. #.1.). The st$!istic ana!$sis of fiction #.1.).1. 3enera! considerations 9riters: 0hen co%posing their 0or-s of literature: can produce surprise effects: *y introducing into a te2t 0ords *elonging to another variety of language. The %a6ority of nglish literature is 0ritten in Standard nglish: considered as the nor%. )haracters spea-ing non=standard dialects in novels or plays stand out fro% the rest: and if a poet chooses to 0rite in a non=standard for%: this often i%plies a specific purpose. 2pressing opinions or having a dialogue represent different aspects of a person5s life *ecause people have different 0ays of spea-ing in a certain language.

The overall ai% of this chapter is to illustrate ho0 gra%%ar can help us to e2plore the for% and %eaning of a literary te2t: and thus gain insight into things 0hich 0ould other0ise escape our attention. Traditionally: 4gra%%ar5 is defined as Ea syste%atic description of a language as found in a sa%ple of speech or 0riting: e.g. in a corpus of %aterial: or as elicited fro% native spea-ersG ")rystal: 1BB1: 1+C#. In the te2t*oo- 0ritten *y (eech and his colleagues: the ter% 4gra%%ar5 is used to refer to the %echanis% *y 0hich language 0or-s 0hen 0e co%%unicate 0ith other people7 gra%%ar is further descri*ed as a set of rules 0hich allo0 us to put 0ords together in certain %eaningful 0ays "(eech et al: 2;;.: 3#. Style: vie0ed as the particular choice of language %ade *y an author: e%*odies that author5s 0ay of e2periencing and interpreting the 0orld. The e2cellence of literary artists %ust *e evident: ulti%ately: in their choice of language. 1ut 0e cannot study this choice of language 0ithout so%e -no0ledge of ho0 to discuss and analyse the language itself: including its gra%%ar. #.1.).2. Areas of st$!istic ana!$sis $ic- Short5s te2t*oo- "03lorin the /an ua e of ,oe#s! ,lays and ,rose "1BB.# provides an e2cellent e2a%ple of the assi%ilation of linguistic %ethod into literary studies via the stylistics interface. Dsing stylistics to %a-e the distinction *et0een the three literary genres = poetry: dra%a and prose =: Short considers ho0 readers interact 0ith literary 0or-s: ho0 they understand and are %oved *y the%. In ter%s of discourse structure: he distinguishes different layers: Thus: Eone layer of discourse structure "poet Q reader# is ade>uate to characteri,e the prototypical poe%. 9e need t0o levels of discourse structure to descri*e the prototypical play "the play0right Q audienceAreader level and the character Q character level#. 1ut to account for the prototypical novel or short story 0e need at least three levels of discourse: *ecause there is a narrator Q narratee level intervening *et0een the character Q character level and the author = reader levelG "1BB.: C;#. In another reference *oo-: Style in *iction) A /in uistic -ntroduction to "n lish *ictional ,rose "1BC1# its t0o authors: '. (eech P $. Short: lay do0n so%e *asic principles of stylistic analysis. !ccording to the%: the style features of narrative description should cover four %a6or areas: "a# le2is: "*# gra%%ar: "c# te2tual cohesion and coherence: "d# figures of speech. 1a2 9hen analy,ing the !e,is of a te2t: one should %a-e a distinction *et0een general le2is and specific le2is. 3enera! !e,is e2a%ines the open class "le2ical or %eaning=carrying# 0ords in the te2t. (eech and Short "1BC1: C;# suggest several >uestions or points to *e ans0ered 0hen analy,ing prose: i. The type of voca*ulary: si%ple or co%ple2 "%ade up of fe0 or %any sylla*les or %orphe%es in each 0ord#7 descriptive or evaluative voca*ulary7 general or specific7 ii. 9hether the 0riter %a-es great"est# use of referential or denotative "centralAcore# %eanings: or the reader has to thin- a*out connotations or other e%otive associations or 0ords7 iii. The presence of idio%s or non=literal phrases in the te2t: and their association 0ith a particular register or dialect7 iv. The presence of unusual 0ords: e.g. archaic: rare: speciali,ed voca*ulary7 v. 3oticea*le se%antic fields 0ithin the voca*ulary7 vi. 9hether the closed class 0ords "gra%%atical 0ords: pronouns: prepositions: con6unctions: deter%iners: au2iliaries: inter6ections# play a significant role in the te2t. The specific !e,is refers to the %orphological classes of 0ords: i. 9hether the nouns are a*stract or concrete7 9hether a*stract nouns refer to si%ilar -inds of ele%ents: as events: perceptions: processes: %oral >ualities: social >ualities7

ii. The fre>uency of ad6ectives in a te2t: -inds of attri*utes "physical: e%otional: visual: colour# they e%*ody7 their occurrence in co%parative or superlative for%s7 iii. The fre>uency of ver*s in a te2t7 types of ver*s: 0hether they are lin-ing: transitive or intransitive7 stative or dyna%ic7 0hether they refer to physical %ove%ent: psychological states or activities: perception7 iv. The fre>uency of adver*s: -inds of %eaning they have "%anner: place: direction: fre>uency: degree#7 their occurrence in co%parative or superlative for%s7 1;2 9ithin the second area represented *y ra((ar4 a distinction has to *e %ade *et0een general and specific gra%%ar features. !ccording to (eech and Short "1BC1: C;=C1#: gra%%ar features of a narrative te2t refer to any general types of gra%%atical construction used to special effect: co%parative or superlative constructions: parallelis%s: inter6ections or other speech=li-e pheno%ena. Specific ra((ar feat"res refer to: i. Characteristics of sentences ta-ing into account several criteria: the functional criterion "state%ents: >uestions: co%%ands or e2cla%atory#7 the structural one "si%ple: co%pound or co%ple2#7 the length of sentences "due to e%*edding of clauses inside one another: coordination of clauses: long phrases acting as single clause ele%ents#7 ii. T$pes of c!a"ses "relative: adver*ial: noun clauses# noticea*ly favoured in a te2t7 special features a*out the clauses: e.g.: a fre>uent and unusual place%ent of adver*ials: or 4fronting5 of o*6ect"s# or co%ple%ent"s#7 clauses 0ith Edu%%y su*6ectsG "there! it#: etc. iii. !t phrase !e-e!: the analysis is focused on 3Is and VIs No"n *hrases should *e analysed in ter%s of their si%ple or co%ple2 structures7 in co%ple2 3oun Ihrases 0e have to identify the fre>uency and types of pre=%odifiers "ad6ectives: nouns# as 0ell as types of post=%odification "prepositional phrases: relative clauses#7 Ver; *hrases: the tenses "present or past# noticea*ly favoured in a te2t7 sections of apparent narration 0here the tense is other than the si%ple past tense "continuous past: perfect: present#7 1c2 !nother area is represented *y te,t"a! cohesion "i.e. the specific features that lindifferent parts of a discourse# and coherence "i.e. the underlying functional connectedness of a piece of language#. 9ith reference to cohesion and coherence: there are several aspects to *e considered: i. 9hether the te2t contains logical connectives or other lin-s *et0een sentences "and! or! but! so! then# or it relies on i%plicit connections "6u2taposition: se>uence#7 ii. )ases of cross5reference or co5reference *y %eans of pronouns or ellipsis7 cases of ele ant variation! so as to avoid repetition7 iii. $eaning connections %ade *y %eans of le2ical repetition or *y the fre>uent use of 0ords fro% the sa%e se%antic field7 i-. &actors of interest in the EinteractionG *et0een the authorAnarrator and the reader7 1d2 Fi "res of speech0 so%e figures of speech "epithet: %etaphor: %etony%y: hyper*ole: o2y%oron# are found in *oth everyday language and in literature. 1ut in literature these are particularly i%portant: *eing e2ploited for their co%%unicative po0er and special linguistic effects. These effects ta-e the shape of special irregularities or regularities. So%e traditional figures of speech: such as %etaphor: irony and parado2: involve co%%unication at a non=literal level. They usually arise fro% so%e 4irregularity5 of language Q for e2a%ple: an incongruity of %eaning *et0een ele%ents of the sa%e gra%%atical structure. 9hen 0e are dealing 0ith a passage fro% literature 0e have to analyse the figures of speech *ecause: as e2pressive devices: they have a prag%atic role at sentence or te2t level in the presentation of the argu%ent or the%e.

#.1.8. Lin "istic patterns in fictiona! prose In this section 0e e2a%ine several passages in prose: atte%pting to sho0 ho0 the analysis of gra%%atical structures can contri*ute to the study of literature. #.1.8.1. The Great Gatsby ;$ Scott Fit@ era!d In his te2t*oo-: "03lorin the /an ua e of ,oe#s! ,lays and ,rose! $ic- Short analysed a passage fro% &it,gerald5s The Great Gatsby! 0here 3ic- )ara0ay: the narrator: is descri*ing to the reader: the series of society parties 0hich @ay 'ats*y thro0s at his %ansion in the hope that the 0o%an he is in love 0ith: *ut 0ho is no0 %arried to so%eone else: 0ill co%e to one of the%. 3ic- is a near neigh*our: living in a s%all house fro% 0hich he can o*serve the party at a distance. Short %otivates his choice: EI have chosen this e2tract *ecause there is al%ost no conversation in it and *ecause it is a description 0hich is full of action and e2hi*its internal te2tual contrastsG "Short: 1BB.: 33+#. The 3reat 3ats;$ 1chapter #2 There was #usic fro# #y nei hborBs house throu h the su##er ni hts$ -n his blue ardens #en and irls ca#e and went like #oths a#on the whis3erin s and the cha#3a ne and the stars$ At hi h tide in the afternoon - watched his uests divin fro# the tower of his raft or takin the sun on the hot sand of his beach while his two #otor5 boats slit the waters of the Sound! drawin a'ua3lanes over cataracts of foa#$ On week5 ends his Rolls5Royce beca#e an o#nibus! bearin 3arties to and fro# the city! between nine in the #ornin and lon 3ast #idni ht! while his station wa on sca#3ered like a brisk yellow bu to #eet all trains$ CDE "very *riday five crates of oran es and le#ons arrived fro# a fruiterer in New 8ork55 every @onday these sa#e oran es and le#ons left his back door in a 3yra#id of 3ul3less halves$ CDE At least once a fortni ht a cor3s of caterers ca#e down with several hundred feet of canvas and enou h colored li hts to #ake a .hrist#as tree of GatsbyBs enor#ous arden$ On buffet tables! arnished with listenin hors5dBoeuvre! s3iced baked ha#s crowded a ainst salads of harle'uin desi ns and 3astry 3i s and turkeys bewitched to a dark old$ -n the #ain hall a bar with a real brass rail was set u3! and stocked with ins and li'uors and with cordials so lon for otten that #ost of his fe#ale uests were too youn to know one fro# another$ By F oBclock the orchestra has arrived55no thin five53iece affair but a whole 3itful of oboes and tro#bones and sa0o3hones and viols and cornets and 3iccolos and low and hi h dru#s$ The last swi##ers have co#e in fro# the beach now and are dressin u3stairs1 the cars fro# New 8ork are 3arked five dee3 in the drive! and already the halls and salons and verandas are audy with 3ri#ary colors and hair shorn in stran e new ways and shawls beyond the drea#s of .astile$ The bar is in full swin and floatin rounds of cocktails 3er#eate the arden outside until the air is alive with chatter and lau hter and casual innuendo and introductions for otten on the s3ot and enthusiastic #eetin s between wo#en who never knew each otherBs na#es$ The li hts row bri hter as the earth lurches away fro# the sun and now the orchestra is 3layin yellow cocktail #usic and the o3era of voices 3itches a key hi her$ /au hter is easier! #inute by #inute! s3illed with 3rodi ality! ti33ed out at a cheerful word$ The rou3s chan e #ore swiftly! swell with new arrivals! dissolve and for# in the sa#e breath55already there are wanderers! confident irls who weave here and there a#on the stouter and #ore stable! beco#e for a shar3! Goyous #o#ent the center of a rou3 and then e0cited with triu#3h lide on throu h the sea5chan e of faces and voices and color under the constantly chan in li ht$

Suddenly one of these y3sies in tre#blin o3al! seiAes a cocktail out of the air! du#3s it down for coura e and #ovin her hands like *risco dances out alone on the canvas 3latfor#$ A #o#entary hush1 the orchestra leader varies his rhyth# obli in ly for her and there is a burst of chatter as the erroneous news oes around that she is Gilda GrayBs understudy fro# the H*ollies$H The 3arty has be un$ The analysis of the style features of this passage: ta-es into account the three %a6or areas: "a# le2is: "*# gra%%ar: "c# te2tual cohesion and coherence: d# figures of speech. 1a2 The !e,is of this e2tract is fairly co%ple2: as: for instance: there is specialised voca*ulary for the %usical instru%ents and food in particular7 further%ore: there are a nu%*er of 0ords that have foreign and rather e2otic connotations: hors d2oeuvres! harle'uin! .astile$ !s there is not %uch repetition in this e2tract: those le2ical ite%s 0hich are repeated 0ill stand out. They *elong to se%antic fields related to vision: drin-: %usic and social interaction: colour! bar! cordials! orchestra! chatter! lau hter! rou3. $ost voca*ulary at the *eginning of the passage refers to concrete things: the food: the drin-s: and the instru%ents of the orchestra: *ut later there are %ore a*stract no"ns: %ainly descri*ing social interaction. $any of the 0ords in the passage have stri-ing visual properties "coloured li hts: listenin ! harle'uin desi ns! dark old% or associations of grandeur and good life "the foreign 0ords already %entioned: also orchestra! salons! cocktails%$ The party: 0hich see%s to *e %ainly populated *y 0o%en: ta-es place at 'ats*y5s house: *ut the host does not appear. The orchestra leader is the only %ale referred to: and %any nouns referring to people are not gender specific "caterers! uests! swi##ers#. ?n the other hand: the fe%ale i%age is referred to as: fe#ale uests! wo#en! confident irls and the e2tended description of the girl 0ho dances out on the canvas platfor%. The vast %a6ority of -er;s are dyna%ic: helping to give a sense of continual %ove%ent and change to the passage. ven 0hat 0ould nor%ally *e static descriptions are portrayed in ter%s of %ove%ent. In the first paragraph: for e2a%ple: the ha%s are crowded against salads and the tur-eys are bewitched to a dar- gold. $any of these dyna%ic ver*s are intransitive: this giving rise to the sense of purposeless action of the party: %ove%ent for the sa-e of %ove%ent. Ad-er;s are usually the least represented of the %a6or 0ord classes. Still: as ti%e and place ite%s: adver*s sho0 changes of deictic focus: and so help to contri*ute to the feeling of constant change in the scene: on weekends! every *riday! in the kitchen : on the canvas 3latfor#$ etc. 1;2 In ter%s of ra((ar features: in the e2cerpt analysed *y $. Short: all sentences are state%ents: 0hich correspond to the te2t5s descriptive function. In spite of the co%paratively long sentences: they are not particularly co%ple2 in the sense that 0e do not find %any e2a%ples of co%ple2 sentences: or clauses e%*edded inside other clauses. $ost of the co%ple2ity in the passage is occurring at phrase level "noun phrases: prepositional phrases: etc#. The do%inant pattern of clauses in this passage is represented *y coordination: a series of %ain clauses coordinated together: or 6u2taposed: along 0ith the occasional su*ordinate clause. !s a conse>uence: in spite of the length of so%e sentences: the passage is >uite easy to read: *ecause the predo%inant gra%%atical style is loose. !t the level of phrase str"ct"re: one should note the effects associated 0ith dyna%ic intransitive ver*s and the 0ay in 0hich the tense changes. Thus: the first paragraph: descri*ing the preparations for the party: contains ver*s in the past tense " #en and irls ca#e and went$$$1 - watched$$$1 ei ht servants C$$$E toiled # and so integrates the party description 0ith the narrator tense for this particular novel. 1ut at the *eginning of the second paragraph: 0hich descri*es the prelude to the party: as the guests arrive and get ready: the tense s0itches to present perfect "the orchestra has arrived1 the last swi##ers have co#e in%$ In the %iddle

of the second paragraph: 0here the guests *egin to %eet one another: there is another s0itch to the present tense "the bar is in full swin 1 the li hts row bri hter! the rou3s chan e #. /ence: as 0e %ove through the preparatory stages to the sociali,ing at the centre of the party: 0e %ove fro% past tense to present tense: %a-ing us feel deictically that 0e are getting closer and closer to the action. The %ost significant features relating to the no"n phrases revolve around their occurrence in a series of long and distinctive constructions coordinated *y the con6unction EandG: a whole 3itful of oboes and tro#bones and viols and cornets and 3iccolos and low and hi h dru#s$ The head=0ord of the %ain noun phrase is 3itful: and this head=0ord is post=%odified *y a long prepositional phrase 0ith of and consisting of a list of nouns coordinated together. The list is very long: 0ith seven different -inds of instru%ent %entioned: all ite%s *eing separated *y and$ This is unusual: as in an enu%eration: one generally says: apples: pears and *ananas: separating only the last t0o ite%s *y and$ $oreover: the nouns 0hich are listed a*ove are generic: plural or *oth. 1y resorting to this e2tensive enu%eration: the author %anages to e%phasi,e the si,e and the grandeur of the parties. 9ith the description of the young 0o%an 0ho dances alone on the canvas platfor%: 0e %ove fro% generic: plurali,ed description to individual reference. This change to the specific is the %ain reason for the series of contrasts 0hich 0e have noted *et0een the last paragraph and others. 1c2 In ter%s of cohesion: there are no e2plicit logical connectives: or cohesive lin-s "li-e and! but or therefore% to lin- sentences together: 0hich adds to the effect of constant change. There is relatively little le2ical repetition to lin- parts of the te2t together: e.g. there is little use of pronouns to create patterns of cross=reference or lin-ed reference to one thing or person: and there is also little use of elegant variation. These have the effect of constant change and %ove%ent. /o0ever: the last paragraph appears in contrast to the rest: in that the dancing girl is referred to *oth through prono%inal reference and elegant variation " confident irlsDone of these y3siesD she is Gilda GrayBs understudy#. 1d2 Fi "res of speech0 !lthough the e2cerpt fro% The Great Gatsby is a prose te2t: it e2hi*its a feature 0hich is typically associated 0ith poetry: na%ely: a!!iteration "i.e. the repetition of the initial consonant in t0o or %ore 0ords#. The first t0o sentences contain a nu%*er of alliterative patterns *ased on 0ord=initial A-A and AgA 0hich e%phasi,e the gla%our of the party: cor3s of caterers ca#eD$$.hrist#as tree of Gatsby2s enor#ous ardenD$ arnished with listenin hors d2oeuvresD !nother very co%%on figure of speech: or trope >uite e2tensively used in this passage is represented *y (etaphor "i.e.: 0hen a 0ord or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another: thus %a-ing an i%plicit co%parison#. Thus: in the second paragraph descri*ing the e2>uisite dishes displayed on the ta*les: the tur-eys are bewitched to a dark old instead of *eing *a-ed do0n. Inani%ate aspects of the party are often portrayed as *eing alive through a pattern of ani%ating %etaphors " s3iced baked ha#s crowded a ainst salads! floutin rounds of cocktails 3er#eate the arden! the air is alive #. &inally: the young girl 0ho e%erges fro% anony%ity and dances onto the canvas platfor% at the end of the description is foregrounded through the reference to her dress: in tre#blin o3al 0hich involves a co%*ination of %etony%y and %etaphor. The dress cannot literally *e %ade out of a precious stone7 the reference to o3al is %etony%ic of dress5s colour "colourless or 0hite#. In addition: opals and dresses are not capa*le of tre%*ling. The %etaphoric description lin-s the gla%our of the occasion: the dress shi%%ering as the girl dances: 0ith the suggestion that she is nervous: and so tre%*ling: as she %oves out into the li%elight. #.1.8.2. Bleak House ;$ Ch. +ic<ens In this section 0e e2a%ine a passage fro% )h. Dic-ens5s novel Bleak House "chapter 1#

*o everywhere$ *o u3 the river! where it flows a#on reen #eadows1 fo down the river! where it rolls defiled a#on the tiers of shi33in and the waterside 3ollutions of a reat <and dirty% city$ *o on the "sse0 #arshes! fo on the Ientish hei hts$ *o cree3in into the cabooses of collier5bri s1 fo lyin out on the yards and hoverin in the ri in of reat shi3s1 fo droo3in on the unwales of bar es and s#all boats$ *o in the eyes and throats of ancient Greenwich 3ensioners! wheeAin by the firesides of their wards1 fo in the stern and bowl of the afternoon 3i3e of the wrathful ski33er! down in his close cabin1 fo cruelly 3inchin the toes and fin ers of his shiverin little 93rentice boy on deck$ .hance 3eo3le on the brid es 3ee3in over the 3ara3ets into a nether sky of fo ! with fo all round the#! as if they were u3 in a balloon and han in in the #isty clouds$ Gas loo#in throu h the fo in divers 3laces in the street! #uch as the sun #ay! fro# the s3on ey fields! be seen to loo# by husband#an and 3lou hboy$ @ost of the sho3s li hted two hours before their ti#e as the as see#s to know! for it has a ha ard and unwillin look$ The raw afternoon is rawest! and the dense fo is densest! and the #uddy streets are #uddiest near that leaden5headed old obstruction! a33ro3riate orna#ent for the threshold of a leaden5headed old cor3oration! Te#3le Bar$ And hard by Te#3le Bar! in /incoln2s -nn Hall! at the very heart of the fo ! sits the /ord Hi h .hancellor in his Hi h .ourt of .hancery$ @ust as in the previous passage: the suggestions of stylistic analysis ai% to sho0 ho0 gra%%ar can contri*ute to the study of literature. (eech et al. "2;;.: 1<2=B# dra0 attention to the fact that there is no foolproof techni>ue for analysing literary style. ach analysis of style is li-e an adventure of discovery: in 0hich 0e co%*ine our -no0ledge of language and our response to literature in order to appreciate %ore clearly 0hat the 0riter has succeeded in saying to us. 1ut it is useful to have a fle2i*le %ethod of study: in 0hich 0e have to identify and list features of style under various headings: after 0hich 0e provide a classification and synthesi,e these features of style in an interpretation of the %eaning and effect of the passage. Since %ost of the style features of narrative description referring to le2is: gra%%ar: cohesion and figures of speech 0ere covered in ..1.4.2.: in this section 0e 0ill discuss only those points peculiar to this passage. In order to see 0hat role gra%%ar can play in the effect of a passage: 0e should e2a%ine the first and last sentences of the passage fro% Bleak House: The first sentence = *o everywhere = is very short: in fact: it is not a co%plete sentence at all in the strict gra%%atical sense: as it has no ver*: and is si%ply a noun follo0ed *y an adver* of place. It e2presses: in a nutshell: 0hat the rest of the passage ela*orates in detail: na%ely: the u*i>uity of the fog "the dense %ur-y fog of (ondon *eing notorious at that ti%e#. It also sets a gra%%atical pattern that is continued through the first t0o paragraphs " *o u3 the riverF fo down the river# 0here noun phrases: not clauses: *eco%e the %ain units of the te2t. !ccording to (eech et al$ "2;;.: 1<4# there are t0o reasons 0hy )h. Dic-ens o%its the tensed ver*s: first: the repetition of fo *eco%es in this 0ay %ore forceful and dra%atic7 secondly: the connections *et0een the noun phrases *eco%e associative: rather than logical Q the reader5s eye see%s to %ove fro% one disconnected scene to another: catching only gli%pses of 0hat lies 0ithin the fog. This is gra%%ar co%%unicating at an i%pressionistic level 0here e2plicit declarative sentences: 0ith their i%plications of truth and precision are not relevant. In contrast to the first sentence: the last sentence = And hard by Te#3le Bar! in /incoln2s -nn Hall! at the very heart of the fo ! sits the /ord Hi h .hancellor in his Hi h .ourt of

.hancery Q is >uite long: and leads us to an appropriate cli%actic conclusion of the train of thought *egun 0ith *o everywhere. The /igh )ourt of )hancery is for Dic-ens the very heart of the fo ! a satirical sy%*ol for the o*fuscation of the la0. 9e can see ho0 Dic-ens 0or-s the reader"s# up to it in stages: as if 0e the reader"s# 0ere %a-ing a 6ourney to the very %idst of o*scurity. The penulti%ate sentence = The raw afternoon is rawest! and the dense fo is densest and the #uddy streets are #uddiest CDE! the threshold of a leaden5headed old cor3oration! Te#3le Bar 5 leads us as far as Te#3le Bar: and the last sentence co%pletes the 6ourney: ta-ing us fro% Te#3le Bar to the .ourt of .hancery. This sentence is a good e2a%ple of the principles of end=focus and end=0eight "discussed in chapter +#: leading the reader fro% given to ne0 infor%ation. It is i%portant for the effect that the 0eighty phrases the /ord Hi h .hancellor in his Hi h .ourt of .hancery co%e at the end as a sort of denoue%ent: and: to ensure this: there is an inversion of Su*6ect and Iredicate: sits the /ord Hi h .hancellor. 9e should also point out the role of the first three adver*ials "all adver*ials of place# in *uilding up the suspense: And hard by Te#3le Bar! in /incoln2s -nn Hall! at the very heart of the fo $ The order of ele%ents in the clause is >uite unusual: )oordinating con6unction Y !dver*ial Y !dver*ial Y !dver*ial Y Iredicate Y Su*6ect Y !dver*ial M)on6 ! ! ! I S !O. So *oth the first sentence and the last illustrate: in their different 0ays: so%e special descriptive effect that is *rought a*out *y their unusual gra%%atical structure: the first is a ver*less elliptical sentence: 0hile the last is characteri,ed *y the inversion of Su*6ect and Iredicate. !nother i%portant aspect refers to the use of tenses: %ore precisely: the use of narrative present tense in the penulti%ate sentence: The raw afternoon is rawestD! the dense fo is densest! etc. This %eans that the reader apprehends the goings=on in the novel as if they 0ere happening no0: at the very ti%e of reading Q a device for dra%atic heightening. The use of the present tense in the description of the fog also has a further i%plication of ti%elessness. This is: indeed: very appropriate to the legal activities of the )ourt of )hancery: 0here la0suits drag on inter%ina*ly. #.1.8.#. The Rainbow ;$ +. 7. La%rence In this section 0e e2a%ine an e2tract fro% D. /. (a0rence5s novel The Rainbow ta-en fro% chapter 4. They worked to ether! co#in and oin ! in a rhyth#! which carried their feet and their bodies in tune$ She stoo3ed! she lifted the burden of sheaves! she turned her face to the di#ness where he was! and went with her burden over the stubble$ She hesitated! set down her sheaves! there was a swish and hiss of #in lin oats! he was drawin near and she #ust turn a ain$ And there was the flarin #oon layin bare her boso# a ain! #akin her drift and ebb like wave$ He worked steadily! en rossed! threadin backwards and forwards like a shuttle across the stri3 of cleared stubble! weavin the lon line of ridin shocks! nearer and nearer to the shadowy trees! threadin his sheaves with hers$ And always! she was one before he ca#e$ As he ca#e! she drew away! as he drew away! she ca#e$ 6ere they never to #eet7 Gradually a low! dee35soundin will in hi# vibrated to her! tried to set her in accord! tried to brin her

radually to hi#! to a #eetin ! till they should be to ether! till they should #eet as the sheaves that swished to ether$ He waited for her! he fu#bled at the stook$ She ca#e$ But she stood back till he drew away$ He saw her in shadow! a dark colu#n! and s3oke to her! and she answered$ She saw the #oonli ht flash 'uestion on his face$ But there was a s3ace between the#! and he went away! the work carried the#! rhyth#ic$ 6hy was there always a s3ace between the# why! were they a3art7 6hy! as she ca#e u3 to hi# fro# under the #oon! would she halt and stand off fro# hi#7 6hy was he held away fro# her7 His will dru##ed 3ersistently! darkly! it drowned everythin else$ 9e discuss so%e of the %ost salient features of language under the headings of le2is: gra%%ar: cohesion: and figures of speech. 1a2 In -eeping 0ith the su*6ect of this passage "the description of the harvest=%a-ing at night#: the -oca;"!ar$ used *y D. /. (a0rence is si%ple and accessi*le: *ut 0ith a slightly literary or archaic flavour: such as: stook: drawin near! layin bare her boso#! etc. It is part of (a0rence5s techni>ue to %a-e repeated use of the sa%e 0ords: as if to %a-e the %ost of their evocative or sy%*olic value. &or e2a%ple: the noun burden is repeated t0ice in the second sentence "D she lifted the burden of sheaves! Dwent with her burden over the stubble#7 sheaves is another noun that is repeated a nu%*er of ti%es " the burden of sheaves1 set down her sheaves1 as the sheaves that swished to ether%$ The ver* thread! used as a present participle threadin occurs t0ice "threadin backwards1 threadin his sheaves with hers% 1;2 In ter%s of ra((ar features: 0e should point out the fact that the sentences vary fro% e2tre%e si%plicity "as in They worked to ether%: to considera*le co%ple2ity "as in Gradually a low! dee35soundin will in hi# vibrated to her! tried to set her in accord! tried to brin her radually to hi#! to a #eetin ! till they should be to ether! till they should #eet as the sheaves that swished to ether%$ (eech et al. "2;;.: 1C;# notice that the co%ple2ity of the sentences tends to *e of a progressive -ind through the repetition of coordinate constructions: particularly unlin-ed: 6u2taposed ones: He worked steadily! en rossed! threadin CDE! weavin CDE! threadin his sheaves with hers$ !t 0ord and phrase level: 0e notice the e2tensive use of coordination: 0hich tends to 6oin ele%ents in pairs: such as co#in and oin ! a swish and hiss! backwards and forwards! nearer and nearer$ ! pattern fre>uently used *y D./. (a0rence is represented *y intransitive constructions: the Su*6ect Q Iredicate pattern MS IO: or Su*6ect Q Iredicate = !dver*ial pattern MS I !O: 0hile transitive structures: Su*6ect Q Iredicate Q ?*6ect MS I ?O are rather infre>uent. !s has *een pointed out: in this 0ay: the e2cerpt tends to e%phasi,e %ove%ents in the%selves: rather than %ove%ents directed to a particular goal or purpose "(eech et al. 2;;.: 1C;#. It has also *een noticed that so%e of the clauses 0ith o*6ects that do occur have an inani%ate su*6ect and an ani%ate "hu%an# o*6ect: 0hich is the opposite of 0hat is nor%ally e2pected: as in the flarin #oon layin bare her boso#1 the work carried the#1 a si%ilar case is represented *y the passive construction 6hy was he held away fro# herL: 0here the doer of the action: the agent is left unspecified. 1c2 The cohesion of the te2t is ensured *y e2tensive use of various -inds of connection: for instance: *y con6unctions li-e and! but <e.g. But she stood backD%$

In this passage: D./. (a0rence %a-es repeated use of the third person pronouns singular or plural he! she! it! they 0hich help esta*lish various -inds of cross=reference. !n i%portant characteristic of this e2tract is the 0ay certain ite%s: li-e the ver*s co#e and o: convey a shifting or a%*ivalent narrative point of vie0. Thus: in As he ca#e! she drew away! as he drew away! she ca#e! there is a strange a%*ivalence of vie0point: ca#e evo-es the su*6ective position of one person 0atching the other approaching: *ut this position s0itches in the %iddle of the sentence: as he drew awayD . (ater: 0e are e2periencing things through the thoughts of the *oy: *ecause the >uestions in the final paragraph can *e interpreted only as free indirect thought fro% his vie0point: 6hy was there a s3ace between the# why! were they a3art7 6hy! as she ca#e u3 to hi# D would she halt and stand off fro# hi#7 6hy was he held away fro# her7 The passage contains several >uestions: such as 6ere they never to #eet7! >uestions 0hich can *e interpreted as part of a self=>uestioning 0hich is going on in the %ind of a character. The negative >uestion "never%: since it e2pects a negative ans0er: i%plies the character5s sense of defeat and frustration. This is an e2a%ple of free indirect tho" ht "i.e.: a -ind of indirect speech Athought in 0hich the speech of a character and the 0ords of the narrator are *lended: *ut 0ith no reporting clause indicated#! 0hich is a very co%%on %eans of portraying the inner consciousness of a character. 1d2 The passage contains so%e interesting fi "res of speech. 9e should first consider the sentence fro% the fourth paragraph: She saw the #oonli ht flash 'uestion on his face$ This is an instance 0hich e2ploits 0hat is unusual in language. In the su*ordinate clause = the #oonli ht flash 'uestion on his face 5: the Su*6ect "the #oonli ht%: Iredicate "flash% and ?*6ect "'uestion% are strangely ill=assorted fro% a literal point of vie0. The steady glea% of 4%oonlight5 cannot nor%ally 4flash5 anything: and "*esides# a 4>uestion5 is not so%ething that can *e literally 4flashed5: nor can a 4>uestion5: literally: *e on anyone5s face. 'ra%%atically: there is another odd feature: na%ely: the use of 'uestion 0ithout a deter%iner: as a #ass noun. 3evertheless: all these incongruities produce a stri-ingly vivid i%pression. The %oonlight: the sudden %ove%ent of a face out of the shado0: and the >uestioning e2pression on the face see% parts of the sa%e %o%entary e2perience. The passage contains various types of para!!e!is(4 represented *y repetitive patterns of structures and 0ords. ! stri-ing e2a%ple of parallelis% can *e seen in the follo0ing sentence: As he ca#e! she drew away! as he drew away! she ca#e$ This sentence consists of a %irror=i%age pattern: a criss=cross pattern: called chias("s. )hias%us is a rhetorical ter% to descri*e a construction involving he repetition of 0ords or ele%ents in reverse order "a*:*a#: as sho0n in the figure *elo0. !s Mhe ca%eO Mshe dre0 a0ayO !s Mhe dre0 a0ayO Mshe ca%eO In this e2a%ple of parallelis%: not only the structures *ut also the 0ords 0hich occupy these structures are repeated in the pattern. !s (eech et al. point out "2;;.: 1<.#: in this sentence the pattern has a #i#etic function: it i%itates the for% of 0hat it refers to Q the inter0eaving %ove%ent of the *oy and the girl. The effect of sound i%itating sense: of for% i%itating %eaning: is so%ething 0e associate 0ith poetry: *ut is perhaps an e>ually i%portant aspect of prose 0riting. In section "a# 0e have already touched on (a0rence5s techni>ue to repeat the sa%e 0ords: as if to %a-e the %ost of their evocative or sy%*olic value "e.g. burden! sheaves%$ !nother 0ord 0hich ac>uires sy%*olic value is s3ace. The clause But there was a s3ace between the# is largely repeated in the ne2t sentence 6hy was there always a s3ace between the#L In this 0ay the e2cerpt insists on the sy%*olis% of the 4space5: i%plying a physical distance evo-ing e%otional distance.

The analysis of this passage illustrates the fact that although D./. (a0rence5s language is relatively si%ple and accessi*le: he achieves intensity through sy%*olis%: the repetitions and parallelis%s of the language itself: i%itating the to=and=fro %ove%ents of the harvesters. #.1.?. Lin "istic patterns in poetr$ 'ra%%ar is i%portant in poetry as 0ell: in order to identify cases of 4poetic licence5: i.e.: a high degree of creative deviation fro% the linguistic nor%s of gra%%ar: le2is and %eaning "9ales: 2;;1: 3;4#. If those rules of gra%%ar did not e2ist: of course: the poet5s deviation fro% the rules 0ould lose its co%%unicative force. #.1.?.1. Heaven Haven ;$ 3era!d Man!e$ 7op<ins The short poe% Heaven Haven! on a nun5s ta-ing the veil: 0as 0ritten *y 'erald $anley /op-ins: a 1Bth century Victorian poet. The t0o=stan,a poe% sho0s so%e of the characteristics "in addition to those of %etre and rhy%e# that 0e %ay e2pect to find in the language of poetry: Heaven - Haven - have desired to o 6here s3rin s not fail! To fields where flies no shar3 and sided hail And a few lilies blow$ And - have asked to be 6here no stor#s co#e! 6here the reen swell is in the havens du#b! And out of the swin of the sea$ !s in the prose te2t: *ut %ore o*viously here: 0ords for% special relationships 0ith one another *ecause of si%ilarities of sound and %eaning: and also *ecause of si%ilarities of gra%%atical structure. The first si%ilarity is *est illustrated *y the play on 0ords in the title: 0here the si%ilar sounds of the 0ords heaven and haven suggest they have si%ilar %eanings. The second si%ilarity is evident in the %ar-ed parallelis% *et0een the t0o stan,as: as sho0n in this 4s-eleton5 version of their structure: - have Jed toJJJJJJJJ 6hereJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ To fields whereJJJJJJJJJ And JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ And - have Jed toJJJJJJJJ 6hereJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ 6hereJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ And JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

!%ong the poetic licences used in this poe%: 0e could note: the un= nglish gra%%ar of the second line "6here s3rin s not fail: rather than 6here s3rin s do not fail#. /op-ins also reverses the nor%al order of 0ords in the third line "To fields where flies no shar3 and sided hail#: and postpones the ad6ective du#b to the end of the seventh line "The reen swell is in the havens du#b#. Such unusual patterns of gra%%ar contri*ute to a strange dissociation of 0ords fro% their e2pected conte2t: so that si%ple and ordinary 0ords li-e s3rin ! flies! blow! swell and swin see% to attain a*nor%al force. !ll these 0ords have an i%portant role to play in an e2tensive %etaphor that the 0hole poe% e2presses: na%ely: the li-ening of a spiritual life "heaven# to an earthly refuge "haven#.

#.1.?.2. Off Course ;$ Ed%in Mor an In the article entitled E 6hat is stylistics and why can we teach it in different ways LG: Ronald )arter proposes a detailed le2ico=gra%%atical analysis of the poe% Off .ourse 0ritten *y d0in $organ "1B..#: one of the fore%ost Scottish poets of the 2;th century. )arter5s article "in I. Si%pson: Stylistics! 2;;.: 1.2=1.3# is also interesting in that it %a-es a nu%*er of useful proposals for language teaching: e%phasi,ing the i%portance of pedagogical issues and %ethods in stylistics. In this section 0e illustrate so%e of )arter5s suggestions as to ho0 the short poe% Off .ourse %ight *e e2plored in the classroo% fro% 0ithin an e2panded fra%e0or- for stylistics. Off Co"rse M1O the olden flood the wei htless seat the cabin son the 3itch black the rowin beard the floatin cru#b the shinin rendeAvous the orbit wisecrack CKE the hot s3acesuit the s#u led #outh5or an the i#a inary so#ersault the visionary sunrise the turnin continents the s3ace debris the olden lifeline the s3ace walk the crawlin deltas the ca#era #oon CL>Ethe 3itch velvet the rou h slee3 the cracklin head3hones the s3ace silence the turnin earth the lifeline continents the cabin sunrise the hot flood the shinin s3acesuit the rowin #oon CLKE the cracklin so#ersault the s#u led orbit the rou h #oon the visionary rendeAvous the wei htless head3hone the cabin debris the floatin lifeline the 3itch slee3 the crawlin ca#era the turnin silence i. 3ra((ar feat"res: $ost stri-ing in this poe% is the consistent pattern of noun phrases: 0ith a structure %ade up of a deter%iner "the definite article# Y %odifier Y head0ord. The predo%inant %odifier of the head0ords in the noun phrases of this poe% is an epithet: represented *y >ualitative epithets "e.g. #arvellous! interestin ! stron %1 colours "e.g. blue! red%1 classifying epithets "e.g. wooden! classical%$ In addition to these epithets: nglish allo0s present and past participles "e.g. 4 rowin 5 Mline 3O: 4shinin 5 M4O: 4s#u led5 M+O# and other nouns "e.g. 4the s3ace walk2 MCO# to act as %odifiers in the noun phrase. $organ e%ploys a %i2ture of %odifiers including colours "4 the olden flood2 M1O: 4the olden lifeline2 MCO#: no%inal %odifiers "4the s3ace walk5 MCO# and participles "4the floatin cru#b2 M3O: 4the s#u led #outh5or an2 M+O#. In ter%s of classes of ad6ectives: classifying ad6ectives "e.g. wooden! classical! etc.# see% to predo%inate: e.g. 4the wei htless seat5 M1O: even to the e2tent that the %a6ority of participles are of a classifying -ind. Thus: one cu%ulative effect of the use of this structure is that a nu%*er of o*6ects are classified and reclassified. ?ther i%portant structural features 0hich should *e noted are the a*sence of a ver* and the particular use to 0hich participles "present and past participles# are put. ?ne %ain result of the o%ission of a ver* is that there are no clear relations *et0een o*6ects. Ver*s generally 0or- to esta*lish a clear differentiation *et0een su*6ect and o*6ect and to indicate the processes esta*lished *et0een the%: a resultant effect *eing that processes *et0een things

*eco%e suspended. The poet5s suspension of so%e of the nor%al rules of gra%%ar can *e seen in part to contri*ute to this effect. 3evertheless: there are nu%erous participles already o*served "e.g. 4 rowin 5: 4floatin 5 "M3O: 4shinin 5 M4O: 4turnin MCO# 0hich are for%ed fro% ver*s. The difference *et0een t0o ver*al ite%s: i. the world turns: vs. ii. the turnin world: illustrates the point that in the participial for% the 4ver*s5 0or- *oth 0ith a %ore defining or classificatory function and to underline a sense of continuing. The present participles convey a feeling of things continuing endlessly or: at least: 0ithout any clear end. &ro% a pedagogical point of vie0: the te2t can *e used to introduce and for% the *asis of teaching so%e -ey structural features of nglish synta2 such as the organi,ation of noun phrases: participles: ver*al relations: etc. ii. Le, ana!$sis: ! conventional teaching procedure involves discussion and definition of 0hat the 0ords %ean. The notion of le0ical collocation could *e introduced: 0ith e2planations a*out collocations occurring in the poe% and e2ploring the different degrees of accepta*ility *et0een le2ical ite%s: for e2a%ple: a*out %odifier and head0ord. Such e2ploration can give students insight into the %eaning of 0ords *y e2plaining 0hy the participle 4s%uggled5 has a greater degree of se%antic co%pati*ility 0ith 4%outh=organ5 in line M+O than 0ith 4or*it5 M1+O. The range of %eanings or associations carried *y particular 0ords can *e discussed in relation to collocations such as the ad6ective rou h in 4the rough sleep5 M1;O: 4the rough %oon5 M1.O. &urther%ore: the possi*ilities of #eta3horic e0tension can also *e investigated through the uses to 0hich ite%s li-e the participle 4cra0ling5 are put: as in. 4the cra0ling deltas5 MBO: or the cra0ling ca%era5 M1BO. -dio#s can *e also discussed 0ith reference to this poe%: for e2a%ple: e.g. 4pitch *lac-5 M2O: as 0ell as the e2tent of converti*ility of idio%s: as in 4the pitch velvet5 M1;O. Such a le2ico=se%antic analysis could give the reader ne0 insights into the concentration of %etaphorical e2tensions: various se%antic inco%pati*ilities and unusual collocational relations especially in the last lines of the poe%. iii. The te,t as disco"rse0 !n instructive and helpful %eans of distinguishing te2tual discourse is that of co%paring one discourse 0ith another. Thus: it %ay *e useful to co%pare this poe% 0ith te2ts containing instructions: or inventories: etc.: that is: te2ts 0hich contain linguistic conventions of a si%ilar nature to the poe% 4?ff )ourse5. 1y this %ethod 0e can focus attention on the nature of the te2tual organisation of the poe%: ena*ling us to identify a nu%*er of te2tual features: such as: = The lineation of the poe% is unusual: as there is an une2plained indentation at line M1+O. ?n the other hand: the colu%ns display a si%ilar patterning in that there is an e>ual space *et0een noun phases. = Repetition of 0ords is a %ar-ed feature although there is never repetition 0ith the sa%e collocational ite%. ! crisscross patterning occurs across colu%ns: 0ith %odifiers so%eti%es occurring else0here as head0ords "e.g. 4ca%era5: the ca#era #oon MBO: the crawlin ca#era M1BO#. = There is no direct relation of the title "4?ff )ourse5# to the te2t itself. = The poe% has no punctuation i-. Interpretation of the te,t0 Stylistic interpretation involves the process of %a-ing inferences a*out the linguistic for%s and the %eaning contracted *y the function of these for%s in a literary conte2t. !n i%portant inference that can *e %ade in relation to this poe% refers to the a*sence of ver*s giving an i%pression of suspension and 0eightlessness in 0hich o*6ects appear to *e located in a floating relationship 0ith each other and 0ith the space surrounding the%. The

o%ission of ver*s in this poe% produces a sensation of 0eightless: suspended condition of outer space 0here o*6ects float a*out according to la0s different fro% those on earth. There is another interesting aspect to *e noted. &ro% a*out line M1;O to the end of the te2t no ne0 head0ords or %odifiers are introduced. The sa%e features recur *ut in different collocational relations. 1ut fro% line M1+O the collocations of %odifier and head0ords *eco%e increasingly rando% or even inco%pati*le: e.g. the s#u led orbit! 3itch slee3! etc. So the connections in our 4inventory5 *et0een the head0ord "o*6ect# and its attri*ute see%ingly get %ore and %ore ar*itrary and %eaningless. ! further point refers to the typographical layout of the te2t. !s R. )arter points out "in Si%pson: 2;;.: 1.3#: the reader is left in an unpunctuated: unending space of free floating connections 0here the %ind perceiving these features in this 4strea%=of=consciousness=li-e5 progression is apparently as disconnected and 4off=course5 as the o*6ects the%selves. 9here for the %ost part: the lines up to line M1+O represent a clear and definite: even if constantly changing: categorisation of things: the re%aining lines "1+ =2;# succeed only in e%*odying the sense of a 0orld and %ind shifting out of control. #.2. T7E STYLE OF NE>S*A*E6S & AOU6NALISM #.2.1. 3enera! considerations 3e0spaper style 0as the last of all the styles of 0ritten literary nglish to *e recogni,ed as a specific for% of 0riting standing apart fro% other for%s. nglish ne0spaper 0riting dates fro% the 1<th century: 0hen short ne0s pa%phlets *egan to appear: and though they couldn5t *e classed as ne0spapers: they 0ere un>uestiona*ly the i%%ediate forerunners of the 1ritish press. It is only in the 1Bth century 0hen ne0spaper developed into a syste% of language %edia: for%ing a separate functional style. !ccording to 8. 9ales: 6ournalis% had a distinctive style of a rather %ore for%al -ind even 0hen it originated in the nineteenth century. The ter% today is nor%ally reserved for the description of the stylistic features associated 0ith the popular 4ta*loid5 ne0spapers: features 0hich 0ere derived after the Second 9orld 9ar chiefly fro% the influential !%erican 6ournal Ti#e "9ales: 2;;1: 22<#. 3ot all the printed %atter found in ne0spapers co%es under ne0spaper style. Stories and poe%s: cross0ord pu,,les: chess pro*le%s and the li-e serve the purpose of entertaining the reader: thus they cannot *e considered speci%ens of ne0spaper style. ?nly %aterials 0hich perfor% the function of infor#in the reader and providing hi% 0ith an evaluation of infor%ation pu*lished can *e regarded as *elonging to ne0spaper style. nglish ne0spaper style %ay *e defined as a syste# of interrelated le0ical! 3hraseolo ical and ra##atical #eans! 0hich is perceived *y the co%%unity as a separate linguistic unit that serves the purpose of infor#in and instructin the reader. The 6ournalistic style refers to the language of ne0spapers: 6ournals: %aga,ines: radio: television: represented *y editorials: colu%ns: "political: social: econo%ic# articles: revie0s: "%oral: philosophical: literary# essays: reports: features "i.e. special articles in ne0spapers: %aga,ines: progra%s on radio or television#: etc. The f"nctions of the 6ournalistic style are: to infor%: to persuade: to for% people5s attitudes. !ccording to '. $iVVW-ovX "2;;3: 11.#: the general ai% of this style: 0hich %a-es it stand out as a separate style: is to e2ert a constant and deep influence on pu*lic opinion: to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given *y the 0riter or the spea-er is the only correct one and to cause hi% to accept the point of vie0 e2pressed in the speech: essay or article not %erely 0ith logical argu%entation: *ut through e%otional appeal as 0ell. #.2.2. Lin "istic characteristics

It is rather difficult to %a-e generali,ations a*out the linguistic characteristics of this style *ecause: as D. )rystal and D. Davy " -nvesti atin "n lish Style! 1B.B: 1<4# point out: the style of ne0spapers and %aga,ines Epresents a 0ider range of linguistically distinctive varieties than any other do%ain of language studyG. Due to its characteristic co%*ination of lo ical ar u#entation and e#otional a33eal: this style has features in co%%on 0ith the logical syntactic structure: 0ith an e2panded syste% of connectives and its careful paragraphing: %a-ing it si%ilar to scientific prose. Its e%otional appeal is generally achieved through the use of 0ords 0ith e%otive %eaning: the use of i%agery and other stylistic devices as in e%otive prose7 *ut the stylistic devices used in 6ournalistic style are not fresh or genuine. The individual ele%ent: 0hich is essential to the fictional style: is usually: not significant in the 6ournalistic style. The %anner of presenting ideas: ho0ever: *rings this style closer to that of the fictional style: %ore precisely to e%otive prose: as it is to a certain e2tent individual. The degree of individuality depends: to a large e2tent: on the variety: essays have greater individuality than ne0spaper and %aga,ine articles 0here the individual ele%ent is generally toned do0n and li%ited *y the re>uire%ents of the style. The ne0spaper also see-s to influence pu*lic opinion on political and other %atters. le%ents of appraisal %ay *e o*served in the very selection and 0ay of presentation of ne0s: in the use of specific voca*ulary: such as E alle eG and Eclai#G casting so%e dou*t on the facts reported: and syntactic constructions indicating a lac- of assurance on the part of the reporter as to the correctness of the facts reported or his desire to avoid responsi*ility "e.g. @r$ M was said to have o33osed the 3ro3osalG7 E@r$ M was 'uoted as sayin N%$ The principal vehicle of interpretation and appraisal is the ne0spaper article and the editorial in particular. ditorial is a leading article 0hich is characterised *y a su*6ective handling of facts. This purpose defines the choice of language ele%ents 0hich are %ostly e%otionally coloured. It should *e noted that 0hile editorials and other articles in opinion colu%ns are predo%inantly evaluative: ne0spaper feature articles: as a rule: carry a considera*le a%ount of infor%ation: and the ratio of the infor%ative and the evaluative varies su*stantially fro% article to article. The corpus=*ased analysis of gra%%atical structure carried out *y 1i*er et al$ "1BBB: 11# points out that even *asic 0ord classes Q such as nouns: ad6ectives: ver*s: and adver*s Q are far fro% evenly distri*uted across registers. 3ouns and prepositional phrases are %uch %ore co%%on in ne0s te2ts than in conversation: 0hereas ver*s and adver*s are %uch %ore co%%on in conversation. These distri*utional patterns reflect differing functional priorities: for e2a%ple: ne0s te2ts have an infor%ational focus: fre>uently using nouns to refer to people and things in the 0orld7 further: space=saving presentation of infor%ation is e2tre%ely i%portant: %a-ing it desira*le to pac- nouns: ad6ectives: phrases densely into every ne0s story. ! co%prehensive account of the linguistic features of the 6ournalistic style is presented in Danuta Reah5s *oo- The /an ua e of News3a3ers "1BBC#. To understand the language peculiarities of nglish ne0spaper style 0e analyse the follo0ing *asic ne0spaper features: *rief ne0s ite%s7 advertise%ents and announce%ents7 the headline7 the editorial. #.2.#. 5rief ne%s ite(s The function of a *rief ne0s ite% is to infor% the reader and its %ain linguistic features can *e su%%ed up as follo0s: #.2.#.1 S$ntactic str"ct"res

The *asic peculiarity of the *rief ne0s ite%s lies in their syntactic structure. The si,e of *rief ne0s ite%s varies fro% one sentence to several "short# paragraphs. The follo0ing gra%%atical features of *rief ne0s ite%s %ay *e regarded of para%ount i%portance: i. No"ns as pre(odifiers: 3oun Y noun se>uences are used to e2press a 0ide range of %eaning relationships in a succinct for%. !s a result: nouns as pre%odifiers are especially favoured as a space=saving device in ne0spaper language. !ttri*utive noun groups are a po0erful %eans of effecting *revity in ne0s ite%s: e.g. The national inco#e and e03enditure fi ures "The Ti%es# /abour backbench decision "$orning Star# ii. In ne0spaper 0riting: attri;"ti-e ad'ecti-es are an i%portant device used to add infor%ation to noun phrases. The e2a%ple *elo0 illustrates the fre>uency of these attri*utive ad6ectives "the ad6ectives are in *old: head nouns are underlined#: 6ith economic s3ecialiAation and the develo3#ent of external economic linka es! division of labour intensifies! a #erchant class is added to the political elite! and selective #i ration strea#s add to the social and ethnic co#3le0ities of cities$ iii. No"n post(odifiers are also especially co%%on in ne0spaper language. !%ong noun post%odifiers: prepositiona! phrases and re!ati-e c!a"ses have a high distri*ution in this register. &or e2a%ple: relative clauses are often used to identify or descri*e a person: A =>5year5old wo#an who had been #issin for a weekD. &urther: relative clauses in ne0spaper 0riting typically use dyna%ic ver*s descri*ing actions: in contrast to the static presentation of infor%ation associated 0ith prepositional phrases: Fthe LOPP event which left her on the ver e of a nervous breakdownD !nother type of post%odification is *y appositive noun phrases: !ppositive noun phrases are usually non=restrictive in %eaning: providing descriptive infor%ation a*out the head noun. In contrast to relative clauses: appositive noun phrases include no ver*s at all. 3ot surprisingly: these post%odifiers are *y far %ost co%%on in ne0spaper 0riting: 0hich represents a register 0ith a very high infor%ational density. In ne0spaper 0riting: appositives usually involve a proper noun 0ith hu%an reference. 9ith the focus on the actions of hu%an participants: appositive noun phrases provide *ac-ground infor%ation a*out people. $ost of these constructions include a proper na%e and a descriptive noun phrase: *ut these t0o ele%ents can occur in either order: proper noun Y descriptive phrase7 or descriptive phrase Y proper noun: :ladi#ir AshkenaAy! one of the world2s reatest 3ianists The /abour ,arty2s housin s3okes#an! @r$ .live Soley The local National /ottery winner! :era Blo s! QQ year5 old #other of twoD i-. Ver;a! constr"ctions represented *y the non=finite for%s: the infinitive: participle: gerund: @r$ Nobusuke Iishi! the for#er ,ri#e @inister of +a3an has sou ht to set an e0a#3le to the faction5ridden overnin /iberal De#ocratic ,arty by announcin the disbandin of his own faction nu#berin QF of the total of =OK conservative #e#bers of the /ower House of the Diet "The Ti%es#

-. Co(p!e, constr"ctions: especially the no%inative 0ith the infinitive. These constructions are largely used to avoid %entioning the source of infor%ation or to shun responsi*ility for the facts reported: as in: The condition of /ord Sa#uel! a ed O=! was said last ni ht to be a little better$ "The 'uardian# -i. Dnli-e conversation: 0hich is directly interactive "a for% of personal co%%unication#: and 0hich sho0s a fre>uent use of the first and second=person pronouns -! we: you! ne0spaper 0riting is not direct!$ interacti-e: it is not addressed to an individual reader: and it often does not have a stated author: *ut it has the function of conveying general infor%ation of current interest. 3ot surprisingly: in ne0spaper te2ts: first and second=person pronouns are relatively rare. Instead: proper nouns: referring to people: places: and institutions: are particularly co%%on. -ii. Interro ati-e c!a"ses in ne0spaper language: >uestions are %any ti%es %ore co%%on in conversation than in 0riting "ne0spaper or acade%ic 0riting#: reflecting the interactive nature of conversation. 3evertheless: 0hen >uestions are used in ne0spaper 0riting: they have rhetorica! p"rposes4 since there can *e no e2pectation that readers 0ill actually respond. /o0ever: these >uestions do help to involve the reader in the discussion. &or e2a%ple: Si n u3 for the reen tea#$ Do you want to know what2s ha33enin to our countryside! forests! seas and seashores at ho#e and across the world7 Do you want to know how easy it is to affect the environ#ent of the world by 3lannin trees or buyin eco5friendly 3roducts7 -f so! read this feature every week$ -iii. Co(p!e, sentences 0ith a developed syste% of clauses are >uite co%%on in ne0spaper 0riting: @r$ Boyd5.ar3enter! .hief Secretary to the Treasury and ,ay#aster5General <Iin ston5u3on5Tha#es%! said he had been asked what was #eant by the state#ent in the s3eech that the 3osition of war 3ensioners and those receivin national insurance benefits would be ke3t under close review$ "The Ti%es# i,. That.c!a"ses represent a type of construction that occurs 0ith high fre>uency in ne0spaper te2ts. The -ind of that=clauses in ne0spaper reports differ fro% those typically found in conversations in at least three %a6or respects: = Ver*s of spea-ing "e.g. said! denied: declared! warned! etc.# account for over half of all ver*s ta-ing a that=clause in ne0spaper reports7 they are used to report the speech of others: 0hile ver*s that ta-e that=clauses in conversation usually convey personal thoughts: attitudes: or feelings "such as think! know! #ean! realise! believe! feel#: They denied that they had ado3ted a 3lan for uerilla warfare$ @r$ Sisulu said that it was Gust a draft 3lan$ 5 In constructions 0ith that=clauses the nor% in ne0spaper reports is for the su*6ect of the %ain clause to refer to third person entities: usually hu%ans: represented *y third person pronouns "he! she! they# or proper nouns7 on the other hand: in conversation the su*6ect of the %ain clause is fre>uently - referring to the spea-er. = 9hile in conversation that is typically o%itted: in ne0spaper reports it is rarely o%itted. These linguistic differences fit the differing co%%unicative purposes of ne0spaper reports and conversation: ne0spaper reports purport to provide a factual: o*6ective reportage of recent events. 1y consistently using a third person perspective: these reports give the i%pression of

an un*iased presentation of the ne0s. Dsing first person personal thoughts or feelings 0ould run directly counter )onversation is the opposite of ne0spaper 0riting in these directly 0ith one another e2pect to hear a*out each other5s "1i*er et al. 1BBB: 12#

pronouns: or ver*s conveying to these underlying purposes. respects: people 0ho converse personal thoughts and feelings

#.2.#.2. Le,ica! feat"res Synta2 and le2icon are often treated as independent co%ponents of nglish. !nalysis of te2ts sho0s: ho0ever: that %ost syntactic structures tend to have an associated set of 0ords or phrases that are fre>uently used 0ith the%. The le2ico=gra%%atical associations that occur in a large corpus of te2ts indicate that these patterns are not %erely ar*itrary associations7 rather: particular gra%%atical structures often occur 0ith restricted le2ical classes *ecause *oth the structures and the le2ical classes serve the sa%e underlying co%%unicative tas-s or functions "1i*er et al. 1BBB: 13#. &or e2a%ple: there is a restricted set of %ain=clause ver*s that co%%only occur 0ith that=clauses. These are all ver*s fro% one se%antic do%ain: used to introduce reported speech " say! declare! recall! note! warn: etc.# 0ith the ver* say occurring *y far the %ost fre>uently. 3e0spaper style has its specific voca*ulary features *eing characteri,ed *y an e2tensive use of: i. specia! po!itica! and econo(ic ter(s: e.g. 3resident! election: crisis! nation! constitution: etc. ii. non.ter( po!itica! -oca;"!ar$4 e.g. 3ublic! 3eo3le! unity! 3eace: 3lan! etc. ! characteristic feature of political voca*ulary is that the *order line *et0een ter%s and non= ter%s is less distinct than in the voca*ulary of other special fields. The se%antic structure of so%e 0ords co%prises *oth ter%s and non=ter%s: e.g. nation! crisis! re3resentative! leader! etc. The ter%inology of the 6ournalistic style is diverse: *eing represented *y 0ords *elonging to %ilitary: ad%inistration: politics: diplo%acy: econo%y fields. iii. ne%spaper c!ichBs: i.e. stereotyped e2pressions: co%%onplace phrases fa%iliar to the reader: e.g. soarin 3rices: 3ressin 3roble#! dan er of war! 3illars of society! vital issue! to escalate a war! overwhel#in #aGority: cut a deal: etc. )lichZs %ore than anything else reflect the traditional %anner of e2pression in ne0spaper 0riting. They are co%%only loo-ed upon as a defect of style. So%e clichZs: especially those *ased on trite i%ages "e.g. ca3tains of industry! 3illars of society% are po%pous and hac-neyed: others: such as welfare state! affluent society: are false and %isleading. 1ut: nevertheless: clichZs are indispensa*le in ne0spaper style: they pro%pt the necessary associations and prevent a%*iguity or %isunderstandings. -. a;;re-iations: !**reviated ter%s: such as na%es of organi,ations: pu*lic and state *odies: political associations: industrial and other co%panies: various offices: etc. -no0n *y their initials are very co%%on in ne0spapers: e.g. 4NO "Dnited 3ations ?rgani,ation#: NATO "3orth !tlantic Treaty ?rgani,ation#: "4 <"uro3ean 4nion%! *O "&oreign ?ffice#: "". " uropean cono%ic )o%%unity#: etc. -i. neo!o is(s0 The ne0spaper is very >uic- to react to any ne0 develop%ent in the life of society: in science and technology: e.g. "a# backlash <a ainst% 4a tendency or recent develop%ent in society or politics: is a strong reaction against it#: as in: He also warned of a 3ossible anti56estern backlash$ -ii. The voca*ulary of *rief ne0s ite%s is for the %ost part devoid of e%otional colouring. So%e papers: ho0ever: especially those classed as E%assG or EpopularG papers: tend to introduce e%otionally coloured le2ical units.

The 6ournalistic style is also characteri,ed *y e%otionally %ar-ed language: fa%iliar e2pressions: euphe%is%s: %etaphors. The persuasive function of the 6ournalistic style is also reflected in nu%erous positive and negative evaluative ad6ectives "i.e. those ad6ectives relating to the assign%ent of value to a person: thing or event#: e.g. innovative! successful! interestin : new! etc. #.2.). Ad-ertise(ents and anno"nce(ents 3o0adays: advertising has influenced our daily life greatly. 3e0spapers: as an i%portant co%ponent of the %ass %edia: surely *eco%e a %eans of advertising. The %ain point of an advertise%ent is to persuade the readers of the %erits of a particular product or service: in order to increase the sale of that product: to attract ne0 *uyers: etc. Since language is the %ain carrier of the %essage all along: the language of advertise%ents is of crucial i%portance. !dvertise%ents %ade their 0ay into the 1ritish press at an early age of its develop%ent. The principal function of advertise%ents and announce%ents: li-e that of *rief ne0s ite%s: is to infor% the reader. There are t0o *asic types of advertise%ents and announce%ents: classified and non=classified "separate#. In classified advertise%ents and announce%ents various -inds of infor%ation are arranged according to su*6ect=%atter into sections: each *earing an appropriate na%e. In The Ti#es: for e2a%ple: advertise%ents and announce%ents are classified into groups: such as: *irths: %arriages: deaths: in %e%oria%: *usiness offers: personal: etc. &or e2a%ple: births) .4/HAN"$ On Nove#ber Lst! at St$ Bartholo#ew2s Hos3ital! to BARBARA and +OHN .4/HAN" a son. !s for the separate advertise%ents and announce%ents: the variety of language for% and su*6ect=%atter is so great that hardly any essential features co%%on to all can *e pointed out. !dvertising distinguishes itself fro% co%%on language *y its o0n features in synta2: le2icon and rhetorical devices. #.2.).1 S$ntactic str"ct"res i. Si(p!e and e!!iptica! sentences Si%ple and elliptical sentences are often used in advertise%ents *ecause: co%pared 0ith co%ple2 sentences: si%ple sentences are %ore understanda*le and forceful. lliptical sentences are actually inco%plete in structure *ut co%plete in %eaning. !dvertise%ents are *uilt on the elliptical pattern: 0hich %eans that all ele%ents that can *e o%itted tend to *e eli%inated fro% the sentence. The adoption of elliptical sentences can spare %ore print space: and ta-e less ti%e for readers to finish reading. In addition: a group of sentence frag%ents %ay gain special advertising effectiveness: brevity of e03ression is reali,ed *y the a*sence of articles and so%e punctuation %ar-s: %a-ing the state%ent telegra%=li-e. ii. Interro ati-e and i(perati-e sentences Interrogative and i%perative sentences are heavily used in nglish advertise%ents. I%perative sentences are short: encouraging and forceful. They are used to arouse audience5s 0ants or encourage the% to *uy so%ething "see section 4.2.2. for the conative function: one of the %ost i%portant functions of the advertising %essage#: e.g. "nter so#ethin #a ical. "?ld%o*ile# *eel the clean all day. "!($!K# #.2.).2. Le,ica! feat"res i. Si(p!e and infor(a! -oca;"!ar$0 The function of advertising is to provide infor%ation: attract the consu%er: e2ploit the %ar-et: and pro%ise the >uality. Therefore: advertise%ent

%ust pay attention to its i%pelling language: and the first step is to use si%ple and infor%al voca*ulary to %a-e it easy to understand and %e%ori,e. - couldn2t believe it! until - tried it; -2# i#3ressed; -2# really i#3ressed; 8ou2ve otta try it; - love it; These five sentences are fro% an advertise%ent of a %icro0ave oven. The 0ords in it are very si%ple and oral. It also uses the slang EgottaG: an a**reviation fro% Egot toG: in order to give an i%pression that this advertise%ent co%es fro% the real life. ii. Misspe!!in and coina e0 In so%e advertise%ents: the advertising copy0riter %isspells so%e 0ords on purpose: or adds so%e suffi2 or prefi2 to the co%%on 0ords: 0hich 0ill %a-e the advertise%ent %ore vivid: interesting and attractive. &or e2a%ple: 6e know e sactly How to sell e s. In this advertise%ent: Ee sactlyG is the variation of Ee2actlyG: and echo the 0ord E e sG at the end of the sentence. iii. Loan%ords0 The loan0ords in so%e advertise%ents are good %ethods to e2press the e2oticis% of the products. The %ost fre>uently used loan0ords are &rench and Spanish. &or e2a%ple: Order it in bottles or in cans$ ,errierDwith added Ge ne sais 'uoi$ The purpose of using the &rench e2pression EGe ne sais 'uoiG: 0hich %eans EI don5t -no0 0hatG: is to suggest the &rench flavour of this drin-. i-. Use of si(p!e -er;s0 (inguistic studies sho0 that nglish native spea-ers tend to use 0ords of !nglo=Sa2on origin: *ecause native 0ords have co%para*ly sta*le %eaning. In advertising: these si%ple 0ords can 0in the consu%ers *y their e2act: effective e2pression and a -ind of closeness. The 0ords listed *elo0 are the %ost fre>uently used in advertising: #ake! et! ive! have! see! buy! co#e! o! know! kee3! look! need! love! use! feel! like! choose! take! start! taste! e.g.: 6e will #ake this 'uickU "/ert, )ar Return# Get reat covera e that2s so wei htless and water5freshU "!($!K# All you need is a taste of adventureU "$illstone )offee# 8ou will love it even #ore with the =$L$ #e a3i0el )=2;;; 2;;$ "?ly%pus )a%era# -. Use of ad'ecti-es0 The %ost fre>uently used ad6ectives in advertising are: new! oodRbetterRbest! fresh: free! delicious! sure! full! clean! wonderful! s3ecial! cris3! real! fine! reat! safe! and rich. $ost ad6ectives in advertise%ents have positive connotations: helping to *uild a pleasant picture in readers5 %inds and %anaging to create a *elief in the potential consu%er: if I *uy this product or if I choose this service: I 0ill lead a *etter life. In addition: co%paratives and superlatives occur to highlight the advantage of a certain product or service. &or e2a%ple: Think /ysol is the best disinfectin s3ray. "Disinfecting Spray# The .o#3a' Ar#ada fa#ily is li hter! with new rounded ed es for easier 3ackin $ ")o%pa># #.2.).#. 6hetorica! de-ices The use of personification in advertising 0ill endo0 the products 0ith hu%an e%otion: %a-ing the% pleasant to consu%ers. &or e2a%ple: *lowers by -nterflora s3eak fro# the heart. "Interflora#

!nother device fre>uently used in advertising is si(i!e4 the figure in 0hich t0o essentially unli-e things are co%pared: often in a phrase introduced *y like or as. &or e2a%ple: /i ht as a breeAe! soft as a cloud$ Ride like a feather in your 3ocket$ )opy0riters also resort to of %etaphor: a figure of speech in 0hich a 0ord or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another: thus %a-ing an i%plicit co%parison. &or e2a%ple: Go for the Gold. The bri htest star in electronics. In so%e advertise%ents: the %ethod of repetition is often used in order to stress certain infor%ation: e.g.: 6hen you2re si33in /i3ton! you2re si33in so#ethin s3ecial$ "(ipton tea# *"n4 0hich is a play upon 0ords "so%eti%es on different senses of the sa%e 0ord and so%eti%es on the si%ilar sense of different 0ords#: 0ill leave a deep i%pression on readers *y its reada*ility: 0it and hu%our. The 0ord used as a pun is usually closely related to the characteristics of a certain product or the *rand na%e of the product: e.g. Ask for @ore$ "E$oreG is a fa%ous cigarette *rand# #.2.8. The head!ine #.2.8.1. 3enera! considerations The %ost concise for% of ne0spaper infor%ation is the headline: 0hose %ain function is to infor% the reader *riefly of 0hat the ne0s that follo0s is a*out. !part fro% giving infor%ation a*out the su*6ect=%atter: headlines also carry a considera*le a%ount of appraisal "the si,e and arrange%ent of the headline: the use of e%otionally coloured 0ords and ele%ents of e%otive synta2#: thus indicating the interpretation of the facts in the ne0s ite%s that follo0. !ccording to Danuta Reah: Ethe headline is a uni>ue type of te2t. It has a range of functions that specifically dictate its shape: content and structure: and it operates 0ithin a range of restrictions that li%it the freedo% of the 0riterF. The headline should encapsulate the story in a %ini%u% nu%*er of 0ords: attract the reader to the story: and: if it appears on the front page: attract the reader to the paper.G "1BBC: 13#. #.2.8.2. S$ntactic feat"res Since a headline has to catch the reader5s attention and at the sa%e ti%e to provide infor%ation a*out the content of the article: so%e distinctive features have developed to fulfil this function. 3e0spaper headlines follo0 rather different gra%%atical rules fro% other -inds of 0riting. So%e characteristics of ne0spaper headlines are "S0an 1BC;: 4;B#: i. S$ntactica!!$ : headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a variety of patterns: full declarative sentences7 interrogative sentences7 no%inal sentences7 elliptical sentences7 phrases 0ith ver*als "i.e. non=finite for%s#: etc. ii. E!!iptica! sentences: The headlines are not al0ays co%plete sentences: they usually contain as fe0 0ords as possi*le and that is 0hy gra%%ar 0ords li-e articles or au2iliary ver*s "e.g. to be# are often left out. -nitial re3ort not e03ected until +une <au2. ver* o%itted# Shakes3eare ,lay -##oral! Says Head#aster @ore "arth'uake Deaths iii. The use of 4heavy5 pre(odification and apposition in noun phrases as su*6ects: nouns are co%%only %odified *y other nouns: and 0hole strings "of three: four or %ore nouns# are found in ne0spaper headlines:

*urniture *actory ,ay .ut Riot "i.e. a Riot a*out a .ut in ,ay for the 0or-ers in a *actory that %a-es *urniture% Heathrow bullion robbery trial verdict i-. 3e0spaper headlines have a special tense s$ste(. It is unusual to find co%ple2 for%s li-e is co#in or has 3roduced$ 'enerally the si%ple present for% <co#es! 3roduces% is used: 0hether the headline is a*out so%ething that has happened: so%ething that is happening: or so%ething that happens repeatedly Britain Sends *ood to *a#ine :icti#s Students *i ht for .ourse .han es *at Babies .ry /ess! Says Doctor So%eti%es the present progressive tense is used "usually to descri*e so%ething that is changing or developing#: *ut the au2iliary ver* "is! are# is usually left out. 6orld Headin for "ner y .risis Britain Gettin 6ar#er! Say Researchers To refer to the future: headlines often use the infinitive. This is really a contracted for% of the ver* be Y infinitive construction: Sueen to :isit Sa#oa$ ,@ to Announce .abinet .han es on Tuesday -. *assi-e sentences are constructed 0ith no au2iliary ver*: 6ust the past participle @an Held by ,olice in @urder Hunt. "E! %an is *eing held *y Iolice FG#7 Nuns Iilled in "03losion #.2.8.#. Le,ica! feat"res Short 0ords save space: and so they are very co%%on in ne0spaper headlines. So%e of the short 0ords in headlines are unusual in ordinary language "e.g. curb: %eaning 4chec-5: 4restrain5#: and so%e are used in special senses 0hich they do not have in ordinary language "e.g. bid: %eaning 4atte%pt5#. ?ther 0ords are chosen not *ecause they are short: *ut *ecause they sound dra%atic "e.g. blaAe: %eaning 4fire5#: New "verest Bid by +a3anese 6o#en "bid Eatte%ptG# A#erica Backs British ,eace @ove "back Q EsupportG# Three Die in Hotel BlaAe "blaAe Q EfireG# Students in .lash with the ,olice "clash Q Eviolent disagree%entG# #.2.?. The editoria! !s already pointed out in section ..2.2.: the function of the editorial is to influence the reader *y giving an interpretation of certain facts. ditorials co%%ent on the political: *usiness: and other affairs or events of the day. Their purpose is to give the editor5s opinion and interpretation of the ne0s pu*lished and suggests to the reader that it is the correct one. (i-e any evaluative 0riting: editorials appeal not only to the reader5s %ind *ut to hisAher feelings as 0ell. In addition to voca*ulary typical of *rief ne0s ite%s: 0riters of editorials %a-e e2tensive use of e%otionally coloured voca*ulary. /ence the use of e%otionally coloured language ele%ents: *oth le2ical and structural: as for e2a%ple: But since they ca#e into 3ower the trend has been u3! u3! u3 and the 3ace see#s to be acceleratin $ "Daily $ail# %otional colouring in editorial articles is achieved 0ith the help of various stylistic devices. Thus: editorials a*ound in trite stylistic %eans: especially %etaphors: repetitions: si%iles: and epithets: a 3rice e03losion! a s3ectacular si ht! an outra eous act! etc. T0o types of a!!"sions can *e distinguished in ne0spaper article 0riting:

i. allusions to political and other facts of the day 0hich are indispensa*le and have no stylistic value7 ii. historical: literary and *i*lical allusions 0hich are often used to create a specific stylistic effect: largely satirical. ?riginal for%s of e2pression and fresh genuine stylistic %eans are co%paratively rare in ne0spaper articles: editorials included. #.#. T7E STYLE OF SCIENTIFIC *6OSE #.#.1. 3enera! considerations Scientific style refers to utterances 0hich are %ainly 0ritten: in the for% of %onologue: represented *y te2t*oo-s: scientific studies: research: case studies. There are several *ranches of scientific style: na%ely: popular=scientific style: acade%ic and professional style. The genre of scientific 0or-s is %ostly characteristic of the %ritten for( of language "scientific articles: %onographs or te2t*oo-s#: *ut it %ay also *e found in its ora! for( "in scientific reports: lectures: discussions at conferences: etc.#7 in the latter case: this style has so%e features of collo>uial speech. The f"nction1s2 of the scientific style are: to a large e2tent: different fro% other styles. The %ain function of scientific prose is proof. The style of scientific prose is therefore %ainly characteri,ed *y an arrange%ent of language %eans 0hich 0ill *ring proof: facts: as 0ell as argu%ents: to clinch a theory. &urther functions are to prove a hypothesis: to create ne0 concepts: to disclose the internal la0s of e2istence: develop%ent: relations *et0een different pheno%ena: to co%%unicate scientifically deter%ined -no0ledge effectively: clearly in 0ords of certain %eaning. The popular=scientific style has the function of *ringing scientific -no0ledge in a co%prehensi*le and interesting 0ay. This function causes the popular=scientific style to *e a co%pilation of various devices such as the use of ter%s: description: shorter sentences. #.#.2. Lin "istic feat"res The %ain !in "istic feat"res of scientific style: characteri,ed *y specific voca*ulary and syntactic structures: can *e su%%ed up as follo0s: #.#.2.1. Le,ica! feat"res !n i%portant feature of the scientific style is represented *y accuracy and e2pert -no0ledge in the use of ter(s. There are so%e characteristics of the ter%s used: i. !n i%portant feature and: pro*a*ly: the %ost conspicuous: is the use of ter(s specific to each given *ranch of science. Due to the rapid disse%ination of scientific and technological ideas: the interpenetration of scientific ideas: %odern scientific prose evinces an interesting pheno%enon: na%ely: e,chan e of ter(s *et0een various *ranches of science. !s '. $iVVW-ovX points out "2;;3: 121#: self=sufficiency in any *ranch of science is no0 a thing of the past. So%e scientific and technical ter%s *egin to circulate outside the narro0 field they *elong to and eventually *egin to develop ne0 %eanings. )olla*oration of specialists in related sciences has proved successful in %any fields. &or e2a%ple: %athe%atical ter%s are used in other sciences: including linguistics: thus: #athe#atical lin uistics is a *ranch of linguistics 0hich studies the %athe%atical properties of language. 1ut the over0hel%ing %a6ority of ter%s does not undergo this process of de=ter%ini,ation and re%ain the property of scientific prose. There they are *orn: develop ne0 ter%inological %eanings and there they die. ii. 3o other field of hu%an activity is so prolific in coinin ne0 0ords as science is. The necessity to penetrate deeper into the essence of things and pheno%ena gives rise to ne0

concepts: 0hich re>uire ne0 0ords to na%e the%. This can *e e2plained *y the fact that a ter% 0ill %a-e %ore direct reference to so%ething than a descriptive e2planation: a non=ter%. &urther%ore: ter%s are coined so as to *e self=e2planatory to the greatest possi*le degree. /ence the rapid creation of ne0 ter%s in any e%erging or developing science. The ne0 ter%s thus created: such as co%pound 0ords: derivatives: loan 0ords: neologis%s: *eco%e esta*lished >uite fast. iii. The general voca*ulary e%ployed in scientific prose *ears its direct referential %eaning: that is: 0ords used in scientific prose al0ays tend to *e used in their pri%ary logical %eaning. There are so%e i%portant restrictions on the use of 0ords: 0ords should not *e used in %ore than one %eaning7 in order to avoid a%*iguity: there should *e no 0ords 0ith conte2tual %eaning. 3eutral and co%%on literary 0ords used in scientific prose 0ill *e e2plained: if their %eaning is slightly %odified: either in the conte2t or in a foot=note *y a parenthesis: or an attri*utive phrase. i-. ! particularly i%portant aspect of scientific and technological language is the su*6ect= neutral voca*ulary 0hich cuts across different speciali,ed do%ains. In particular: a great deal of scientific 0or- involves giving instructions to act in a certain 0ay: or reporting on the conse>uences of having so acted. Several le2ical categories can *e identified 0ithin the language of scientific instruction and narrative: = Ver*s of e2position: ascertain! assu#e! co#3are! construct! describe! deter#ine! esti#ate! e0a#ine! e03lain! label! record! test! verify: etc. = Ver*s of 0arning and advising: avoid! check! ensure! notice! 3revent! re#e#ber! take care! etc.7 also: several negative ite%s: not dro3! not s3ill. = Ver*s of %anipulation: adGust! ali n! asse#ble! be in! boil! cla#3! connect! cover! decrease! dilute! e0tract! fill! i##erse! #i0! 3re3are! release! rotate! switch on! take! wei h: etc. = !d6ectival %odifiers and their related adver*s: careful<ly%! clockwise: continuous<ly%! final<ly%! radual<ly%! #oderate<ly%! 3eriodic<ally%! secure<ly%! subse'uent<ly#: etc. -. The focus is on particular data and pheno%ena: 0hich are vie0ed o*6ectively. The language %eans used: therefore: tend to *e o*6ective: precise: une%otional: devoid of any individuality: there is a striving for the %ost generali,ed for% of e2pression. There is total eli%ination of e%otionality and e2pressiveness. The %ost fre>uently used 0ords in scientific prose are function "or gra%%atical# 0ords: con6unctions: prepositions. The first 1;; %ost fre>uent 0ords of this style co%prise the follo0ing units: = prepositions: of! to! in! for! with!! on! at! by! fro#! out! about! down = prepositional phrases: in ter#s of! in view of! in s3ite of! as a result of! by #eans of! on <the% rounds of! in case of1 = con6unctional phrases: in order that! in case that! in s3ite of the fact that! on <the% rounds that! for fear that! etc7 = pronouns: one! it! we! they7 = notional 0ords: 3eo3le! ti#e! years! #an! #ade: etc. !s scientific prose is restricted to for%al situations and: conse>uently: to for%al style: it e%ploys a special voca*ulary 0hich consists of t0o %ain groups: i. 0ords associated 0ith professional co%%unication7 ii. a less e2clusive group of so=called learned 0ords. /ere one can find nu%erous 0ords that are used in scientific prose and can *e identified *y their dry: %atter=of=fact flavour: for e2a%ple: co#3rise! co#3ile! e03eri#ental! hetero eneous! ho#o eneous! conclusive! etc. #.#.2.2. 3ra((atica! feat"res So%e of the %ost i%portant gra%%atical peculiarities of scientific prose are0

i. Non.finite for(s "infinitives: participial and gerundial constructions# as attri*utes are used in a*undance. The use of a*stract nouns: gerundial: participial or infinitive constructions instead of %uch si%pler clauses 0ith con6unctions %a-es the te2t %ore condensed: e.g. A3art fro# this! controllin e#ission of reenhouse ases would re'uire hu e increase in ener y efficiency$ "E1esides: if 0e 0ant to control the gases 0hich co%e out 0hen the air *eco%es 0ar%er: 0e shall have to produce %uch %ore energyG# There are also nu%erous co%pound types of predicates *ased on non=finite for%s such as infinitives: These ases are easy to control but they are 3ersistent once e#itted "EIt is easy to control these gases: *ut it is hard to stop the% 0hen they co%e outG# Deforestation is 3robably even harder to chan e "EIt is even harder to change the situation 0hen forests *egin to disappearG# ii. No(ina!i@ations0 3o%inali,ation refers to the process of affi2ation or derivation 0here*y nouns are derived fro% ver*s *y no%inali,ing suffi2es "hence the ter% de-er;a! no"ns#: e.g. develo35#ent: convers5ion "fro% convert#: etc. Since no%inalisations are characteristically a*stract: they are >uite co%%on in i%personal and for%al registers such as scientific prose: e.g.: friction losses! stea# consu#3tion! stea# corrosion inhibition: etc. The conversion of the An lo5Sa0ons to .hristianity took 3lace in the si0th century. ")o%pare: The An lo5Sa0ons were converted to .hristianity$ This took 3lace in the si0th century%. 3ot only dever*al nouns: *ut also -er;a! no"ns4 %ar-ed *y the suffi2 Qin : as s3eakin ! writin : etc. are fre>uently used in such no%inali,ations. iii. !nother feature of scientific prose is represented *y the use of e,tended attri;"ti-e phrases: often 0ith a nu%*er of nouns as attri*utes to the head=noun: e.g. The er# 3las# theory1 the ti#e and s3ace relativity theory7 a hi h level consensus1 the reenhouse effect7 carbon dio0ide e#ission1 fossil fuel burnin 1 deforestation 3roble#s! etc. i-. 6e!ati-e c!a"ses and relative pronoun choices: )o%paring the three registers Q conversation: ne0spaper 0riting and acade%ic prose "scientific prose# Q 1i*er et al. "2;;.: 2C4# point out several differences: related to structural and functional considerations: relative clauses for%ed 0ith the relative pronoun that or ,ero relativi,er have a %ore collo>uial flavour and are the preferred choices in conversation7 ne0spaper 0riting sho0s a %uch stronger preference for which and who7 in contrast: acade%ic prose focuses on inani%ate o*6ects or concepts: resulting in a %uch greater use of the relative pronoun which. Indeed: 0ith its %ore for%al: acade%ic associations: which is preferred in scientific prose: e.g.: An o3erator is si#3ly so#ethin which turns one vector into another$ -. The i(persona!it$ of scientific 0ritings can also *e considered a typical feature of this style. The author of scientific 0or-s tends to sound i%personal: hence the use of the pronoun we "instead of -%! as 0ell as of i%personal constructions. This >uality is also %ainly revealed in the fre>uent use of passi-e constr"ctions. !n e2tensive use of passive constructions "appro2i%ately 2;[: in co%parison to 3 [ in spo-en

utterances# conveys the general i%personal tone of e2pression. &or e2a%ple: scientific e2peri%ents are generally descri*ed in the passive voice: Then acid was taken instead of - R we then took acid In connection 0ith the general i%personal tone of e2pression: it should *e noted that i%personal passive constructions are fre>uently used 0ith ver*s such as assu#e! conclude! e#3hasiAe! infer! 3oint out! 3resu#e! su33ose: etc. -t should be 3ointed out thatF -t #ust not be assu#ed thatF -t #ust be e#3hasiAed thatF The passive constructions are a helpful 0ay of ensuring a s%ooth flo0 of ideas: and are i%portant in allo0ing o*6ects to receive pro%inence 0ithin clause structure. -i. Scientific prose %a-es use of special e(phatic constr"ctions to lay logical stress on so%e part of the sentence: -t is not solely fro# water that o0y en is to be obtained "E 9e can get o2ygen not only fro% 0aterG# . -ii. There is an e2tensive use of (oda! -er;s in scientific prose: %odals are used pri%arily 0ith episte%ic values: in testing: proving or disproving hypotheses and dra0ing conclusions. &or e2a%ple: could! #ay and #i ht usually e2press logical possi*ility: as in the e2a%ples *elo0: The two 3rocesses could well be inde3endent. The only 3roble# #ay be that the co#3ound is difficult to re#ove after use. -iii. The synta2 of scientific speech is characteri,ed *y the use of co(p!ete 1non.e!!iptica!2 sentences: the use of e2tended co%ple2 and co%pound sentences 0ithout o%ission of con6unctions: as they ena*le the author to e2press the relations *et0een the parts %ore precisely "as different fro% the asyndetic connection typical of collo>uial speech#. i,. !n i%portant feature of scientific style is the !o ica! seC"ence of "tterances 0ith a clear indication of the interrelations and interdependencies. It is considered that in no other functional style do 0e find such a developed and varied syste% of connecti-es as in the scientific style. The coherence and cohesion of utterances is esta*lished *y %eans of a large nu%*er of !in<in ad-er;ia!s: 0hich serve a connective function: na%ely to %a-e e2plicit the relationship *et0een t0o units of discourse. (in-ing adver*ials: such as: thus! however! further#ore! nonetheless! #oreover! then! in fact! in eneral: etc.: can e2press a variety of relationships: including addition and enu%eration: su%%ation: apposition: result or inference: contrast or concession: and transition. 1ecause they e2plicitly signal the connections *et0een passages of te2t: lin-ing adver*ials: are i%portant devices for creating te2tual cohesion: as illustrated *y the follo0ing e2a%ples: 6e are already ac'uainted with si0 3ro3erties which #ay be used to describe the ther#odyna#ic state of a syste#D /astly! entro3y S was shown to be a 3ro3erty as a conse'uence of the *irst /aw "addition and enu%eration# To conclude! we #ay 3lace the three notions of saliency in an ordered relation as follows:F "su%%ation# 4ntil recently hy3obiosis was not considered to be a feature of this enus$ However! there is now a#3le evidence in te#3erate areas that hy3obiosis 3lays an i#3ortant 3art in the e3ide#iolo y"contrastAconcession# ,. !n i%portant feature of scientific style is represented *y sentence patterns 0hich can *e of three types: postulatory: argu%entative and for%ulative.

! hypothesis: a scientific con6ecture or a forecast %ust *e *ased on facts already -no0n: on facts syste%ati,ed and defined. Therefore every piece of scientific prose 0ill *egin 0ith postulatory state%ents "postulations 0hich are ta-en as self=evident and needing no proof#. ! reference to these facts is only preli%inary to the e2position of the 0riter5s ideas and is therefore su%%ed up in precisely for%ulated state%ents acco%panied: if considered necessary: *y references to sources. The 0riter5s o0n ideas are shaped in for%ulae: 0hich represent a doctrine or theory of a principle: an argu%ent: the result of an investigation: etc. &or e2a%ple: -f all the wavelen ths are #i0ed! a white li ht will be 3roduced. "Iostulatory# This one5celled or anis# ate! rew! res3onded to its surroundin s! re3roduced itself! and s3read throu hout the oceans. All life has 3robably evolved fro# that sin le ori inal cell$ "!rgu%entative# .he#ical ener y is 3otential ener y that is stored in asoline! food! or oil1 #echanical ener y is ener y related to the #ove#ents of obGects$ "&or%ulative# ,i. !n o*serva*le feature of the style of scientific prose: and one that stri-es the eye of the reader: is the use of C"otations and references. These so%eti%es occupy as %uch as half a page. There is another feature of scientific style: 0hich %a-es it distinguisha*le fro% other styles: na%ely: the fre>uent use of foot.notes: not of the reference -ind: *ut digressive in character. This is in full accord 0ith the %ain re>uire%ent of the scientific style: 0hich is logical coherence of ideas e2pressed. !nything that see%s to violate this re>uire%ent "logical coherence of ideas# or see%s not to *e i%%ediately relevant to the %atter in hand *ut at the sa%e ti%e serves to *ac- up the idea 0ill *e placed in a foot=note. So%e features of scientific style can *e seen in the follo0ing e2tract fro% an acade%ic science *oo- ">uoted in 1i*er et all: 1BBB: 23#: There is also so#e evidence that increased #ortality #ay occur in e s which are e03osed to relatively low te#3eratures shortly after they are laid! and which conse'uently attain little e#bryonic rowth$ *or e0a#3le! e s laid after freeAe5u3 revealed a eneral increase in #ortality as ovi3osition e0tended later into the autu#n when te#3eratures were declinin $ The conte2tual characteristics of this science te2t are the follo0ing: the te2t is 0ritten: carefully planned: edited and revised7 it is produced *y an author 0ho does not overtly refer to hi%self in the te2t7 the production is not interactive7 the te2t is addressed to a large audience of readers 0ho are scientists: *ut the addressees are never directly referred to. The pri%ary purpose of the te2t is to present detailed and precise infor%ation: e2planations: and argu%ents a*out the *iology of grasshoppers. Due to the influence of these conte2tual factors: the linguistic characteristics of this science te2t are >uite different fro% those of other types of te2ts "such as: conversation: fiction#. The t0o sentences of the science te2t sa%ple are relatively long as 0ell as gra%%atically co%ple2. The science te2t sa%ple also contains so%e linguistic characteristics typical of this style: %orphologically co%ple2 voca*ulary ite%s "e.g. #ortality! e#bryonic! ovi3osition%1 co%ple2 noun phrase constructions with pre= and post=%odifiers "e.g. a eneral increase in #ortality1 e s which are e03osed to relatively low te#3eratures shortly after they are laid%1 fre>uent passive constructions "e.g. are e03osed! are laid%1 the use of %odal ver*s 0ith episte%ic values "e.g. #ortality #ay occur%$

#.). T7E STYLE OF OFFICIAL +OCUMENTS #.).1. 3enera! considerations ?fficial docu%ents are 0ritten in a for%al: EcoldG or %atter=of=fact style of speech. The style of official docu%ents: or EofficialeseG as it is so%eti%es called "see )rystal P Davy: 1B.B: 242#: is not ho%ogeneous and is represented *y the follo0ing su*=styles: or varieties: The language of *usiness docu%ents7 The language of legal docu%ents7 The language of diplo%acy7 The language of %ilitary docu%ents. (i-e other styles: this style has a definite co%%unicative ai% and accordingly has its o0n syste% of interrelated language and stylistic %eans. The %ain ai% of this type of co%%unication is to state the conditions *inding t0o parties in an underta-ing. These parties %ay *e: i. the state and the citi,en: or citi,en and citi,en "6urisdiction#7 ii. a society and its %e%*ers "statute or ordinance#7 iii. t0o or %ore enterprises or *odies "*usiness correspondence or contracts#7 iv. t0o or %ore govern%ents "pacts: treaties#7 v. a person in authority and a su*ordinate "orders: regulations: authoritative directions#7 vi. the *oard or presidiu% and the asse%*ly or general %eeting "procedures acts: %inutes: etc.# In other 0ords: the ai( of co(("nication in this style of language is to reach agree%ent *et0een t0o contracting parties. The overall code of the official style falls into a syste% of su*codes: each characteri,ed *y its o0n ter%inological no%enclature: its o0n co%positional for%: and its o0n variety of syntactic arrange%ents. 1ut the integrating features of all these su*codes: e%anating fro% the general ai% of agree%ent *et0een parties: re%ain the follo0ing: conventionality of e2pression7 a*sence of any e%otiveness7 the encoded character of language: sy%*ols7 a general syntactic %ode of co%*ining several pronounce%ents into one sentence. In this chapter: the linguistic analysis 0ill discuss t0o varieties of the style of official docu%ents:: na%ely: the language of *usiness "..4.2.#7 the language of legal docu%ents "..4.3.#. #.).2. The !an "a e of ;"siness #.).2.1. 3enera! considerations The *usiness style refers %ainly to 0ritten %aterial: especially co%%ercial correspondence: e.g. in>uiries: offers: orders: invoices: clai%s and co%plaints: dunning letters "i.e. 0ritten correspondence received fro% creditors re>uesting pay%ent of de*t andAor threatening legal or other action if pay%ent is not %ade *y a certain date: see @ac#illan! 2;;2: 432#: for%s: etc. The *usiness style has several functions: na%ely: to infor%: to persuade: to cooperate. The %ain linguistic features of *usiness style are characteri,ed *y certain gra%%atical peculiarities: specific voca*ulary and co%positional patterns. #.).2.2. 3ra((atica! feat"res So%e of the %ost i%portant gra%%atical peculiarities of *usiness te2ts are0 i. Co(p!e, no"n phrases !n i%portant feature of *usiness discourse is represented *y the use of e2tended noun phrases: often 0ith a nu%*er of nouns as attri*utes to the head=noun: e.g. ,ublic relations de3art#ent "Edepart%ent dealing in pu*lic

relationsG#7 3arts re3lace#ent uarantee "Ea guarantee for the replace%ent of MspareO partsG#7 a Social Security rebate clai# for# "Ea clai% for% for Social Security re*atesG#. ii. Moda! -er;s4 represented *y can! could! #ay! #i ht! #ust! need! should are used to e2press a variety of %eanings including a*ility: per%ission: possi*ility: o*ligation: deduction. They are also fre>uently used to e2press a nu%*er of functions or speech acts: such as: re>uests: offers: suggestions: instructions: irritation: etc. The "astern "uro3ean #arket could beco#e very 3rofitable "\ descri*ing a future possi*ility# -f your current account stays in credit you do not have to 3ay bank char es "\ a*sence of o*ligation# 8ou #i ht try ivin the# a discount if you really want their order "\ %a-ing a suggestion# iii. *assi-e constr"ctions are fre>uently used in *usiness te2ts. To see 0hy the passive voice is preferred to the active: 0e shall consider the follo0ing sentences: a. The ,ersonnel @ana er interviews candidates. = .andidates are interviewed by The ,ersonnel @ana er$ *. The auditors ins3ect the accounts once a year$ The accounts are ins3ected by the auditors once a year$ c. So#eone has translated the contract into Arabic. Q The contract has been translated the contract into Arabic In each sentence the gra%%atical su*6ect provides the topic of the sentence. In "a.#: the focus of attention changes fro% The ,ersonnel @ana er in the active sentence to .andidates in the passive sentence7 si%ilarly: in "*.# fro% The auditors to The accounts$ The by=phrase "by the ,ersonnel @ana er! by the auditors% e2presses the agent: 0ho perfor%ed the action. In "c.#: the passive is preferred to the active construction if 0e are not interested in 0ho perfor%s the action or it is not necessary to -no0 "it 0ould *e unusual to add 4by so#eone2%$ i-. Lon and co(p!e, sentences4 0ith various types of su*ordinate clauses: Should you wish to #ake a bookin ! 3lease contact our reservations #ana er! Gillian Gre $ "\ a conditional: if clause: 0here the con6unction if is o%itted# .o#3anies build u3 buffer stocks so that they do notRwill not run short of su33lies. "\ clause of purpose# -. @ust as scientific style: the *usiness style is o;'ecti-e "i.e.: factual: i%personal: une%otional: logical and precise#. !n o*6ective tone is achieved *y: = avoidance of e2pressive and e%otionally %ar-ed 0ords: personal attitudes and evaluation7 = the spea-er is presented in the 1 st person singular "al%ost anony%ous# and the addressee is i%personal: addressed in 2nd person plural7 = the reported speech is used to relate 0hat another person said: 0rote or said on a previous occasion. #.).2.#. Le,ica! feat"res i. @ust as in scientific prose: the general voca*ulary e%ployed in *usiness te2ts *ears its direct referential %eaning: that is to say: 0ords al0ays tend to *e used in their logical pri%ary dictionary %eaning. ii. The voca*ulary of *usiness te2ts is characteri,ed *y the use of specia! ter(ino!o $. &or illustration: %ost definitions 0ere ta-en fro% I. Strutt5s te2t*oo-: /on #an Business "n lish 4sa e: broker "Ea person 0ho *rings together a seller and a clientG#: brokera e "Ethe

co%%ission paid for this serviceG#: tender "Ea for%al offer to supply or produce goods or services at a stated priceG#: le al tender "E*an- notes and coins 0hich are accepted in pay%entG#7 bid "EtenderG#7 also: retailer! stock! e'uity! share! dividends! takeover! etc. In addition to special ter%inology: the voca*ulary of *usiness also contains nu%erous for%al: lofty "E*oo-ishG# 0ords and phrases: 3lausible "Epossi*leG#: to infor# "Eto tellG#: to assist "Eto helpG#: to coo3erate "Eto 0or- togetherG#: to 3ro#ote "Eto help so%ething developG#: to secure "Eto %a-e certainG#: to be deter#ined R resolved "Eto 0ishG#: to endeavour "Eto tryG#: to proceed "Eto goG#: to in'uire "Eto as-G#: etc. iii. !s 0e have seen: the %ost general function of these te2ts predeter%ines the peculiarities of the style. ! stri-ing feature of *usiness nglish usage is conventionality of language: a special syste% of c!ichBs: ter(s and set e,pressions *y 0hich each su*=style can easily *e recogni,ed: for e2a%ple: with the followin obGectives R ends "Efor these purposesG#: - be to infor# you! - be to #ove! - second the #otion! 3rovisional a enda! the above5#entioned! hereinafter na#ed! 6e re#ain! your obedient servants! etc. There are also special collocations to *e found in these te2ts: such as 3ublic relations! balance of 3ay#ents! balance of trade: the Stock "0chan e! le al tender! social 3ro ress: 3rivate advisory! etc. #.).2.). Co(positiona! patterns Ierhaps the %ost noticea*le of all features are the co%positional patterns of the variants of this style: represented *y the for%: the layout of official docu%ents "i.# as 0ell as for%al *usiness letters "ii.#. i. An officia! doc"(ent usually consists of a prea%*le: %ain te2t *ody and a finali,ing "concluding# part. 1a2 The prea(;!e is usually a state%ent at the *eginning of the docu%ent e2plaining 0hat it is a*out and stating the parties of the agree%ent: e.g. The States concludin this Treaty <Treaty on the Non5 3roliferation of Nuclear 6ea3ons%! hereinafter referred to as the T,arties to the Treaty2Dhave a reed as followsFG 1;2 The (ain te,t ;od$ constitutes the central and %ost i%portant part of the docu%ent. It consists of articles Q individual parts of a docu%ent: usually nu%*ered ones: 0hich state the conditions on 0hich the parties reach their agree%ent. 1c2 The fina!i@in part co%prises the signatures of the duly authori,ed people that have signed the docu%ent7 the a%ount of copies of the docu%ent7 the date7 the place. 1ii2 5"siness !etters have a definite co%positional pattern: na%ely: the heading giving the address of the 0riter and the date: the na%e of the addressee and his address. The usual parts of the *usiness letter are: 1a2 The headin : 0hich includes the sender5s na%e: postal and telegraphic addresses: telephone nu%*er as 0ell as reference titles of the sender and recipient: is printed at the top of the notepaper. 1;2 The date is printed in the top right=hand corner in the order: day: %onth: year: e.g. 21 st $ay: 2;;B "21A+A;B#. !nother order is usually e%ployed in the Dnited States: $ay: 21 st 2;;B "+A21A;B#. 1c2 Na(e and address: i.e. the inside address is usually typed in three: or four lines at the *eginning of the letter: e.g. @essrs$ Ada#s and 6ilkinson! RQ! *insbury S'uare! R /ondon! "$.$=$! "n land$ 1d2 The sa!"tation %ay *e: Sir! Sirs! Gentle#en "never 9Gentle#an2#: Dear Sirs "never 4Dear Gentle#en2#: @ada#! Dear @ada# "for *oth %arried and un%arried ladies#: or @esda#es "plural#: "never: Dear @r.A@ister#. Dear @r$ +onesR @rs$ BrownR @iss S#ith %ay only *e used 0hen the sender is fairly inti%ate 0ith the person receiving the letter.

1e2 6eference: Dnderlined heading should loo- as follo0s: Re) 8our Order No L=?QK$ Re is not an a**reviation of Tre ardin G: *ut a (atin 0ord %eaning Tin the #atter ofN$ 1f2 Openin 0 There are so%e phrases 0ith 0hich to co%%ence a letter: such as: -n re3ly R with reference R referrin to your letter ofD1 -n accordance with R co#3liance with R 3ursuance of your order No$1 6e reatly a33reciate your letter ofD 1 2 The ;od$ is the su*6ect %atter that should *e concise *ut not laconic. The sentences should not *e too long: the 0hole %atter should *e *ro-en into reasona*ly short paragraphs 0hich should *e properly spaced. 1h2 C!osin or the co(p!i(entar$ c!ose usually loo-s so%ething li-e this: 8ours faithfully R truly R sincerely R cordially The %ost appropriate closing is: Awaitin your early re3ly with interest7 Ho3in there will be no further co#3laints of this nature7 Thankin you in advance for any infor#ation you can offer$ #.).#. The !an "a e of !e a! doc"(ents /aving perfor%ative character and serving as co%%ands: the language of legal docu%ents %ust avoid opportunities for %isinterpretation. The %ain characteristic !in "istic feat"res of legal te2ts: noticea*le at the le2ical and gra%%atical level: 0ill *e su%%ed up in the sections *elo0. #.).#.1. Le,ica! feat"res The voca*ulary of the legal language is %ostly represented *y for%al 0ords: archais%s: and technical ter%s. It also consists of co%%on 0ords 0ith unco%%on %eanings: ter%s of art "i.e. 0ords or phrases that have a particular: precise %eaning in la0: cf. )ristal P Davy: 1B.B: 21;#: neologis%s: and 0ords of foreign origin. i. For(a! !an "a e is one of the %ain features of the legal le2icon. The fre>uent use of for%al 0ords sets a sole%n tone to the legal te2ts. &or%al 0ords li-e 4initiate5 "G*eginG# or 4ter%inate5 "GendG#: 0hich are rarely used in general nglish: are >uite fre>uent in legal te2ts. ?ther for%al 0ords in legal te2ts are abeyance! ac'uiesce! a#bit: caducity! co##ence! co#3lete! construe! convene! #alfeasance! #alversation! notify: 'uash! 3roviso: etc. The A ree#ent shall co##ence on this day and auto#atically ter#inate u3on the bankru3tcy or insolvency of either of the 3arties hereto$ <the ver*s co##ence and ter#inate %ean respectively G*eginG and GendG#. The ter# Geffective dateN #eans the date on which this A ree#ent is duly e0ecuted by the 3arties hereto$ "the ver* e0ecute %eans GsignG#. ii. Technica! ter(s0 (egal nglish: in co%%on 0ith %any other professional languages: e%ployes a great deal of ter%inology: that has a technical: special %eaning 0hich is not generally fa%iliar to the lay%an. The technical %eaning of 0ords in legal te2ts is often sta*ili,ed: clarified: single and precise. Thus: in legal nglish: there are 0idely used technical ter%s: such as waiver! covenant! tort! defect! re#edy! Gurisdiction! da#a es andRor losss! inde#nities! tenancy! etc.: 0hich do not have any hidden %eanings and 0hich are not very a%*iguous. &or e2a%ple: waiver "Tan official 0ritten state%ent saying that a right: legal process: etc. can *e 0aived: i.e. ignoredG covenant "Ta legal agree%ent in 0hich so%eone pro%ises to

to pay a person or organisation an a%ount of %oney regularlyG# tort "Tan action that is 0rong *ut not cri%inal and can *e dealt 0ith in a civil court of la0G#. !n i%portant feature 0hich can *e identified in %any legal te2ts is represented *y fre>uent use of co%%on 0ords 0ith unco%%on %eanings: hence *eco%ing technical ter%s. 9ords such as action! article! consideration! construction! e0ecute! 3arty! 3refer! 3reGudice! satisfaction! etc. are not used for their co%%on %eaning: *ut for their special %eaning: Thus: in legal conte2ts action %eans Tla0suitG: 3arty has the %eaning Ta person litigatingG: 0hile e0ecute %eans Tto sign to effectG. ?ther uses of co%%on 0ords 0ith unco%%on legal %eanings: alien "]transfer propertyG#7 counter3art "Tduplicate of docu%entG#7 instru#ent "Elegal docu%entG#7 letters "Edocu%ent authori,ing one to actG#7 serve "Edeliver legal papersG#. iii. (anguage changes continually: *ut the language of the la0 is rather conservative: tending to resist change and changing. !s )rystal and Davy point out: EIt is especially noticea*le that any passage of legal nglish is usually 0ell studded 0ith archaic 0ords and phrases of a -ind that could *e used *y no one else *ut la0yersG "1B.B: 2;<#. Indeed: legal te2ts contain a large proportion of archaic %ords4 such as: aforesaid: herein! hereby! herewith! thereunder: whereto: etc. These co%pound adver*s "usually for%ed *y adver*s such as here! there! or where to 0hich prepositions: such as after! at! by! fro#! in! of! to! under! u3on: or with have *een suffi2ed# 0ere co%%on in %edieval nglish. Rather than saying Eunder itG or Eunder thatG: a spea-er of $iddle nglish could say hereunder or thereunder. !nd instead of using ]0ith 0hatG or ]0ith 0hichG in >uestions: $iddle nglish spea-ers 0ould generally say wherewith. ?ne of the %ain 6ustifications for continued use of anti>uated voca*ulary is that it is %ore precise than the %odern e>uivalent. !rchaic 0ords li-e herein and therein %ay so%eti%es lead to econo%y of e2pression 0hen they replace a longer phrase li-e Ein this docu%entG or Ein that clauseG "Tiers%a: 2;;;: B4#. The 3ro3erty belon s to the afore#entioned @r$ +ones. "G%entioned *efore in an earlier part of the docu%entG# Such -ind of 0ords reflects the sole%n: conservative: rigid and authoritative style of contracts and the use of 0hich can avoid repetition and redundancy. i-. !nother feature is represented *y the fre>uent use of con6oined phrases "or ;ino(ia! e,pressions# 0hich are traditionally ter%ed do";!ets. 1ino%ial phrases consist of t0o 0ords fro% the sa%e gra%%atical category: coordinated *y and or or "1i*er et al: 1BBB: 1;3;#. !lthough the %ost co%%on -ind of *ino%ial phrase co%prises t0o coordinated nouns: 0ords fro% all four %a6or gra%%atical categories can *e co%*ined. There are nu%erous synony%s or synony%ous pairs co%%only used in legal 0riting: *eing represented *y: = nouns: ter#s and conditions! law and order! oods and chattels! loss! inGury or da#a e! i#3ort duty and ta0! etc$ = ver*s: 3erfor# and dischar e: alter and chan e! bind and obli ate! furnish and 3rovide! fulfil and 3erfor#! etc. = ad6ectives: null and void! fit and 3ro3er! sole and e0clusive! final and conclusive : transferable and assi nable$ = adver*s: slowly and ine0orably$ #.).#.2. 3ra((atica! feat"res i. !n i%portant feature is represented *y the e2tensive use of no(ina!i@ations "dever*al nouns#: a ter% referring to t0o distinct processes: "a# The process or result of for%ing a noun fro% a 0ord *elonging to another 0ord class: e.g. writin derived fro% write *y additing Q

in 7 or develo3#ent derived fro% develo3 *y the addition of the noun=for%ing suffi2 Q#ent7 "*# The process or result of deriving a noun phrase *y a transfor%ation fro% a finite clause: They reGected #y co#3laint U Their reGectin #y co#3laint or Their reGection of #y co#3laint 1oth processes of no%inali,ation can *e found in legal language. !s no%inali,ations are characteristically a*stract: they allo0 the la0 to *e stated as generally and o*6ectively as possi*le. @ust li-e the passive constructions "discussed in "iv.#: no%inali,ations can *e used to o*scure the actor: e.g.: The inGury occurred at K$?>$ = inGury is a noun derived fro% the ver* inGure. Such co%pact no%inali,ations: co%*ined 0ith the passive: are co%%on in i%personal and for%al registers such as legal language: official notices: etc. ii. *re. and post(odification of no"n phrases *re(odification4 descri*ing all those ele%ents in a noun phrase 0hich are su*ordinate to the noun used as head 0ord: and 0hich occur directly *efore it: is represented in nglish *y four %a6or structural types of pre%odification in nglish: general ad6ective "e.g. official ne otiations%: ed5participial %odifier "e.g. established tradition%: in 5 participial %odifier "e.g. e0haustin task%: noun "e.g. law re3ort%. $ost ad6ectival and participial pre%odifiers are condensed structures and can *e re= phrased as a longer: post%odifying relative clause: e.g. official ne otiations ne otiations which are official$ /o0ever: the re=phrasing of noun pre%odifiers is not at all straightfor0ard *ecause nounYnoun se>uences can represent %any different %eaning relations: 0ith no overt indication of 0hich %eaning is intended in any given case: e.g. law re3ort \ report a*out the la07 co#3any #ana e#ent \ the %anage%ent of a co%pany. *ost(odification4 descri*ing all those ele%ents in a noun phrase or no%inal group 0hich are su*ordinate to the noun as head 0ord: and 0hich occur after it: is represented in nglish *y finite clauses "i.e. relative clauses#: non=finite clauses " to5clauses: in 5clauses: ed5clauses# as 0ell as prepositional phrases. In particular: prepositional phrases allo0 a very dense pac-aging of infor%ation in a te2t: *eing %ore co%pact than relative clauses. These structures often occur in e2tre%ely dense: e%*edded se>uences: i.e. constructions in syntactic su*ordination: 0here one sentence is included or 5e%*edded5 in another: e.g. There are #erchant bankers who find it convenient to stir u3 a33rehension "post%dification *y a relative clause# An atte#3t to inflict bodily inGury u3on another by usin unlawful force "post%dification *y a to5clause= i.e. the infinitive# The distinction between 3ublic and 3rivate law! es3oused in #any 3luralist accounts is lar ely bo us "post%dification *y ed5clause#$ 9e can conclude this sction *y stating that pre%odifiers differ fro% post%odifiers in t0o %a6or respects: they are %ore condensed than post%odifiers: using fe0er 0ords to convey si%ilar infor%ation7 second: pre%odifiers are %uch less e2plicit in identifying the %eaning relationship that e2ists *et0een the %odifier and head noun. This reliance on i%plicit %eaning relationship is %ost evident in the case of noun Y noun co%pounds. In legal te2ts: post%odification is preferred to pre%odification: co%ple2 no%inal groups 0ith heavy post%odification are characteristic of legal language: 0here e2planatory detail is felt necessary. iii. Moda! a",i!iar$ -er;s The language of the legal docu%ents is not only infor%ative providing the reader 0ith details and useful infor%ation a*out their rights and o*ligations: *ut it also specifies and

%entions the authority 0hich issues: orders or prohi*its certain acts. This authoritative and per%issive di%ension is conveyed in legal nglish *y %eans of the %odal ver*s shall! #ay! #ust! would! will follo0ed *y can! ou ht to! should$ The %ost fre>uently used %odal ver* in legal te2ts is sha!!: 0hich fulfils a variety of functions: to e2press the i%position of o*ligation: give directions: confer rights or indicate a positive co%%and in declarative sentences 0ith all persons "e.g. ,ay#ent shall be #ade by che'ue%1 and in negative conte2ts: to e2press prohi*itions. Discussing the different uses of this %odal ver*: )rystal and Davy state that in legal nglish ]shall is invaria*ly used to e2press 0hat is to *e the o*ligatory conse>uence of a legal decision: and not si%ply as a %ar-er of future tense: 0hich is its %ain function in other varietiesG "1B.B: 2;.=<#. !nother %odal ver* that is predo%inantly used in legal te2ts is (a$ 0hich e2presses possi*ility: per%ission: authori,ation or pro*a*ility: The court #ay #ake a youth rehabilitation order in res3ect of the current offence instead of i#3osin a fine$ The negative for% " #ay not# is used to e2press prohi*ition: or to li%it the rights or the po0ers of a provision: as in: The 3ower conferred by subsection <L% #ay not be e0ercised in relation to any sentence or order if an a33eal C$$$E! a ainst that sentence has been deter#ined$ i-. The passi-e -oice The acti-e -oice4 as in The thief had stolen all #y #oney! is the %ost co%%on and un%ar-ed for% of voice: 0here the gra%%atical su*6ect "also the logical su*6ect of the sentence# = the thief =is the agent of the action e2pressed *y a transitive ver*. The passi-e -oice: as in All #y #oney had been stolen by the thief! sho0s that the affected o*6ect "in the active voice# all #y #oney *eco%es the gra%%atical su*6ect: it is no longer the logical su*6ect *ut the goalArecipient or receiver of the action. The agent: doer of the action is e2pressed *y a prepositional phrase by the thief. !lthough the factual content of the t0o sentences re%ains the sa%e: there are certain differences in e%phasis: the active sentence places the e%phasis on the agent: the doer of the action: 0hile a passive sentence places the e%phasis on the recipient of the action: rather than on its doer. It is also possi*le for the agentive: or by5phrase to *e o%itted: All #y #oney had been stolen$ There are certain conte2ts and situations in 0hich the passive has generally *een regarded as useful: "a# 9hen the receiver of the action "affected o*6ect# is %ore i%portant than the doer "agent#: as in: The child was struck by the car1 "*# 9hen the doer "agent# is un-no0n: uni%portant: or too o*vious to *e 0orth %entioning: as in: The store was robbed last ni ht1 "c# 0hen 0e 0ant to esta*lish a tone of detach%ent and i%personality. The passive voice is a typical feature of the legal style. Iassives are so co%%on in legal nglish that it has even *een suggested that the passive: rather than the active: is the un%ar-ed voice there. The passive voice: a typical feature of the legal style: is so co%%on in legal nglish that it has even *een suggested that the passive: rather than the active: is the un%ar-ed voice there. $ore precisely: in !e a! te,ts4 passive sentences are fre>uently used for strategic i%precision: 0hen the agent is not -no0n to the spea-er or 0hen it can only *e vaguely defined7 passive sentences are also fre>uently used to deli*erately de=e%phasi,e: defocus or o*scure the agent "actor#: *y allo0ing the spea-er or 0riter to o%it reference to the agent "actor#: as in: The irl was inGured at K$?>$ Iassives are therefore i%personal constructions: giving an aura of o*6ectivity and authoritativeness to the te2t: 0hich %ay e2plain 0hy they are co%%on in court orders. They are also 0idely used in legislative docu%ents li-e !cts of Iarlia%ent: directives: treaties:

regulations: etc. on the other hand: they are less co%%on in contracts: 0here there is an interest in precise reference to the actors "the active voice is %ore relevant#. -. T$pes of sentences Studies "see Tiers%a: /e al /an ua e: 2;;;#: sho0 that sentences in legal language are >uite a *it longer than in other styles: and since they have %any su*ordinations or e%*eddings: legal sentences have an e2tre%ely co%ple2 structure. The length of the average sentence in legal te2ts can *e esta*lished at a*out 3; 0ords: 0hich represents %uch %ore than the average sentence characteri,ing other genres. !n i%portant feature of legal nglish is that it contains only co%plete %a6or sentences 0hich are in the for% of state%ents "declarative sentences#: 0ith no >uestions "interrogative sentences#: and only occasional co%%ands "i%perative sentences# ")rystal P Davy: 1B.B: 2;3#. The great %a6ority of legal state%ents have an underlying logical structure of the type Gif ^: then _ shall *e KG: or alternatively Gif ^: then _ shall do KG. In spite of nu%erous variations on this the%e: the conditional "Gif ^G# co%ponent is essential: *ecause: fro% a legal point of vie0: every re>uire%ent depends on so%e condiitions 0hich %ust *e satisfied. It is 0orth noting that the sentence structure of Gif ^G is usually reali,ed *y %eans of adver*ial conditional or concessive clauses. In ter%s of position: in nglish a su*ordinate clause %ay appear in three different positions relative to the %ain clause: initial: %edial and final. In D8 legal 0riting the su*ordinate clauses especially the ones introduced *y the con6unctions if! when: and where occur in initial position. The %edial position is usually preferred in uropean legislation. The relative clause is %ost fre>uently found in this position. This type of e%*edding %a-es the sentence even %ore co%plicated. Referring to the variety of positions of adver*ials: )rystal P Davy "1B.B: 2;4# point out the fact that legal drafts%en ta-e advantage of adver*ial %o*ility as a %eans of clarifying %eaning and avoiding a%*iguity: they seldo% %ove adver*ials around: as is done in so%e 0ritten varieties: si%ply as a %eans of achieving greater elegance of e2pression. The pri%ary concern 0ith %eaning leads to adver*ials *eing placed in positions 0hich see% unusual *y nor%al standards. The e2a%ple provided *y )rystal P Davy "1B.B: 1B+# fro% an endo0%ent assurance policy: 6hereas a 3ro3osal to effect with the Society an assurance on the /ife -nsured$$$ clearly illustrates this point: the sentence 0ould *e %ore natural if the order 0ere ... a 3ro3osal to effect an assurance with the Society ... "the transitive ver* and its direct o*6ect are not generally separated#: *ut no dou*t the idea is to get with the Society ne2t to the ver* it %odifies in order to avoid a possi*le a%*iguity. 6EFE6ENCES !ustin: @ohn. (. 1B.2. How to do thin s with words. ?2ford: ?2ford Dniversity Iress. 1i*er: Douglas. 1BCB. :ariation across s3eech and writin . )a%*ridge: )a%*ridge Dniversity Iress. 1i*er: Douglas: )onrad: Susan: (eech: 'eoffrey. 2;;.. /on #an Student Gra##ar of S3oken and 6ritten "n lish. (ondon: (ong%an. 1i*er: Douglas: @ohansson: Stig: (eech: 'eoffrey: )onrad: Susan: &inegan: d0ard. 1BBB. /on #an Gra##ar of S3oken and 6ritten "n lish. (ondon: (ong%an.

1radford: Richard. 1BB<. Stylistics. (ondon and 3e0 Kor-: Routledge. )arter: Ronald and Si%pson: Iaul. 1BCB. /an ua e! Discourse and /iterature$ An -ntroductory Reader in Discourse Stylistics. (ondon: Routledge. )arter: Ronald. 1BCB. E9hat is stylistics and 0hy can 0e teach it in different 0aysLG In Short: $. "ed# Readin ! AnalyAin and Teachin /iterature$ (ondon: (ong%an: pp. 1.1=1<<. )arter: Ronald and 3ash: 9alter. 1BB;. Seein throu h /an ua e) A Guide to Styles of "n lish 6ritin $ ?2ford: 1lac-0ell. )arter: Ronald and $c)arthy: $ichael. E'ra%%ar and the Spo-en (anguageG. In A33lied /in uistics! 1. "2#: 1BB+: 141=1+C. )arter: Ronald and $c)arthy: $ichael. 1BB<. "03lorin S3oken "n lish$ )a%*ridge: )a%*ridge Dniversity Iress. )arter: R. and $. $c)arthy. 2;;.. .a#brid e Gra##ar of "n lish$ A .o#3rehensive Guide$ S3oken and 6ritten "n lish Gra##ar and 4sa e. )a%*ridge: )a%*ridge Dniversity Iress. )ruse: David !lan. 1BCB. /e0ical Se#antics. )a%*ridge: )a%*ridge Dniversity Iress. )rystal: David and Davy: Dere-. 1B.B. -nvesti atin "n lish Style$ (ondon: (ong%an. )rystal: David. 1BB2. A Dictionary of /in uistics and ,honetics$ 3rd ed. Dpdated and enlarged. ?2ford: 1lac-0ell. )rystal: David. 1BB4. An "ncyclo3edic Dictionary of /an ua e and /an ua es. ?2ford: 1lac-0ell. Douth0aite: @ohn. 2;;;. Towards a /in uistic Theory of *ore roundin . Turin: ditioni dell5?rso. Di2on: Ieter. 1B<1. Rhetoric$ $ethuen. Dyer: 'illian. 1BC2. Advertisin as co##unication$ $ethuen. n-vist: 3ils ri-. 1B<3. /in uistic Stylistics. The /ague: $outon. sser: @Hrgen. 1BB3. "n lish /in uistic Stylistics. TH*ingen: 3ie%eyer. &inch: 'eoffrey. 2;;;. /in uistic Ter#s and .once3ts. Ialgrave $ac%illan &inch: 'eoffrey. 2;;3. How to Study /in uistics$ A Guide to 4nderstandin /an ua e. 2nd ed. Ialgrave $ac%illan. &ish: Stanley. 1B<;. (iterature in the reader: affective stylistics. New /iterary History 2: 123=1.2. Dniversity of Virginia. &o0ler: Roger. 1BC1. /iterature as Social Discourse) The ,ractice of /in uistic .riticis#. (ondon: 1atsford !cade%ic and ducational (TD &o0ler: Roger. 1BB.. /in uistic .riticis#$ ?2ford: ?2ford Dniversity Iress. &ree*orn: Dennis. 1BB3. :arieties of "n lish) An -ntroduction to the Study of /an ua e$ (ondon: The $ac%illan Iress (td &ro%-in: Victoria and Rod%an: Ro*ert. 1BBC. An -ntroduction

to /an ua e. .th ed.: 3e0 Kor-: Tho%son /einle. 'alperin: I.R. 1BC1. Stylistics. $osco0: Visha6a S-ola. 'avins: @oanna: and Steen: 'erard. "eds.# 2;;3. .o nitive ,oetics in ,ractice. (ondon: Routledge. 'i**s: Ray.9. 1BB4. The 3oetics of #ind) fi urative thou ht! lan ua e and understandin $ )a%*ridge: )a%*ridge Dniversity Iress. 'oatly: !drian. 1BB<. The /an ua e of @eta3hors$ (ondon: Routledge. 'ra%ley: Stephan . and I`t,old: 8urt $ichael. 1BB2. A Survey of @odern "n lish$ 2nd edn. (ondon: Routledge. 'reen*au%: Sidney and Juir-: Randolph. 1BB;. A Student2s Gra##ar of the "n lish /an ua e$ (ondon: (ong%an. /alliday: $ichael !.8. 1B<3. "03lorations in the *unctions of /an ua e$ (ondon: !rnold /alliday: $ichael !.8. and /asan: Ru>aiya. 1B<.. .ohesion in "n lish! (ondon: (ong%an. /alliday: $ichael !.8. 1B<C. /an ua e as Social Se#iotic) The Social -nter3retation of /an ua e and @eanin $ (ondon: !rnold /odder. /alliday: $ichael !.8. 1BC+. An -ntroduction to *unctional Gra##ar. d0ard !rnold. /alliday: $ichael !.8. and /asan: R.1BC+. /an ua e! .onte0t and Te0t) As3ects of /an ua e in a Social5Se#iotic ,ers3ective$ ?2ford: ?2ford Dniversity Iress. /aynes: @ohn. 1BCB. -ntroducin Stylistics. (ondon: Dn0in /y%an. /er%an: Vi%ala. 1BB.. Dra#atic Discourse) Dialo ue as -nteraction in ,lays. (ondon: Routledge. /ope: @onathan and 9right: (aura. 1BB+. Stylistics: a 3ractical coursebook. (ondon: Routledge. @a-o*son: Ro%an. 1B.;. E(inguistics and IoeticsG: in T. Se*eo-: ed. Style in /an ua e$ )a%*ridge: $ass: $IT Iress: pp. 3+;=3<<. @oos: $artin. 1B.1. The *ive .locks$ 3e0 Kor-: /arcourt 1race. 8avecses: _oltan. 2;;2. @eta3hor) A ,ractical -ntroduction. 3e0 Kor-: ?2ford Dniversity Iress. (a-off: 'eorge and @ohnson: $ar-. 1BC;. @eta3hors 6e /ive By. )hicago: Dniversity of )hicago Iress. (a-off: 'eorge. 1BC<. 6o#en! *ire and Dan erous Thin s) 6hat .ate ories Reveal about the @ind. )hicago: Dniversity of )hicago Iress. (a-off: 'eorge and Turner: $ar-. 1BCB. @ore than .ool Reason) A *ield Guide to ,oetic @eta3hor. )hicago: Dniversity of )hicago Iress. (eech: 'eoffrey. 1B.B. A /in uistic Guide to "n lish ,oetry$ (ondon: (ong%an. (eech: 'eoffrey. 1BC1. Se#antics. "2nd edn.# Ienguin *oo-s. (eech: 'eoffrey. 1BC3. ,rinci3les of ,ra #atics. (ondon:

(ong%an. (eech: 'eoffrey and Short: $ichael. 1BC1. Style in *iction) A /in uistic -ntroduction to "n lish *ictional ,rose$ (ondon: (ong%an. (eech: 'eoffrey: Deuchar: $argaret and /oogenraad: Ro*ert. 2;;.. "n lish Gra##ar for Today$ A New -ntroduction$ 2nd edition. (ondon: Ialgrave. de $an: Iaul. 1B<B. Alle ories of readin ) fi ural lan ua e in Rousseau! NietAche! Rilke and ,roust. Kale Dniversity Iress: 3e0 /aven. $c!rthur: To% "ed#. 1BB2. The O0ford .o#3anion to the "n lish /an ua e$ ?2ford: ?2ford Dniversity Iress. $c)arthy: $ichael and ?5Dell: &elicity. 1BB4. "n lish :ocabulary in 4se. )a%*ridge: )a%*ridge Dniversity Iress. @ac#illan "n lish Dictionary for Advanced /earners. 2;;2. International Student dition: ?2ford. $iVVW-ovX: 'a*riela. 2;;3. /in uistic Stylistics. &ilo,ofic-X &a-ulta: D8&. 3itra. 3agy: 'X*or Tolcsvai. 2;;+. A .o nitive Theory of Style$ &ran-furt a% $ain: Ieter (ang. 3e0%ar-: Ieter. 1BB+. A Te0tbook of Translation. 3e0 Kor-: Ihoeni2 (T. ?rtony: !ndre0 "ed# 1B<B. @eta3hor and Thou ht$ )a%*ridge: )a%*ridge Dniversity Iress. Ilett: /einrich &. E)oncepts of style: a classificatory and a critical approachG. In /an ua e and Style: 12: 1B<<. Ioole: ): Stuart. 1BBB. An -ntroduction to /in uistics. (ondon: Ialgrave. Juir-: Randolph. 1B.2: The 4se of "n lish. (ondon: (ong%an Juir-: Randolph: 'reen*au%: Sidney: (eech: 'eoffrey: Svartvi-: @an. 1BC+. A .o#3rehensive Gra##ar of the "n lish /an ua e$ (ondon: (ong%an. Juir-: Randolph and Stein: 'ertrude. 1BB; "eds.# "n lish in 4se$ (ondon: (ong%an. Radford: !ndre0. 1BCC. Transfor#ational Gra##ar) A *irst .ourse. )a%*ridge: )a%*ridge Dniversity Iress. Reah: Danuta. 1BBC. The /an ua e of News3a3ers$ (ondon: Routledge. Schiffrin: De*orah. 1BB4. A33roaches to Discourse. ?2ford: 1lac-0ell. Se*eo-: Tho%as !. "ed.# 1B.;. Style in /an ua e$ )a%*ridge: $ass: $IT Iress. Se%ino: lena and )ulpeper: @onathan. "eds.# 2;;2. .o nitive Stylistics: /an ua e and .o nition in Te0t Analysis$ !%sterda%: @ohn 1en6a%ins. Short: $ic-. 1BB.. "03lorin the /an ua e of ,oe#s! ,lays and ,rose. (ondon and 3e0 Kor-: (ong%an. Si%pson: Iaul. 1BB<. /an ua e throu h /iterature$ (ondon: Routledge. Si%pson: Iaul. 2;;4. Stylistics. A Resource Book for Students.

!*ingdon: Routledge. Sper*er: Dan and 9ilson: Deidre. 1BB+. Relevance) co##unication and co nition$ ?2ford: 1lac-0ell. Strutt: Ieter. 1BB3. /on #an Business 4sa e. /arlo0: (ong%an. S0an: $ichael. 1BC;. ,ractical "n lish 4sa e. ?2ford: ?2ford Dniversity Iress. Ta%*ling: @ere%y. 1BCC. 6hat is /iterary /an ua e7 1uc-s: ?pen Dniversity Iress. Thorn*orro0: @oanna and 9areing: Shan. 1BBC. ,atterns in /an ua e$ An -ntroduction to lan ua e and literary style$ (ondon: Routledge. Tiers%a: Ieter. 2;;;. /e al /an ua e. )hicago: The Dniversity of )hicago Iress. Toolan: $ichael. 1BBC. /an ua e in /iterature) An -ntroduction to Stylistics. (ondon: !rnold. Turner: 'eorge 9. 1B<3. Stylistics. /ar%onds0orth: Ienguin 1oo-s. Verdon-: Ieter. 2;;2. Stylistics. ?2ford: ?2ford Dniversity Iress. 9ales: 8atie. 2;;1. A Dictionary of Stylistics. (ondon: (ong%an. 9e*er: @ean @ac>ues. "ed.# 1BB.. The Stylistics Reader) *ro# Ro#an +akobson to the ,resent. (ondon: !rnold /odder. 9iddo0son: /enry '.: 1B<+. Stylistics and the Teachin of /iterature$ (ondon: (ong%an. 9iddo0son: /enry '.: 1BB2. ,ractical Stylistics. ?2ford: ?2ford Dniversity Iress.