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Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 1

EU-Russia Regulatory Dialogue: Construction Sector Subgroup EU-Russia Regulatory Dialogue: Construction Sector Subgroup
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes
JRC-Ispra, 1-2 October 2012
O i d d t d b Organized and supported by
European Commission
DG Joint Research Centre
DG Enterprise and Industry
Russian Federation
Federal Highway Agency, Ministry of Transport
European Committee for Standardization European Committee for Standardization
TC250 Structural Eurocodes
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 2
R il B id Railway Bridges
Basis of Design of railway bridges, some important
points
The European High Speed Railway Network with
examples of Steel and Composite Railway Bridges
Dr. h.c. Marcel Tschumi c a ce sc u
Retired, ex Head of Bridges at SBB
(Swiss Federal Railways)
EN 1991 EN 1991--2 2 CONTENTS CONTENTS
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 3
Actions on structures Actions on structures Traffic loads on bridges Traffic loads on bridges
Foreword Foreword
Section 1 Section 1 General General Section 1 Section 1 General General
Section 2 Section 2 Classification of actions Classification of actions
Section 3 Section 3 Design situations Design situations gg
Section 4 Section 4 Road traffic actions and other Road traffic actions and other
actions specifically for road bridges actions specifically for road bridges
S ti 5 S ti 5 A ti f t l A ti f t l Section 5 Section 5 Actions on footways, cycle Actions on footways, cycle
tracks and footbridges tracks and footbridges
Section 6 Section 6 Rail traffic actions and other Rail traffic actions and other Section 6 Section 6 Rail traffic actions and other Rail traffic actions and other
actions specifically for railway actions specifically for railway
bridges bridges gg
EN 1991 EN 1991--2 2 CONTENTS (continued) CONTENTS (continued)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 4
Actions on structures Actions on structures Traffic loads on bridges Traffic loads on bridges
A A (I) A A (I) M d l f i l hi l f d b id M d l f i l hi l f d b id Annex A (I) Annex A (I) Models of special vehicles for road bridges Models of special vehicles for road bridges
Annex B (I) Annex B (I) Fatigue life assessment for road bridges. Fatigue life assessment for road bridges.
Assessment method based on recorded Assessment method based on recorded
traffic traffic traffic traffic
Annex C (N) Annex C (N) Dynamic factors 1+ Dynamic factors 1+ for real trains for real trains
Annex D (N) Annex D (N) Basis for the fatigue assessment of railway Basis for the fatigue assessment of railway
t t t t structures structures
Annex E (I) Annex E (I) Limits of validity of load model HSLM and the Limits of validity of load model HSLM and the
selection of the critical universal train from selection of the critical universal train from
HSLM HSLM--AA HSLM HSLM AA
Annex F (I) Annex F (I) Criteria to be satisfied if a dynamic analysis is Criteria to be satisfied if a dynamic analysis is
not required not required
Annex G (I) Annex G (I) Method for determining the combined Method for determining the combined
f t t d t k t i bl f t t d t k t i bl response of a structure and track to variable response of a structure and track to variable
actions actions
Annex H (I) Annex H (I) Load models for rail traffic loads in transient Load models for rail traffic loads in transient
situations situations situations situations
EN 1990 EN 1990 -- Annex A2 (Amendment A1) Annex A2 (Amendment A1) -- Content
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 5
Basis of structural design Basis of structural design Application for bridges Application for bridges
Section A2.1 Field of application
Section A2.2 Combinations of actions
A2 2 1 G l A2.2.1 General
A2.2.2for road bridges
A2.2.3for footbridges
A2.2.4for railway bridges
A2.2.5
Section A2.3 Ultimate limit states
Section A2.4 Serviceability limit states
A2.4.1General
A2 4 2 serviceability criteria for road bridges A2.4.2serviceability criteria for road bridges
A2.4.3serviceability criteria for footbridges
A2.4.4 serviceability criteria for railway bridges
Designers guides to Eurocodes, by Telford
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 6
Load Model 71, also for HSL! Load Model 71, also for HSL!
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 7
The characteristic values given in this figure of EN 1991 The characteristic values given in this figure of EN 1991- -2 shall be 2 shall be
multiplied by a factor multiplied by a factor on lines carrying rail traffic which is heavier or on lines carrying rail traffic which is heavier or p y p y y g y g
lighter than normal rail traffic. lighter than normal rail traffic. When multiplied by the factor When multiplied by the factor , , the loads the loads
are called "classified vertical loads". This factor are called "classified vertical loads". This factor shall be one of the shall be one of the
following: 0,75 following: 0,75 - - 0,83 0,83 - - 0,91 0,91 - - 1,00 1,00 - - 1,10 1,10 - - 1,21 1,21 - - 1,33 1,33 1,46. 1,46. gg
The value The value 1,33 is normally recommended on lines for freight traffic and 1,33 is normally recommended on lines for freight traffic and
international lines (UIC CODE 702, 2003). international lines (UIC CODE 702, 2003). (for ULS) (for ULS)
The actions listed below shall be multiplied by the same factor The actions listed below shall be multiplied by the same factor ::
centrifugal forces centrifugal forces
nosing force nosing force
traction and braking forces traction and braking forces
l d d l SW/0 f i b id l d d l SW/0 f i b id load model SW/0 for continuous span bridges load model SW/0 for continuous span bridges
Vision of future European Network
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 8
The freedom for the choice of the factor o could provoke a non
homogeneous railway network in Europe! Therefore in UIC Leaflet 702
(2003) o = 1,33 is generally recommended for all new bridges
constructed for the international freight network, unfortunately not
compulsory! p y
Year 2100 Year 2002
o=1 33 o 1,33
Factor alpha, situation 2011
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 9
EN 1991 2 EN 1991-2
factor
= 1 46 = 1,46
= 1,33
= 1,21 1,21
= 1,10
= 1,00 ,
=
1,00/1,33
= n.n.
Choice of the factor for ULS
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 10
Ultimate Limit States (ULS):
For new bridges it should absolutely be adopted
= 1,33.
Classification of international lines (years of introduction)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 11
Due to
UIC CODE 700
Mass per axle
UIC CODE 700
A B C D E
Mass per m = p
16t 18t 20t 22,5t 25t
p p
16t 18t 20t 22,5t 25t
1
5 t/m
A B1
2
6,4 t/m
B2 C2
(~1920)
D2
(~1970)
3
7,2 t/m
C3 D3
4
8 t/m
C4 D4 E4
4
8 t/m
C4 D4 E4
(2003)
5
8,8 t/m
E5
UIC track classes
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 12
Indefinite number of wagons for a track line:
C4 Q= 20 t D4 Q= 22.5 t
q = 8 t/m q = 8 t/m
E4 Q= 25 t
q = 8 t/m
E5 Q= 25 t
q = 8 8 t/m
q 8 t/m
q = 8,8 t/m
Heavier loads do not significantly influence the costs
of bridges!
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 13
Increase of costs in % due to = 1,33, related to those calculated
with = 1 0 / bridges built with traffic interference
4
with = 1,0 / bridges built with traffic interference
(ERRI D 192/RP 4, 1996):
3
3.5
4
2.19
2
2.5
0.5
1
1.5
0
0.5
l
a
u
f
e
n
M
u
o
t
a
g
b
a
c
h
N
e
s
s
u
c
h
l
o
e
m
p
t
e
n
W
o
r
b
M
e
n
B
u
K
e
m
Heavier loads do not significantly influence the
costs of bridges!
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 14
Increase of costs in % due to = 1,33, related to those calculated with
= 1 0 / bridges built without traffic interference = 1,0 / bridges built without traffic interference,
(ERRI D 192/RP 4, 1996):
6
3 91
4
5
3.91
3
4
1
2
0
o
r
m
o
n
n
e
a
u
m
i
n
e
s
e
b
a
k
k
e
n
o
b
e
k
k
e
n
T
G
V
N
o
r
d
V
e
r
b
e
r
i
e
S
c
a
r
p
e
l
e
n
d
a
l
e
n
V
l
a
k
e
L
a

S
o
S
a
l
l
M
o
l
l
K
a
m
b
R
N
2
/
T
V
H
o
E Erfttalstrasse, ABS 4/S 13, line Kln - Aachen, km
21,223, (D)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 15
E Erfttalstrasse, ABS 4/S 13, line Kln - Aachen, km
21,223, (D)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 16
Heavier loads do not significantly influence the costs
of bridges!
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 17
EX.DETAILS: DB - E Erfttalstrasse, Kln - Aachen, km 21,223
The span of this simply supported bridge with embedded steel girders is l p p y pp g g
= 24,6 m. 22 steel girders HE 1000M were used. Due to a report of DB,
the deflection of this bridge under the vertical load LM71 is 19,1 mm,
what correspond to the value l /1288. The required stiffness of this bridge
was only determined by a dynamic study was only determined by a dynamic study.
At my opinion this is too weak, I will explain that later, when I speak about
permissible deflections, where for this case, to avoid excessive track
maintenance, we should have l/2600.
Now how this bridge could have been stiffer, without more construction
height than with the existing steel girders, same height to avoid costs for
constructing a lower road below the bridge, taking into consideration the
required clearance required clearance.
In the tables of ARCELOR, we find the following possible steel girders which
practically fulfil this condition, namely the profiles HL 1100 R and HL
1000M x 642.
Result of my calculations: A 100% higher stiff bridge gives only 10% more
investment costs. This is an interesting linear extrapolation of the results
mentioned above (o = 1,33 => investment costs = 2 to 4%)!
Choice of the factor o for SLS
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 18
Serviceability Limit States (SLS)
Interaction track bridge:
Theoretically this is a Seviceability Limit State (SLS) y y ( )
for the bridge and an Ultimate Limit State (ULS ) for
the rail. But as the given permissible rail stresses g p
and deformations were obtained by deterministic
design methods, calibrated on the existing practice, g , g p ,
the calculations for interaction have to be done in
contradiction to EN1991-2, where there is a mistake
- always with
o = 1,00!! ,
Interaction track Interaction track -- bridge bridge
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 19
Relative displacements of the track and of the bridge, Relative displacements of the track and of the bridge,
d b th bi ti f th ff t f d b th bi ti f th ff t f th l th l caused by the combination of the effects of caused by the combination of the effects of thermal thermal
variations, variations, train braking and traction forces, as well as train braking and traction forces, as well as
deflection of the deck under vertical traffic loads (LM 71) deflection of the deck under vertical traffic loads (LM 71),, deflection of the deck under vertical traffic loads (LM 71) deflection of the deck under vertical traffic loads (LM 71), ,
lead to the track/bridge phenomenon that results in lead to the track/bridge phenomenon that results in
additional stresses to the bridge and the track. additional stresses to the bridge and the track.
Take LM 71 with Take LM 71 with = = 1.00 ! 1.00 !
Examples of expansion lengths
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 20
Avoid where ever possible expansion devices!
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 21
Remark:The decks corresponding to L1 or to L2 may
have additional supports.
L1max or L2 max without expansion joints: L1max. or L2 max. without expansion joints:
90 m (concrete, composite)
60 m (steel), ( ),
but:
L1 + L2 = 180 m/ 120 m with fixed bearing in the
iddl !!!!!! middle !!!!!!
AlpTransit Gotthard, Bridge over the river Brenno
near Biasca, CH
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 22
Practical example:
Remark:
Prestressed bridge,
but the result
would be the same
for a composite
bridge
How can we avoid expansion joints in the rails to get long welded How can we avoid expansion joints in the rails to get long welded
rails (LWR) over a bridge more than 90 m long?
Fix point on an abutment:
L =37 + 42 5 + 29 5 m = 109 m > 90 m => LWR not poss LT =37 + 42,5 + 29,5 m = 109 m > 90 m => LWR not poss.
With a fix point on a pier => LWR possible:
LT1= 37 + 42,5 = 79,5 m < 90 m LT2=29,5 m < 90 m
With fix points on two piers => LWR poss., chosen solution):
LTmax = 42,5/2 + 37 m = 79,5 m < 90 m
Viaduc de la Moselle, interaction track - bridge
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 23
Viaduc de la Moselle, interaction rail
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 24
Longitudinal system of a composite bridge with a length of 1510 m
Usual expansion devices SNCF for L
T
< 450 m
FATIGUE: choices for and
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 25
For new bridges, even if taking = 1,33 for ULS
d i f ti t d ith th design, fatigue assessments are done with the
load model LM 71 and = 1,00.
The calculation of the damage equivalent factors The calculation of the damage equivalent factors
for fatigue should be done with the heavy
traffic mix that means waggons with 25t (250kN) traffic mix, that means waggons with 25t (250kN)
axles, in accordance with Annex D of EN 1991-2.
Alternatively, if the standard traffic mix represents y, p
the actual traffic more closely than the heavy
traffic mix, the standard traffic mix could be
used, but with the calculated values enhanced
by a factor 1,1 to allow for the influence of 250
kN axle loads (Swiss National Annex) kN axle loads. (Swiss National Annex)
General remarks concerning the fatigue of railway
bridges
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 26
General:
It cannot be stressed often eno gh that rail a bridges m st be It cannot be stressed often enough that railway bridges must be
designed and constructed in a fatigue-resistant way. For having
optimal Life Cycle Costs (LCC) and for reaching the intended
design life of minimum 100 years, all important structural design life of minimum 100 years, all important structural
members shall be designed for fatigue!
Rules for steel bridges: g
Constructional details have to be chosen and found which give
the maximum possible fatigue detail categories c, due to
EN 1993 1 9 EN 1993-1-9:
Composite girders: detail category 71
Welded plate girders: detail category 71 Welded plate girders: detail category 71
Truss bridges: detail category 71 at sites
where fatigue is a risk /
detail category 36 at sites
h f ti i i k where fatigue is no risk.
Constructional details, fatigue, (F)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 27
bad example (2004!)
(French but not SNCF)
good example (SNCF)
Dynamic enhancements and coefficients
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 28
Dynamic enhancement for real trains
() 1 + = 1 + ' + () ''
Dynamic enhancement for fatigue calculations Dynamic enhancement for fatigue calculations
= 1 + (' + ()'')
Dynamic coefficient u
2
u3
(d t i t l th L T bl 6 2) (determinant length L
u
Table 6.2)
Dynamic enhancement for dynamic studies Dynamic enhancement for dynamic studies
1 / max ' = y y 1 / max =
stat dyn dyn
y y
Permissible deflections (rules in Swiss Codes)
(page 237 in book TELFORD)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 29
In EN 1990, Annex A2 only minimum conditions for bridge deformations
are given. The rule does not take into account track maintenance. A simplified
rule for permissible deflections is given below for trains and speeds up to
200k /h t id th d f i t k i t I dditi thi 200km/h, to avoid the need for excessive track maintenance. In addition, this
simplified rule has the advantage, that no dynamic analysis is necessary for
speeds less than 200km/h. For all classified lines with >1,0, that means also
if = 1.33 is adopted for ULS, the following permissible values for deflections are p g p
recommended, always calculated with LM71 + SW/O, multiplied by u, and
with = 1.0:
V<80 km/h o
stat
s l / 800*
stat
*Note: Due to what is said in see A.2.4.4.2.3 [2], namely that the maximum
total deflection measured along any track due to rail traffic actions
should not exceed L/600, please note that 600 multiplied with 1,33 gives s ou d ot e ceed /600, p ease ote t at 600 u t p ed t ,33 g es
approximately 800.
80 s V s 200 km/h o
stat
s l / (15V 400)**
** Note: The upper limit l/2600 for 200 km/h is the permissible deflection which
DB has taken during many years for designing bridges for high speed
lines in Germany, with satisfactory results. It is also the formula which
you can find in the Swiss Codes (SIA 260) you can find in the Swiss Codes (SIA 260).
V > 200 km/h value determined by dynamic study,
but min. o
stat
s l / 2600
Modified flow chart in Figure 6.9 of EN 1991-2
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 30



START
yes
Flow chart for
(9) If the








V s 200 km/h
no
Simple
structure (1)
no
yes
yes
Continuous
bridge (5)
no
determining
whether a
dynamic
permissible
deformations
given just
L > 40 m
n within no no
yes
yes
yes
(9)
y
analysis is
required.
before are
respected,
taking into
For the dynamic
no
nT > 1,2 n0

U T bl F1 d F2
n0 within
limits of
Figure 6.10
(6)
no no yes
yes
(9)
X
taking into
account less
track
maintenance
For the dynamic
analysis use the
eigenforms for
torsion and for
bending
v/n0 s (v/n0)lim
(2) (3) (7)
Use Tables F1 and F2
(2)
yes
no Eigenforms
for bending
maintenance,
no dynamic
study is
necessary for
Dynamic analysis required
Calculate bridge deck
acceleration and dyn etc. in
accordance with 6.4.6 (note 4)
(2) (3) (7)
Dynamic analysis not
required.
At resonance acceleration
check and fatigue check not
required.
Use u with static analysis in
accordance
for bending
sufficient
necessary for
speeds 200
km/h.
.
Rolling stock for high speeds (STI)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 31
Articulated trains
Conventional trains
Regular trains
Models HSLM-A for int. lines
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 32
Universal
Train
Number of
intermediate
coaches
Coach
length
D [m]
Bogie axle
spacing
d [m]
Point force
P [kN]
coaches
N
D [m] d [m]
A1 18 18 2,0 170
A2 17 19 3,5 200
A3 16 20 2,0 180
A4 15 21 3,0 190
A5 14 22 2,0 170
A6 13 23 2,0 180
A7 13 24 2,0 190
A8 12 25 2,5 190
A9 11 26 2,0 210
A10 11 27 2,0 210
Models HSLM-B for int. lines
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 33
6 20
4 5
5
5.5
15
N
3.5
4
4.5
]
10
2
2.5
3
d

[
m
]
0
5
2
1
1
.
6
2
.
5
2
.
8
3
.
2
3
.
5
3
.
8
4
.
2
4
.
5
4
.
8
5
.
5
5
.
8
6
.
5
L [m]
0
Application of HSLM-A and HSLM-B
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 34
Structural
configuration
Span
L < 7m L > 7m
Simply supported HSLM-B HSLM-A
span 1 Train determined with
the help of Annex E
Continuous
structure
or
C l
HSLM-A
All Trains A1 to A10
HSLM-A
All Trains A1 to A10
Complex
structure
Determination of the critical Universal Train
HSLM-A (EN1991-2, Annex E)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 35
L = 15 m, simple supported bridge
fo = 6 Hz
, = 1% , = 1%
v max = 420 x 1,2 = 500 km/h (Maximum Design Speed)
so that max = v max/ fo = 500/3,6/6 = 23 m.
aggressiveness
curve (E 7) curve (E.7)
Critical
wavelength of
excitation c
(E.18)
Supplementary design checks for V > 200km/h
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 36
Max. peak deck along each track (EN1990:2002/A1, A2.4.4.2.1(4)P):

bt
= 0 35g (3 43 m/s
2
) (ballasted track)
bt
= 0,35g (3,43 m/s ) (ballasted track)
Verification of whether the calculated load effects from high speed
trains are greater than those of normal rail traffic trains are greater than those of normal rail traffic
or u (LM71"+"SW/0)
( )
|
|
|

|
+ +
HSLM
dyn
or
2 / " ' 1
Verification of fatigue where dynamic analysis is required
( )
|
.

\
RT
dyn

Verification of twist
Maximum vertical deflection for passenger comfort Maximum vertical deflection for passenger comfort
(EN1990:2002/A1, A2.4.4.2.3(1))
not necessary if you take permissible deflections recommended
before
European HS Network Situation as at 12.2008
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 37
v > 250 km/h
v > 250 km/h
planned
180 < v < 250 km/h St.Petersburg
Tampere
Helsinki
Oulu
Oslo
Other lines
Turku
Tallinn
Stockholm
Helsinki
Riga
Gdansk
Moskva
Gteborg
Kobenhavn
Hamburg
Edinburgh
Glasgow
Vilnius
Minsk
Poznan
Berlin
Praha
Warszawa
Katowice
Wien
Krakow
Nrnberg
B ti l
Strasbg
Fkft
Lux
Kln
Kiev
Brux
Paris
Hannover
Hamburg
Amsterdam
London
Bristol
Dublin
Bologna
Budapest
Bratislava
Zrich
Mnchen
Strasbg
Milano
Bordeaux
Toulouse
Vitoria
Corua
Chisinau
Bucuresti
Sofia
Sarajevo
Lyon
Torino
Ljubljana
Zagreb
Nantes
Beograd
Nice
Information given by the Railways Napoli
Vigo
I mir
Sivas
Ankara
Kayseri Konya
Valencia
Ali
Barcelona Zaragoza
Lisboa
Vitoria
Valladolid
Athinai
Tirana
Skopje
Thessaloniki
Podgorica
Roma
Bursa
Marseille
Madrid
Istanbul
Porto
UIC - High-Speed
Updated 14.12.2008
Izmir
Alicante
Sevilla
Athinai
Mlaga
European HS Network Forecasting 2025
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 38
European HS Network
Forecasting 2025
v > 250 km/h
180 < v < 250 km/h
Other lines
v > 250 km/h Planned
St.Petersburg
Tampere
Turku
Tallinn
Stockholm
Helsinki
Oulu
Oslo
Gteborg
Riga
Minsk
Poznan
Berlin
Gdansk
Warszawa
Kln
Brux
Moskva
g
Kobenhavn
Hannover
Hamburg
Amsterdam
London
Bristol
Dublin
Edinburgh
Glasgow
Vilnius
Information given by the Railways
UIC - High-Speed
Updated 14 12 2008
Bologna
Budapest
Praha
Katowice
Wien
Krakow
Nrnberg
Bratislava
Zrich
Mnchen
Strasbg
Milano
Bordeaux
Fkft
Lux
Kiev
Chisinau
B ti
Lyon
Torino
Ljubljana
Zagreb
Nantes
Paris
Beograd
Updated 14.12.2008
OG/IB
Ankara
Sivas
Bologna
Toulouse
Valencia
Barcelona Zaragoza
Vitoria
Valladolid
Corua
Bucuresti
Tirana
Skopje
Thessaloniki
Podgorica
Sofia
Sarajevo
Torino
Napoli
Roma
Bursa
Marseille
Madrid
Istanbul
Vigo
Porto
g
Nice
Dr. h.c. Marcel Tschumi, Sofia, October 2010
3
Kayseri Konya
Alicante
Sevilla
Lisboa
Athinai Izmir
Mlaga
General view of the Arroyo Las Piedras viaduct ,
1208.9 m, 2005, (Spain)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 39
Elevation view of the Arroyo Las Piedras
viaduct [m]
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 40
Shock absorbers of the Arroyo Las Piedras viaduct
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 41
Mid-span cross section of the Arroyo Las Piedras
viaduct
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 42
Hogging cross section of the Arroyo Las Piedras
viaduct
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 43
Half through bridges with two lateral main girders
(welded plates), France
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 44
Crossing over A104 at Pomponne
Deckslab; embedded cross girders
Crossing over A104 at Pomponne (77) (F)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 45
Half through bridges with two lateral main girders
(welded plates), France
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 46
Viaduct crossing the A4 Viaduct crossing the A4
(dpartement de lAisne)
Viaduct crossing the A4 (dpartement de lAisne)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 47
Deck plate: embedded cross girders
Concrete deck over two welded steel plate main
girders (France)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 48
Vi d t i A31 L il Viaduct crossing A31 near Lesmsnils
Viaduct crossing A31 near Lesmsnils
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 49
Viaduc de Mornas, LGV Mditerrane, span 121,4 m,
built 1999, F
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 50
Viaduc de la Garde-Adhmar, LGV Mditerrane, 2
spans of 115.4 m, total length 325 m, built in 2000, F
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 51
Viaduc du Page de lA7 Bonpas (TGV Md.,1998,
span 124 m), F
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 52
Sesia Viaduct,Torino-Milano High Speed
Railway line, 2003, (I)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 53
7 x 46 m = 322 m
Sesia viaduct
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 54
1800 2500
13600
2500 2500 2500 1800
3
3
5
04
5
8
6
.
5
6950 1025 1025 2300 2300
M5 twin parallel girder bridge, HSRL Vienna - Salzburg,
1994, (A)
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 55
Risk scenario to avoid, yesterday and tomorrow:
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 56
<= Collapse of railway
bridge over the river Birs in bridge over the river Birs in
Mnchenstein, Switzerland,
the 14th June 1891, by
b kli f di l i th buckling of a diagonal in the
middle of the bridge under
an overloaded train, 73
persons were killed, 131
persons more or less
injured.=> Tetmajers law. j j
Stewarton collapse, 27th January 2009, bridge in
wrought iron
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 57
Bridge collapse beneath a train of 100 ton tank wagons travelling
at 60 mph. Centre and east side girders failed in shear due to very
severe corrosion of the webs which had been concealed against severe corrosion of the webs which had been concealed against
inspection by timber boards retaining the ballast
Risk scenario to avoid tomorrow:
Seminar Bridge Design with Eurocodes JRC Ispra, 1-2 October 2012 58
3012: collapses due to fatigue
cracks in bad details of welded cracks in bad details of welded
constructions executed today???