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544 544

The Progressive

The Progressive

Movement 1890–1919

Movement

1890–1919

Why It Matters

Why It Matters

Industrialization changed American society. Cities were crowded with new immigrants, working

Industrialization changed American society. Cities were crowded with new immigrants, working

conditions were often bad, and the old political system was breaking down. These conditions

conditions were often bad, and the old political system was breaking down. These conditions

gave rise to the Progressive movement. Progressives campaigned for both political and social

gave rise to the Progressive movement. Progressives campaigned for both political and social

reforms for more than two decades and enjoyed significant successes at the local, state, and

reforms for more than two decades and enjoyed significant successes at the local, state, and

national levels.

national levels.

The Impact Today

The Impact Today

Many Progressive-era changes are still alive in the United States today.

Many Progressive-era changes are still alive in the United States today.

• Political parties hold direct primaries to nominate candidates for office.

• Political parties hold direct primaries to nominate candidates for office.

• The Seventeenth Amendment calls for the direct election of senators.

• The Seventeenth Amendment calls for the direct election of senators.

• Federal regulation of food and drugs began in this period.

• Federal regulation of food and drugs began in this period.

544 544 The Progressive The Progressive 1890–1919 Movement 1890–1919 Why It Matters Why It Matters Industrialization

The American Vision Video

The American Vision Video

The Chapter 18 video,

The Chapter 18 video,

“The Stockyard Jungle,” portrays the horrors of the meatpacking

“The Stockyard Jungle,” portrays the horrors of the meatpacking

industry first investigated by Upton Sinclair.

industry first investigated by Upton Sinclair.

1889 1889 • • Hull House Hull House opens in opens in Chicago Chicago ▲ ▲
1889
1889
• Hull House
Hull House
opens in
opens in
Chicago
Chicago
B.
B.
Harrison
Harrison
1889–1893
1889–1893

1890 1890

1902 1902 1904 1904 • • Maryland workers’ Maryland workers’ 1890 1890 • • Ida Tarbell’s
1902
1902
1904
1904
• Maryland workers’
Maryland workers’
1890
1890
• Ida Tarbell’s History of
Ida Tarbell’s History of
compensation laws
compensation laws
• Jacob Riis’s How
Jacob Riis’s How
the Standard Oil
the Standard Oil
passed
passed
the Other Half
the Other Half
Company published
Company published
Lives published
Lives published
Cleveland
Cleveland
McKinley
McKinley
T.
T.
Roosevelt
Roosevelt
1893–1897
1893–1897
1897–1901
1897–1901
1901–1909 ▲
1901–1909
1900
1900
▼ ▼

1884 1884

Toynbee Hall, first settlement

Toynbee Hall, first settlement

house, established in London

house, established in London

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ 1900 1900 • • Freud’s Interpretation Freud’s Interpretation 1902 1902
1900
1900
• Freud’s Interpretation
Freud’s Interpretation
1902
1902
of Dreams published
of Dreams published
• Anglo-Japanese
Anglo-Japanese
alliance formed
alliance formed
1903
1903

Russian Bolshevik Party established by Lenin

Russian Bolshevik Party established by Lenin

Women marching for the vote in New York City, 1912

Women marching for the vote in New York City, 1912

1905 1905 • • Industrial Workers Industrial Workers of the World of the World founded founded
1905
1905
• Industrial Workers
Industrial Workers
of the World
of the World
founded
founded
1906
1906
• Pure Food and
Pure Food and
Drug Act passed
Drug Act passed
Taft
Taft
1909–1913
1909–1913
Women marching for the vote in New York City, 1912 Women marching for the vote in
1913 1913 1920 1920 • Seventeenth • Seventeenth • Amendment Amendment ratified ratified ▲ ▲ Wilson
1913
1913
1920
1920
• Seventeenth
Seventeenth
Amendment
Amendment
ratified
ratified
Wilson
Wilson
1913–1921
1913–1921
Women marching for the vote in New York City, 1912 Women marching for the vote in

1920

1920

1910 1910

Mann-Elkins

Mann-Elkins

Act passed

Act passed

Nineteenth Amendment

Nineteenth Amendment

ratified, guaranteeing

ratified, guaranteeing

women’s voting rights

women’s voting rights

HISTORY HISTORY Chapter Overview Chapter Overview Visit the American Vision Visit the American Vision Web site
HISTORY
HISTORY
Chapter Overview
Chapter Overview
Visit the American Vision
Visit the American Vision
Web site at tav.glencoe.com
Web site at tav.glencoe.com
and click on Chapter
and click on Chapter
Overviews—Chapter 18 to
Overviews—Chapter 18 to
preview chapter information.
preview chapter information.

1910 1910

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ 1910 1910 1914 1914 • • Mexican Revolution Mexican Revolution
1910
1910
1914
1914
• Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
• World War I begins
World War I begins
in Europe
in Europe
1905
1905
• Einstein’s theory of
Einstein’s theory of
relativity formulated
relativity formulated

545 545

The Roots of The Roots of Progressivism Progressivism Main Idea Main Idea Reading Strategy Reading Strategy

The Roots of

The Roots of

Progressivism

Progressivism

Main Idea

Main Idea

Reading Strategy

Reading Strategy

Reading Objectives

Reading Objectives

Progressivism was a diverse response to

Progressivism was a diverse response to

the problems posed by industrialism and

the problems posed by industrialism and

Organizing As you read about the

Organizing As you read about the

beginnings of progressivism, complete

beginnings of progressivism, complete

• Discuss the rise of the Progressive

• Discuss the rise of the Progressive

movement.

movement.

modern life.

modern life.

a graphic organizer similar to the one

a graphic organizer similar to the one

• Evaluate the impact of initiative, refer-

• Evaluate the impact of initiative, refer-

Key Terms and Names

Key Terms and Names

progressivism, muckraker, Jacob Riis,

progressivism, muckraker, Jacob Riis,

commission plan, Robert La Follette,

commission plan, Robert La Follette,

direct primary, initiative, referendum,

direct primary, initiative, referendum,

recall, suffrage, Alice Paul, temperance,

recall, suffrage, Alice Paul, temperance,

prohibition, socialism prohibition, socialism ✦1890 ✦1890 1890 1890
prohibition, socialism
prohibition, socialism
✦1890
✦1890
1890
1890

1901 1901

below by filling in the beliefs of

below by filling in the beliefs of

progressives. progressives. Progressive Progressive Beliefs Beliefs
progressives.
progressives.
Progressive
Progressive
Beliefs
Beliefs

endum, and recall, and of the

endum, and recall, and of the

Seventeenth Amendment.

Seventeenth Amendment.

Section Theme

Section Theme

Government and Democracy

Government and Democracy

Progressive reformers focused on political

Progressive reformers focused on political

reforms to try to keep the nation true to

reforms to try to keep the nation true to

its democratic ideals.

its democratic ideals.

✦1900 ✦1900 ✦1910 ✦1910 ✦1920 ✦1920 1913 1913 1920 1920
✦1900
✦1900
✦1910
✦1910
✦1920
✦1920
1913
1913
1920
1920

Jacob Riis’s How the Other

Jacob Riis’s How the Other

Galveston, Texas, adopts

Galveston, Texas, adopts

Seventeenth Amendment provides

Seventeenth Amendment provides

Nineteenth Amendment

Nineteenth Amendment

Half Lives published Half Lives published The following The following is the major is the major
Half Lives published
Half Lives published
The following
The following
is the major
is the major
Sunshine State
Sunshine State
Standard covered
Standard covered
in this section.
in this section.
SS.C.1.4.4:
SS.C.1.4.4:
Understand the role
Understand the role
of special interest
of special interest
groups, political
groups, political
parties, the media,
parties, the media,
public opinion, and
public opinion, and
majority/minority
majority/minority
conflicts on the
conflicts on the
development of public
development of public
policy and the political
policy and the political
process.
process.

commission system

commission system

for direct election of senators

for direct election of senators

gives women the vote

gives women the vote

The Roots of The Roots of Progressivism Progressivism Main Idea Main Idea Reading Strategy Reading Strategy

In 1917 suffragist Rose Winslow and several other women, including Alice Paul, founder of the

In 1917 suffragist Rose Winslow and several other women, including Alice Paul, founder of the

National Woman’s Party, were arrested for obstructing traffic and blocking sidewalks. The women had

National Woman’s Party, were arrested for obstructing traffic and blocking sidewalks. The women had

been picketing the White House to draw attention to the fact that women did not yet have the right to

been picketing the White House to draw attention to the fact that women did not yet have the right to

vote in federal elections. After being sentenced to seven months in jail, Paul, Winslow, and other

vote in federal elections. After being sentenced to seven months in jail, Paul, Winslow, and other

women prisoners went on a hunger strike. Prison authorities forced the prisoners to eat. Winslow

women prisoners went on a hunger strike. Prison authorities forced the prisoners to eat. Winslow

smuggled details of their plight out to the public:

smuggled details of their plight out to the public:

We have been in solitary for five

We have been in solitary for five

weeks. . . .

weeks. . . .

I have felt quite feeble the last few days—faint, so

I have felt quite feeble the last few days—faint, so

that I could hardly get my hair brushed, my arms ached so. But today I am well

that I could hardly get my hair brushed, my arms ached so. But today I am well

again. . . .

again. . . .

[Alice Paul]

[Alice Paul]

dreaded forcible feeding frightfully, and I hate to think how she must be

dreaded forcible feeding frightfully, and I hate to think how she must be

feeling. . . .

feeling. . . .

I

I

am really all

am really all

right. If this continues very long I perhaps won’t be. All the officers here know we are making this

right. If this continues very long I perhaps won’t be. All the officers here know we are making this

hunger strike [so] that women fighting for liberty may be considered political

hunger strike [so] that women fighting for liberty may be considered political

prisoners. . . .

prisoners. . . .

don’t want women ever to have to do this over again.

don’t want women ever to have to do this over again.

[W]e

[W]e

—quoted in Jailed for Freedom

—quoted in Jailed for Freedom

The Rise of Progressivism

The Rise of Progressivism

The struggle for the right of women to vote was only one of a series of reform efforts

The struggle for the right of women to vote was only one of a series of reform efforts

that transformed American society in the early 1900s. Historians refer to this era in

that transformed American society in the early 1900s. Historians refer to this era in

American history—from about 1890 to 1920—as the Progressive Era.

American history—from about 1890 to 1920—as the Progressive Era.

546

546

CHAPTER 18

CHAPTER 18

The Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement

Who Were the Progressives? Progressivism was

Who Were the Progressives? Progressivism was

not a tightly organized political movement with a spe-

not a tightly organized political movement with a spe-

cific set of reforms. Instead, it was a collection of dif-

cific set of reforms. Instead, it was a collection of dif-

ferent ideas and activities. Progressives had many

ferent ideas and activities. Progressives had many

different views about how to fix the problems they

different views about how to fix the problems they

believed existed in American society.

believed existed in American society.

Progressives generally believed that industrialism

Progressives generally believed that industrialism

and urbanization had created many social problems.

and urbanization had created many social problems.

Most agreed that the government should take a

Most agreed that the government should take a

more

more

active

active

role

role

in

in

solving

solving

society’s

society’s

problems.

problems.

Progressives belonged to both major political parties

Progressives belonged to both major political parties

and usually were urban, educated middle-class

and usually were urban, educated middle-class

Americans. Many leaders of the Progressive move-

Americans. Many leaders of the Progressive move-

ment worked as journalists, social workers, educa-

ment worked as journalists, social workers, educa-

tors, politicians, and members of the clergy.

tors, politicians, and members of the clergy.

Beginnings of Progressivism Progressivism was

Beginnings of Progressivism Progressivism was

partly a reaction against laissez-faire economics and

partly a reaction against laissez-faire economics and

its emphasis on an unregulated market. After seeing

its emphasis on an unregulated market. After seeing

the poverty of the working class and the filth and

the poverty of the working class and the filth and

crime of urban society, these reformers began to

crime of urban society, these reformers began to

doubt the free market’s ability to address those prob-

doubt the free market’s ability to address those prob-

lems. At the same time, they doubted that govern-

lems. At the same time, they doubted that govern-

ment in its present form could fix those problems.

ment in its present form could fix those problems.

They concluded that government had to be fixed first

They concluded that government had to be fixed first

before it could be used to fix other problems.

before it could be used to fix other problems.

One reason progressives believed people could

One reason progressives believed people could

improve society was because they had a strong faith in

improve society was because they had a strong faith in

science and technology. The application of scientific

science and technology. The application of scientific

knowledge had produced the lightbulb, the telephone,

knowledge had produced the lightbulb, the telephone,

the automobile, and the airplane. It had built skyscrap-

the automobile, and the airplane. It had built skyscrap-

ers and railroads. Science and technology had bene-

ers and railroads. Science and technology had bene-

fited people; thus progressives believed using scientific

fited people; thus progressives believed using scientific

principles could also produce solutions for society.

principles could also produce solutions for society.

The Muckrakers Among the first people to articu-

The Muckrakers Among the first people to articu-

late Progressive ideas was a group of crusading jour-

late Progressive ideas was a group of crusading jour-

nalists

nalists

who

who

investigated

investigated

social

social

conditions

conditions

and

and

political corruption. These writers became known as

political corruption. These writers became known as

muckrakers after a speech by President Theodore

muckrakers after a speech by President Theodore

Roosevelt:

Roosevelt:

Now, it is very necessary that we should not flinch

Now, it is very necessary that we should not flinch

from seeing what is vile and debasing. There is filth

from seeing what is vile and debasing. There is filth

on the floor and it must be scraped up with the

on the floor and it must be scraped up with the

muck-rake; and there are times and places where this

muck-rake; and there are times and places where this

service is the most needed of all the services that can

service is the most needed of all the services that can

be

be

.
.

—Washington, D.C., April 14, 1906

—Washington, D.C., April 14, 1906

By the early 1900s, American publishers were com-

By the early 1900s, American publishers were com-

peting to see who could expose the most corruption

peting to see who could expose the most corruption

and scandal. A group of aggressive

and scandal. A group of aggressive

10¢ and

10¢ and

15¢

15¢

magazines grew in popular- magazines grew in popular- ity at this time, including ity at this
magazines grew in popular-
magazines grew in popular-
ity at this time, including
ity at this time, including
HISTORY
HISTORY
McClure’s,
McClure’s,
Collier’s,
Collier’s,
and
and
Munsey’s.
Munsey’s.
Student Web
Student Web
Muckrakers
Muckrakers
uncovered
uncovered
Activity
Activity
Visit the
Visit the
corruption in many areas.
corruption in many areas.
American Vision Web
American Vision Web
Some
Some
concentrated
concentrated
on
on
site at tav.glencoe.com
site at tav.glencoe.com
exposing what they consid-
exposing what they consid-
and click on Student
and click on Student
ered to be the unfair prac-
ered to be the unfair prac-
Web Activities—
Web Activities—
tices
tices
of
of
large
large
American
American
Chapter 18 for an
Chapter 18 for an
corporations. In McClure’s,
corporations. In McClure’s,
activity on the
activity on the
for
for
example,
example,
Ida
Ida
Tarbell
Tarbell
Progressive movement.
Progressive movement.
published a series of arti-
published a series of arti-
cles critical of the Standard
cles critical of the Standard

Oil Company. In Everybody’s Magazine, Charles

Oil Company. In Everybody’s Magazine, Charles

Edward Russell attacked the beef industry.

Edward Russell attacked the beef industry.

Other muckrakers targeted government. David

Other muckrakers targeted government. David

Graham Philips described how money influenced the

Graham Philips described how money influenced the

Senate, while Lincoln Steffens, another McClure’s

Senate, while Lincoln Steffens, another McClure’s

reporter, reported on vote stealing and other corrupt

reporter, reported on vote stealing and other corrupt

practices of urban political machines. These were

practices of urban political machines. These were

later collected into a book, The Shame of the Cities.

later collected into a book, The Shame of the Cities.

Still other muckrakers concentrated on social

Still other muckrakers concentrated on social

problems. In his influential book How the Other Half

problems. In his influential book How the Other Half

Lives, published in 1890, Jacob Riis described the

Lives, published in 1890, Jacob Riis described the

poverty, disease, and crime that afflicted many

poverty, disease, and crime that afflicted many

immigrant neighborhoods in New York City. The

immigrant neighborhoods in New York City. The

Who Were the Progressives? Progressivism was Who Were the Progressives? Progressivism was not a tightly organized

History

History

Muckrakers McClure’s published Ida Tarbell’s exposé on Standard Oil.

Muckrakers McClure’s published Ida Tarbell’s exposé on Standard Oil.

What issues particularly concerned the muckrakers?

What issues particularly concerned the muckrakers?

Who Were the Progressives? Progressivism was Who Were the Progressives? Progressivism was not a tightly organized

muckrakers’ articles led to a general public debate on

muckrakers’ articles led to a general public debate on

social and economic problems and put pressure on

social and economic problems and put pressure on

politicians to introduce reforms.

politicians to introduce reforms.

muckrakers’ articles led to a general public debate on muckrakers’ articles led to a general public

Reading Check

Reading Check

Describing How did the muckrakers

Describing How did the muckrakers

help spark the Progressive movement?

help spark the Progressive movement?

Making Government Efficient

Making Government Efficient

There were many different types of progressivism.

There were many different types of progressivism.

Different causes led to different approaches, and pro-

Different causes led to different approaches, and pro-

gressives even took opposing positions on how to

gressives even took opposing positions on how to

solve some problems.

solve some problems.

One group of progressives focused on making

One group of progressives focused on making

government more efficient. They believed that many

government more efficient. They believed that many

problems in society could be solved if government

problems in society could be solved if government

worked properly. Efficiency progressives took their

worked properly. Efficiency progressives took their

ideas from business. These progressives believed

ideas from business. These progressives believed

business had become more efficient by applying the

business had become more efficient by applying the

principles of scientific management.

principles of scientific management.

The ideas of scientific management had been

The ideas of scientific management had been

developed in the late 1800s and were popularized by

developed in the late 1800s and were popularized by

Frederick W. Taylor in his book The Principles of

Frederick W. Taylor in his book The Principles of

Scientific Management, published in 1911. Taylor

Scientific Management, published in 1911. Taylor

described how a company could become more effi-

described how a company could become more effi-

cient by managing time, breaking tasks down into

cient by managing time, breaking tasks down into

small parts, and using standardized tools.

small parts, and using standardized tools.

Efficiency progressives argued that managing a

Efficiency progressives argued that managing a

modern city required experts, not politicians. They

modern city required experts, not politicians. They

did not want more democracy in government, for

did not want more democracy in government, for

they believed that the democratic process led to com-

they believed that the democratic process led to com-

promise and corruption. In most American cities, the

promise and corruption. In most American cities, the

mayor or city council chose the heads of city depart-

mayor or city council chose the heads of city depart-

ments. Traditionally, these jobs went to political sup-

ments. Traditionally, these jobs went to political sup-

porters and friends, who often knew little about city

porters and friends, who often knew little about city

services.

services.

Efficiency progressives wanted either a commission

Efficiency progressives wanted either a commission

plan

plan

or

or

a

a

council-manager

council-manager

system.

system.

Under

Under

the

the

commission plan, a city’s government would be

commission plan, a city’s government would be

divided into several departments, which would each

divided into several departments, which would each

be placed under the control of an expert commis-

be placed under the control of an expert commis-

sioner. These progressives argued that a board of com-

sioner. These progressives argued that a board of com-

missioners or a city manager with expertise in city

missioners or a city manager with expertise in city

services should hire the specialists to run city depart-

services should hire the specialists to run city depart-

ments. Galveston, Texas, adopted the commission sys-

ments. Galveston, Texas, adopted the commission sys-

tem in 1901. Other cities soon followed.

tem in 1901. Other cities soon followed.

muckrakers’ articles led to a general public debate on muckrakers’ articles led to a general public

Reading Check

Reading Check

Explaining Why did progressives

Explaining Why did progressives

want to reorganize city government?

want to reorganize city government?

A City and a Storm A City and a Storm On September 8, 1900, a massive
A City and a Storm
A City and a Storm
On September 8, 1900, a massive hurricane devas-
On September 8, 1900, a massive hurricane devas-
tated the city of Galveston, Texas. About 6,000 people
tated the city of Galveston, Texas. About 6,000 people
died. When the political machine that controlled the city
died. When the political machine that controlled the city
government proved incapable of responding to the disas-
government proved incapable of responding to the disas-
ter, local business leaders convinced the state to let them
ter, local business leaders convinced the state to let them
take control. In April 1901, Galveston introduced the
take control. In April 1901, Galveston introduced the
commission system of government. Under this system,
commission system of government. Under this system,
Galveston chose five commissioners to replace the
Galveston chose five commissioners to replace the
mayor and city council.
mayor and city council.
Four commissioners were local business leaders.
Four commissioners were local business leaders.
When the city quickly recovered, reformers in other cities
When the city quickly recovered, reformers in other cities
were impressed. Galveston’s experience seemed to
were impressed. Galveston’s experience seemed to
prove the benefits of
prove the benefits of
running a city like a
running a city like a
business by dividing its
business by dividing its
government into
government into
departments and plac-
departments and plac-
ing each under an
ing each under an
expert commissioner.
expert commissioner.
Many other cities soon
Many other cities soon
followed, adopting
followed, adopting
either the commission
either the commission
plan or the council-
plan or the council-
manager system.
manager system.

548

548

CHAPTER 18

CHAPTER 18

The Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement

Democracy and Progressivism

Democracy and Progressivism

Not all progressives agreed with the efficiency

Not all progressives agreed with the efficiency

progressives. Many believed that society needed

progressives. Many believed that society needed

more democracy, not less. They wanted to make

more democracy, not less. They wanted to make

elected officials more responsive to voters.

elected officials more responsive to voters.

“Laboratory of Democracy” Political reform first

“Laboratory of Democracy” Political reform first

came to the state level when Wisconsin voters elected

came to the state level when Wisconsin voters elected

Republican Robert La Follette to be governor. La

Republican Robert La Follette to be governor. La

Follette used his office to attack the way political par-

Follette used his office to attack the way political par-

ties ran their conventions. Because party bosses con-

ties ran their conventions. Because party bosses con-

trolled the selection of convention delegates, they

trolled the selection of convention delegates, they

also controlled which candidates were chosen to run

also controlled which candidates were chosen to run

for office. La Follette pressured the state legislature to

for office. La Follette pressured the state legislature to

require each party to hold a direct primary, in which

require each party to hold a direct primary, in which

all party members could vote for a candidate to run

all party members could vote for a candidate to run

in the general election.

in the general election.

La Follette’s great reform success gave Wisconsin

La Follette’s great reform success gave Wisconsin

a reputation as the “laboratory of democracy.” La

a reputation as the “laboratory of democracy.” La

Mayor-Council Form Mayor-Council Form Voters Voters elect elect Mayor Mayor City Council City Council actions approved
Mayor-Council Form
Mayor-Council Form
Voters
Voters
elect
elect
Mayor
Mayor
City Council
City Council
actions approved by
actions approved by
appoints
appoints
Heads of City
Heads of City
carry out policy
carry out policy
Departments
Departments
Source: The World Book Encyclopedia.
Source: The World Book Encyclopedia.
Commission Form Commission Form Voters Voters Police Commissioner Police Commissioner elect elect Fire Commissioner Fire Commissioner
Commission Form
Commission Form
Voters
Voters
Police Commissioner
Police Commissioner
elect
elect
Fire Commissioner
Fire Commissioner
Board of
Board of
Parks Commissioner
Parks Commissioner
Commissioners
Commissioners
Finance Commissioner
Finance Commissioner
Public Works Commissioner
Public Works Commissioner
pass ordinances;
pass ordinances;
control funds
control funds
carry out policy
carry out policy
Source: The World Book Encyclopedia.
Source: The World Book Encyclopedia.
Council-Manager Form Council-Manager Form Voters Voters City Manager City Manager (Chief Administrator) (Chief Administrator) elect elect
Council-Manager Form
Council-Manager Form
Voters
Voters
City Manager
City Manager
(Chief Administrator)
(Chief Administrator)
elect
elect
hires
hires
City Council
City Council
appoints
appoints
(makes policy)
(makes policy)
Heads of City Departments
Heads of City Departments
elects
elects
Mayor
Mayor
carry out policy
carry out policy
Source: The World Book Encyclopedia.
Source: The World Book Encyclopedia.

Follette claimed, “Democracy is based upon knowl-

Follette claimed, “Democracy is based upon knowl-

edge. . . .

edge. . . .

The only way to beat the boss

The only way to beat the boss

the people thoroughly informed.”

the people thoroughly informed.”

. . .

. . .

is to keep

is to keep

Inspired by La Follette, progressives in other states

Inspired by La Follette, progressives in other states

pushed for similar electoral changes. To force state leg-

pushed for similar electoral changes. To force state leg-

islators to respond to voters, three new reforms were

islators to respond to voters, three new reforms were

introduced in many states. The initiative allowed a

introduced in many states. The initiative allowed a

group of citizens to introduce legislation and required

group of citizens to introduce legislation and required

the legislature to vote on it. The referendum allowed

the legislature to vote on it. The referendum allowed

proposed legislation to be submitted to the voters for

proposed legislation to be submitted to the voters for

approval. The recall allowed voters to demand a spe-

approval. The recall allowed voters to demand a spe-

cial election to remove an elected official from office

cial election to remove an elected official from office

before his or her term had expired.

before his or her term had expired.

GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT

Direct Election of Senators Another reform the

Direct Election of Senators Another reform the

progressives favored affected the federal govern-

progressives favored affected the federal govern-

ment—the direct election of senators. As originally

ment—the direct election of senators. As originally

written, the United States Constitution directed each

written, the United States Constitution directed each

state legislature to elect two senators from that state.

state legislature to elect two senators from that state.

Political machines or large trusts often influenced the

Political machines or large trusts often influenced the

election of senators, who then repaid their supporters

election of senators, who then repaid their supporters

with federal contracts and jobs. By the early 1900s,

with federal contracts and jobs. By the early 1900s,

muckraker Charles Edward Russell charged that the

muckraker Charles Edward Russell charged that the

Senate had become “only a chamber of butlers for

Senate had become “only a chamber of butlers for

industrialists and financiers.”

industrialists and financiers.”

To counter Senate corruption, progressives called

To counter Senate corruption, progressives called

for the direct election of senators by all state voters.

for the direct election of senators by all state voters.

In 1912 Congress passed a direct-election amend-

In 1912 Congress passed a direct-election amend-

ment. Although the direct election of senators was

ment. Although the direct election of senators was

intended to end corruption, it also removed one of

intended to end corruption, it also removed one of

the state legislatures’ checks on federal power. In

the state legislatures’ checks on federal power. In

1913 1913

the amendment was ratified, becoming the

the amendment was ratified, becoming the

Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution.

Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution.

Democracy and Progressivism Democracy and Progressivism Not all progressives agreed with the efficiency Not all progressives

Reading Check

Reading Check

Evaluating What was the impact of

Evaluating What was the impact of

the Seventeenth Amendment? What problem was it intended to

the Seventeenth Amendment? What problem was it intended to

solve?

solve?

The Suffrage Movement

The Suffrage Movement

In July 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia

In July 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia

Mott organized the first women’s rights convention

Mott organized the first women’s rights convention

in Seneca Falls, New York. Stanton convinced the del-

in Seneca Falls, New York. Stanton convinced the del-

egates that their first priority should be getting

egates that their first priority should be getting

women the right to vote. The movement for women’s

women the right to vote. The movement for women’s

voting

voting

rights

rights

became

became

known

known

as

as

the

the

suffrage

suffrage

movement. Suffrage is the right to vote.

movement. Suffrage is the right to vote.

Woman suffrage was an important issue for pro-

Woman suffrage was an important issue for pro-

gressives. Although the suffrage movement began well

gressives. Although the suffrage movement began well

before progressivism emerged, many progressives

before progressivism emerged, many progressives

joined the movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

joined the movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

CHAPTER 18

CHAPTER 18

The Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement

549

549

Early Problems

Early Problems

The suffrage movement got off to a

The suffrage movement got off to a

slow start. Women suffragists were accused of being

slow start. Women suffragists were accused of being

unfeminine and immoral. Several were physically

unfeminine and immoral. Several were physically

attacked.

attacked.

The

The

movement

movement

also

also

remained

remained

weak

weak

because many of its supporters were abolitionists as

because many of its supporters were abolitionists as

well. In the years before the Civil War, they preferred

well. In the years before the Civil War, they preferred

to concentrate on abolishing slavery.

to concentrate on abolishing slavery.

After the Civil War, the Republicans in Congress

After the Civil War, the Republicans in Congress

introduced the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments

introduced the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments

to the Constitution to protect the voting rights of

to the Constitution to protect the voting rights of

African Americans. Several leaders of the woman suf-

African Americans. Several leaders of the woman suf-

wanted to focus on passing a constitutional amend-

wanted to focus on passing a constitutional amend-

ment allowing woman suffrage. The second group

ment allowing woman suffrage. The second group

believed that the best strategy was to convince state

believed that the best strategy was to convince state

governments to give women the right to vote before

governments to give women the right to vote before

trying to amend the Constitution.

trying to amend the Constitution.

This split reduced the movement’s effectiveness. In

This split reduced the movement’s effectiveness. In

1878 1878

a constitutional amendment granting woman

a constitutional amendment granting woman

suffrage was introduced in Congress, but it failed to

suffrage was introduced in Congress, but it failed to

pass. Few state governments granted women the right

pass. Few state governments granted women the right

to vote either. By 1900 only Wyoming, Idaho, Utah,

to vote either. By 1900 only Wyoming, Idaho, Utah,

and Colorado had granted women full voting rights.

and Colorado had granted women full voting rights.

frage movement had wanted these amendments

frage movement had wanted these amendments

worded to give women the right to vote as well. They

worded to give women the right to vote as well. They

were bitterly disappointed when Republicans refused.

were bitterly disappointed when Republicans refused.

The debate over the Fourteenth and Fifteenth

The debate over the Fourteenth and Fifteenth

The Movement Builds Support In 1890 the two

The Movement Builds Support In 1890 the two

groups united to form the National American Woman

groups united to form the National American Woman

Suffrage Association (NAWSA). The movement still

Suffrage Association (NAWSA). The movement still

Amendments split the suffrage movement into two

Amendments split the suffrage movement into two

groups: the National Woman Suffrage Association,

groups: the National Woman Suffrage Association,

led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony,

led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony,

and the American Woman Suffrage Association, led

and the American Woman Suffrage Association, led

by Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howe. The first group

by Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howe. The first group

did not make significant gains, however, until about

did not make significant gains, however, until about

1910. 1910.

Part of the problem was convincing women to

Part of the problem was convincing women to

become politically active. As the Progressive move-

become politically active. As the Progressive move-

ment began, however, many middle-class women con-

ment began, however, many middle-class women con-

cluded that they needed the vote to promote social

cluded that they needed the vote to promote social

in in History History Susan B. Anthony Susan B. Anthony 1820–1906 1820–1906 Susan B. Anthony was
in
in
History
History
Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
1820–1906
1820–1906
Susan B. Anthony was born in
Susan B. Anthony was born in
Adams, Massachusetts, to Quaker par-
Adams, Massachusetts, to Quaker par-
ents. Quakers were generally more
ents. Quakers were generally more
supportive of women’s rights than
supportive of women’s rights than
some other groups, and so Anthony
some other groups, and so Anthony
was able to receive a good education.
was able to receive a good education.
She finished her schooling at the age of
She finished her schooling at the age of
17.
17.
Anthony then worked as a teacher
Anthony then worked as a teacher
in New York, but she was fired after
in New York, but she was fired after
protesting that her pay was one-fifth
protesting that her pay was one-fifth
the amount of her male colleagues.
the amount of her male colleagues.
She found another job, however, as a
She found another job, however, as a
the jury would rule in Anthony’s favor.
the jury would rule in Anthony’s favor.
principal at New York’s Canajoharie
principal at New York’s Canajoharie
He dismissed the jury and fined
He dismissed the jury and fined
Academy. Between 1848 and 1863,
Academy. Between 1848 and 1863,
Anthony instead. She refused to pay the
Anthony instead. She refused to pay the
Anthony was involved in both the tem-
Anthony was involved in both the tem-
$100 fine, but the judge decided to let
$100 fine, but the judge decided to let
perance and abolitionist movements.
perance and abolitionist movements.
her go, afraid that appealing the case
her go, afraid that appealing the case
Her involvement in the drive for
Her involvement in the drive for
might generate sympathy for the suf-
might generate sympathy for the suf-
women’s equality began in 1851 after
women’s equality began in 1851 after
frage movement.
frage movement.
she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
In 1883 Anthony traveled to Europe,
In 1883 Anthony traveled to Europe,
Between 1854 and 1860, the duo
Between 1854 and 1860, the duo
and she helped form the International
and she helped form the International
attempted to change discriminatory
attempted to change discriminatory
Council of Women in 1888. This organi-
Council of Women in 1888. This organi-
laws in New York. In 1869 Anthony and
laws in New York. In 1869 Anthony and
zation represented the rights of women
zation represented the rights of women
Stanton organized the National Woman
Stanton organized the National Woman
in 48 countries. She died in Rochester,
in 48 countries. She died in Rochester,
Suffrage Association and began pro-
Suffrage Association and began pro-
New York, in 1906. Though Anthony
New York, in 1906. Though Anthony
moting an amendment to grant woman
moting an amendment to grant woman
did not live to see her dream of woman
did not live to see her dream of woman
suffrage. Anthony and 12 other women
suffrage. Anthony and 12 other women
suffrage become reality, the United
suffrage become reality, the United
illegally cast votes in the presidential
illegally cast votes in the presidential
States government honored her by
States government honored her by
election of 1872. They were arrested
election of 1872. They were arrested
placing her portrait on a new dollar
placing her portrait on a new dollar
and convicted, but the judge feared that
and convicted, but the judge feared that
coin in 1979.
coin in 1979.
550
550
CHAPTER 18
CHAPTER 18
The Progressive Movement
The Progressive Movement

reforms they favored. Many working-

reforms they favored. Many working-

class women also wanted the vote to

class women also wanted the vote to

ensure passage of labor laws protecting

ensure passage of labor laws protecting

women.

women.

As the suffrage movement grew,

As the suffrage movement grew,

members began lobbying lawmakers,

members began lobbying lawmakers,

organizing marches, and delivering

organizing marches, and delivering

speeches on street corners. By the

speeches on street corners. By the

end of 1912, Washington, Oregon,

end of 1912, Washington, Oregon,

California, Arizona, and Kansas had

California, Arizona, and Kansas had

granted women full voting rights. On

granted women full voting rights. On

March

March

3,

3,

1913,

1913,

the

the

day

day

before

before

President Wilson’s inauguration, suf-

President Wilson’s inauguration, suf-

fragists marched in Washington, D.C.,

fragists marched in Washington, D.C.,

to draw attention to their cause.

to draw attention to their cause.

Alice Paul, a Quaker social worker

Alice Paul, a Quaker social worker

who headed NAWSA’s congressional

who headed NAWSA’s congressional

committee,

committee,

had

had

organized

organized

the

the

Washington march. Paul wanted to

Washington march. Paul wanted to

use protests to force President Wilson

use protests to force President Wilson

to take action on suffrage. Her activi-

to take action on suffrage. Her activi-

ties

ties

alarmed

alarmed

other

other

members

members

of

of

NAWSA who wanted to negotiate

NAWSA who wanted to negotiate

with Wilson. Paul left NAWSA and

with Wilson. Paul left NAWSA and

formed the National Woman’s Party.

formed the National Woman’s Party.

Her supporters picketed the White

Her supporters picketed the White

House, blocked sidewalks, chained

House, blocked sidewalks, chained

themselves to lampposts, and went on

themselves to lampposts, and went on

hunger strikes if arrested.

hunger strikes if arrested.

In

In

1915

1915

Carrie

Carrie

Chapman

Chapman

Catt

Catt

became NAWSA’s leader. Catt devel-

became NAWSA’s leader. Catt devel-

oped what she called her “Winning

oped what she called her “Winning

Plan”

Plan”

to

to

mobilize

mobilize

the

the

suffrage

suffrage

Woman Suffrage, 1869–1920 Woman Suffrage, 1869–1920 WASH. WASH. 1910 1910 N.H. N.H. MONT. MONT. ME. ME.
Woman Suffrage, 1869–1920
Woman Suffrage, 1869–1920
WASH.
WASH.
1910
1910
N.H.
N.H.
MONT.
MONT.
ME.
ME.
N. DAK.
N.
DAK.
VT.
VT.
1914
1914
MINN.
MINN.
OREG.
OREG.
1912
1912
IDAHO
IDAHO
S.
S.
DAK.
DAK.
N.Y.
N.Y.
WIS.
WIS.
MASS.
MASS.
1896
1896
WYO.
WYO.
1918
1918
1917
1917
MICH.
MICH.
1869
1869
1918
1918
R.I.
R.I.
IOWA
IOWA
PA.
PA.
CONN.
CONN.
N.J.
N.J.
NEV.
NEV.
NEBR.
NEBR.
OHIO
OHIO
1914
1914
UTAH
UTAH
DEL.
DEL.
ILL.
1870
COLO.
COLO.
ILL. IND.
IND.
1870
W.
W.
CALIF.
CALIF.
1893
1893
KANS.
KANS.
1911
1911
MO.
MO.
VA.
VA.
MD.
MD.
VA.
VA.
1912
1912
KY.
KY.
N.C.
N.C.
ARIZ.
ARIZ.
OKLA.
OKLA.
TENN.
TENN.
1912
1912
N.
N.
MEX.
MEX.
1918
1918
ARK.
ARK.
S.C.
S.C.
MISS.
MISS.
GA.
GA.
ALA.
ALA.
TEXAS
TEXAS
LA.
LA.
FLA.
FLA.
Full woman suffrage before 1920, with
Full woman suffrage before 1920, with
date granted
date granted
1.
1.
Interpreting Maps Which region led the way in grant-
Interpreting Maps Which region led the way in grant-
Partial woman suffrage before 1920
Partial woman suffrage before 1920
No woman suffrage until ratification of
No woman suffrage until ratification of
ing woman suffrage?
ing woman suffrage?
the Nineteenth Amendment
the Nineteenth Amendment
2.
2.
Applying Geography Skills Based on the map, what
Applying Geography Skills Based on the map, what
1920
1920
border
border
region would you suggest had the least amount of
region would you suggest had the least amount of
campaigning for woman suffrage?
campaigning for woman suffrage?

movement nation-wide in one final push to gain vot-

movement nation-wide in one final push to gain vot-

ing rights. She also threw NAWSA’s support behind

ing rights. She also threw NAWSA’s support behind

Wilson in the 1916 election. Although Wilson did not

Wilson in the 1916 election. Although Wilson did not

endorse a woman suffrage amendment, he sup-

endorse a woman suffrage amendment, he sup-

ported the Democratic Party’s call for states to give

ported the Democratic Party’s call for states to give

women the vote.

women the vote.

The

The

Nineteenth

Nineteenth

Amendment As

Amendment As

more

more

states

states

granted women the right to vote, Congress began to

granted women the right to vote, Congress began to

favor a constitutional amendment. In 1918 the House

favor a constitutional amendment. In 1918 the House

of Representatives passed a woman suffrage amend-

of Representatives passed a woman suffrage amend-

ment. Wilson then addressed the Senate, asking it to

ment. Wilson then addressed the Senate, asking it to

vote for the amendment. Despite his efforts, the

vote for the amendment. Despite his efforts, the

amendment failed to pass by two votes.

amendment failed to pass by two votes.

During the midterm elections of 1918, Catt used

During the midterm elections of 1918, Catt used

NAWSA’s resources to defeat two anti-suffrage sena-

NAWSA’s resources to defeat two anti-suffrage sena-

tors. The following year, in June 1919, the Senate

tors. The following year, in June 1919, the Senate

finally passed the Nineteenth Amendment by just

finally passed the Nineteenth Amendment by just

more than the two-thirds vote needed. On August 26,

more than the two-thirds vote needed. On August 26,

1920, after three-fourths of the states had voted to rat-

1920, after three-fourths of the states had voted to rat-

ify it, the Nineteenth Amendment guaranteeing

ify it, the Nineteenth Amendment guaranteeing

women the right to vote went into effect.

women the right to vote went into effect.

Woman Suffrage, 1869–1920 Woman Suffrage, 1869–1920 WASH. WASH. 1910 1910 N.H. N.H. MONT. MONT. ME. ME.

Reading Check

Reading Check

Evaluating How successful were

Evaluating How successful were

women in lobbying to achieve passage of the Nineteenth

women in lobbying to achieve passage of the Nineteenth

Amendment?

Amendment?

Social Welfare Progressivism

Social Welfare Progressivism

While many progressives focused on reforming

While many progressives focused on reforming

the political system, others focused on social prob-

the political system, others focused on social prob-

lems, such as crime, illiteracy, alcohol abuse, child

lems, such as crime, illiteracy, alcohol abuse, child

labor, and the health and safety of Americans.

labor, and the health and safety of Americans.

These social welfare progressives created charities

These social welfare progressives created charities

to help the poor and disadvantaged. They also

to help the poor and disadvantaged. They also

pushed for new laws they hoped would fix social

pushed for new laws they hoped would fix social

problems.

problems.

The Campaign Against Child Labor Probably the

The Campaign Against Child Labor Probably the

most emotional Progressive issue was the cam-

most emotional Progressive issue was the cam-

paign against child labor. Children had always

paign against child labor. Children had always

worked on family farms, but the factory work that

worked on family farms, but the factory work that

many children performed was monotonous, and

many children performed was monotonous, and

the conditions were often unhealthy. In 1900 over

the conditions were often unhealthy. In 1900 over

1.7 1.7

million children under the age of 16 worked

million children under the age of 16 worked

outside the home. Reformers established a National

outside the home. Reformers established a National

Child Labor Committee in 1904 to work to abolish

Child Labor Committee in 1904 to work to abolish

child labor.

child labor.

Muckraker John Spargo’s 1906 book The Bitter Cry

Muckraker John Spargo’s 1906 book The Bitter Cry

of the Children presented detailed evidence on child

of the Children presented detailed evidence on child

labor conditions. He told of coal mines where thou-

labor conditions. He told of coal mines where thou-

sands of “breaker boys” were hired at age 9 or 10 to

sands of “breaker boys” were hired at age 9 or 10 to

pick slag out of coal and were paid 60¢ for a 10-hour

pick slag out of coal and were paid 60¢ for a 10-hour

CHAPTER 18

CHAPTER 18

The Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement

551

551

MOMENT MOMENT MOMENT MOMENT in in in in HISTORY HISTORY HISTORY HISTORY YOUTHFUL PROTEST YOUTHFUL PROTEST
MOMENT
MOMENT
MOMENT
MOMENT
in
in
in
in HISTORY
HISTORY
HISTORY
HISTORY
YOUTHFUL PROTEST
YOUTHFUL PROTEST
Two young immigrants march
Two young immigrants march
in a New York City demonstra-
in a New York City demonstra-
tion against child labor prac-
tion against child labor prac-
tices in 1907. Both young
tices in 1907. Both young
women wear banners pro-
women wear banners pro-
claiming the same message—
claiming the same message—
one in English, the other in
one in English, the other in
Yiddish. Such protests helped
Yiddish. Such protests helped
publicize the exploitation of
publicize the exploitation of
children in dingy, dangerous
children in dingy, dangerous
“sweatshops” in American
“sweatshops” in American
cities. At the dawn of the twen-
cities. At the dawn of the twen-
tieth century, more than a mil-
tieth century, more than a mil-
lion children—some as young
lion children—some as young
as eight—labored long hours in
as eight—labored long hours in
factories.The weight of popular
factories.The weight of popular
opinion finally forced state
opinion finally forced state
governments to pass laws
governments to pass laws
protecting young workers.
protecting young workers.

day. He described how the work bent their backs

day. He described how the work bent their backs

permanently and often crippled their hands. Reports

permanently and often crippled their hands. Reports

like these convinced states to pass laws that set a

like these convinced states to pass laws that set a

minimum age for employment and established other

minimum age for employment and established other

limits on child labor, such as maximum hours chil-

limits on child labor, such as maximum hours chil-

dren could work. At the same time, many states

dren could work. At the same time, many states

began passing compulsory education laws, requiring

began passing compulsory education laws, requiring

young children to be in school instead of at work.

young children to be in school instead of at work.

By the early 1900s, the number of child laborers

By the early 1900s, the number of child laborers

had begun to decline. For many families, the new

had begun to decline. For many families, the new

wealth generated by industry enabled them to sur-

wealth generated by industry enabled them to sur-

vive without having their children work. For others,

vive without having their children work. For others,

the child labor and compulsory education laws

the child labor and compulsory education laws

meant that wives had to work instead.

meant that wives had to work instead.

Health and Safety Codes Many adult workers also

Health and Safety Codes Many adult workers also

labored in difficult conditions. Factories, coal mines,

labored in difficult conditions. Factories, coal mines,

and

and

railroads

railroads

were

were

particularly

particularly

dangerous.

dangerous.

For

For

example, in 1911 a terrible fire swept through Triangle

example, in 1911 a terrible fire swept through Triangle

Shirtwaist Company in New York City. Nearly 150

Shirtwaist Company in New York City. Nearly 150

women workers died, trapped by doors locked from

women workers died, trapped by doors locked from

the outside. Outrage at the deaths caused New York

the outside. Outrage at the deaths caused New York

552

552

CHAPTER 18

CHAPTER 18

The Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement

City to pass strict building codes dealing with fire haz-

City to pass strict building codes dealing with fire haz-

ards and unsafe machinery and working conditions.

ards and unsafe machinery and working conditions.

During the early 1900s, thousands of people died

During the early 1900s, thousands of people died

or were injured on the job, but they and their families

or were injured on the job, but they and their families

received little compensation. Progressives joined

received little compensation. Progressives joined

union leaders to pressure states for workers’ compen-

union leaders to pressure states for workers’ compen-

sation laws. These laws established insurance funds

sation laws. These laws established insurance funds

financed by employers. Workers injured in industrial

financed by employers. Workers injured in industrial

accidents received payments from the funds.

accidents received payments from the funds.

Some progressives also favored zoning laws as a

Some progressives also favored zoning laws as a

method of protecting the public. These laws divided a

method of protecting the public. These laws divided a

town or city into zones for commercial, residential, or

town or city into zones for commercial, residential, or

other development, thereby regulating how land and

other development, thereby regulating how land and

buildings could be used. Building codes set minimum

buildings could be used. Building codes set minimum

standards for light, air, room size, and sanitation, and

standards for light, air, room size, and sanitation, and

required buildings to have fire escapes. Health codes

required buildings to have fire escapes. Health codes

required restaurants and other facilities to maintain

required restaurants and other facilities to maintain

clean environments for their patrons.

clean environments for their patrons.

The Prohibition Movement Many progressives

The Prohibition Movement Many progressives

believed alcohol was responsible for many problems

believed alcohol was responsible for many problems

in American life. Settlement house workers hated the

in American life. Settlement house workers hated the

effects of drinking on families. Scarce wages were

effects of drinking on families. Scarce wages were

spent on alcohol, and drinking sometimes led to

spent on alcohol, and drinking sometimes led to

physical abuse and sickness. Many Christians also

physical abuse and sickness. Many Christians also

opposed alcohol.

opposed alcohol.

Some employers believed drinking hurt workers’

Some employers believed drinking hurt workers’

efficiency, while political reformers viewed the saloon

efficiency, while political reformers viewed the saloon

as the informal headquarters of the machine politics

as the informal headquarters of the machine politics

they opposed. The temperance movement, which

they opposed. The temperance movement, which

advocated the moderation or elimination of alcohol,

advocated the moderation or elimination of alcohol,

emerged from these concerns.

emerged from these concerns.

For the most part, women led the temperance

For the most part, women led the temperance

movement. In 1874 a group of women formed the

movement. In 1874 a group of women formed the

Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). By

Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). By

1911 1911

this organization had nearly 250,000 members.

this organization had nearly 250,000 members.

In

In

1893

1893

another

another

organization—the

organization—the

Anti-Saloon

Anti-Saloon

League—was formed. When it began, the temperance

League—was formed. When it began, the temperance

movement concentrated on reducing alcohol con-

movement concentrated on reducing alcohol con-

sumption. Later it pressed for prohibition—laws

sumption. Later it pressed for prohibition—laws

banning the manufacture, sale, and consumption of

banning the manufacture, sale, and consumption of

alcohol. alcohol. Reading Check Reading Check
alcohol.
alcohol.
Reading Check
Reading Check

Examining What actions did

Examining What actions did

progressives take to deal with the issue of child labor?

progressives take to deal with the issue of child labor?

Progressives Versus Big Business

Progressives Versus Big Business

A fourth group of progressives focused their

A fourth group of progressives focused their

efforts on regulating big business. Many progres-

efforts on regulating big business. Many progres-

sives believed that wealth was concentrated in the

sives believed that wealth was concentrated in the

hands

hands

of

of

too

too

few

few

people.

people.

In

In

particular,

particular,

many

many

became concerned about trusts and holding compa-

became concerned about trusts and holding compa-

nies—giant corporations that dominated many

nies—giant corporations that dominated many

Progressives disagreed, however, over how to go

Progressives disagreed, however, over how to go

about regulating big business. Some believed that

about regulating big business. Some believed that

the government should break up big companies to

the government should break up big companies to

restore competition. This idea led to the Sherman

restore competition. This idea led to the Sherman

Antitrust Act in 1890. Others argued that big busi-

Antitrust Act in 1890. Others argued that big busi-

ness was the most efficient way to organize the econ-

ness was the most efficient way to organize the econ-

omy.

omy.

They

They

pushed

pushed

instead

instead

for

for

the

the

creation

creation

of

of

government agencies to regulate big companies and

government agencies to regulate big companies and

prevent

prevent

them

them

from

from

abusing

abusing

their

their

power.

power.

The

The

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), created in

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), created in

1887,

1887,

was

was

an

an

early

early

example

example

of

of

this

this

kind

kind

of

of

Progressive thinking.

Progressive thinking.

Some progressives went even further and advo-

Some progressives went even further and advo-

cated socialism —the idea that the government

cated socialism —the idea that the government

should own and operate industry for the commu-

should own and operate industry for the commu-

nity as a whole. They wanted the government to

nity as a whole. They wanted the government to

buy up large companies, especially industries that

buy up large companies, especially industries that

affected everyone, such as railroads and utilities.

affected everyone, such as railroads and utilities.

At its peak, socialism had some national sup-

At its peak, socialism had some national sup-

port. Eugene Debs, the former American Railway

port. Eugene Debs, the former American Railway

Union leader, won nearly a million votes as the

Union leader, won nearly a million votes as the

American Socialist Party candidate for president in

American Socialist Party candidate for president in

1912. 1912.

Most progressives and most Americans, how-

Most progressives and most Americans, how-

ever, believed in the superiority of the American

ever, believed in the superiority of the American

system of free enterprise.

system of free enterprise.

Efforts to regulate business were focused at the

Efforts to regulate business were focused at the

national level. Congress passed a number of pro-

national level. Congress passed a number of pro-

posals to regulate the economy under presidents

posals to regulate the economy under presidents

Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, and Woodrow

Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, and Woodrow

Wilson. Wilson. Reading Check Reading Check
Wilson.
Wilson.
Reading Check
Reading Check

Evaluating What was the impact of

Evaluating What was the impact of

industries. industries. Eugene Debs and the Socialist Party on the 1912 election? Eugene Debs and the
industries.
industries.
Eugene Debs and the Socialist Party on the 1912 election?
Eugene Debs and the Socialist Party on the 1912 election?
FCAT
FCAT
You can prepare for the FCAT-assessed standards by completing the correlated item(s) below.
You can prepare for the FCAT-assessed standards by completing the correlated item(s) below.
PRACTICE
PRACTICE

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

Checking for Understanding

Checking for Understanding

Define: progressivism, muckraker,

Define: progressivism, muckraker,

commission plan, direct primary,

commission plan, direct primary,

initiative, referendum, recall, suffrage,

initiative, referendum, recall, suffrage,

temperance, prohibition, socialism.

temperance, prohibition, socialism.

Identify: Jacob Riis, Robert La Follette,

Identify: Jacob Riis, Robert La Follette,

Alice Paul.

Alice Paul.

State what was provided for by the

State what was provided for by the

Nineteenth Amendment to the

Nineteenth Amendment to the

Constitution.

Constitution.

4.

4.

Reviewing Themes

Reviewing Themes

Government and Democracy How did

Government and Democracy How did

initiative, referendum, and recall

initiative, referendum, and recall

change democracy in the United States?

change democracy in the United States?

5.

5.

6.

6.

Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking

Evaluating What impact did Susan B.

Evaluating What impact did Susan B.

Anthony have on Progressive era

Anthony have on Progressive era

reforms?

reforms?

Organizing Use a graphic organizer

Organizing Use a graphic organizer

similar to the one below to list the kinds

similar to the one below to list the kinds

of problems that muckrakers exposed.

of problems that muckrakers exposed.

Problems Exposed Problems Exposed by Muckrakers by Muckrakers
Problems Exposed
Problems Exposed
by Muckrakers
by Muckrakers

7.

7.

Analyzing Visuals

Analyzing Visuals

Examining Charts Study the charts

Examining Charts Study the charts

on page 549. Under which system do

on page 549. Under which system do

voters seem to have the most control

voters seem to have the most control

over department heads? Why do you

over department heads? Why do you

think so?

think so?

effects of drinking on families. Scarce wages were effects of drinking on families. Scarce wages were

Writing About History

Writing About History

8.

8.

Persuasive Writing Some women in

Persuasive Writing Some women in

the early 1900s suggested that the

the early 1900s suggested that the

Constitution needed an equal rights

Constitution needed an equal rights

amendment. Imagine you are living

amendment. Imagine you are living

then. Write a letter to the editor of your

then. Write a letter to the editor of your

local paper supporting or opposing such

local paper supporting or opposing such

an amendment.

an amendment.

FCAT LA.B.1.4.2

FCAT LA.B.1.4.2

CHAPTER 18

CHAPTER 18

The Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement

553

553

Completing the Completing the FCAT FCAT PRACTICE PRACTICE activity below activity below
Completing the
Completing the
FCAT
FCAT
PRACTICE
PRACTICE
activity below
activity below

will help you prepare for

will help you prepare for

the FCAT Reading test.

the FCAT Reading test.

Study and Writing

Study and Writing

Taking Notes

Taking Notes

Why Learn This Skill?

Why Learn This Skill?

Taking notes is a way of recording the impor-

Taking notes is a way of recording the impor-

tant parts of something you have read. Taking

tant parts of something you have read. Taking

notes also helps you recall information. The

notes also helps you recall information. The

guidelines below explain how to get the most out

guidelines below explain how to get the most out

of your notes.

of your notes.

Learning the Skill

Learning the Skill

One of the best ways to remember something

One of the best ways to remember something

is to write it down. Taking notes involves writing

is to write it down. Taking notes involves writing

down information in a brief and orderly form.

down information in a brief and orderly form.

This helps you remember information and

This helps you remember information and

makes it easier to study.

makes it easier to study.

There are several styles of taking notes, but all

There are several styles of taking notes, but all

clarify and put information in a logical order.

clarify and put information in a logical order.

Completing the Completing the FCAT FCAT PRACTICE PRACTICE activity below activity below will help you prepare

Student success relies on good note-taking.

Student success relies on good note-taking.

Keep these guidelines in mind when you are tak-

Keep these guidelines in mind when you are tak-

ing notes:

ing notes:

• Identify the subject and write it at the top of the

• Identify the subject and write it at the top of the

page. In your book, for example, look for chapter

page. In your book, for example, look for chapter

or section headings.

or section headings.

• Be selective in what information you include in

• Be selective in what information you include in

your notes. For example, anything your teacher

your notes. For example, anything your teacher

writes on the chalkboard or shows you from a

writes on the chalkboard or shows you from a

transparency should be included. If your teacher

transparency should be included. If your teacher

emphasizes a point or spends a considerable

emphasizes a point or spends a considerable

amount of time on a given topic, this is also a

amount of time on a given topic, this is also a

clue to its importance. Similarly, if your textbook

clue to its importance. Similarly, if your textbook

covers a single topic over several pages, take

covers a single topic over several pages, take

notes by seeking the topic sentences of para-

notes by seeking the topic sentences of para-

graphs on the topic. Be certain to write down all

graphs on the topic. Be certain to write down all

words that are in bold or italicized type. Your

words that are in bold or italicized type. Your

goal is to listen or read carefully, paying attention

goal is to listen or read carefully, paying attention

to the main ideas or key points. Do not write

to the main ideas or key points. Do not write

down every word your teacher says. Your notes

down every word your teacher says. Your notes

should consist of the main ideas and supporting

should consist of the main ideas and supporting

details on the subject.

details on the subject.

• Paraphrase the information. Put it in your own

• Paraphrase the information. Put it in your own

words rather than trying to take it down word

words rather than trying to take it down word

for word. In order to save time, you might want

for word. In order to save time, you might want

to develop a personal form of shorthand. For

to develop a personal form of shorthand. For

example, eliminating vowels from words saves

example, eliminating vowels from words saves

time: “develop” becomes “dvlp.” Use symbols,

time: “develop” becomes “dvlp.” Use symbols,

arrows, or sketches: “&” in place of “and.” Use

arrows, or sketches: “&” in place of “and.” Use

your shorthand whenever you take notes.

your shorthand whenever you take notes.

• Make sure your notes are neat so you will be able

• Make sure your notes are neat so you will be able

to understand them when you study them later.

to understand them when you study them later.

Practicing the Skill

Practicing the Skill

After you have carefully read Section 4 of this

After you have carefully read Section 4 of this

chapter, follow the general guidelines to taking notes

chapter, follow the general guidelines to taking notes

listed above and create notes for the subsection “The

listed above and create notes for the subsection “The

Limits of Progressivism.”

Limits of Progressivism.”

FCAT LA.A.2.4.4

FCAT LA.A.2.4.4

Skills Assessment

Skills Assessment

Complete the Practicing Skills questions on page

Complete the Practicing Skills questions on page

573 573

and the Chapter 18 Skill Reinforcement Activity

and the Chapter 18 Skill Reinforcement Activity

to assess your mastery of this skill.

to assess your mastery of this skill.

Applying the Skill

Applying the Skill

Taking Notes Have a classmate quiz you on the sec-

Taking Notes Have a classmate quiz you on the sec-

tion on which you took notes. How did you do? Did

tion on which you took notes. How did you do? Did

your notes work well? What can be improved about

your notes work well? What can be improved about

them? What would you change?

them? What would you change?

Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook

Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook

CD-ROM, Level 2, provides instruction and

CD-ROM, Level 2, provides instruction and

practice in key social studies skills.

practice in key social studies skills.

Completing the Completing the FCAT FCAT PRACTICE PRACTICE activity below activity below will help you prepare

554 554

Main Idea Main Idea
Main Idea
Main Idea

Roosevelt in Office

Roosevelt in Office

Reading Strategy

Reading Strategy

Reading Objectives

Reading Objectives

With Theodore Roosevelt’s succession to

With Theodore Roosevelt’s succession to

the presidency in September 1901, pro-

the presidency in September 1901, pro-

gressivism entered national politics.

gressivism entered national politics.

Key Terms and Names

Key Terms and Names

Square Deal, Northern Securities, United

Square Deal, Northern Securities, United

Mine Workers, arbitration, Hepburn Act,

Mine Workers, arbitration, Hepburn Act,

Upton Sinclair

Upton Sinclair

Taking Notes As you read about the

Taking Notes As you read about the

administration of President Theodore

administration of President Theodore

Roosevelt, use the major headings of the

Roosevelt, use the major headings of the

section to create an outline similar to the

section to create an outline similar to the

one below. one below. Roosevelt in Office Roosevelt in Office I. I. Roosevelt Revives the Presidency
one below.
one below.
Roosevelt in Office
Roosevelt in Office
I.
I.
Roosevelt Revives the Presidency
Roosevelt Revives the Presidency
A.
A.
B.
B.
C.
C.
D.
D.
II.
II.

• Describe various efforts to regulate

• Describe various efforts to regulate

concentrated corporate power.

concentrated corporate power.

• Discuss Theodore Roosevelt’s interest in

• Discuss Theodore Roosevelt’s interest in

environmental conservation.

environmental conservation.

Section Theme

Section Theme

Individual Action Progressive goals

Individual Action Progressive goals

were carried to the national level when

were carried to the national level when

Theodore Roosevelt became president.

Theodore Roosevelt became president.

1901 1901

1900

1900

Theodore Roosevelt becomes president

Theodore Roosevelt becomes president

after William McKinley’s death

after William McKinley’s death

✦1902 ✦1902 ✦1904 ✦1904 ✦1906 ✦1906 1902 1902 1903 1903 1906 1906 1906 1906
✦1902
✦1902
✦1904
✦1904
✦1906
✦1906
1902
1902
1903
1903
1906
1906
1906
1906
United Mine Workers United Mine Workers Roosevelt sets up Roosevelt sets up Upton Sinclair’s The Upton
United Mine Workers
United Mine Workers
Roosevelt sets up
Roosevelt sets up
Upton Sinclair’s The
Upton Sinclair’s The
Meat Inspection
Meat Inspection
go on strike
go on strike
Bureau of Corporations
Bureau of Corporations
Jungle published
Jungle published
Act passed
Act passed
The following The following is the major is the major Sunshine State Sunshine State Standard covered
The following
The following
is the major
is the major
Sunshine State
Sunshine State
Standard covered
Standard covered
in this section.
in this section.
SS.D.2.4.3:
SS.D.2.4.3:
Understand how
Understand how
government taxes,
government taxes,
policies, and
policies, and
programs affect
programs affect
individuals, groups,
individuals, groups,
businesses, and
businesses, and
regions.
regions.
Main Idea Main Idea Roosevelt in Office Roosevelt in Office Reading Strategy Reading Strategy Reading Objectives

William McKinley’s assassination brought Teddy Roosevelt to the presidency. Despite the tragic cir-

William McKinley’s assassination brought Teddy Roosevelt to the presidency. Despite the tragic cir-

cumstances, he took to the office with great joy. A man who loved the outdoors and physical activity,

cumstances, he took to the office with great joy. A man who loved the outdoors and physical activity,

Roosevelt impressed many people as a new kind of president. One visitor wrote that after spending

Roosevelt impressed many people as a new kind of president. One visitor wrote that after spending

time with Roosevelt, “you go home and wring the personality out of your clothes.”

time with Roosevelt, “you go home and wring the personality out of your clothes.”

The famous muckraker, Lincoln Steffens, already knew Roosevelt as a fellow reformer. Steffens

The famous muckraker, Lincoln Steffens, already knew Roosevelt as a fellow reformer. Steffens

went to Washington to see his friend, and this is what he saw:

went to Washington to see his friend, and this is what he saw:

His offices were crowded with people, mostly reformers, all day

His offices were crowded with people, mostly reformers, all day

long. . . .

long. . . .

He strode triumphant

He strode triumphant

around among us, talking and shaking hands, dictating and signing letters, and laughing. Washington,

around among us, talking and shaking hands, dictating and signing letters, and laughing. Washington,

the whole country, was in mourning, and no doubt the President felt he should hold himself down; he

the whole country, was in mourning, and no doubt the President felt he should hold himself down; he

didn’t; he tried to but his joy showed in every word and

didn’t; he tried to but his joy showed in every word and

movement. . . .

movement. . . .

With his feet, his fists, his

With his feet, his fists, his

face and his free words, he laughed at his

face and his free words, he laughed at his

luck. . . .

luck. . . .

And he laughed with glee at the power and place

And he laughed with glee at the power and place

that had come to him.

that had come to him.

—quoted in Theodore Roosevelt, A Life

—quoted in Theodore Roosevelt, A Life

Roosevelt Revives the Presidency

Roosevelt Revives the Presidency

Theodore Roosevelt, better known as “Teddy,” took office at age 42—the youngest

Theodore Roosevelt, better known as “Teddy,” took office at age 42—the youngest

person ever to serve as president. Roosevelt was intensely competitive, strong-willed,

person ever to serve as president. Roosevelt was intensely competitive, strong-willed,

and extremely energetic. In international affairs, Roosevelt was a Social Darwinist. He

and extremely energetic. In international affairs, Roosevelt was a Social Darwinist. He

believed the United States was in competition with the other nations of the world and

believed the United States was in competition with the other nations of the world and

that only the fittest would survive. Domestically, however, Roosevelt was a committed

that only the fittest would survive. Domestically, however, Roosevelt was a committed

CHAPTER 18

CHAPTER 18

The Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement

555

555

progressive, who firmly believed that government

progressive, who firmly believed that government

should actively balance the needs of competing

should actively balance the needs of competing

groups in American society.

groups in American society.

“I shall see to it,” Roosevelt declared in 1904, “that

“I shall see to it,” Roosevelt declared in 1904, “that

every man has a square deal, no less and no more.”

every man has a square deal, no less and no more.”

During his second term, his reform programs became

During his second term, his reform programs became

known as the Square Deal. To Roosevelt, it was not

known as the Square Deal. To Roosevelt, it was not

inconsistent to believe in Social Darwinism and

inconsistent to believe in Social Darwinism and

Progressivism at the same time. He believed the

Progressivism at the same time. He believed the

United States needed to adopt progressive reforms in

United States needed to adopt progressive reforms in

order to maintain an efficient society that could com-

order to maintain an efficient society that could com-

pete successfully against other nations.

pete successfully against other nations.

Roosevelt Takes on the Trusts Although he

Roosevelt Takes on the Trusts Although he

admired competition, Roosevelt was also concerned

admired competition, Roosevelt was also concerned

with efficiency. He believed that trusts and other

with efficiency. He believed that trusts and other

large business organizations were very efficient and

large business organizations were very efficient and

part of the reason for America’s prosperity. Yet

part of the reason for America’s prosperity. Yet

Roosevelt remained concerned that in the pursuit of

Roosevelt remained concerned that in the pursuit of

their private interests, some trusts were hurting the

their private interests, some trusts were hurting the

public interest. He wanted to find a way to supervise

public interest. He wanted to find a way to supervise

big business without destroying its economic effi-

big business without destroying its economic effi-

ciency.

ciency.

When

When

the

the

New

New

York

York

Sun

Sun

declared