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1. The Contents and Authorship of this Chapter THE Superscription (1:13) falls into t ree parts! eac part of " ic in turn is for#e$ of t ree ele#ents. T e first sets fort t e source of t e Apocal%pse! t e secon$ its contents! an$ t e t ir$ t e &lesse$ness of t ose " o recei'e an$ fulfil its teac in(s. As re(ar$s t e sourceit "as )o$ &% " o# t e Apocal%pse "as (i'en to C rist: it "as C rist " o sent His an(el an$ si(nifie$ it to *o n: it "as *o n " o &are "itness to it as fro# )o$ an$ C rist. As for its contentst ese "ere t e "or$ of )o$ an$ t e trut atteste$ &% C rist! " ic "ere e#&o$ie$ in t e 'isions " ic *o n a$ seen. As for t e &lesse$ness t at atten$s on its receptiont is &lesse$ness is to &e t e portion of t ose t at rea$ it in t e C urc es! of t ose t at ear! an$ of t ose t at o&ser'e it. After t e Superscription follo"s t e +ntro$uction (1:,-)! " ic is co#pose$ of t ree of t ree lines eac . +n t ese *o n salutes t e Se'en C urc es! in'o/in( upon t e# (race an$ peace fro# )o$! " ic is an$ " ic "as an$ " ic is to co#e!1 an$ fro# *esus C rist. 0f t ese t"o 1i'ine 2ein(s e procee$s to spea/ #ore $efinitel% of C rist in 34 an$ of )o$ in -. C rist is t e fait ful "itness! t e so'erei(n of t e $ea$! t e ruler of t ose t at rule t e li'in(. To Hi# is to &e ascri&e$ (lor% an$ po"er! inas#uc as lo'in( us "it an e'erlastin( lo'e He at re$ee#e$ us fro# our sins an$ en$o"e$ us "it t e offices of /in(s ip an$ priest oo$ unto )o$ (1:,5)! an$ "ill spee$il% co#e in t e clou$s" ose a$'ent His crucifiers "ill "itness to t eir cost an$ t e eat en6 earte$ nations "it fear an$ an(uis . 0f )o$ our aut or $oes not spea/ in t e t ir$ person! &ut intro$uces t e Supre#e 2ein( as $eclarin(: + a# t e Alp a an$ t e 0#e(at e 7or$ of t e past! t e present an$ t e future. +n 1:89: "e a'e t e Seer;s call &% t e Son of <an an$ is 'ision of t e Son of <an! stan$in( in t e #i$st of se'en (ol$en can$lestic/s an$ ol$in( se'en stars! risen an$ (lorifie$. 2% Hi# t e Seer is &i$$en to "rite " at e sa" an$ to sen$ it to t e Se'en C urc es. An% parap rase of t is su&li#e $escription of t e Son of <an "oul$ onl% opelessl% "ea/en it. +t #a%! o"e'er! &e o&ser'e$ t at it contains t e attri&utes of t e Ancient of 1a%s an$ of one li/e a Son of <an in 1aniel (4:8! 13) as "ell as of t e na#eless an(el in 1an. 1::35! an$ t at nearl% e'er% p rase in t is $escription of t e Son of <an (1315) an$ of His "or$s (14c9:) recurs in 93 to " ic it for#s an intro$uction! =ust as 1: $oes to 11:113. +n 14c1- t e Son of <an $eclares " o He is (e'en as )o$ $oes in -)! i.e. t e >irst an$ t e 7ast! He t at li'et an$ "as $ea$ an$ a$ t ere&% &eco#e t e ol$er of t e /e%s of $eat . As suc He &i$s t e Seer afres to "rite " at e sa"! an$ to learn t e #%ster% t at t e se'en can$lestic/s "ere t e Se'en C urc es an$ t e se'en stars t e ea'enl% i$eals of t e Se'en C urc es! " ic coul$ onl% &e reali.e$ t rou( Hi#. As re(ar$s t e aut ors ip of t is c apter! " ilst t ere is no e'i$ence eit er in point of i$io# or $iction a(ainst its &ein( fro# t e an$ of *o n t e Seer! t ere is! as + a'e s o"n in t e su##ar% in 9! t e #ost positi'e e'i$ence for its $eri'ation fro# i#. 9. Diction and Idiom T ere can &e no ?uestion as to t e aut ors ip of t is c apter. Ali/e in its $iction an$ its i$io# it is fro# t e an$ of *o n t e Seer. (a) Diction.T is su&=ect is $ealt "it in $etail in t e notes. 2ut t e results can &e s ortl% su##ari.e$ an$ so#e of t e c ief parallelis#s in p raseolo(% "it in t e rest of 1 The clause that follows relating to the seven spirits is an interpolation (see note in loc.).

t e 2oo/ e#p asi.e$. 2ut first of all it is to &e o&ser'e$ t at " ereas none of t e $iction an$ p raseolo(% is a(ainst our aut or;s use! #uc of it is specificall% *o annine an$ all of it in /eepin( "it is use. 1:1. , . T is clause recurs as a " ole in 99:5 an$ in part in ,:1. is c aracteristic of our aut or in its apocal%ptic sense. ! . Cf. 11:1-! " #$%&. 2. $$! . Cf. 99:15! 1-! 9:. " ' " ( " $$ ! . Cf. 1:8! 5:8! 19:11 (" ' " $$)! 14 (" $$ ! onl% an$ in 18:1:)! 9::,. 3. $ " ' " #$%! ( !$ . Cf. 99:4! 1:. @e a'e ere t e first of t e se'en &eatitu$es in t is 2oo/ : cf. 1,:13! 15:13! 18:8! 9::5! 99:4! 1,. ) *$ $+ . Cf. 99:1:. 5. ) $ ) #' . Cf. 9:13! 3:1,. 6. #! ,- ., /$ . Cf. 3:1:. 0 1 02 [" 03 ]. Cf. 1:1-! ,:8! 1:! 3:13! 4:19! 1::5! etc. 2ut in )ospel an$ 1 an$ 9 *o n al"a%s 0 + 02. 8. + 4 ( + 5 ) 6 ( ) 7 ( ) $', ) #$ $ . Cf. 1:-! ,:-! 11:14! 15:3! 91:5! 99:13. 8$ ) + ) #$ $ . Cf. ,:-! 11:14! 13:3! 15:4! 1,! 18:5! 13! 91:99. 9$ $ occurs ei( t ti#es in t e rest of t e Apocal%pse an$ not once else" ere in t e A.T. eBcept in an 0.T. ?uotation (9 Cor. 5:1-). 10. '! # . Cf. ,:9. 12. .# . 0ur aut or uses t is 'er& t"ice in 1! once in 3 an$ t irteen ti#es in t e rest of t e &oo/! an$ ne'er in t e aoristC for in 99:- A is to &e follo"e$. 13. : /+ ;$3# . 0nl% else" ere in 1,:1,! in t is for# in all literature. #&$! ( #$< #$+ < = $- . Cf. 13:5. 14. / >%( ? %+ #$' . Cf. 9:1-! 18:19. 15. , % = ? % = @ #2 . Cf. 1,:9! 18:5. 16. , AB ? ) C . Cf. 1::1. D E F $( ;$ G# . Cf. 9:1! 3:1. ' H% > . Cf. 9:13. 17. ) #$2 ( ) D . Cf. 9:-! 99:13. 19. I . Here use$ (pro&a&l% o"in( to its fourfol$ occurence in 93) of lo(ical appeal! ne'er of istorical transition as in t e >ourt )ospel: cf. 9:3! 15! 3:3! 18. +n t e later c apters our aut or uses * instea$ : cf. 4:13! 19:39 D1-:-E. T us t is entire c apter is #ost closel% connecte$ &% its $istincti'el% *o annine p raseolo(% "it 95! 1:11! 1,15! 1899. 7et us no" turn to t e #ost stri/in( i$io#s in t is c apter. (b) Idiom.T ese are $ealt "it full% in t e notes. 2ut "e s all #ention a sufficient nu#&er to confir# &e%on$ ?uestion t e conclusion t at t is c apter co#es fro# t e an$ of our aut or. 1:4. ;#+ ) 6 ( ) 7 ( ) $' . 0n t is " oll% a&nor#al construction "it ;#'! " ic is ne'ert eless ?uite intelli(i&le in our aut or an$ %et not in an% ot er! N.T. New Testament. O.T. Old Testament. A A (v) London. Sd. 4.

see note in loc. As re(ar$s ) 6 F $'t is title recurs " oll% or in part in 1:-! ,:-! 11:14! 15:3. 5. ! J$, ) $ #' ! T is ano#alous construction of t e no#inati'e in apposition to an o&li?ue case recurs 9:13! 9:! 3:19! 4:,! -:8! 8:1,! 1,:19! 1,! 9::9. T at t is solecis# is c aracteristic of our aut or cannot &e $enie$! since it occurs so fre?uentl%! " ereas it is eBceptional in t e 8& an$ t e 7GG! in t e latter of " ic it is clearl%! as in our aut or! a He&rais#. 56. ;#2 ( #! . T is He&rais# recurs fre?uentl% in our aut or: cf. 1:1-! 9:9! 8! 9:! 3:8! 4:1,! 1,:93! 13:3. 10. % & ? # ! . Here "e s oul$ eBpect . 2ut cf. ,:1. 13. : /+ ;$3# . Cf. 1,:1, for t is ot er"ise uneBa#ple$ construction. See A$$itional Aote! p. 35. 16. D = K or D as else" ere in our aut or : cf. 1::9! 19:9! 91:19! 1,. <oreo'er! #$! is use$ as #$ in t is sa#e 'erse. +n our aut or t ese are He&rais#s! t ou( t is usa(e is foun$ occasionall% in t e 8&. A(ain t e He&rais# , AB ? ) C % t ou( not foun$ else" ere in t is 2oo/! is

closel% a/in to our aut or;s #an% He&rais#s! especiall% in connection "it ? H . See p. 35. 20. * G#* t is is a slip for t e (eniti'e. T ere are ot er analo(ous slips in our aut or! " ic are &est eBplaine$ as $ue to is not a'in( a$ an opportunit% to re'ise is teBt. T us t is c apter is connecte$ &% *o annine i$io#s "it 9,! 419! 1,15! 9:91. T ere can &e no $ou&t as to t e (enuineness of t e teBt. 3. Order of Words T e or$er is Se#itic. T us t e 'er& is &efore t e su&=ect an$ o&=ect once! &efore t e su&=ect t"ice! &efore t e o&=ect fi'e ti#es. +t stan$s at t e &e(innin( of t e clause or sentence follo"e$ &% a$'er&ial p rases ele'en ti#es. 0n t e ot er an$! t e 'er& follo"s t e su&=ect (8) once! t e o&=ect (a pronoun) once. T e participle! " ere it stan$s for a finite 'er&! occurs once at t e close of a clause (15&). T ese facts are in /eepin( "it our aut or;s st%le. L#B . T e "or$ ;#B is not use$ as t e title of an% "or/ &efore t e ti#e of our Apocal%pse! t ou( it is use$ &% St. Paul eBactl% in t e sa#e sense of #inor re'elations : cf. 1 Cor. 1,:95. So far as t e "or$ itself (oes it is foun$ in Sir. 11:94! 99:99 (!$ ;#B )! ,9:1 ! " ile ;## is foun$ in A#os 3:4! ;#BM # #$+ 1 1 #$%&! in t e sense of a Ire'ealin(J of so#et in( i$$en. +n t e secon$ passa(e "e a'e an approac to t e use of t e "or$ in our teBt. +n T eo$otion;s ren$erin( of 1aniel t e 'er& ;## is use$ eBactl% in t e sense of t e noun ;#B in t e title : cf. 9:18! 99! 9-! 98! 3:! ,4! 1::1. +t appears in t e title of 9 2aruc IT e 2oo/ of t e Apocal%pse of 2aruc t e son of Aeria Jt e pu&lication of " ic "as nearl% conte#porar% "it t at of our Apocal%pse. +t si(nifies a 'ision an$ its interpretation. Else" ere in t e A.T. it is foun$ "it t e sa#e #eanin( in t e Pauline Epistles (Ro#. 15:93C 9 Cor. 19:1 C )al. 1:19! etc.). +n 1 Pet. 1:4! 13! ,:13! 7u/e 9:39! etc.! t is "or$ is not use$ in ?uite t e sa#e sense! &ut #eans rat er! #anifestation! appearance. ;#B is foun$ also in Classical )ree/ in t e sense of to la% &are! to $isclose! in Plato! Protag. 339 1! Gorg. L Septuagint.

,5: AC " ile ;#B is foun$ in Plutarc ! Paul. Aemil. 1,! Cat. Maj. 9:! uom. Adul. ab Am. 39 (;#" N$) in t e sense of a la%in( &are. T e 'er& fre?uentl% &ears t is #eanin( in 7GG! an$ t e noun once. 2ut t e special reli(ious #eanin( of ;#B in )ree/ an$ revelatio in 7atin "as un/no"n to t e eat en "orl$. ;#B "as t e title of our 2oo/ in t e 9n$ cent.: cf. <urat. i. 41 s?.: IScripta apocal%pse(s) etia# =o anis et petri tantu# recipi#us.J T at t e 2oo/ "as e'er /no"n &% t e &are ter# ;#B cannot safel% &e inferre$ fro# Tertullian! Ad!. Marc. i'. 3! or +renaeus! '. 3:. 3 ( ( = L#B G $')C for in &ot t ese passa(es t e conteBt clearl% $efines " ose apocal%pse is in ?uestion. K. 3:. 9! IPropter oc non annu#eratur tri&us aec in Apocal%psi!J "oul$ &e #ore rele'ant ereC &ut e'en t is passa(e is " oll% in$ecisi'e! since t e aut ors ip of t e Apocal%pse is state$ in '. 95. 1. 1:1 3. THE S!"ERS#RI"TION 1 3. T e Superscription! " ic sets fort (1) t e source of t e Apocal%pse! (9) its contents! an$ (3) t e &lesse$ness of t ose " o recei'e its teac in(s. (1) T ere are t ree $efinite sta(es in t e trans#ission of t is Apocal%pse fro# its source to its pu&lication. >irst it is )o$ Hi#self " o (a'e it to C rist to #a/e it /no"n unto His ser'ants D 2 ) + " F (cf. t e $eclaration of )o$ in 91:5&-)! an$ t e state#ent as to )o$;s sen$in( t e an(el! in F in 99:5. AeBt! C rist sent an$ si(nifie$ it t rou( His an(el to *o n& ;# * ; M (cf. t e $eclaration of C rist in 99:54! 15! 13! 19! 1:! 1-a). T ir$l%! *o n &are "itness to t is Apocal%pse accor$e$ &% C rist to i#! i.e.! t e "or$ of )o$ an$ t e trut atteste$ &% C rist+ ' ( = $$ ! J$, : K (cf. t e testi#on% of *o n in 99:-8! 9:91). T is correspon$ence &et"een 1:19 an$ 91:5&-! 99:591! is! t erefore! not acci$ental. 2ut if "e $esire furt er confir#ation of t e close connection of 13 "it t e 9199! "e a'e it in t e repetition &% C rist in 99:4 of t e &eatitu$e pronounce$ &% *o n in 1:3. (9) +ts contents are It e "or$ of )o$ an$ t e testi#on% of *esus C rist! e'er%t in( t at He sa".J Here t ere are t ree ele#ents correspon$in( to t e t ree a(ents #entione$ a&o'e. >irst! t ere is t e "or$ of )o$. Secon$l%! t is "or$ is atteste$ &% C rist. T ir$l%! it is seen &% *o n in 'ision. (3) T e &lesse$ness of t ose " o recei'e an$ o&ser'e its teac in(s. Here! a(ain! t ere is a t reefol$ $i'ision: &lesse$ is e t at rea$s t e# in t e pu&lic asse#&lies: &lesse$ is e t at ears t ese prop ecies: &lesse$ is e t at o&ser'es t e#. 1. ;#B ! J$ . T e (eniti'e ere is su&=ecti'e. T e re'elation is (i'en &% *esus C rist to *o n as )o$ (a'e it to Hi#. Cf. *o n 4:15! , = = D = ;* #B' ! an$ 3:33! 3:9: s??.! 95! 15:13! etc. t e title ! J$' is foun$ onl% ere an$ in 'erses 9! 3 : ! alone nine ti#esC 8$ ! t"ice (99:9:! 91)C 8$ once onl%! 1,:13C ) 8$ 2 (11:-). J$'! " en use$ alone! al"a%s as t e article (9::,! 5! L ! 11:13! 19:1:. +n t e *o annine Epistles ! J$' occurs nine ti#es! ! siB! ) J$' t ree ti#es. O D ) + . cf. A#os 3:4! = #& 8$ ) + #$- * = ;#BM # #$+ 1 1 #$%&. +n our teBt t e ser'ants! " o are )o$;s ser'ants ()! are t e C ristian prop ets. Cf. 1::4! 11:1-! 99:5. . T is "or$ is c aracteristic of our aut or " en it #eans to co##unicate a $i'ine re'elation &% #eans of 'isions. . T e $enotes not t e #erel% ast% consu##ation of t in(s! &ut t e a&solutel% sure fulfil#ent of t e $i'ine purpose. T at t is fulfil#ent "oul$ co#e IsoonJ ( : cf. 99:5C 1eut. 8:3C E.e/. 98:3 (not in <ass.)C 7u/e

1-:-C Ro#. 15:9:)! as al"a%s &een t e eBpectation of all li'in( prop ec% an$ apocal%ptic. is $ra"n fro# 1an. 9:9- ( #P 2 ,$2)! 98. F recurs in 99:5. & a *o annine "or$: cf. *o n 19:33! 1-:39! 91:18. +t is C rist t at is t e su&=ect of t e 'er& ere. ;# . Cf. 99:15! " ere C rist sent (D#B) His an(el! an$ 99:5! " ere )o$ sent (;#) His an(el. 0nce a(ain t is 'er& is use$ in '. 5. ;# H

! EB. ,:13 C <att. 11:9! #B * 2 !2 : Acts 11:3:!

;# F * $+ Q$.. 2. R $$!" $$! " ic is foun$ four ti#es an$ al"a%s "it t e acc. in our aut orfor t is is t e &est "a% of treatin( 99:1-occurs #ore fre?uentl% in t e *o annine )ospel an$ Epistles t an else" ere in t e A.T. (i.e.! 33 L 1: H ,3 ti#es). T e aorist $$! is epistolar% : t e aut or transports i#self to t e stan$point of is rea$ers. + ' ( = $$ ! $ H t e re'elation (i'en &% )o$ an$ &orne "itness to &% C rist (su&=ecti'e (eniti'e). +t #eans t e C ristian re'elation as a " ole in 1:8! 5:8! 9::,! &ut in t e present passa(e t e eBpression is li#ite$ &% t e "or$s t at follo" : Kto t e re'elation #a$e in t is 2oo/. Min$re$ eBpressions occur in 19:14! * * ( F = $$ !! an$ 18:1:! = $$ !: &ut in t e last passa(e t e p rase #a% a'e a $ifferent #eanin( in t e tra$itional teBt! an$ ! &e t e o&=ecti'e (eniti'e. T e ' is not to &e li#ite$ in our teBt to t e 0.T. +t e#&races t e entire re'elation of )o$ " ic no" in its fulness is atteste$ &% C rist. : K . T ese "or$s li#it! as "e a'e sai$! t e scope of t e t"o prece$in( p rases. 0n t e si(nificance of K in our aut or! see note on ,:1. @e s oul$ o&ser'e o" t e #inistr% of an(els (1$) an$ t e 'isions of t e Seer are ere closel% co#&ine$! as also later. 3. T is 'erse consists of a stan.a of four lines. @e a'e ere t e first of t e se!en &eatitu$es in t e Apocal%pse (1,:13! 15:13! 18:8a! 9::5! 99:4! 1,. T e last &eatitu$e! " ic is pronounce$ &% C rist an$ is (i'en in 99:4& (for t e present teBt of 9::,99 is in $isor$er)! reaffir#s t e &eatitu$e ere pronounce$ &% *o n. ) ;3 . T is is not t e pri'ate stu$ent &ut t e pu&lic rea$er! t e ;3! or lector! as t e sin(. ) ;3 as oppose$ to t e plural / ; s o"s. At t e close of t e first centur% A.1.! t e rea$er "as pro&a&l% an% suita&le person " o "as no#inate$ for t is purpose &% t e pres&%ters or presi$ent fro# a#on( t e con(re(ation. T e rea$er in ti#e ac?uire$ an official position an$ &eca#e a #e#&er of t e cler(%! an$ is first #entione$ in t is capacit% in Tertullian (De Praescr. ,1). T e &oo/s " ic "ere rea$ "ere ori(inall% t ose of t e 0.T.! as in t e s%na(o(ues! an$ after"ar$s t e &oo/s of t e A.T.! as "ell as t e su&6apostolic epistles: cf. *ustin <art%r (Apol. i. 54)! * ;#! 2 ;#' S * $ 2 #$%!2 ;3. T is practice of rea$in( at pu&lic "ors ip "as a$opte$ fro# t e *e"s: cf. Ae . -:9C EB. 9,:4C 7u/e ,:15C Acts 13:13C 9 Cor. 3:13. A#on(st t e *e"s t e Scripture lessons fro# t e 7a" an$ t e Prop ets coul$ &e rea$ &% an% #e#&er of t e con(re(ation! &ut if an% priests or 7e'ites "ere present t e% too/ prece$ence. T e earliest #ention of t e rea$in( of t e Prop ets is foun$ in 7u/e ,:14! Acts 13:13 (co#p. <e(illa i'. 13)C &ut t e% "ere not rea$ on "ee/s6$a%s nor on Sa&&at afternoon ser'ices! &ut onl% at t e c ief ser'ice &% one person (<e(illa i'. 3) on t e #ornin( of t e Sa&&at . See Sc Nrer3! ii. ,35.

/ ; ( !$ . T ese t"o participles are! as t e )ree/ s o"s! to &e ta/en closel% to(et er. T ese t"o lines t erefore repro$uce t e "or$s of C rist in 7u/e 11:9-! $ / ; + ' ( %. Cf. also *o n 19:,4! * ;M " H! ( = %M. 2ut our aut or $oes not use %! an$ replaces it "it t e fa#iliar *o annine "or$ !$. Ps. 1 represents on a lar(e scale t is co#&ination of fait ful rea$in( an$ fait ful li'in(. 1 ' T #$%! . Here as in 99:4! 1:! 1- t e Seer clai#s for is 2oo/ a place in t e forefront of prop etic literature. ) *$ $+ . T ese "or$s relate to t e &lesse$ness of t ose " o are fait ful in t e present e'il ti#eC for t e% "ill not a'e lon( to "aitC t e season of t eir $eli'erance is at an$. Cf. Ro#. 13:11C 1 Cor. 4:98! ) $+ . T e &eatitu$e! of course! is true in itself in$epen$entl% of t e ti#e of consu##ation (cf. 99:4)! &ut t e closel% i#pen$in( reco#pense is repeate$l% $"elt upon &% our aut or to encoura(e is rea$ers in t e face of uni'ersal #art%r$o#. 48. INTRO$!#TION. JOHN%S &REETIN& TO THE SEVEN #H!R#HES 4. ! G#* ! . T is is t e usual for# for &e(innin( a letter (cf. )al. 1:1! etc.). +n$ee$ t e " ole 2oo/ fro# 1:, to its close is in fact an Epistle. G#* ! E LU . T e article &efore G# refers prolepticall% to 'er. 11! " ere t ese C urc es are enu#erate$. 0t er C urc es eBiste$ at t e ti#e "it " ic t e Seer #ust a'e &een fa#iliar! suc as Colossae (Col. 1:9! 9:1)! Hierapolis (Col. ,:13)! Troas (Acts 9::3 s??.)! <a(nesia (+(natius! Ad Magn. i. 1)! Tralles (+(natius! Ad Trall. i.). @ % t e particular se'en C urc es #entione$ in 1:11 "ere c osen &% our aut or cannot no" &e $eter#ine$ (see! o"e'er! note on 1:11) C &ut t e fact t at se'en "ere c osen! an$ no #ore an$ no less! can occasion no $ifficult%. >or se'en "as a sacre$ nu#&er not onl% in *e"is Apocal%ptic an$ *u$ais# (enerall%! &ut particularl% in our Aut or : cf. 1 D,aE 19! 15! ,:3! 3:1! 5 D-:9E! 1::3! 11:13 D19:3E! 13:1! 13:5! 4! -! 15:1! 14:1! etc. E LU . Accor$in( to t e usa(e of t e <acca&ean 2oo/s (1 <acc. -:5! 11:13! 19:38! 13:39C 9 <acc. 3:3! 1::9,C 3 <acc. 3:1,C , <acc. 3:9:)! Asia e#&races t e e#pire of t e Seleuci$s. +n t e Si&%lline 0racles! iii. 15-! 3,9! 33:! 331! 333,! 354! 3-1! 3--! 381! ,3:! 388! 511! i'. 1! 41! 45! 48! 1,3! 1,-! '. 88! 11-! 9-4! etc.! t e eBtension of t e ter# 'ariesat ti#es apparentl% co#pre en$in( t e entire continent! at ot ers restricte$ to t e coast cities an$ t e lo"er 'alle%s of t e <aean$er! Ca%ster! etc. 2ut on t e transference of t e /in($o# of Attalus 3. to Ro#e! t e Ro#an pro'ince of Asia conter#inous "it t e li#its of t is /in($o# "as for#e$ in 13313: 2.C. an$ t is pro'ince "as su&se?uentl% au(#ente$ &% t e a$$ition of P r%(ia in 115 2.C. V L in t e A.T. is all &ut uni'ersall% (contrast Acts 9:8) i$entifie$ "it Proconsular Asia. $ @ ( 0$&! ;#+ ) 6 ( ) 7 ( ) $' D( ;#+ 2 G#* # 2 3# $' E. 5. ( ;#+ ! $, ) $ ) #' . +n t ese t ree lines t e secon$ is &e%on$ ?uestion an interpolation of a later an$ (pro&a&l% earl% in t e 9n$ cent.). Since 99:-8! an$ (possi&l%) 18:81: are fro# t e an$ of our aut or! e cannot a'e put for"ar$ suc a (rotes?ue Trinit% as t e a&o'e. +n t e passa(es =ust cite$ t e "ors ip of an(els (see note on 99:-) is $enounce$ in #ost forci&le ter#s! an$ fro# t e class of su&or$inate &ein(s co6or$inate "it t e se'en arc 6 an(els "e cannot eBclu$e It e se'en spirits.J T e Seer cannot t erefore a'e accor$e$ $i'ine onours to t ese se'en spirits at t e 'er% openin( of is 2oo/. <oreo'er! " en t is interpolation is re#o'e$! "e a'e t ree of t ree lines eac &e(innin( "it $ ,&! an$ en$in( 4c / %( T T. T us in ,&3a as in 3c5a onl% )o$ an$ C rist are #entione$.

4'. $ @ ( 0$&! . T ese "or$s $o not for# a #ere salutation! for t is as &een (i'en in t e prece$in( "or$s! &ut a &ene$iction fro# )o$. )race an$ peace cannot &e sai$ to e#anate fro# an(else'en fro# t e se'en arc an(els. T e $ ere is t e fa'our of )o$ an$ of *esus C rist. +t is onl% foun$ once a(ain in our aut or! i.e. in 99:91! " ere t is spiritual en$o"#ent is $eri'e$ fro# *esus C rist. See notes on $ an$ 0$&! is San$a%;s "omans! 1: s?.! 13 s?. C <illi(an! 1 T ess 1:1 T e 0$&! is t e ar#on% restore$ &et"een )o$ an$ #an t rou( C rist. +n all t e Pauline Epistles t ese are sai$ to procee$ fro# )o$ t e >at er an$ fro# *esus C rist! just as in the original te#t here. +n 1 an$ 9 Ti#ot % "e a'e t e fuller for# $, D, 0$&!. <oreo'er! in nine of t e Pauline Epistles t e p rase is eBactl% as ere! $ @ ( 0$&!! " ile in 1 an$ 9 Ti#ot % it stan$s as in t e prece$in( sentence. ;#+ ) 6 ( ) 7 ( ) $' . Cf. 1:-! ,:-! an$ ) 6 " ) 7 in 11:14! 15:3. @e a'e ere a title of )o$ concei'e$ in t e ter#s of ti#e. T e Seer as $eli&eratel% 'iolate$ t e rules of (ra##ar in or$er to preser'e t e $i'ine na#e in'iolate fro# t e c an(e " ic it "oul$ necessaril% a'e un$er(one if $ecline$. Hence t e $i'ine na#e is ere in t e no#inati'e. +t coul$ a'e &een preser'e$ in classical )ree/! i.e. ;#+ ) W. 2ut our aut or s o"s no /no"le$(e of t is construction. 2ut t ere are ot er irre(ularitiesas! for instance! ) 7. T e 7 is sai$ to a'e &een use$ &ecause t ere "as no past participle of 0. 2ut t is $oes not reall% eBplain 7 nor %et ). 2esi$es e coul$ a'e use$ ) 3 (cf. 15:14! 91:5) or ) ' (1:1-). + offer! t erefore! t e follo"in( eBplanation. 0ur aut or coul$ a'e "ritten ere ) 6 ( 7! in /eepin( "it a He&rais# " ic e fre$uentl% a'ails i#self ofC for > 6 ( 7 "oul$ &e an eBact repro$uction of t e He&re" . . . See note on 3c. Herein "e a'e a pro&a&le eBplanation of 7. +t is ar$er to eBplain t e ) " ic prece$es it. T e article ere #a% &e inserte$ &efore t e 7 since it acco#panies t e ot er t"o ele#ents in t e $i'ine na#e : ) W F ( ) $'. As for ) $'! " ere our aut or returns to t e participial construction! it is clear t at e uses $'! instea$ of '! "it a $efinite reference to t e contents of t e 2oo/ an$ especiall% to t e co#in( of C rist! 1:4! 9:3! 15! 3:9! 99:4! 19! etc.! in " ose co#in( )o$ Hi#self co#es also. 2esi$es! our aut or $oes not use t e future participle. Passin( no" fro# t e (ra##ar of t is clause to its #eanin(! "e fin$ t at t is $i'ine na#e "as co##on to &ot *e"s an$ )entiles. T us t e Tar(. *on. on EB. 3:1, (

" ! ere t e 7GG as 3 0 ) W! an$ A?uila an$ T eo$. D ORP D) as . . H IE(o su#! ?ui su# et futurus su#!J an$ 1eut. 39:38! H

IE(o su# ?ui su#! et fui! et e(o su# ?ui futurus su#.J Also S e#. ra&. iii. f. 1:3&! I1iBit 1eus F a$ <osen : E(o fui! et a$ uc su# et eo in posteru#J (t is last fro# @etstein). +n t e )ree/ "e fin$ analo(ous titles of )o$. Cf. Pausanias! B. 19. 3: for t e son(s of t e $o'es at 1o$ona! X1 7, X1 D, X1 D : in t e inscription at Sais (Plutarc ! De Iside! 8)! 3 0 #- + + ( Y ( ' ( + + ## # !2 ;#B: in t e 0rp ic lines! X1 #$2 , X1 Z ;$$, X1 %&, X1 , [+ P # . >inall%! in

Theod. Theodotion ! "ords so enclosed are restored #$ the %ditor.

reference to A ura#a.$a it is state$ in t e 2un$a is! i. , (&.'.(. '. ,)! IAharmazd an$ t e re(ion! reli(ion an$ ti#e of Aharmazd "ere an$ are an$ e'er "ill &e.J D( ;#+ 2 G#* # .E Alt ou( + a'e "it out esitation &rac/ete$ t ese "or$s as an earl% interpolation! "e #ust consi$er t e eBplanations of t ose " o a'e accepte$ t e# as fro# t e an$ of our Seer! an$ also $eal &riefl% "it t e pro&a&le ori(in of t is conception. 1. >irst of all "e a'e t e interpretation#ore or less of Kictorinus! Pri#asius! Aprin(ius! 2eatus a#on( t e earlier co##entators! an$ in #o$ern ti#es Alfor$ an$ S"ete" ic re(ar$s t e se'en spirits ere as t e se'enfol$ ener(ies of )o$ or of t e Hol% Spirit. +n support of t is 'ie" S"ete ?uotes He&. 9:,! # N $: 1 Cor. 19:1:! $ # . 1,:39! # #$%!2: Apoc. 99:5! ) + 2 # 2 #$%!2. IHere t e Qspirits; are se'en! &ecause t e C urc es in " ic t e% operate are se'enJ (S"ete). T is reason is less con'incin( t an t at a$$uce$ &% ot er supporters of t is 'ie"! " o trace t e conception of t e se'en spirits to an erroneous t ou( not unnatural interpretation of +sa. 11:9! 3! " ere&% t e siB spiritual en$o"#ents t at are to &e (i'en to t e <essia "ere transfor#e$ into se'en: cf. 1 Enoc 51:9C Tar(. *on. on t is passa(eC also t e 7GGC *ustin! Dial. -4! #P + # , # % ( , # .T ( 0, # 3 ( ., ( #& + # %'. : also 38C Cohort. ad Gentiles! 39! / /$( #$%T + \ ( + + # 0 G#* # $< %. 2ut t at "e a'e ere to $eal! not "it i#personal ener(ies &ut "it concrete &ein(s! #a% &e inferre$ fro# 3:1 of our teBt! " ere t e se'en spirits an$ t e se'en stars are re(ar$e$ as parallel conceptions. >urt er! t e scri&e " o interpolate$ ,c &et"een ,& an$ 3a #anifestl% re(ar$e$ t ese se'en spirits as #uc concrete &ein(s as )o$ an$ *esus C rist. Hence t e se'en spirits ere cannot &e interprete$ eit er as a&stractions or i#personal ener(ies. 9. T e se'en spirits are to &e i$entifie$ "it t e se'en arc an(els. *u$ais# "as fa#iliar "it se'en arc an(els: cf. E.e/. 8:9C To&. 19:13C 1 Enoc 9::4! 8::91 (It e se'en first " ite onesJ)C T. 7e'i -:9. T is nu#&er! it is sai$ (cf. )un/el! &ch)pfung und Chaos* 98,3:9C Ri##ern! in Sc ra$er;s +.A.T.3 ii. 59:595C 2ousset! Offenbarung! 1-,1-4! 981 s?.)! presupposes a reli(ion of " ic t e "ors ip of se'en (o$s "as a c aracteristic. Ao" "e fin$ suc a reli(ion in t e Ren$ "it its se'en A#s aspan$s (&.'.(. '. 1: n.C BBiii. 981C BBBi. +ntro$! pp! B'iii! BBi'! 44! 148 s?.)! " ic in t eir turn "ere $eri'e$ fro# t e 2a&%lonis cult of t e se'en star $eities.1 T e eBistence of t ese S.B.E. Sacred Books of the East (edited #$ &a' &(ller)) O'ford. *.A.T. Schrader+s Die Keilinschriften und dasalte Testament ) edited and rewritten #$ ,. -immern and ,. "inc.ler) 1/01. 1 2ewish tradition seemingl$ testifies to a certain connection #etween the great golden candlestic. with seven arms and the seven planets3 cf. 2osephus) Ant. iii. 4. 56 Bell. Jud. v. 7. 7) % P / ] G#* 1 #&3 8hilo) Quis rerum divin. haeres (ed. 9ohn)) ::1 s;.) T P $+ 2 G#* #& $ ! , /$* ( / #P T G#* . 2osephus states also that the twelve loaves of the shew#read pointed to the

astral $i'inities *u$ais# $i$ not ?uestion an% #ore t an in earlier ti#es it ?uestione$ t e eBistence of t e tri&al $eities of t e nations t at surroun$e$ +srael! &ut in t e interests of <onot eis#! *u$ais# $e(ra$e$ t ese forei(n $eities into an(elssu&=ect &ein(s in t e ser'ice of Sa "e . +n $ue ti#e t e source of t ese conceptions "as " oll% for(otten as "ell as t e istorical $e'elop#ent in'ol'e$. 7i/e is conte#poraries! t e Seer accepte$ t e tra$itional *e"is for#ula!)o$ an$ t e se'en spirits!an$ to t is for#ula appen$e$ t e specificall% C ristian ele#ent. T us accor$in( to 2ousset ori(inate$ one of t e #ost eBtraor$inar% Trinities in C ristianit%: cf. *ustin! Apol. i. 5! ?uote$ on 99:8. As furnis in( parallel trinities! 7u/e 8:95! 1 Ti#. 3:91 a'e &een a$$uce$. 2ut in neit er passa(e is t ere an% (roun$ for suc a 'ie". +t #i( t as reasona&l% &e conten$e$ t at e'er% ti#e )o$ an$ t e an(els "ere #entione$ to(et er a $ualit% of t e )o$ ea$ "as in'ol'e$. Ao"! if "e i$entif% It e se'en spiritsJ an$ t e se'en arc an(els! it is inconcei'a&le t at t e Seer! " o issue$ so e#p atic a pole#ic a(ainst an(el "ors ip! coul$ a'e inserte$ suc a clause as ,c &et"een ,& an$ 3a. 3. T e se'en spirits an$ t e se'en arc an(els are not i$entical in t e #in$ of t e Seer! accor$in( to 2ousset (on -:9) an$ ot ers. @ et er t is is so or not $oes not affect t e ?uestion of t e ori(inalit% of ,c. >or " ate'er &e t e $i(nit% possesse$ &% t e se'en spirits! t e% "ere after all #erel% create$ &ein(s in t e opinion of t e Seer! an$ coul$ not t erefore &e put &% i# on a le'el "it )o$ an$ *esus C rist or represente$ as fittin( o&=ects for #an;s "ors ip. 2ut! t ou( ,c is $ue to t e an$ of an interpolator! t e p rase * G#* # in 3:1! ) D * G#* # ( 1 G#* ;$! is a re$actional a$$ition of our Seer. +t is t erefore our tas/ to $efine! if possi&le! t e nature of t ese spirits. Ao" t e con=unction of t e # an$ t e ;$ in 3:1 su((ests t at t e% are to so#e eBtent /in$re$ conceptions. 2ut t is $oes not ta/e us far! unless "e can (ain so#e $efinite i$ea of t e #eanin( of &ot ;$ an$ # in our aut or. Happil% t is "e can $o in part. >irst! in 1:9: t e G#* ;$ are $efinitel% state$ to &e t e ^ 2 G#* !2! an$ C rist is sai$ to ol$ t ese ;$! i.e. ^! in His ri( t an$ in 1:15: t at is! to a'e supre#e aut orit% o'er t e#. Hence in 3:1 t e se'en # of )o$ an$ t e se'en ^ of t e C urc es are con=oine$! as apparentl% /in$re$ conceptions. @e #i( t ere for a #o#ent turn asi$e to o&ser'e t at in 9 Enoc 3::1, an(els are spo/en of as stars! in 1 Enoc ,1:3! 4 t e stars a'e a conscious eBistence! an$ ence are capa&le of $iso&e$ience! 1-:1315! 91:15! " ile in -5:1! 3 starts are use$ to s%#&oli.e an(els. So #uc for t e ;$. Ao" as to #. 0'er t ese also C rist as supre#e aut orit%! 3:1. +n 3:5 t ese # are i$entifie$ "it t e se'en e%es " ic are sent fort unto all t e eart ! an$ in ,:3 "it t e se'en fier% la#ps t at &urn &efore t e t rone of )o$. +n t e for#er passa(e t e% are o&'iousl% concei'e$ as a'in( a personal eBistence. As t e ser'ants of t e 7a#& t e% are $escri&e$ as His e%es. T at t e la#ps an$ t e e%es are i$entical is clear fro# our teBt fro# Rec . ,:1: " ere! in t e 'ision " ic our Seer as in 'ie"! it is sai$ It ese se'en (la#ps) are t e e%es of t e 7or$! t e% run to an$ fro t rou( t e " ole eart .J >ro# t e a&o'e eBa#ination it #a% &e conclu$e$ t at t e # are an(elic &ein(s. +n *u&. 9:9 t e c ief or$ers of spirits are calle$ an(els: cf. He&. 1:4! 1,. @ et er t ese se'en spirits are to &e i$entifie$ "it t e se'en arc an(els cannot &e inferre$ "it certaint%! &ut t is i$entification #a% &e re(ar$e$ as i( l% pro&a&leC since t ere&% twelve signs of the <odiac3 Bell. Jud. v. 7. 7. 8ossi#l$ these are merel$ after= thoughts of #oth 2osephus and 8hilo.

C rist;s so'erei(nt% is asserte$ o'er t e i( est or$er of t e an(els! as it is else" ere $eclare$ &% t e Seer to &e para#ount o'er all creation. 3# $' . Cf. ,:3! 5! 1:! 4:8! etc. 5. ;#+ ! J$ . Since ,c is an interpolation! t e (race an$ peace procee$ fro# )o$ an$ C rist as in t e Pauline Epistles. +n 9 *o n 3 "e fin$ #$ instea$ of ;#' in a li/e conteBt. T is is t e last passa(e " ere t e title ! J$' occurs. >ro# t is on"ar$ ! stan$s alone sa'e in 99:9:! 91! " ere "e a'e $ !. ) $ ) #' . Cf. 3:1,C also 9:13. T is ano#al%! " ic recurs not infre?uentl%cf. 9:13! 9:! 3:19! 8:1,! 1,:19! 1,! 9::9! is &est eBplaine$ as a He&rais#. Since t e He&re" noun in t e in$irect cases is not inflecte$! t e Seer acts at ti#es as if t e )ree/ "ere si#ilarl% uninflecte$! an$ si#pl% places! as in t e present instance! t e no#inati'e in apposition to t e (eniti'eC i.e. ) $ in apposition to ! J$. @e a'e ere a fre?uent solecis# in our aut or. @ ile it is foun$ occasionall% in t e 7GG! as #i( t &e eBpecte$ in a translation fro# Se#itic (cf. E.e/. 93:19C Rep . 1:19)! it is ere al#ost a c aracteristic construction: cf. 9:13! 9:! 3:19! 4:,! -:8! 8:1,! 1,:19! 1,! 9::9. T e participle is also put in t e no#inati'e " en t e nor#al construction "oul$ &e t e (en. or acc. Cf. 9:9:! 3:19. $ appears onl% ere an$ in 3:1, in t e A.T. in reference to C rist. C rist is ere concei'e$ not in a li#ite$ sense in reference to His eart l% life or t e present Apocal%pse! &ut as t e true "itness of e'er% $i'ine re'elation (so 1Nster$iec/! 2ousset! an$ ot ers). Cf. *o n 1-:34! 0 & 0 + ' _ $$& E ;!U. T e p rase ) $ ) #'! " en ta/en in connection "it t e "or$s t at follo"! ) #$ ' F 2 . T T! furnis es stron( e'i$ence t at our aut or a$ Ps. -8 in is #in$C for t e for#er p rase is foun$ in 3-! " ere t e #oon is sai$ to &e . ( 7GG! ) $1 $ #')! an$ t e latter in 9-! ;` #$' ( ) & '! @B!+ #$* . T T. Here our aut or appears to a'e a$ t e 7GG &efore i#. T is passa(e is (i'en a <essianic reference &% R. Aat an in S e#. ra&. 18! fol. 11-,. As + #a$e *aco& a first&orn! so also "ill + #a/e Min( <essia a first&orn (Ps. -8:9-). T us It e first&ornJ &eca#e a <essianic title (see 7i( tfoot! Col. i. 13). ) #$ ' 2 $2 . See prece$in( note on Ps. -8:9-. +n Col. 1:1- "e a'e : ;$&, #$ ' 2 $2! an$ in 1 Cor. 13:9:! &$ $2 ;#$= 2 ! . +n t ese Pauline passa(es C rist;s resurrection is un$ou&te$l% referre$ to! " ic carries "it it His clai# to ea$s ip of t e C urc ! as in Col. 1:13 #$ ' #! i#plies His clai# to ea$s ip o'er all creation &% 'irtue of His pri#o(eniture. 2ut t e sense of &ein( first in point of ti#e appears in certain passa(es to &e $isplace$ " oll% &% t e secon$ar% i$ea of So'erei(nt%. T us in He&. 19:93 t e p rase ! #$ ' e#p " oll% t is latter i$ea. E'en )o$ Hi#self "as calle$ ( H #$ ' '). (See 7i( tfoot on Col. 1:13.) 0ur present conteBt appears to re?uire t e secon$ar% #eanin( of #$ '! an$ accor$in(l% C rist is ere sai$ to &e It e true "itness of )o$! t e so!ereign of t e $ea$! t e ruler of t e li'in(J (i.e. t e /in(s of t e eart an$ t eir su&=ects). See note on 3:1,. ) ^$ 2 . T T . Cf. Ps. -8:9-C also +sa. 33:,. 1 >n 8s. 7734) ?avid is given as a witness ( ) to the nations.

5(6. @e a'e ere t e secon$ of t e t ree " ic co#pose ,&4. T e secon$ line is to &e ta/en as for#in( a perfect parallelis# "it t e firstC for in t e ;#2 F ( #! "e a'e a pure He&rais#! in " ic t e participle of t e first line is resol'e$ into a finite 'er& in t e secon$. T is secon$ line is t erefore no parent esis! nor fro# t e stan$point of t e Seer is t ere t e sli( test irre(ularit% in t e construction. He is si#pl% repro$ucin( a co##on He&re" i$io# literall% in )ree/. T e A .K.! t e S%riac an$ 7atin 'ersions are ere! t erefore! ri( t! an$ t e R.K. is "ron( "ron( as a translation an$ &a$ as a piece of En(lis . Hence "e are to translate! ITo Hi# t at lo'et us F an$ at #a$e us.J T is He&re" i$io# recurs fre?uentl% in our aut or (1:1-! 9:9! 8! 9:! 3:8! 4:1, (see note)! 1,:93! 13:3)! an$ in none of t e instances as it &een reco(ni.e$ as suc &% an% co##entator. T is He&re" i$io# as &eco#e so naturali.e$ in our aut or;s st%le t at + cannot &ut re(ar$ t e _ in 9::,! 2 ## F ( _ #$!! as an a$$ition &% *o n;s literar% eBecutor in or$er to #a/e t e teBt &etter )ree/. *o n;s "or$s "ere #ost pro&a&l% " ## F ( #$!. +n 1:- t e failure to reco(ni.e t is i$io# as le$ #ost sc olars to #ispunctuate t e teBt! an$ t e rest! li/e @ell ausen an$ Haussleiter! to eBcise ) <2. T e 3 0 F ) <2 is to &e ta/en closel% "it ( '! $' (cf. A#os 5:3 for t is He&re" construction) H + a# F He t at li'et an$ "as $ea$.J Hence t e first t"o lines H

. . . .

;#2 ,- ( . As S"ete "ell re#ar/s! t e t"o participles &rin( out It e contrast &et"een t e a&i$in( ;#! an$ t e co#plete$ act of re$e#ption.J ,- . T is is &% far t e &est atteste$ rea$in(. @it t e i$ea in "e #i( t co#pare t e so#e" at /in$re$ ;$< in 3:8C t e Pauline $<! )al. 3:13! ,:3C ;#$ ! Ro#. 3:9,! -:93C 1 Cor. 1:3:C Ep . 1:4! ,:3:C Col. 1:1,. T e "ea/l% atteste$ rea$in( F ;#' is not reall% supporte$ &% 4:1,! D# * * 2 F _ ;$! an$ 99:1,! t ou( t ese passa(es a'e &een &rou( t for"ar$ in fa'our of it. >or! " ereas t ese t"o passa(es eBpress #an;s o"n action in t e "or/in( out is o"n sal'ation! t e F ;#' $enotes )o$;s part in #an;s sal'ation! i.e. is $eli'erance fro# sin &% C rist. At t e sa#e ti#e it is to &e o&ser'e$ t at t is #etap or is a fa#iliar one in t e A.T. in t is connection: cf. 1 Cor. 5:11C Ep . 3:95C Tit. 3:3C He&. 1::99. S"ete aptl% co#pares Plato! Crat. ,:3 2! " ere t e t"o 'er&s are &rou( t to(et er in a si#ilar connection! ) $ + ( ) ;# ( ;# 2 2 a b a!C @H eBplain t e corruption of into as I$ue to failure to un$erstan$ t e He&raic use of to $enote a price F an$ a natural #isapplication of 4:1,.J _ . Here as in 3:8 $enotes t e price &% #eans of " ic a t in( is &ou( t: cf. 1 C ron. 91:9,. 6. ( #! . As "e a'e s o"n in t e note on 3c5 a&o'e! t is is a He&rais# for ( #&. C rist not onl% $eli'ers #en fro# sint e ne(ati'e si$e&ut also #a/es t e# a /in($o# an$ priests. A.@. Authori<ed @ersion. A.@. Aevised @ersion. ", "estcott and ,ort) The N.T. in Greek.

., /$ . T ese "or$s (o &ac/ to EB. 18:5! . T is t e 7GG ren$ers . /$ (see 1 Pet. 9:8)C A?uila! . /$ : S%##ac us an$ T eo$otion! . /$. T e last ren$erin( is t at of our teBt an$ presupposes . T is last rea$in( is in part supporte$ &% *u&. 15:1-! " ic (i'es Ia /in($o# an$ priestsJC so also t e S%ria 'ersion of EB. 18:5. @it t is last "e #a% co#pare t e *er. Tar(. on EB. 18:5! I/in(s F an$ F priests!J an$ 0n/elos! I/in(s! priests.J +t is clear t at our teBt presupposes t e sa#e teBt as S%##ac us an$ T eo$otion. 0ur teBt t en #eans t at C rist as #a$e us a /in($o#! eac #e#&er of " ic is a priest unto )o$. T e /in(s ip ere in'ol'e$ "as to &e an e'erlastin( possession (99:3). 0f t e li/e $uration of t e priest oo$ not in( is sai$ in t e closin( c apters. As respects t e priest oo$! t e pri'ile(es of ancient +srael a'e passe$ o'er to t e C ristian C urc . E'en to pre6C ristian *u$ais# it "as foretol$ t at all true +sraelites "oul$ &eco#e in a certain sense priestspriests as co#pare$ "it t e nations t at ser'e$ t e#. IAn$ stran(ers s all fee$ %our floc/s! an$ aliens s all &e %our plo"#en F &ut %e s all &e na#e$ t e priests of t e 7or$: #en s all call %ou t e #inisters of our )o$J (+sa. 51:3 5). 2ut t at t is (eneral priest oo$ of +srael as re(ar$s t e eat en nations "as not to superse$e t e special #inistries of priests an$ 7e'ites in t e re$ee#e$ +srael is clear fro# 55:91: IAn$ of t e# "ill + ta/e for priests for 7e'ites! sait t e 7or$.J 2ut in t e spiritual /in($o# of C rist no suc $istinction is reco(ni.e$: all t e fait ful are alrea$% /in(s an$ priests to )o$ (1:5). 0n t e ot er an$! " en t e <essianic /in($o# is esta&lis e$ t e (lorifie$ #art%rs "ill in a special sense &e /in(s an$ priestsC for in t at /in($o# t e priest oo$ an$ /in(s ip of t e (lorifie$ #art%rs "ill co#e into actual #anifestation relati'el% to t e eat en nations! " o "ill t en &e e'an(eli.e$ &% t e# (9::5). D /$ ( J$ ( . P * D!. 2ut t is special an$ li#ite$ priest oo$ an$ /in(s ip &elon( onl% to t e <essianic /in($o#. +t s oul$ &e o&ser'e$ in t is connection t at! alt ou( all t e fait ful "ere to &eco#e /in(s an$ priests! it is ne'er i#plie$ t at t e% s oul$ li/e"ise &eco#e prop ets. T e prop etic office #a% a'e &een concei'e$ &% our aut or in a li#ite$ sense an$ as &esto"e$ on a li#ite$ class of #en for a special purpose. @ en t is purpose "as once ac ie'e$! t e prop etic (ift #a% in is 'ie" &e no lon(er necessar%. After t e final =u$(#ent t e li#ite$ /in(s ip an$ priest oo$ of the mart%rs "ill &e succee$e$ &% an eternal /in(s ip of all the faithful: 99:3! . 0 " 02 " 03 . 2ut t e special priestl% office "ill no #ore eBistC an$ so far as t e priestl% &lessin( is (i'en! it "ill &e (i'en &% )o$ Hi#self: 99:3! $ ) + % #P (see note in loc.). ( #$( . T e is to &e ta/en "it as "ell as "it #$. , ' ( + $ ! i.e. ;#2 . Si#ilar $oBolo(ies a$$resse$ to C rist are to &e foun$ in 3:13! 4:1:! 9 Pet. 3:1-! an$ #ost pro&a&l% in 9 Ti#. ,:1-! He&. 13:91! an$ possi&l% in 1 Pet. ,:11. +n , <acc. 1-:9, "e a'e a (oo$ parallel in $iction! as c , ' 0 1 02 2 03 : in t e 1i$ac e 'iii. 9! B. 3! : , ( , ' 0 1 02! at t e conclusion of t e 7or$;s Pra%ert e $oBolo(% in <att. 5:13 not &ein( ori(inal! &ut a$opte$! accor$in( to Hort! into so#e for#s of t e teBt t rou( litur(ical use in S%ria as earl% as t e 9n$ centur%. 1 C ron. 98:11! IT ine! 0 7or$! is t e (reatness an$ t e po"er an$ t e (lor%!J appears to &e t e ori(inal source of #ost of t e $oBolo(ies of later ti#es. See C ase! ,ord-s Pra%er in the (arl% Church! 15- s??.

78. T e prop et;s t ou( t is carrie$ for"ar$ to t e Secon$ A$'ent of C rist in (lor% (4). +t #ust &e confesse$ t at - as no o&'ious lin/s "it " at prece$es or follo"s. 7. Here a(ain "e a'e a stan.a of t ree lines" ic are a re#iniscence an$ an a$aptation of 1an. 4:13 an$ Rec . 19:1:. +n &ot cases! as "e s all see! t e teBt presuppose$ &% our aut or is #ainl% t at presuppose$ &% T eo$otion;s 'ersionC &ut t eir co#&ination ere is &est eBplaine$ as $ue to our aut or;s ac?uaintance "it t e *e"is C ristian Apocal%pse! " ic as &een "or/e$ into t e teBt of <att. 9,. ( H <ar/ 13. H 7u/e 91.)! an$ " ic in <att. 9,:3: represents t is co#&ination as alrea$% ac ie'e$ (see &elo"). 2ut not onl% $oes our teBt a(ree in co#&inin( Rec . 19:1: an$ 1an. 4:13! &ut also in transfor#in( t e ori(inal #eanin( of Rec . 19:1:. T us! " ereas in t e 0.T. teBt It e% s all #ourn for i#!J in <att. 9,:3: an$ in our teBt It e tri&es of t e eart s all #ourn (for t e#sel'es) &ecause of Hi#J (#P ' o#itte$ in <att.). T e fulfil#ent of t is prop ec% of t e 'isi&le an$ 'ictorious return of C rist "it a 'ie" to =u$(#ent is $ealt "it in t e 'ision of t e Seer in 1,:1,! 1-9:! in 18:1191! an$ #ost pro&a&l% in 9::41:. . 01 D$ * 2 %2 . Cf. 1an. 4:13! . ! eo$otion ren$ers ( 01 * (7GG! # H : cf. 1,:1, s??.C <att. 9,:3:! 95:5,C 1i$ac e 15:- (# )! *ustin! Apol. i. 31 s?. (# )

. . . . Here T

C H < !ar/ 13:95C 7u/e 91:94: cf. 1al#an! Words of .esus! 9,9)! 2ut t e # in 1,:1, of our teBt is $ue to our aut or;s use of & in t is connection) 2 2 $ ? /+ ;$3# $' (7GG! d$). Cf. <ar/ 1,:59! + /+ ;$3# F $' * 2 %2 $: , E.ra 13:3. +t $oes not necessaril% follo" fro# t e a&o'e t at our aut or use$ an earl% translation si#ilar in c aracter to t at of t e later T eo$otion! &ut t at t e Se#itic teBt e follo"e$ "as suc as t at follo"e$ &% T eo$otion. D$ . T e i$ea of t e i#pen$in( A$'ent is resu#e$ in 3:11! 1,:4! 15:13! 99:4! 19! 9:. AB + ( ! ( 'B #P + #- / %( T T . T ese "or$s! "it t e eBception of t e last four! are &ase$ on Rec . 19:1: an$ a(ree for t e #ost part "it t e 'ersions of T eo$otion! A?uila! an$ S%##ac us a(ainst t e 7GG. T e 7GG rea$s ( #.B #$+ , ;P e $& ( H

) ( 'B #P '. T eo$. an$ A?uila! ( #.B #$+ , 0 R (1 c! A?uila) ! ( 'B '. S%##ac us! D#$

#! . Here t e t ree latter translators support t e <assoretic & % !. +t is a ?uestion " et er our aut or use$ an earl% )ree/ 'ersiont e parent of T eo$otion;s an$ ot ersor " et er e translate$ $irectl% fro# t e He&re". T e e'i$ence on t e " ole is in fa'our of is translatin( $irectl% fro# t e He&re". His use of !1 #ar/s is in$epen$ence of t e 7GGC an$ t e fact t at is t e stoc/ ren$erin( in t e 'ersions of ! s o"s t at our aut or;s use of t is 'er& cannot &e a$'ance$ as e'i$ence for is $epen$ence on an% )ree/ translation ere. @ ilst t ere is t us no trust"ort % e'i$ence of is $epen$ence! t ere is so#e e'i$ence of is in$epen$ence of all t e 'ersions. T is "e fin$ in AB '! " ere t e 1 >n 2ustin) Apol. i. 7:) we find) 'B %& #$+ %&, ( ' AB 0 Y !3 Dial. 14) 1:6 44) #3 0 R &3 1:4) The reference in all these passages is eschatological.

'ersions a'e #.B #$+ . 0ur aut or! it is true! $oes not use #.#! &ut e uses .# fre?uentl% in t e sense re?uire$ ere. <oreo'er! t e last "or$s! #- / %( T T (foun$ also in <att. 9,:3:)! are a free a$aptation of t e He&re" in Rec . 19:19 " ere t e 7GG (i'es t e literal ren$erin(! , T * %* %. +t is note"ort % t at in *o n 18:34! t e passa(e in Rec aria is ren$ere$ in a "a% closel% a/in to t at in our teBt AB 0 R !. 2ut! " ereas our aut or applies t e prop ec% to t e " ole "orl$! t e >ourt )ospel! li#its to t e four sol$iers It e loo/in(J to Hi# " o# t e% a$ pierce$. A&&ott (.ohannine Gram.! p. 9,4) "rites: IT e% loo/ to Hi# no" in a#a.e#entC t e% "ill loo/ to Hi# for for(i'eness an$ sal'ation.J +n t e )ospel t e #ain reference is to t e crucifiBion: " ereas in our aut or it is esc atolo(ical. +n <att. 9,:3: "e a'e an analo(ous co#&ination of t e passa(es in 1aniel an$ Rec aria to t at in our teBt! ( ' %& + ! / ;$3# $ ( ' 'B #- / %( T T ( AB + /+ ;$3# $' #( " %2. Here! as in our teBt! t e reference is esc atolo(ical. S"ete "rites t at &ot )ospel an$ Apocal%pse I"ere in$e&te$ F per aps to so#e collection of prop etic testi#onies.J T is is a (oo$ su((estion! &ut t e eBplanation is! + &elie'e! to &e foun$ else" ere. A lar(e &o$% of sc olars are a(ree$ t at in <att. 9,. (as in t e parallel c apters in <ar/ an$ 7u/e) t ere are t"o $istinct apocal%pses "or/e$ to(et er. 0ne of t ese is fro# our 7or$! 9,:,3! 81,! 9393! 39 s??.! " ile t e ot er is a later *e"is C ristian Apocal%pse consistin( of 9,:5-! 1399! 9831! 3,! 33 (see #% (schatolog%9! 3483-3). Ao" t e close parallelis# of our teBt! 1:4 an$ <att. 9,:3: (o&ser'e use of AB in &ot ! as "ell as t e p rase #- / %( T Tuni?ue as re(ar$s t e A.T. an$ t e 7GG)! presupposes so#e real connectionC an$ since t e *e"is Apocal%pse =ust referre$ to "as "ritten &efore 4: A.1.! it is reasona&le to conclu$e t at t e in$e&te$ness lies on t e si$e of our aut or! an$ t at <att. 9,:3: first su((este$ to i# t e co#&ination of Rec . an$ 1aniel! t ou( t e $iction is #ainl% is o"n! an$ $ue to is in$epen$ent translation of t e 0.T. passa(esC for e /eeps #ore closel% to 1aniel an$ Rec aria an$ repro$uces t eir teBt #ore full%. , ;& . @e a'e ere t e )ree/ an$ He&re" for#s of affir#ation si$e &% si$e a fact " ic "oul$ te#pt us to ta/e t e# as s%non%#ous! as in ;..* ) #&$ in <ar/ 1,:35. 2ut t is $oes not appear to &e so ere. An$ %et it is ar$ to &rin( out t e $istinction. +n our aut or ;& is use$ (a) at t e close of one;s o"n $oBolo(% or pra%er: 1:5! 4:19 (ad fin.). (b) +t is use$ for t e purpose of a$optin( as one;s o"n " at as =ust &een sai$: 3:1,! 4:19 (ad init.)! 18:,! 99:9:. (c) +t is use$ at t e close of a sole#n affir#ation: 1:4 (, ;&). (d) +t is use$ as a $esi(nation of C rist: 3:1,! ) L&. Here C rist is represente$ as t e personali.e$ $i'ine A#en! t e (uarantor in person of t e trut $eclare$ &% Hi#! Cf. +sa. 53:15! . ! I)o$ of t e A#en!J " ic ! o"e'er! is &% t e &est critics e#en$e$ into H I)o$ of trut .J T e #eanin( of in t is conteBt is $ifficult to $eter#ine. +t occurs four ti#es in all. +n 99:9: it $enotes a $i'ine pro#ise! " ere t e ;& eBpresses t e trustful acceptance of t is pro#ise (cf. 9 Cor. 1:9:). +n 1,:13! 15:4! it is use$ to confir# " at as =ust &een sai$ of t e ea'enl% 'oice. 2ut in 1,:13 it coul$ &e ta/en as t e affir#ation of a pro#ise &% t e Spirit: ISeain t at t e% s all rest!J etc. +f 1,:13 is to &e ta/en as =ust su((este$! t en! since 15:4 is not fro# our aut or;s an$! it "oul$ follo" t at in our aut or IeBpresses!J as Hort sa%s! Iaffir#ation or reaffir#ation $i'ine or u#an!J an$ t at t e% are ere purposel% co#&ine$ to eBpress t e sa#e i$eas as in 99:9:! I+t is so! a#en.J 8. T e Spea/er is )o$.

+ f% ( + g5 . T is is a natural s%#&ol for t e first an$ last of all t in(s. +t "as /no"n a#on( t e Ro#ans: cf. <artial! '. 95. A#on( t e later *e"s t e " ole eBtent of a t in( "as often $enote$ &% t e first an$ last letters of t e alp a&et! . T us (Sc oett(en! /or. /eb. in loc.) A$a# trans(resse$ t e " ole la" fro# alep to tau (.al0ut "ub. f. 14:,)C A&ra a# o&ser'e$ t e " ole la" fro# alep to tau (f. ,-:,)C " en )o$ &lesses +srael! He $oes it fro# alep to tau (f. 19-:3). +t represente$ t e entiret% of t in(s! an$ t us coul$ fitl% eBpress t e S e/ina ! Sc oett(en! i. 1:-5. Hence it is not i#pro&a&le t at IAlp a an$ 0#e(aJ is a )ree/ ren$erin( of a correspon$in( He&re" eBpression. T e t ou( t con'e%e$ &% t is title is essentiall% t at of +sa. ,,:5: + h.3i ` #$2 ( ` * ( # . "

# : cf. ,1:,! ,3:1:).

$ ) ' ) #$ $ ( H ! "Hos. 19:5C A#os 8:3). A fa'ourite title in our aut or: cf. ,:-! 11:14! 13:3 D15:4E! 18:5! 91:99. +n ,:- (cf. 11:14) "e a'e t e entire passa(e! $ ) + ) 6 ( + 7 ( ) $' ) #$ $! sa'e t at t e ) #$ $ prece$es t e ) W" ) #$ $ is not foun$ in t e A.T. outsi$e our aut or sa'e in 9 Cor. 5:1- in a ?uotation. ) 6 ( ) 7 . See note on 1:,. 920. JOHN%S #ALL AN$ #O))ISION. HIS VISION OF THE SON OF )AN *RISEN AN$ &LORIFIE$ 9. j` ! . Cf. 99:-C 1an. 4:13! 9-! -:1! 8:9 (` [&)C , E.ra 3:1C 1 Enoc 19:3! etc. T e insertion of t e na#e is re?uire$ after -. ) ;%+ @2 ( + . T e a&sence of t e article &efore t e secon$ noun s o"s t at t e t"o nouns are to &e ta/en closel% to(et er. Cf. 5:11! / 2 ( / ;%( 2 / ;# ? ( : 19:1:. Here! as in its pa(an use! ;%' #eans a fello"6#e#&er in t e sa#e reli(ious societ%. @it ) ;%+ @2 cf. 9 Pet. 3:13! ) ;#!+ ,2 ;%+ 9. @it ' cf. in 1-:,C an$ for after ' cf. <att. 93:3:. >ello"s ip in sufferin( naturall% "as an essential #ar/ of earl% C ristianit%. Cf. 9 Cor. 1:4! 2 #! : P il. 3:1:! 2 #! : ,:1,! & E B. E B ( .U ( @#E ! . T e B ere is t e tri&ulation of t e last ti#e: cf. 4:1,! T B T !. +t is t e sa#e as t e T k$ #$ T '! D$ #( T 0! :! in 3:1:. T is last (reat tri&ulation necessaril% prece$es t e <illennial Min($o# ence ( .U: &ut to a'e part in t e /in($o# fait ful en$urance t rou( out t e tri&ulation is necessar% ence ( @#E: cf. 9:9! 3! 18! 3:1:! 13:1:! 1,:19. @#& &ein( t e spiritual alc e#%! " ic trans#utes t ose " o s are in t e B into #e#&ers of t e .! can onl% ac ie'e its en$ in fello"s ip "it *esus ( !)a Pauline conception " ic recurs in 1,:13! &ut is set fort un$er anot er fi(ure in 3:9:! ;M T % T ( ;M = $, 0 #$+ + ( #& P ( + P . +t is a ?uestion " et er ! s oul$ &e connecte$ "it all t ree nouns or "it @#& onl%. Pro&a&l% t e latter is &est: cf. 9 T ess. 3:3! = @#= J$! t ou( t e i$ea ere is so#e" at $ifferent. '! H I+ foun$ #%self in.J @e #i( t conclu$e fro# t is clause t at " en e "rote e "as no lon(er in Pat#os. Pat#os "as one of t e Spora$es! a &arren roc/% islan$ a&out ten #iles lon( an$ fi'e "i$e. +t is first #entione$ &% T uc%$i$es! iii. 33! an$ later &% Stra&o! B. 3. 13! an$ Plin%! /.1. i'. 19. 93! t e last of " o# states t at it "as use$ as a penal settle#ent &% t e Ro#ans! as "ere ot er islan$s! i.e. Pontia! off t e

coast of 7atiu#! to " ic 1o#itian &anis e$ >la'ia 1o#itilla (Euse&. /.(. iii. 1-. 3)! an$ )%ara an$ Serip us in t e Ae(ean (see (nc%c. 'ib. iii. 35:3). * + ' ( = $$ ! . T ese "or$s $efine t e (roun$ for is presence to Pat#os! i.e. is preac in( of t e )ospel an$ is lo%alt% to it in a ti#e of tri&ulation. T e p rase " ' " ( " $$ . ere (i'e t e contents of is preac in(! " ereas in 9 t e% $escri&e t e Apocal%pse itself: cf. : K. +t as &een ur(e$ &% #an% sc olars t at *o n a$ (one to Pat#os for t e purpose of recei'in( t is re'elation! i.e. t at #entione$ in 9. 2ut t is interpretation appears to &e ina$#issi&le on se'eral (roun$s. 1. +n our aut or ne'er #eans Ifor t e sa/e ofJ ( H l) recei'in( t e "or$ of )o$! etc.! &ut I&ecause of!J Iin conse?uence ofJ t e "or$ of )o$ " ic e a$ preac e$. +n ot er "or$s! $enotes t e (roun$ an$ not t e purpose in t is 2oo/: cf. 9:3! ,:9! 5:8! 4:13! 19:11! 19! 13:1,! etc. 9. +n t"o Passa(es our aut or spea/s of $eat &% persecution in connection "it t ese 'er% p rases! i.e. 5:8! % * " ' " ( * " $$! an$ a(ain in 9::,. T ese passa(es in t e#sel'es in$icate t e interpretation to &e a$opte$ in t e present passa(e. 3. T e fact t at our aut or as =ust $escri&e$ i#self as + E B F ( @#E su((ests t at e as in a specialan$ not in an% or$inar%#anner suffere$ for t e fait . +f e suffere$ no #ore t an t e a'era(e C ristian! it is not in /eepin( "it is reticence as to i#self t at e s oul$ la% e#p asis on " at after all "as t e co##on lot of t e fait ful. ,. An earl% tra$ition! in itself not unifor# nor ?uite cre$i&le in its $etails! testifies to t e &anis #ent of *o n to Pat#os. Cf. Tert. De Praescript. 35! IApostolus +oannes F in insula# rele(aturJC Cle#. AleB. uis di!es! ,9! #= *$ $ & ;#+ T 9 T & T #( = m%: 0ri(en! In Matt. t. B'i. 5! ) ] n ., ? , #$ , + ! $$ * + T ;! ' 0 9 = T. +f "e co#&ine t is tra$ition "it t e fact cite$ a&o'e t at Pat#os "as a penal settle#ent (Plin%! /.1. i'. 19. 93)! as "ell as 1! 9! an$ 3! t e e'i$ence for *o n;s eBile is a$e?uate. T ere is no =ust (roun$ for t e su((estion t at t e tra$ition arose as an ela&oration of t e present passa(e. 10. '! # . Aot #erel% I+ "as in!J &ut I+ fell into.J T ese "or$s $enote t e ecstatic con$ition into " ic t e Seer as fallen! =ust as G ' (Acts 19:11) $escri&e t e return to t e nor#al con$ition. @e a'e e?ui'alent p rases in Acts 11:3! K an$ 99:14! . Apart fro# eBtraor$inar% ecstatic eBperiences! all C ristians coul$ &e sai$ to &e K # (Ro#. -:8) as oppose$ to t e fait less! " o "ere $. +n t is passa(e! t en! '! # $enotes not in( #ore t an t at t e Seer fell into a trance. +t "as not until e "as in t is trance t at C rist a$$resse$ i#. 2ut in ,:9 (see note)! " ere t is p rase recurs! if t e teBt is ri( t! it #ust #ean so#et in( #ore! since t e Seer is alrea$% in a trance. E $E ,$U . T is is t e first place in C ristian literature " ere t e 7or$;s 1a% is #entione$. So#e sc olars a'e propose$ to ta/e t is p rase as #eanin( Iin t e $a% of t e 7or$!J i.e. It e $a% of Sa "e !J t e $a% of =u$(#entin t e 7GG! , ,$ $! an$ else" ere in our teBt! , ,$ , !! 5:14! 15:1,. +t is sufficient to #ention t is interpretation an$ pass on to t e (enerall% accepte$ an$! in t e opinion of t e present "riter! t e ri( t interpretation! " ic ta/es t ese "or$s to #ean Ion t e 7or$;s $a%!J i.e. t e $a% consecrate$ to t e 7or$. @e #i( t co#pare an analo(ous p rase in 1 Cor. 11:9:! D $+ # %. +n t e 9n$ cent. @e a'e t e follo"in( un$ispute$ testi#onies to t e use of t is p rase for Sun$a%: L Septuagint.

1i$ac e Bi'. 1! * $= ] $ ^$: E'an( Petri! 33! #% , $&: ib. 3:! A$$ ] T $T: +(natius! Ad Magn. iB. 1! ! ..< ;* * $= <2, o ( , < = ,2 ;: <elito of Sar$ist e title of one of is "ritin(s! #$( $T! preser'e$ in Euse&. /.(. i'. 95. 9. Here I7or$;s 1a%J as &eco#e a tec nical $esi(nation of Sun$a%. Since all t ese "ritin(s e#anate fro# Asia <inor! t e ter# #a% first a'e arisen t ere! &ut t at it "as in (eneral use &efore t e close of t e 9n$ cent. #a% &e inferre$ fro# t e state#ent of 1ion%sius of Corint in Euse&. /.(. i'. 93. 9! = &$ I $= N ,$ !: Cle#. AleB. &trom. 'ii. 19C Tert. De Cor. iii.! I1ie $o#inico =e=uniu# nefas $uci#us!J etc. T e reason (i'en &% t e earl% C ristians for na#in( t e first $a% of t e "ee/ It e 7or$;s 1a%!J "as t at it "as t e $a% of His resurrection. 2ut o" it ca#e to &e cele&rate$ "ee/l% an$ not onl% %earl% see#s to &e first eBplaine$ &% 1eiss#ann ('ible &tudies! 91- s?.C (nc%c. 'ib. iii. 9-13 s?.). +t appears t at t e first $a% of eac #ont "as calle$ IE#peror;s 1a%J (h.&) in Asia <inor an$ E(%pt &efore t e C ristian era! 7i( tfoot! Apostolic 2athers! 1. ii. 41,C na% #ore! accor$in( to t"o inscriptions fro# Ep esus an$ Ma&alato " ic #i( t &e a$$e$ an 0B%r %nc us pap%rus (circ. 1:: A.1.)it is inferre$ &% 2uresc (Aus ,%dien! 1-8-! pp. ,83:) an$ 1eiss#ann t at h.& "as a $a% of t e "ee/. +f t ese conclusions are 'ali$ "e can un$erstan$ o" naturall% t e ter# I7or$;s 1a%J aroseC for =ust as t e first $a% of eac #ont ! or a certain $a% of eac "ee/! "as calle$ IE#peror;s. 1a%!J so it "oul$ &e natural for C ristians to na#e t e first da% of eac "ee/! associate$ as it "as "it t e 7or$;s resurrection an$ t e custo# of C ristians to #eet to(et er for "ors ip on it! as I7or$;s 1a%.J +t #a% a'e first arisen in apocal%ptic circles " en a ostile attitu$e to t e E#pire "as a$opte$ &% C ristianit%. d % = ! A# . 0ur aut or as pro&a&l% E.e/. 3:19 in is #in$! ( ;. #, ( d '# % = . @estein ?uotes a (oo$ parallel fro# Plutarc ! ,%curg. 3, C! ; ] % = k#$ ;$3# + '# #2 F ? ] $% %$+ ) % 7, ,!. % = ! ? # . Cf. ,:1 note. T e 'oice is lou$ an$ clear as a tru#pet &last. +t appears to &e t at of t e Son of <an (so Alcasar! E"al$! Hen(sten&er(! 2ousset)! " o &i$s t e Seer R .# $B 0 .. (11)! an$ at t e close of t is t eop an% repeats t e co##an$ in 18! $B I K. T is is t e natural interpretation. 1Nster$iec/ an$ Alfor$ ta/e t e 'oice to &e t at of an unna#e$ an(el. ? # . +n ? "e a'e to $eal "it t e #ost $ifficult particle in all our aut or;s 'oca&ular%. See t e A$$itional Aote at t e close of t is c apter on ? an$ :. ! . @e s oul$ eBpect . 2ut t is is no o'ersi( t of our aut or C for t e sa#e construction recurs in ,:1! , % = p #$3! F ? # !! " en "e s oul$ eBpect . T is connection of t e participle "it t e $epen$ent (eniti'e instea$ of "it t e (o'ernin( nouns "e fin$ also in 5:4! d % = " $ <q ! t ou( ere t is construction is 'er% intelli(i&le. 1116. T ese 'erses appear to &e co#pose$ of four! t e first t ree of four lines eac an$ t e fourt of t ree. 11. .# . 0ur aut or! li/e #ost of t e A.T. "riters (inclu$in( *o annine )ospel an$ Epistles)! uses .# an$ not )$- in t e present tense! eBcept in t e case of :$ N.T. New Testament.

in t e i#perati'e H I&e"are.J >or t e future of .# e uses AB! an$ for t e passi'e aorist >%T. $B 0 . >or ot er constructions "it an$ # see 1:3! 9:14! 3:19! 1,:1! 14:3! etc. T e Seer is repeate$l% &i$$en to "rite $o"n is 'isions! eBcept in t e case of t e Se'en T un$ers. G# ! . Accor$in( to Ra#sa% (,etters to the &e!en Churches! p. 181)! I t e Se'en (roups of C urc es! into " ic t e pro'ince a$ &een $i'i$e$ &efore t e Apocal%pse "as co#pose$! "ere se'en postal $istricts! eac a'in( as its centre or point of ori(in one of t e Se'en Cities! " ic (as "as pointe$ out) lie on a route " ic for#s a sort of inner circle roun$ t e Pro'ince.J Ra#sa%;s reason for t ese Se'en C urc esinclu$in( t"o co#parati'el% s#all to"ns! T %atira an$ P ila$elp ia! an$ eBclu$in( t e "ell6/no"n cities of Colossae! Hierapolis! Troas. Tralles! etc.&ein( c osen an$ none ot ers! is (op. cit. p. 1-3) t at Iall t e Se'en Cities stan$ on t e (reat circular roa$ t at &oun$ to(et er t e #ost populous! "ealt %! an$ influential part of t e Pro'ince! t e "est6central re(ion.J +f $eli'ere$ at t ese Se'en Cities! t e Apocal%pse "oul$ easil% sprea$ t rou( out t e rest of t e Pro'inceC for It e% "ere t e &est points on t at circuit to ser'e as centres of co##unication "it se'en $istricts: Per(a#u# for t e nort (Troas! $ou&tless A$ra#%ttiu#! an$ pro&a&l% C%.icus an$ ot er cities on t e coast containe$ C urc es) C T %atira for an inlan$ $istrict on t e nort east an$ eastC Sar$is for t e "i$e #i$$le 'alle% of t e Her#us C P ila$elp ia for Tpper 7%$ia! to " ic it "as t e $oor (3:-) C 7ao$icea for t e 7%cus Kalle% an$ for central P r%(ia! of " ic it "as t e C ristian #etropolis in later ti#eC Ep esus for t e Ca%ster an$ 7o"er <aean$er Kalle%s an$ coastsC S#%rna for t e 7o"er Her#us Kalle% an$ t e Aort +onian coastsJ (p. 181 s?.). T is is an attracti'e %pot esis. T e fact! o"e'er! t at se'en! an$ =ust se'en! "ere c osen! is $eter#ine$ apparentl% &% t e sacre$ness of t is nu#&er in t e e%es of our aut or. T is fact! o"e'er! $oes not eBclu$e t e possi&ilit% t at t e Se'en C urc es in our aut or "ere selecte$ on t e (roun$ of t eir fitness as $esira&le centres of pu&lication. To eac of t ese centres t e roll "oul$ &e carrie$ in turn an$ t en copie$. S#%rna la% ,: #iles nort of Ep esus! Per(a#u# ,: nort of S#%rna! T %atira ,3 S.E. of Per(a#u#! Sar$is 3: nearl% $ue S. of T %atira! P ila$elp ia 3: E.S.E. of Sar$is! an$ 7ao$icea ,: S.E. of P ila$elp ia (see #ap in Ra#sa%). 12. .# = % = . Cf. Aesc . Theb. 1:5! # $. T e 'oice is ere use$ for t e person fro# " o# it co#es. C P . T e C ere represents an in$irect ?uestion! an$ accor$in(l% t e construction is classical. 0n P ! see note on ,:1. 12'. G#* $- . 0n t e position of G# as contraste$ "it its position in 15! see note on -:9. T ese se'en la#pstan$s recall Rec . ,:9! " ere! o"e'er! onl% one la#pstan$ appears "it se'en la#ps! " ic ! as t e 7GG an$ Kul(. ri( tl% testif%! "ere eac fe$ &% a pipe fro# one co##on reser'oir of oil. +n EB. 93:31 s??. t ere is a $escription of a se'en&ranc e$ can$lestic/ ( H . )! " ic "as sai$ to stan$ outsi$e t e secon$ 'eil of t e Ta&ernacle. T e can$lestic/ or la#pstan$ carrie$ se'en la#ps ( H ) . +n our teBt t e la#pstan$s are separate. T eir function is to e#&o$% an$ (i'e fort t e li( t of )o$ on eart . S oul$ t e la#ps fail to $o so! t eir la#pstan$ is re#o'e$ (9:3).

Karious sc olars ()un/el! Chaos! 98, s??.C Ri##ern! +.A.T.3 59, s??.) a'e $ra"n attention to t e ori(inal connection &et"een t e se'en6ar#e$ can$lestic/ an$ t e se'en planets! an$ ?uote$ t e passa(es fro# *osep us an$ P ilo (see note on p. 19) to t is effect. 2ut of t is our Seer "as pro&a&l% " oll% unconscious. 1318. +f t e stu$ent stu$ies t e titles of t e Son of <an in t ese 'erses! e "ill see t at t e% recur at t e &e(innin( of siB of t e letters! &ut not in t at to t e C urc of 7ao$icea. T us it see#s to a'e &een t e intention of our aut or to connect eac of t e Se'en 7etters "it a special title. 2ut t is intention "as carrie$ out onl% partiall% an$ in a superficial #anner in t is preli#inar% s/etc of is "or/. >or! as alrea$% o&ser'e$! t e title at t e &e(innin( of t e letter to 7ao$icea is not foun$ in 1:131-C an$ in t e letters to Ep esus an$ Sar$is t e sa#e title is use$ t"ice: cf. 9:1! ) $2 1 G#* ;$ E U (cf. 1:15a)! an$ 3:1! ) D F 1 G#* ;$. A(ain! t at t e titles "ere inten$e$ to a'e so#e connection "it t e letters in " ic t e% respecti'el% appear is c ar in #ost of t e cases. T us in t e letter to t e C urc in Ep esus t e title! ) #$#2 2 G#* 2 2 $2 (9:1)! is at all e'ents relate$ 'er&all% to t e "or$s of "arnin( in 9:3! 0 ] & F & = '# T. +n t e letter to t e C urc in S#%rna t e title! R $+ ( D<! (9:-)! #a% contain a reference to 9:1:$! #+ ^$ , ( 3 + % T < T. +n t e letter to t e C urc in Per(a#u# ) D = H% = (9:19) is anticipator% of t e "or$s in 9:15c! #& P 2 E H%U '' . +n t e letter to t e C urc in T %atira t e title! ) D 1 >%1 ? %' #$' (9:1-)! #a% &e c osen "it reference to t e clai# in 9:93! 3 0 ) $2 %$1 ( $. +n t e case of t e t ree re#ainin( C urc es t e connection &et"een t e intro$uctor% title of C rist an$ t e contents of t e letters is o&scure eBcept in t e letter to t e C urc in P ila$elp ia. +n t e letter to t e C urc in Sar$is t e title! ) D * G#* # (3:1)! #a% point to t e nee$ of "atc fulness (3:9)! since t e se'en spirits are sent fort &% C rist to "itness t e $oin(s of #en (3:,). +n t e letter to t e C urc in P ila$elp ia t e title! ) D = [, ) ; . (3:4)! is intro$uce$ to =ustif% C rist;s po"er to fulfil His pro#ise t at He "ill cause t e *e"s after t e fles to &o" $o"n &efore t e true spiritual +srael (3:8)! an$ "ill #a/e t e latter pillars in t e spiritual co##unit% of )o$ (3:19). +t is C rist t at s uts out t e one fro# t is co##unit% an$ a$#its t e ot er to it. >inall%! in t e letter to t e C urc in 7ao$icea t e title! ) $ ) #+ ( ;!' (3:1,)! #a% a'e reference to t e testi#on% (i'en a(ainst t e 7ao$icean C urc in 3:1518. T e a&o'e facts s o" t at! " ereas onl% in t e case of t e C urc es of P ila$elp ia an$ T %atira is t ere an% sort of or(anic connection &et"een t e $i'ine title an$ t e contents of t e letter! in t e case of t e rest t e connection is at t e &est eit er artificial or $ou&tful. T us t ese titles (i'e t e i#pression of &ein( an aftert ou( t on t e part of our aut orinserte$ &% i# in or$er to lin/ up c ap. 1. (" ence t e titles are $ra"n) an$ c aps. 93. T is supposition (ains confir#ation fro# t e fact t at t e Se'en 7etters "ere un$ou&te$l% "ritten &efore t e ti#e of 1o#itian! an$ in fact &efore our aut or a$ an% appre ension of a "orl$6"i$e persecution! " ereas t e rest of t e Apocal%pse is saturate$ t rou( an$ t rou( "it t is con'iction.

*.A.T. Schrader+s Die Keilinschriften und dasalte Testament ) edited and rewritten #$ ,. -immern and ,. "inc.ler) 1/01.

13. : /' . Cf. 1,:1,. Here! as + a'e s o"n in t e A$$itional Aote (p. 35) on ? an$ :, : is use$ as t e e?ui'alent of ?! not onl% in #eanin( &ut in construction. : /+ ;$3# . Cf. 1,:1,. T e fact t at t e articles are a&sent (i.e. + /+ ;$3#) is so far fro# &ein( a #atter of $ifficult% t at in t is conteBt t e% coul$ not &e present. T e 2ein( " o# t e Seer sees is not Ili/e t e Son of <an!J &ut is It e Son of <an.J 2ut t e Seer can ri( tl% $escri&e Hi# as &ein( Ili/e a son of #an.J T is tec nical p raseolo(% in Apocal%ptic #eans t at t e 2ein( so $escri&e$ is not a #an. >urt er! since E.e/iel! an$ particularl% 1 Enoc 3451. (also -38:.)! use$ t e ter# I#anJ in t eir !isions to s%#&oli.e an an(el! /+ ;$3# "oul$ #ost naturall% &ear t e sa#e #eanin( in t is passa(e. T us : /+ ;$3# "oul$ H Ili/e an an(el.J Hence t e 2ein( so $escri&e$ is a supernatural 2ein(! li0e an an(el an$ %et not an an(el. Cf. 1 Enoc ,5:1! " ere t e supernatural <essia is $escri&e$ as a I&ein( " ose countenance "as as t e appearance of a #anJ ( H ) . Suc is t e literal ren$erin( of t is latter passa(e. >urt er! t ere can &e no $ou&t t at lon( &efore t e ti#e of our Seer t e p rase Ili/e a Son of <anJ ( . )in 1an. 4:13 "as ta/en as a <essianic $esi(nation. T us ? /+ ;$3# in Apocal%ptic is t e eBact e?ui'alent of ) /+ ;$3# in t e )ospels an$ Acts 4:35. #&$! . Cf. 1an. 1::3! ( 01 ;=$ r .

(7GG : .! T eo$.)! i.e. . C E.e/. 8:9! r ;&$ F ` #&$! (also in 3! 11)a ren$erin( of t e sa#e He&re" p rase. Since in 13:5 "e a'e U U F ( #$< #$( * &! use$ in reference to an(els! t ere is not necessaril% an% reference ere to t e priestl% c aracter of C rist. +n EB. 9-:,! 98:3! #&$! is use$ as a ren$erin( of t e i( priestl% ro&e ( ). Cf. *osep us! Ant. iii. 4! ,! ) ] ;$$1 F # P @ ##! 2, #&$! P ( ( s, ($ = ,$ 2, <3M #$% : iii. 4. 9! " ere t e linen 'est#ent of t e priests is calle$ #&$! 3. See also @is$. 1-:9,! #( *$ #&$ 7 : ) '. 2ut e'en if #&$! "as in t e #in$ of t e Seer a ren$erin( of still $ou&tful C for t e " as co##onl% use$ &% #en of i( ran/ (cf. 1 Sa#. 1-:,! 9,:3! 19 C E.e/. 95:15! etc.). T e lon( ro&e is use$ ere si#pl% as an 0riental #ar/ of $i(nit%! t ou( it #a% a'e a$ ori(inall% a 'er% $ifferent #eanin( an$ ori(in : cf. )ress#ann! (schatologie! 3,5 s?. #$< #$+ <3! $- . T is p rase recurs in a sli( tl% $ifferent for# in 13:5. 2ot t is an$ t e prece$in( p rase "ere su((este$ &% 1an. 1::3! ., ( , >%1 #$< ! $ t%<! " ere t ere is no connection of an% /in$ "it t e priestl% $ress. T e (ol$en clasp or #'$#! "as "orn &% t e /in( an$ is c osen frien$s (%)! 1 <acc. 1::-8! 11:3-. T e i( priest also "ore a (ir$le (& !)ut it "as a loosel%6"o'en scarf: cf. EB. 9-:,! 98C 7e'. 13:4. T is priestl% (ir$le "as "orn on t e &reast a little a&o'e t e ar#pitsC cf. losep us! Ant. iii. 4. 9! #&$! 3 F : #<3 * T ; T


e priestl% reference is

Theod. Theodotion B "ords so enclosed are corrupt. The %ditor+s restoration is occasionall$ given in the pop=up note.

! @#$ = <3! #$" #$' in local sense "it $ati'e is rare in t e A.T. Here onl% in t e Apocal%pse: cf. <ar/ 3:11C *o n 1-:15! 9::11! 19. 14. , ] %= ( / $ ( ? D$ ' u? 3v . 0ur teBt presupposes 1an. 4:8 an$ 1 Enoc ,5:1. T e for#er! accor$in( to T eo$.! Kul(ate an$ #ost co##entators! is to &e ren$ere$: I is rai#ent "as " ite as sno"! an$ t e air of is ea$ li/e pure "oolJC " ile 1 Enoc ,5:1 H , %= ? D$ & (or '). T us in t e first place "e eBplain t e co#&ination or , %& an$ / $ in our teBt. 2ut our teBt $i'er(es clearl% fro# T eo$otion;s 'ersion an$ t e <assoretic of 1an. 4:8C for t e latter rea$ It e air of is ea$ li/e pure (i.e. cleanse$) "ool.J 2ut unless "e assu#e t at t e "ool is " ite! " ic ! of course! it so#eti#es is! t e co#parison is not a (oo$ one. Since t e 7GG ere as + $ T %T ?( D$ + $' (Ispotless as " ite "oolJ)! it is clear t at our aut or a$ eit er it or t e Ara#aic teBt presuppose$ &% it &efore i#. 1 Enoc ,5:1 coul$ &e eit er I is air "as " ite li/e "oolJ or Ili/e " ite "ool!J t e latter &ein( t e #ore li/el%. Hence our teBt a(rees "it t e 7GG an$ 1 Enoc ere a(ainst t e <assoretic of 1an. 4:8. +t s oul$ &e o&ser'e$ t at t e $escription " ic in 1aniel an$ 1 Enoc &elon(s to t e Ancient of 1a%s! is ere transferre$ to t e Son of <an. T e ter# %& #a% refer to t e air. [? 3 .] T is "as #anifestl% a #ar(inal (loss. +t is eBtre#el% a"/"ar$ in its present conteBt. <oreo'er! in 1an. 4:8 it is t e rai#ent t at is I" ile as sno"!J not t e air of is ea$. / >%( ? %' #$' . Cf. 9:1-! 18:19! " ere t e sa#e $escription is a(ain applie$ to C rist. T e p rase is su((este$ &% 1an. 1::5! IHis e%es "ere as la#ps of fireJ (# #$')C 9 Enoc 1:3! IT eir e%es "ere li/e &urnin( la#ps.J T e #etap or is a 'er% co##on one in 7atin an$ )ree/! as @etstein as s o"n on t is passa(e. 15. / #' : . . Here a(ain our aut or as $ra"n upon 1aniel. Cf. 1::5! IHis feet li/e in colour to &urnis e$ &rassJ (7GG! ?( +

$# : T eo$. ? :$ . ( . . ) : E.e/. 1:,! 94! -:9! I>ro# t e appearance of is loins an$ $o"n"ar$! fire: an$ fro# is loins an$ up"ar$! as t e appearance of &ri( tness! as t e colour of a#&erJC also 1:4! It e% spar/le$ li/e t e colour of &urins e$ &rassJ (7GG! ? $# ' "" ere an$ 9:1- onl%) is as %et an uni$entifie$ #etal. Hence! " ate'er translation "e assi(n it is purel% pro'isional. Sui$as $efines it as K w$ 3$ $i D + d$ ;'# $ @ ( U F d$, ; $, @ ( . T e "or$! " ic is of uncertain $eri'ation! is ren$ere$ in 7atin &% aurichalcum. Plin%! /.1. BBBiii. ,! "rites: I0#nino auro inest ar(entu# 'ario pon$ere. T&icun?ue ?uinta ar(enti portio est! electru# 'oatur.J iB. ,1! IAr(entu# auro confun$ere! ut electra fiant.J Ser'ius on Kir(il! Aen. 'iii. ,:9! IElectru# F ?uo$ fit $e tri&us parti&us auri et una ar(enti.J Eustat ius on Od. i'. p. 13:. 13! d$ F $ ( ;$$. (T ese last t ree ?uotations are $ra"n fro# @etstein.) ? + ##$ ! +. So AC. 2ut! if t is is ori(inal! it can onl% &e a slip for ##$ on t e part of t e Seer! " ic e "oul$ a'e correcte$ in a re'ision of A A (v) London. Sd. 4. 9 9 (v) paris. Sd. 1. 9ontains 131=131/) 7314=5314) 5315=C37) /314=10310) 1131= 1431) 1C3:=1/37.

) . . (

is teBt. for t e eBplanation (i'en &% Hort an$ S"ete! t at ##$ ! is eBplaine$ &% . un$erstoo$! is too prosaic an$ intolera&le! i.e. Ili/e &urnis e$ &rass as in a furnace of &urnis e$ &rass.J Hence + assu#e t at our aut or inten$e$ to "rite ##$ a correction " ic "as earl% an$ ri( tl% intro$uce$ into t e teBt as t e follo"in( aut orities testif%: i.e ! so#e cursi'es! s1s9! '(.! Sa&.! Et . Kict. T us "e a'e t e 'i(orous an$ fittin( conception: Ili/e &urnis e$ &rass as " en it is s#elte$ (or Qrefine$;) in t e furnace.J #$ is use$ onl% in t e passi'e in t e A.T. +n t e present

passa(e an$ in 3:1- it is use$ as t e e?ui'alent of $( "in Ps. 19:5! 55:1:C 1an. 19:1:C Rec . 13:8)! of " ic it is t e stoc/ translation. , % = ? % = @ #2 . T e 'oice of t e Son of <an is $escri&e$ in eBactl% t e sa#e ter#s as t e 'oice of )o$ in E.e/. ,3:9!

si#ile in 1an. 1::5 Ili/e t e 'oice of a #ultitu$e.J 16. D = K , a Se#itic i$io#! t ou( t e participle is use$ in t e 8& occasionall% as a finite 'er&. T e rea$in( of A! ( E F $( ;$ G#! see#s to assi#ilate t e teBt to t e a$=oinin( clauses! &ut it #a% &e ori(inal. D E U $ ;$ G# . Cf. 9:1 (" ere t e clause is pro&a&l% an interpolation)! 3:1. T is clause is to &e interprete$ purel% s%#&olicall% an$ not literall%. +t #eans t at t ese se'en stars "ere su&=ect to i#! an$ " oll% in is po"er. 0n t e ot er an$ t e "or$s D! & * #P in 14 are to &e ta/en literall%. +n 9: t ese se'en stars are interprete$ as s%#& t e Se'en C urc es. T at t e% "ere ori(inall% concei'e$ as for#in( t e constellation of t e 2ear as &een su((este$ &% 2ousset! " o ?uotes 1ieteric ((ine Mithrasliturgie! p. 1,! line 15 s?.! pp. 49! 45 s?.)! " ere t e )o$ <it ras is represente$ as appearin( to t e #%stic F F $( ' x $, : ^$ , F + $'. 2ut! " ate'er #a% &e t e ori(inal $eri'ation of t is conception! it coul$ ar$l% &e present to t e #in$ of t e Seer in t e present passa(e! else "e s oul$ a'e 1 G#* ;$ an$ not ;$ #. T e nu#&er se'en! in itself sacre$! $eter#ine$ t e nu#&er of t e C urc es (1:9:)! an$ t us &% a coinci$ence t e nu#&er of t e stars as se'en. See *ere#ias! 'ab%lonisches im 1euen Testament! 9,95. 2ut t e se'en stars #a% &e t e se'en planets. ' H% > #$! . Cf. 9:19! 15 t ese "or$s (o &ac/ to +sa. 11:,! IHe s all s#ite t e eart "it t e ro$ of is #out J ( ere t e 7GG as ' ' )! ,8:9C IHe at #a$e #% #out li/e a s arp s"or$J (? $ >). See also note on 18:13! " ere part of t e a&o'e clause recurs: cf. He&. ,:19C 9 T ess. 9:8C , E.ra 13:,. T e s"or$ t at procee$s fro# t e #out of t e Son of <an is si#pl% a s%#&ol of is =u$icial aut orit%. Reli(ious art as &een 'er% un app% in representin( t is s%#&ol literall% as a s"or$ procee$in( fro# t e #out of C rist. H% . Cf. Ps. 1,8:5 (H% H )&& C Sir. 91:3. D'

( so t

e He&. &ut not t e 7GG). Here our aut or re=ects t e correspon$in(

( iv) 8etrograd. Sd. .

s S$riac. 8hilo'enian @ersion) edited #$ 2ohn Ew$nn) 1C/5. s S$riac. ,ar.leian or S$riac @ulgate. vg Latin. @ulgate (editio minor)) edited #$ ,. 2. "hite) 1/11.

" ' #$! . Cf. 8:14! 18:13. , AB , ? ) C % E " AB H IfaceJC AB is foun$ onl% ere an$ in *o n 4:9,! 11:,, in t e A.T.! &ut t is usa(e is not infre?uent in t e 7GG. Part of t e clause ) C an$ " " (oes &ac/ to *u$(. 3:31! I7et t e# t at lo'e i# &e as t e sun " en e (oet fort in is stren(t J (? D , H )" (. ? ) C" Cf. <att. 14:9! DB + #$' # ? ) C. T e faces of t e ri( teous are also to s ine li/e t e sun. <att. 13:,3C as $o also t ose of t e an(els : 1::1C 9 Enoc 1:3! 18:1. ? ) C % . @e a'e ere a He&re" construction! t e sa#e as in 1eut. 39:11C *o& 4:9! 8:95! 11:15C +sa. 51:1:C *er. 93:98. Hence our teBt H

(. T

e clause s oul$ &e ren$ere$! IAn$ is face "as as t e sun s inin( in is stren(t .J See A$$itional Aote on ?! p. 35. 17. ( : K ' . T e Seer a$ in is #in$ 1an. 1::4! 8!(7GG)! ( K ` [= = :$ F: 8! ( F ` d! ## ` #( #$' #' #( = T. Cf. also *os . 3:1,C E.e/. 1:9-! 3:93! ,3:3. ( D! = y= %. . Cf. 1an. 1::1:! 19! 18. T e = %. is foun$ also separatel% in +sa. ,,:9C <att. 1,:94! 14:4C 7u/e 1:13! 3:! etc. +t is use$ to (i'e co#fort (cf. <att. 1,:94 H *o n 5:9:C Acts 94:9,)! an$ to re#in$ t e Seer t at He t at is seen is no un/no"n one (Spitta). >ro# = %. to t e close of t is 'erse t ere is a stran.a of four lines. 3 0 ) #$2 ( ) D . Cf. 9:-! 99:13. +n all t ree cases t ese "or$s are use$ as a $esi(nation of C rist. T e% are $eri'e$ fro# +sa. ,,:5!

# # . " ! an$ ,-:19! " ere! of course! t e% are use$ as self6$esi(nations &% Sa "e . +n &ot instances t e 7GG $i'er(es fro# t e <assoretic: ,,:5! Z F + .3i j` #$2 ( ` * : ,-:19! 3 0 #$2 ( 3 0 0 + 02. Cf. also +sa. ,1:, an$ ,3:1:. 18. T is 'erse sets fort t e t reefol$ conception of C rist in *o n: t e e'er a&i$in( life He a$ in$epen$entl% of t e "orl$C His u#iliation e'en unto p %sical $eat ! an$ His risin( to a life not onl% e'erlastin( in itself &ut to uni'ersal aut orit% o'er life an$ $eat . ( ) <2 ( '! $' . T ese "or$s for# t e secon$ line of t e stan.a an$ are to &e ta/en closel% to(et er. Here! as in 1:35! 9:9! 8! etc.! t e participle after t e He&re" i$io# as &een resol'e$ into t e finite 'er&. See note on 1:35! " ere it is s o"n t at t e line s oul$ &e ren$ere$ IAn$ He t at li'et an$ "as $ea$.J <ost recent co##entators connect t e ( ) <2 "it t e prece$in( "or$s. 2ut in e'er% instance! " et er in +saia or in t e Apocal%pse! t e p rase I+ a# t e first an$ t e lastJ is co#plete in itself! an$ t e p rase ( ) <2 "oul$ si#pl% i#pair t e fulness of t e clai# #a$e in t ese "or$s. 0n t e ot er an$! " en ta/en "it ( '! $' t e% are full of si(nificance in t e contrast &et"een t e e'er a&i$in( eternal life " ic He possesses an$ t e con$ition p %sical $eat to " ic He su&#itte$ for t e sa/e of #an. ) <2 . T is $esi(nation is &ase$ on t e 0.T. p rase ! + <2! in *os . 3:1:C Ps. ,9:3! -,:3! etc.
O.T. Old Testament.

) ) )

,:8! 1:! 1::5. T e% are foun$ in t is connection in 1an. ,:31! 19:4 ( . . !) an$ Sir. 1-:1C 1 Enoc 3:1. D * ( z . an$ z can &e ta/en as o&=ecti'e (eniti'es! i.e. t e /e%s t at loc/ or unloc/ Ha$esC or as possessi'e (eniti'es! seein( t at t e% are personifie$ in 5:-! i.e. t e /e%s el$ &% $eat an$ Ha$es.1 Ha$es is t e inter#e$iate a&o$e of onl% t e "ic/e$ or non6ri( teous in our aut or (see 9::1, noteC also 5:-! 9::13) as in 7u/e 15:93! " ere it is set o'er a(ainst Para$ise. +t as t e sa#e #eanin( in t e Psal#s of Solo#on 15:9: cf. 1,:5! 13:11. +n our aut or Para$ise (cf. 9:4) as no connection "it Ha$es: nor %et in 7u/e 93:,3C 9 Cor. 19:,. Ha$es is not spo/en of in t e AT as containin( Para$ise eBcept in Acts 9:94 (31)! " ic is a ?uotation fro# Ps. 15:1:. Ha$es or S eol! o"e'er! &ears #an% $ifferent #eanin(s in *e"is literatureC see #% (schatolog%9! un$er IS eolJ in t e +n$eB! p. ,-9 s?. 2ut to return. Ao soul can enter Para$ise sa'e t rou( $eat . So far! t erefore! $eat is t e a'enue ali/e to Para$ise an$ Ha$es. 2ut &% su&#ittin( to $eat C rist as t rou( His $eat an$ resurrection "on co#plete aut orit% o'er $eat . +t is not i#pro&a&le! furt er! t at t e teBt i#plies t e sa#e &elief t at un$erlies 1 Pet. 3:1- s??.9 Aeit er $eat nor Ha$es can resist t e po"er of t e risen C rist. +t is not onl% t at t e% cannot "it ol$ fro# Hi# t e fait ful t at a'e alrea$% $ie$! &ut t at C rist as entere$ t eir real# as a con?ueror an$ preac e$ t ere t e )ospel of Re$e#ption to t ose t at a$ not as %et ear$ it. Ao soul can encefort &e a prisoner in Ha$es! " ic is t ere o"in( to spiritual an$ ot er $isa&ilities! in t e creation of " ic it a$ no part. T is interpretation of t e teBt is in /eepin( "it t e uni'ersal procla#ation of t e )ospel to t e eat en "orl$! " ic accor$in( to 1,:54! 13:,! "as to prece$e t e en$. All" ere'er t e% "ere"ere to ear t e )ospel &efore t e >inal *u$(#ent. A(ain "e a'e ere one of t e earliest traces in C ristian literature of t e 1escent of C rist into Ha$es! an$ t e con?uest of its po"ers. T is i$ea is in certain for#s pre6 C ristian. T us in t e 2a&%lonian Reli(ion "e a'e t e $escent of +s tar! of Hi&il Ri"a in t e <an$aean Reli(ion! of t e pri#iti'e #an in t e s%ste# of <anes (see 2ousset! Offenbarung9! p. 184 s?.C )un/el! 3um 4 5erst6ndniss d. A.T.s pp. 49C Cle#en! "eligionsgesch. (r0l6rung d. 1T! pp. 133135)C &ut t ese non6*e"is sources $o not appear to a'e (i'en &irt to t e C ristian $octrine of t e Descensus ad Inferos! as 7oofs! in is art. in (.".(. i'. 5,-553! as s o"n. ( z . T e po"er o'er t ese /e%s! accor$in( to t e Tar(. *er. on )en. 3::99 (cf. also on 1eut. 9-:19)! &elon(s to )o$ alone: San . 113a! IEli=a as/e$ for t e /e% of t e raisin( of t e $ea$. T erefore e "as tol$: T ree /e%s are not co##itte$ to a #essen(er: t ose of &irt ! rain! an$ of t e raisin( of t e $ea$J: Taan. 9a. Accor$in( to t e <i$ras Te illin on Ps. 83 t e <essia is calle$ *innon &ecause e "ill a"a/e t e $ea$ (@e&er9! 35-). 19. I resu#es t e co##an$ (i'en in 11! enforce$ "it t e aut orit% of 0ne " o as po"er o'er $eat . T is particle occurs onl% ere an$ in 9:13! 15! 3:3! 18! in our aut or! &ut 183 ti#es in t e >ourt )ospel. 1 Sheol and death are personified in ,os. 11314. The$ are classed together in 8s. 1C346 8rov. 737 : Loofs) in E. .E. iv. 44:) accepts this view) and holds that the doctrine of the ?escensus underlies &att. :5371F71) the %pistle to the ,e#rews (1131/ s;.) 1:3::) /3C).

<2 0 0 1 02 2 03 . T ese "or$s are use$ of t e >at er in

K ( 0( ( * . T ese "or$s su##ari.e roughl% t e contents of t e 2oo/. T e K is t e 'ision of t e Son of <an =ust 'ouc safe$ to t e Seer: 0 refers $irectl% to t e present con$ition of t e C urc as s o"n in c aps. 93! an$ in$irectl% to t at of t e "orl$ in (eneralC * to t e 'isions fro# c ap. , on"ar$s! " ic ! "it t e eBception of a fe" sections referrin( to t e past an$ t e present! $eal "it t e future. At t e &e(innin( of , t e Seer is su##one$ to ea'en! " ere a 'oice $eclares: * (,:1). K . Cf. 1:9! ,:1. * . 0n ! " ic in our aut or is (enerall% follo"e$ &% t e i#perfect inf.! see 1::4 noteC 2lass! Gram. 184! 9:9. 20. T is 'erse is in$epen$ent (ra##aticall% of " at prece$es. T e construction of t e )ree/ is i( l% irre(ular. +n t e first place! "e a'e an accusati'e a&solute in + &$: in t e secon$ "e a'e an accusati'e * G#* " ere "e s oul$ eBpect a (eniti'e $epen$ent on + &$. T ese ano#alies are not eBplica&le eit er fro# t e stan$point of )ree/ or He&re". T e secon$ of t e# is &est accounte$ for &% t e %pot esis t at *o n $i$ not re'ise is "or/. T ere are! it is true! a fe" instances of t e ace. a&solute in t e A.T. : cf. Acts 95:3! 3! A : 1 Ti#. 9:5! + $$ $ 0: Ro#. -:3! + ; '. To t ese "e #a% a$$ t e instance in our teBt. T is construction is 'er% rare in t e pap%ri as co#pare$ "it earlier )ree/. See R o&ertson! Gram. ,8:! 113:. T e 'erse is to &e ren$ere$ : IAs for t e #%ster% of t e se'en stars! " ic t ou sa"est in (lit. IuponJ) #% ri( t an$! an$ of t e se'en (ol$en can$lestic/s! t e se'en stars are!J etc. + &$ H It e secret #eanin(.J @e a'e analo(ous interpretations of #%steries in 13:1-! 14:4! 8 / G#* ;$ ^ 2 G#* !2 0 . See note on 1:,. Karious eBplanations of t ese ^ a'e &een (i'en. So#e sc olars ta/e t e# to &e t e actual #essen(ers entruste$ "it t e $eli'er% of t e letters to t e 'arious C urc es! or t e $ele(ates sent fro# t e Asiatic C urc es to Pat#os " o "ere returnin( "it t e Apocal%pse. 7i( tfoot! Sc oett(en! 2en(el connect t e# "it su&or$inate officials of t e s%na(o(ue. Pri#asius! KVlter (Offenbarung .ohannis! i'. 138) an$ ot ers connect t e# "it so#e pro#inent officials of t e C urc es. Ra n ((inl. ii. 5:5) an$ *. @eiss (Offenbarung .ohannis! ,8) i$entif% t e# "it t e &is ops of t e Se'en C urc es. 2ut t e use of ^ in Apocal%ptic in (eneral an$ also in our aut or is " oll% a(ainst #a/in( ^ represent a u#an &ein(. +f use$ at all in Apocal%ptic! ^ can onl% represent a super u#an &ein(. Hence t e onl% interpretation t at can &e accepte$ is one " ic $oes =ustice to t e ter# ^. >ro# t is stan$point t"o interpretations are a$'ance$. 1. T e an(els are (uar$ian an(els of t e Se'en C urc es. T is interpretation can &e supporte$ fro# 1aniel! " ere t e $octrine of t e an(elic (uar$ians or patrons of t e nations is $efinitel% presuppose$: cf. 1::13! 9:! 91! 11:1! 19:1. +t appears also in Sir. 14:14C 1eut. (7GG) 39:-. +n t e A.T. in$i'i$uals are suppose$ to a'e special (uar$ian an(els: cf. <att. 1-:1:C Acts 19:13C Tar(. *er. on )en. 33:1:! I+ a'e seen t % face! as t ou( + a$ seen t e face of t % an(elJ: also on ,-:15C C a(. 15a. 2ut! if t ese an(els are concei'e$ of as $istinct personalities! t is interpretation is open to unans"era&le o&=ectionsC for C rist is suppose$ to sen$ letters to super u#an &ein(s t rou( t e a(enc% of *o n! an$ t e Glass) Glass) Grammar of N.T. Greek (transl. #$ Thac.era$)) 1C/C. Ao#ertson) Ao#ertson) Grammar of the Greek of the N.T.) 1/14.

letters in ?uestion are " oll% concerne$! not "it t ese suppose$ an(els! &ut $irectl% "it t e C urc es t e#sel'es an$ t eir spiritual con$ition. Hence t e onl% re#ainin( interpretation is t at " ic ta/es t ese an(els to &e t e ea'enl% $ou&les or counterparts of t e Se'en C urc es! " ic t us co#e to &e i$entical "it t e C urc es t e#sel'es. E'en t is last interpretation is not free fro# $ifficult%C for it in realit% a#ounts to eBplainin( one s%#&ol It e starsJ &% anot er s%#&ol It e an(els.J Aot"it stan$in(! "e #ust ol$ fast to t e latter interpretation in so#e for#. Per aps t e se'en stars represent in Se#itic fas ion t e ea'enl% i$eal of t e Se'en C urc es: " ile t e se'en can$lestic/s are t e actual reali.ation of t ose i$eals. E'en t is 'ie" is open to criticis#. Aot"it stan$in(! it see#s to eBpress &est t e t ou( t in t e #in$ of our aut or. C rist ol$s in His an$ (i.e. His po"er) t ese i$eals: t at is! onl% t rou( Hi# can t e% &e reali.e$. / / G#* G#* ! 0. Here! since t e Se'en C urc es a'e &een $efinitel% enu#erate$ in 1:11! "e s oul$ pro&a&l% "it @H re(ar$ G#* G# as a pri#iti'e error for G#. @e s oul$ t en a'e It e can$lestic/s are t e Se'en C urc es.J 2ut not onl% a'e t e C urc es &een pre'iousl% #entione$! &ut t e su&=ect an$ pre$icate are ere i$entical. Hence t e article s oul$ &e use$ "it t e pre$icate as in 1:-! 14! 3:14. See Ro&ertson! Gram. 45-.

A11+T+0AA7 A0TE 0A ? AA1 :

0ur aut or uses ? in se'eral i$io#atic constructions! " ic if consi$ere$ in relation to t e &ul/ of is "or/ as a " ole $ifferentiates it fro# all ot er "ritin(s. 1. % & F ? # H Ia 'oice li/e t e 'oice of a tru#pet.J T e Seer as ne'er in is eart l% eBperience ear$ suc a 'oice. +t "as a ea'enl% 'oice. T e nearest eart l% e?ui'alent e coul$ su((est "as t e soun$ of a tru#pet. 2ut it "as not t e soun$ of a tru#pet: it 7as onl% li0e it (?). T e construction ere is a pre(nant one H &

& H as in +sa. 98:,! 53:9C *er. 3::8. T is pre(nant construction recurs in ,:1! 4! ? ;$3# H & H !an$ in 13:9! / #' ? ^$:
15:3! r ? $. T e sa#e i$ea is con'e%e$ &% ? in 1 Enoc 14:1! 9,:,! 39:,! an$ &% ? in 1,:1:! 11! 13! 14:1C &ut in none of t ese cases a'e "e t e pre(nant construction. +n 1,:1-! $+ ? ,! it is a pre(nant one.

9. ? is use$ in a certain sense as t e su&=ect or t e o&=ect of t e 'er& as H in He&re"! an$ %et it does not affect the case of the noun 7hich follo7s it. +t is use$ as t e su&=ect or! if t e stu$ent prefer! in connection "it t e su&=ect in 8:4! #( * %* 2 ? %. Here ? % H * . H It e appearance of cro"ns "as on t eir ea$s.J +n Au#. 8:13 "e a'e t is i$io#: IT ere "as upon t e ta&ernacle t e li/eness of t e appearance of fireJ (? K #$')C also in 1an. 1::1-: It en t ere

touc e$ #e a(ain! one li/e t e appearance of a #an.J Here . . ( ren$ere$ &% t e 'ersions ? :$ ;$3#) is t e su&=ect of t e 'er& an$ H It e li/eness of t e appearance of a #an.J As t e Kul(ate as ere I?uasi 'isio o#inisJ "e can $eter#ine t e He&re" &e in$ , E.ra 13:9! I?uasi si#ilitu$ine# o#inisJ (Et . an$ Ara&. Kerss.)C &ut ere t e ? is connecte$ "it t e accusati'e! to " ic "e s all no" turn. T us "e a'e in 5:5! d ? % &! an$ also in 18:1! 5t e ea'enl% e?ui'alent of an eart l% 'oice. +n 3:11 t e ? is o#itte$C for t ere t e 'oice is $efinitel% sai$ to &e t at of an(els. +n 13:9! K ? It e li/eness of a seaJC 1-:91! ? It e li/eness of a (reat #illstone.J 3. ? is use$ si#pl% as a particle of co#parison in 19:13! 13:9! 11! 91:11.

,. +n 5:1 our aut or as ren$ere$

ina$'ertentl% &% ? % oul$ ere a'e &een ren$ere$ &% ? % E. Possi&l%! o"e'er! our aut or "rote % E! " ic "as su&se?uentl% corrupte$ into % &. 3. ? is use$ "it t e participle as in He&re". Cf. )en. ,::1:! I+t "as as t ou( it

" ! ic "as in is #in$! literall% an$ & (ACW)C &ut since in t is conteBt H ! it s

&u$$e$J ( & ) . Cf. in our teBt! ? %! 3:5! 13:3. 5. >inall%! ? is follo"e$ &% a finite 'er& " ere t e )ree/ i$io# re?uires t e participle: cf. 1:15c! , AB ? ) C %! " ere "e s oul$ eBpect % . 2ut t is is $istincti'el% a He&re" i$io#C for in He&re" fre?uentl% relati'e sentences "it t e relati'e o#itte$ are attac e$ to su&stanti'es " ic are prece$e$ &% t e particle of co#parison ( H ?). Cf. +sa. 59:1! ( &7GG! ? #* &)! Ias a la#p t at &urnet .J See also for literal &ut uni$io#atic ren$erin(s in t e 7GG of +sa. 33:4C Ps. 8::3. 2ut (enerall% t e finite 'er& is ren$ere$ i$io#aticall% &% t e participle in t e 7GG: cf. Hos. 5:3C *er. 93:98! !+"& ( &*7GG! ? # '# #$)C Ps. -3:13C *o& 4:9! 8:95! 11:15. :. T at our aut or uses : as s%non%#ous in meaning "it ? "e learn fro# ,:5! ) $! as co#pare$ "it 99:1! ? $! an$ ,:3! : F 0#! as co#pare$ "it 91:11! ? 0#. +n 1 Enoc also ? an$ : are e?ui'alent in #eanin(: cf. 1-:13! a G#* ;$ ? A$! ! an$ 91:3! G#* 2 ;$ F ) A$ . : is use$ also li/e ? in our teBt in a pre(nant sense (see 1 un$er ?) : cf. 8:1:! $* ) $#: also 13:11. 2ut t ere are t"o passa(es in our teBt in " ic our aut or attac e$ not onl% t e sa#e #eanin( &ut also t e sa#e construction to : as to ?. T ese are 1:13! 1,:1,! " ere "e a'e : /' " ere "e s oul$ eBpect : /. @e a'e seen t at e re(ar$e$ : as H ? in respect of meaning! &ut t ese t"o passa(es eB i&it an i$entification of : "it ? not onl% in respect of meaning &ut also of constructionC an$ t us as ? $oes not affect t e case t at follo"s it! neit er $oes :. T at our aut or /ne" ?uite "ell t at : "as follo"e$ &% t e $ati'e is s o"n &% is uni'ersal usa(e outsi$e t ese t"o passa(es! " ic stan$ alone in all literature in #a/in( : as t e a&solute e?ui'alent of ? ali/e in construction an$ meaning.