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1. The Seven Letterstheir Authorship, their present and their original meaning These two chapters, to which the great vision in 1 forms an intro !ction, contain the "even #etters a resse to seven act!a$ Ch!rches in Asia %inor, in which their spirit!a$ character an environment are istinct$& an concrete$& escri'e . As the& stan at present, the circ!mstances of the "even Ch!rches are to 'e regar e as t&pica$ of the Ch!rch as a who$e. Th!s in a ressing certain specific Ch!rches, o!r a!thor is a ressing a$$ Christian Ch!rches. (n this representative sense the "even Ch!rches are i entifie with the seven can $estic)s *1+2,-. That these #etters are from the han of o!r a!thor is amp$& prove '& their iction an i iom * 2-. .!t a c$ose e/amination of the #etters shows that the& contain two e/pectations which are m!t!a$$& e/c$!sive * 0-, one of which is in harmon& with the .oo) as a who$e, whi$e the other c$ear$& conf$icts with it. The recognition of this fact $ea s to the h&pothesis that o!r a!thor wrote these #etters at a ate anterior to that of the .oo) as a who$e, 'efore the a$$1important conf$ict 'etween the m!t!a$$& e/c$!sive c$aims of Christianit& an Caesarism came to 'e recogni2e , an that in the 3nineties,4 when he p!t together a$$ his visions, he re1e ite these #etters. (n re1e iting these #etters he ma e certain changes in the 'eginnings of them which 'ro!ght them more into harmon& with 1+1315, an inserte certain a itions which a apte the #etters more or $ess to the e/pectations !n er$&ing the rest of the .oo) * 6-. (t is not impro'a'$e that these #etters were act!a$$& sent in their origina$ form to the "even Ch!rches * 7-. 2. Diction and Idiom These two chapters, a$i)e on the gro!n of iction an i iom, come from the han of o!r a!thor. *a- Diction.8Tho!gh a few e/pressions are fo!n in these chapters an not e$sewhere in o!r a!thor, the& o not ta)e the p$ace of e9!iva$ent e/pressions in o!r a!thor save in the case of *see 2+6 'e$ow-, '!t arise nat!ra$$& from the nat!re of the s!':ect. 2:1. seven times in 23 an on$& once e$sewhere in ;.T., i.e. Acts 21+11. . Cf. 3+0, <+2,, 17+16, 21+20. 2. . Cf. <, 1=, 1<, 3+1, 5, 16, 1=, =+10, 12+12, 1<+12. . Cf. 10+13. *not in >o!rth ?ospe$-. Cf. 1+<, 2+3, 1<, 3+1,, 13+1,, 10+12. . Cf. 21+5. @n$& once e$sewhere in ;.T. 4. . Cf. 2+7, < *bis-, 10, 2,, 3+0, <, <+6, 1,+=, <, 1=+12, 2,+7. 5. . Ase of $ogica$ appea$. Cf. 2+17, 3+3 *bis-, <. A$so in 1+1<, pro'a'$& owing to its occ!rrence in 23 . Cf. =+13. 13 times in ?ospe$. *a$so in 17, 20-B cf. 1,+2, 1<+12, 21+5 ! . Cf. 7+10. Here on$& in o!r a!thor. 7. "#! ! . Cf. 11, 1=, 2<, 3+7, 13, 22, 13+< *%att. 11+16, 13+<, etc.-. $ . Cf. 11, 2+1=, 2<, 3+7, 13, 22, 10+13, 22+1=. % & ! . Cf. 1=, 3+21, 21+=, ' $ . $ () * +!* , 22+2, 10 C1<D. 8. , " # . Cf. 1+1=, 22+13. - . , "+' . Cf. 1+1= an 13+10, 1=+5 *bis-, where the emonic ;ero is somewhat simi$ar$& escri'e . 9. / . Cf. 1+<, 2+1,, 22, =+10. 0 1'/ . Cf. 13+1, 6, 7, 1=+3. N.T. New Testament.

! $ 23 . Here on$& an in 3+<. (n 11+5 we have the same attit! e towar s E! aism, tho!gh the iction iffers. 10. 4# , c!m. gen. Cf. 2+26, 27, 12+11, 10+2, C15+6D. ;ot in ?ospe$, which !ses 5! 6 *or 7- an 5!8 5! on$& fo!n in Apoc. 7+1,, 11. 11. 9 ': . $ $ . Cf. 2,+7, ., )! ) 9 "# .( /. @'serve that is a favo!rite wor with o!r a!thor, '!t is not fo!n in >o!rth ?ospe$ or Epp. 12. "#! 8 ;1/ 8 / 8 <( . Cf. 1+17, 1<+16. ;1/ is fo!n si/ times in the Apoc. an on$& once o!tsi e it in the ;.T. 13. 6 witho!t comp$ementar& .. Cf. 11+5, 2,+1,. 15. =! . Cf. 3+6, 17, <+1=, 11+6, 17+15, 15+21. 16. "#/ #) . Cf. 3+11, 22+=, 12, 2,B a$so 2+6. ! > 9 . Cf. 12+=', 13+0, 1=+10. A$so 12+=c, 1<+11, an Eas. 0+2 witho!t an nowhere e$se in ;.T. : ;1/? $ . Cf. 1+17, 1<+16. 17. @ - 9, A 0! . Cf. 1<+12, @ - 9, A 9. 18. B <1B C 1 . Cf. 1+10, 1<+12. D 9$ 6 #/0E . Cf. 1+10. 20. .) . Here on$& in Apoc. '!t 3= times in ?ospe$. 21. * . . This constr!ction is nowhere e$se fo!n in the ;.T. nor &et in # the FF *where ./ or fo$$ow-, &et it rec!rs in o!r a!thor in 2+22, 2,, 21, 17+11. 23. . E G 3'& pesti$ence,4 as in 7+5. F F " . Cf. 2,+13. 24. . Cf. 3+2, <+2,, 11+13, 12+1=, 1<+21, 2,+6. ;ot in ?ospe$. 26. & ! 9% + see note on 2+27. & ! .( / . @n the meaning of this phrase see note on 2+27 as isting!ishe from & ! H .( /. 27. G 3wi$$ estro&4 *see note in loc-. Cf. 1<+16 *12+6-. C & . Cf. 3+21 an 7+11, C , 9/, C15+7DB ?ospe$ !ses G .& fre9!ent$&. H'1 . This perfect rec!rs in 3+3, 6+=, 5+6, 11+1=. Th!s five times in a$$. (n the rest of the ;.T. on$& three times, %att. 26+20 CEohn 5+0 in the DB 1 Cor. 1,+13. 28. ! . Cf. 22+17. 3:2. / ' . >or this com'ination of / with a particip$e, cf. 17+1,, . H . !'. ?ospe$ 1+7 on$&. =' '! . >or com'ination of / with part. or a :., cf. 2+2, 6+0, 21+16. >or '. cf. 7+11. $ $ . Cf. 3+12, where this phrase occ!rs fo!r times. 3+12 was a e when o!r a!thor e ite the 'oo) as a who$e in the nineties. 24. >or the in !'ita'$e connections 'etween 20 an 17+16 see notes on 'oth these passages. 17+16, however, appears to have 'e$onge origina$$& to this #etter where it pro'a'$& fo$$owe on 3+3'. 4. . "ee note on 2+0 a'ove. < G 3persons.4 CCf. 11+13.D .. Cf. 10+0. . Cf. 21+20. . . Cf. 7+11, =+<, 13, 1<+10. 4(/ A . Cf. C17+7D, where the c$a!se rec!rs. LXX Septuagint.

5. 0 . D/ . Cf. 0+0, =+<. .(/!. Cf. =+1=, 21+0 *in a ifferent connection-. * 0/0 * +!* . Cf. 21+16, 13+5, an 00/ 8 +8 in 1=+5 C2,+12D. 7. I ' . Cf. 7+1,, where the same epithets are app$ie to ?o . @'serve that ' G 3faithf!$,4 a meaning confine to the Apoc. within the ;.T. 8. ) E' . Cf. 0+1. F ) . Cf. 2,+3, #, for this or er, an contrast 7+11. .' . Cf. 22+=, <8a fre9!ent phrase in the ?ospe$. , @ . Cf. 1,+< for the same remar)a'$e &e inte$$igi'$e or er of the prono!ns. 9. J( , .& . Cf. 16+0, F "' J( , .&/ + 22+5. 10. .' . Cf. 3+5, 22+=, <B a$so 1+3, 2+27, 12+1=, 10+12. * * , i.e. 3the en !rance practise '& %e.4 Cf. 13+1,, 10+12, K 8 L/! , 3the en !rance practises '& the saints.4 * A' 6' . Cf. 12+<, 17+10, where the nat!re of the tria$ is escri'e as emonic in connection with this phrase. B $ ., * * . Cf. 7+1,, 5+13, 11+1, *note-. This phrase has thro!ghto!t o!r a!thor a technica$ sense. 11. "# #) . Cf. 2+17, 22+=, 12, 2,. 12. ! 9 . "ee notes on 2+=, 27. .(M + in $ater chapters 13 times. ! .> 9 @ . Cf. 1=+6, 5, 1<+17. * * N O K 0/ . Cf. 21+2. @ . Cf. 1<+12, 17. 15. P P . Cf. <+2,, 21, 21+0. @!r a!thor !ses 9 H 9, 6+3, =+17, <+0B a$so 9 H 9, =+17, 12+5, 2,+0, 21+23B H , =+1, 3B even 9Q H 9, =+17', <+0, '!t never ' H '. 17. 9Q #/ "#! . Cf. 22+6. 18. *metaphorica$ sense-. Cf. 6+<, 10+3, 0. D . "ee on 3+6 a'ove. 20. A ) . Cf. C11+11D, 16+5, 21+2=, 22+10. 21. / . Cf. 2,+0 an note on 3+21. C & . "ee note on 2+2= a'ove. F $ . % E 9$ . Cf. 22+3. *b- Idiom.8Here we have i ioms an so$ecisms which, tho!gh the& ma& appear abnormally in other writings, are in o!r a!thor a normal means of e/pressing his tho!ghts. 2:2. B RB , 9 A / . This reso$!tion of the particip$e into a finite ver' is characteristic of o!r a!thor. "ee note on 1+6'7, p. 10 s9. 3. "# , .0 , / . >or simi$ar com'inations of tenses cf. 3+3, H'1 , S + 6+= s9., =+13 s9., 5+6. 5. "# = .) . @!r a!thor fre9!ent$& !ses the present of this ver' as a f!t!re+ cf. 1+0, =, 5, 2+17, 3+11, 0+5, <+12, 11+10, 17+16, 22+=, 12, 2,, '!t never the f!t!re itse$f e/cept in compo!n s .() , 2,+5+ A ) , 3+2,. 7. % & ! 9% . "ee notes on 2+=, 27. 9. ! N/ , 9 A / . "ee a'ove on 2+2 an note on 1+6'7.

10. 0 .( G 3some of &o!.4 Cf. 3+<, /! . 8 !*+ 6+<, T H . ' 1*+ 11+<, 0 . + 21+7, & ! . * '*. 13. 6 $ 23 . >or this omission of the cop!$a in re$ative or epen ent c$a!se, cf. 6+13, 2,+1,. . K U/O . @n this fre9!ent so$ecism in o!r a!thor, see p. 3 ad fin. 20. N8 K . "ee prece ing note. , . The fre9!ent$& rec!rring i iom a$rea & fo!n in 2+2, < a'ove+ see note on 1+6'7. 22. 0 9 A /' . A phrase !ninte$$igi'$e in ?ree) !n$ess retrans$ate into He'rew, "ee note on 2+22. 23. R E + cf. 7+11, 9 R E. E$sewhere on$& once in ;.T., Acts 2+5. 26. & ! 9% . "ee note on 2+=. & ! 9% .( / . @n the technica$ sense assigne to this phrase '& o!r a!thor, see note in loc. (t is here right$& !se . Th!s chap. 2 is connecte '& the same iction or i ioms or 'oth with portions of 0 <, 111=, 1<22. Ie have a$rea & seen in the (ntro . to chap. 1 that 1 an 23 an most of the remaining chapters are simi$ar$& 'o!n together. 3:3. / V . This acc. of a point of time on$& here in o!r a!thor. 7. /! , 9, / . A He'rew i iom. "ee note in loc. 8. ! .& ) TE'O W 9, ) 9 . Ie have here two He'rew i ioms in these wor s+ >or other instances of o'$i9!e forms of the persona$ prono!n a e p$eonastica$$& to re$atives *in repro !ction of a He'rew i iom-, cf. =+2, X .' 9+ <, - * 9+ 12+7, 10, 13+5, 12, 2,+5.

, 3.eho$

9. AB . 8 !* . %ost pro'a'$& a He'raism.

( wi$$ ma)e certain of the s&nagog!e,4 etc. Here anticipates

!. ! RB , 9 A / . The same He'rew i iom as in 2+<. ! Y J( , . Y cum. ind. occ!rs < times in the Apoc., here *3+<- an 5 times in the rest of the .oo) *see note on 3+<, p. 55-+ on$& once in the rest of the Eohannine writings, an on$& 1, times in a$$ in the ;.T. o!tsi e the Apoca$&pse. Again, Y cum. ind. occ!rs twice in the Apoc. an on$& twice e$sewhere in the ;.T. Th!s Y cum. ind. is characteristic of o!r a!thor. ;e/t, Y cum. subj. occ!rs 7 times in 23, an 1= times in the rest of the .oo), an Y cum. subj. once in 23 an = times in the rest of the Apoc. Y J( , . Cf. 22+10 for the same com'ination of moo s. 12. ! 9 . "ee notes on 2+=, 27. * * N O K 0/ . "ee (ntro . to 2. *b-, p. 3 ad fin. 16. ! . . Cf. 3+2, 12+0. E$sewhere in o!r a!thor 1, times with the pres. in., which is the a$$ '!t !niversa$ !sage in the ;.T. @n$& 0 times o!tsi e o!r a!thor is it fo$$owe '& the aor. inf. *in #!can an Pa!$ine writings- an twice '& inf. f!t. in #!can writing *i.e. Acts-. 17. 9Q #/ "#! . Cf. 22+6, "# #/ H 1 K/. 20. . ) M , A ) . This He'raic / intro !cing the apo osis rec!rs in 1,+=, 10+1,. (t is fo!n a$so in #!)e 2+21, =+12B Acts 1+1,B 2 Cor. 2+2B Eas. 0+16.

21. & ! 9% . @n this He'raism see note on 2+=. >rom the a'ove evi ence of iction an sti$$ more of i iom it is c$ear that 23 are from the han of o!r a!thor. Certain wor s an e/pressions occ!r in them which o not rec!r in the remaining chapters, '!t this is !e to the nat!re of the s!':ect *cf. - or to the fact that the #etters in some form were written '& o!r a!thor $ong 'efore <6 A.J.8the ate of the comp$ete wor)+ cf. *a$so in 1+1<-, O .. A comparison of the points of agreement in iction an in i iom shows that 23 are connecte ver& c$ose$&, an in most cases essentia$$&, with 01,, parts of 11, 12.1=, 1<22 3. rder of !ords and omission of "opula in relative sentences Tho!gh the iction an i ioms of 23 are conc$!sive as to the a!thorship of the "even #etters, it is remar)a'$e that the or er is $ess "emitic than in the rest of the chapters from the same han . Th!s e/c$! ing 2+=, 11, 1=, 27, 3+6, 12, 21, where the same phrase % or rec!rs an reg!$ar$& prece es the ver' for emphasis, an is therefore perfect$& :!stifia'$e in He'rew on this gro!n , there are more than the average n!m'er of passages in 23 where the o':ect prece es the ver' 2+1, *an at the 'eginning of each #etter-+ 3, "#+ 0, ' H 1*+ 6, F " /' + 7, $ "#+ 23, F 9* + 26, "# + 3+1,, ' !. The s!':ect a$so prece es the ver' more fre9!ent$& than is !s!a$ in the remaining chapters, an &et the st&$e is profo!n $& He'raic an essentia$$& one with the rest of the .oo). These phenomena ma& 'e !e to the fact that o!r a!thor is here !sing a vigoro!s episto$ar& st&$e, which, whi$e compara'$e to or even transcen ing that of the finest passages of the rest of the ;.T., stan s in its freer p$a& of tho!ght, fee$ing an their e/pression in mar)e contrast to the !nriva$$e e$o9!ence an s!staine s!'$imit& of the rest of the .oo). T!rning from the or er of the ver' to that of the a :ective, the a :ective a$most a$wa&s fo$$ows its s!'stantive with the repetition of the artic$e. There are, however, some e/ceptions, which have their para$$e$s in the rest of the .oo). Th!s we fin 4 prepositive in 2+20 as a$wa&s in o!r a!thor an genera$$& in the ;.T. tho!gh it is post positive in He'rew. (n 3+0, </ <+ cf. 12+12, </ + in 3+5, F H )+ cf. 2,+3, #, an contrast # , 7+11. (n 2+13 we have the omission of the cop!$a in a re$ative sentence+ cf. 6+13, 16+0, 2,+1,B '!t this omission is fre9!ent in the ;.T. 0. The Letters #ere #ritten by our Author at an earlier date and re$edited by him for the present #or% #ith certain additions "ince an e/amination of the iction an i iom $ea s to the conc$!sion that the #etters are from the han of o!r a!thor, it is not necessar& to consi er the theories of some critics who ascri'e them to a fina$ reviser, or of others who assign them to an origina$ apoca$&pse which was s!'se9!ent$& e ite an en$arge '& $ater writers. .!t the 9!estion oes arise+ were these #etters written in the time of Jomitian '& o!r a!thor when he e ite the entire wor), or were the& written at an ear$ier ateK An this 9!estion m!st 'e answere , since conf$icting e/pectations of the en of the wor$ fin e/pression in them. >irst, there is the o$ er e/pectation that the Ch!rches wi$$ s!rvive ti$$ ChristLs $ast A vent+ cf. 2+26, - "# 4# 7 Z J(!, an 3+3, J(! C '. The "econ A vent is here referre to as in 1 Thess. 6+2, 0, where "t. Pa!$ himse$f e/pects to s!rvive this event. (n the meantime, however, the in ivi !a$ Ch!rches wi$$ !n ergo persec!tion from time to time, an their mem'ers in certain

cases 'e faithf!$ !nto eath1 as the& have 'een in the pastB2 '!t of a !niversa$ mart&r om there is not the s$ightest hint, tho!gh this e/pectation is ta!ght or imp$ie in the rest of the .oo) *see 13+16-B nor is there a sing$e reference to a wor$ 1wi e persec!tion save in 3+1,, tho!gh this is one of the chief themes of the Apoca$&pse. Again, tho!gh this wor$ 1wi e persec!tion was to arise in connection with the imperia$ c!$t of the Caesars as the rest of the .oo) c$ear$& states, there is not a sing$e reference to this c!$t in the #etters+ at most there ma& 'e an a$$!sion to it in 3+1,. %oreover, so far as this persec!tion was conceive as invo$ving the mart&r om of a$$ the faithf!$, as in 022, this conception is in irect conf$ict with 2+26, 3+11, where the Ch!rches are represente as witnessing more or $ess faithf!$$& ti$$ the A vent. (n short, the e/pectation that the Ch!rch wo!$ s!rvive ti$$ the "econ A vent cannot 'e he$ sim!$taneo!s$& with the e/pectation of a wor$ 1wi e persec!tion in which a$$ the faithf!$ wo!$ s!ffer mart&r om. These two e/pectations are m!t!a$$& e/c$!siveB an since the first is o'vio!s$& the origina$ teaching of o!r te/t, it fo$$ows that 3+1, is a s!'se9!ent a ition. Accor ing$& the present writer is of opinion that the iscor ant e$ements in the te/t can 'est 'e e/p$aine '& the h&pothesis that o!r a!thor wrote these #etters at a m!ch ear$ier ate than the .oo) as a who$e, 'efore the f!n amenta$ antagonism of the Ch!rch an the "tate came to 'e rea$i2e , an Christians ha to choose 'etween the c$aims of Christ an Caesarism, of Christianit& an the "tate. Ihen he p!t together his visions in the reign of Jomitian, he re1e ite these #etters '& the insertion of 3+1, an the a ition of new materia$ at the c$ose of each #etter, which in some egree 'ro!ght them into harmon& with the rest of the .oo). 6. Amongst the additions to the original Letters are the endings and in part the beginnings of the Letters in their present form Ie have a$rea & recogni2e that 3+1, is a $ater a ition ma e '& o!r a!thor. .!t we cannot stop here. The en ings of the #etters are in ee from o!r a!thorLs han ,1, '!t 1 Special visitations are threatened ( "#/ , 2:5, 1 ! unless the "hurches o# $phesus and %ergamum #orthwith repent, while to the "hurch o# Sm&rna 'a tri(ulation o# ten da&s,) issuing in the mart&rdom o# certain o# its mem(ers, is #oretold, 2:11* in +:1, chastisement (ut not mart&rdom is #oretold. 2 The "hurches have alread& su##ered persecution in a limited degree. Thus the "hurch o# $phesus is praised #or its #aith#ulness therein: c#. 2:+, , "# , .0 F @ , 9 /. Li-e wise Th&atira: c#. 2:1,, and that o# %hiladelphia, +:.* while that o# %ergamum has alread& its proto/mart&r 0ntipas, 2:1+. 1n Sm&rna and %hiladelphia the "hristians had su##ered at the hands o# the 2ews, 2:,, +:,. 1 The choice o# these endings on the part o# our author ma& in some cases (e determined (& the diction or thought o# the respective letters o# which the& #orm the close. Thus in the Letter to Sm&rna, 9 ': . $ 8 , 2:11, declares the reward o# him who is 4# , 2:13* in the Letter to %ergamum, & ! 9% $ , 2:14, sets #orth the true #ood in contrast to

the& wo!$ in man& respects 'e incomprehensi'$e '!t for the $ater chapters, to which in tho!ght an iction the& are most intimate$& re$ate , an apart from which the& wo!$ 'e a$$ '!t inscr!ta'$e enigmas+ cf. 2+=22+2, 10 * () * +!*-B 2+1121+5 *where ) is first e/p$aine -B 2+1=1<+12 *@ H - 9, 8-B 2+272<, 12+6, 1<+16 * 9B . ;0E .-B 22+17 * H !-B 3+67+11 *.' 9 R E -B13+5, 21+2= *% 00/E * +!*-B 3+1221+22, which shows that the term in 3+12 is to 'e ta)en metaphorica$$&-B 21+2 * H N H 0/ .-B 1<+12 *@ - 9, + cf. @ H in 3+12-B 3+212,+0. .!t another characteristic of these #etters is that the& a$$ !se the phrase . That this e/pression esignates one who has passe victorio!s$& thro!gh the mart&rLs eath to the $ife eterna$, is c$ear from 12+11, 9, ./' H , 9 T' # 9 4# + 16+2, H B . $ '/ H . ., /'+ 21+=. ;ow that 'ears the same meaning at the c$ose of the #etters is to 'e inferre from 3+21, & ! 9% / > .$ . % E O C ./' , . F $ . % E 9$. As Christ witnesse to the tr!th '& His eath, so sho!$ His servants. ;ow, if is !se in this sense at the c$ose of a$$ the #etters, as it appears to o, we have here an a$$!sion to the wor$ 1em'racing persec!tion *an mart&r om-, which is efinite$& referre to in 3+1,, tho!gh s!ch an e/pectation is 9!ite foreign to the 'o & of the #etters, which 'e$ong to an ear$ier ate. Another $ater a ition of o!r a!thor common to a$$ the #etters is, "#! ! / $ .' /+ 2+=a, 11a, 1=a, 2<, 3+7, 13, 22. .& this a ition o!r a!thor wo!$ teach that the #etters are not mere$& for their respective Ch!rches, '!t for a$$ the Ch!rches. Th!s the& are a apte so far as the en ings are concerne to their new conte/t. The $ater a itions at the c$ose of the #etters are accor ing$&+ 2+=, 11, 1=, 272<, 3+67, 1,, 1213, 2122. .!t the ivine tit$es of Christ at the 'eginnings of the #etters can har $& have stoo in the origina$ #etters as the& now o. "!ch a conc$!sion is s!ggeste '& the facts that whereas the& are a$$, with the e/ception of those prefacing the #etter to the Ch!rch of #ao icea, rawn ver'a$$& from 1+1315 *see note p. 26 s9.-, the& have no organic connection, e/cept in the case of the #etters to the Ch!rches of Phi$a e$phia an Th&atira, with the #etters which the& respective$& intro !ce, tho!gh in severa$ instances an artificia$ connection can 'e iscovere *see note :!st referre to-. Ihat the tit$es of Christ were in the origina$ form of the #etters cannot now 'e etermine . "ome of the e/isting tit$es ma& 'e origina$, '!t it is har to eva e the conc$!sion that the origina$ tit$es were recast '& o!r a!thor, when he incorporate the #etters into the comp$ete e ition of his visions, an were 'ro!ght into c$ose conformit& with the ivine tit$es of Christ in 1+1315. "ince the& have '!t s$ight affinit& with the contents of the #etters at the hea of which the& stan , their most nat!ra$ e/p$anation is to 'e fo!n in 1+1315. 7. !ere the Letters originally seven distinct Letters addressed and sent to the Seven "hurches& @n vario!s gro!n s we have conc$! e that the "even #etters were compose '& o!r a!thor 'efore the time of Jomitian+ a$so that on their incorporation into the the A!, 2:15* and in the Letter to Sardis, 9 .(/! 8 @ 9$ . 8 0/0 * +!*, +:5, ma& re#er in the wa& o# contrast to @ "# 6 +: , +:1

Apoca$&pse the& were re1e ite '& him in or er to a apt them to the impen ing crisis, '& changes ma e in the 'eginnings to 'ring them into c$oser conformit& with 1+1015, an '& a itions s!ch as 3+1, an others at the c$ose of the #etters, as 2+=, 11, 1=, 27 2<, 3+67, 1,, 1213, 2122, in or er to $in) them !p with the theme of the .oo) as a who$e8the conf$ict 'etween Christ an Caesar, Christianit& an the Ior$ Power, an the !niversa$ mart&r om of the faithf!$ which the "eer apprehen e as a res!$t of this conf$ict. ;ow, if the a'ove conc$!sions are va$i , it wo!$ not 'e !nreasona'$e to conc$! e f!rther that these #etters were act!a$ $etters sent separate$& to the vario!s Ch!rches, an are, notwithstan ing their 'revit&, compara'$e in this respect to the Pa!$ine Epp. (n efa!$t of in epen ent historica$ materia$s we are !na'$e to test the acc!rac& of most of the etai$s re$ating to the mora$ an re$igio!s $ife in the "even Ch!rches. .!t s!ch materia$s are not who$$& wanting. Th!s we )now that the (gnatian Epist$es to Ephes!s, "m&rna, an Phi$a e$phia s!'stantiate certain statements of o!r a!thor 'earing on the inner $ife of these Ch!rches *see pp. 05, 6,, 62, etc.-. (n the case of the Ch!rch of #ao icea the e/terna$ evi ence is f!$$er. Th!s in 3+1=15 the contrast rawn 'etween the ep$ora'$e spirit!a$ con ition of #ao icea an its materia$ an inte$$ect!a$ riches cannot 'e acci enta$, since we )now from e/terna$ a!thorities that #ao icea was pre1 eminent in these $atter respects. .!t the #etter to the Ch!rch in #ao icea shows that o!r a!thor is fami$iar with some of the Christian $iterat!re circ!$ating within it8s!ch as "t. Pa!$Ls Ep. to the Co$ossians *see note on p. <0 s9.-, which, accor ing to "t. Pa!$Ls irections, was to 'e rea in the Ch!rch of #ao icea. %& h&pothesis, therefore, that the "even #etters, which origina$$& ea$t with the spirit!a$ con itions of these Ch!rches, an )new nothing whatever of the impen ing wor$ conf$ict 'etween Christianit& an the (mperia$ C!$t!s, were act!a$$& sent to their respective Ch!rches, has m!ch to recommen it. 2:17. THE MESSAGE TO THE CHURCH IN EPHESUS 1. % E % . [1 E .' / . The cit& of Ephes!s $a& on the $eft 'an) of the Ca&ster. (n man& inscriptions it is esignate , K &' , / ' ' * U /. (t was, accor ing to "tra'o, the greatest empori!m in Asia *M10+20, . F U / . $ \)-. Ephes!s was the centre of Roman a ministration in Asia. As the Province of Asia was senatoria$ the governor was ca$$e procons!$ *Acts 1<+35, )-, an it was at Ephes!s that he was 'o!n to $an an to enter on his office. As a free cit& it ha a 'oar of magistrates * '/-, a senate *0-, an a pop!$ar Assem'$& *.' /-1 An er the Empire the power of the pop!$ar Assem'$&, which in ear$ier a&s ha rea$$& he$ the reins of power, ha ec$ine !nti$ its chief f!nction was to approve of the .i$$s s!'mitte '& the "enate. (t ha its reg!$ar times of meeting, '!t no e/traor inar& meeting co!$ 'e s!mmone e/cept '& the Roman officia$s. The '!siness of the Assem'$& was apparent$& manage '& the Town C$er) *B * ! or 8 -. The "enate, which in pre1Roman a&s ha 'een e$ecte ann!a$$& '& the citi2ens, came gra !a$$&, !n er the Roman swa&, to 'e compose of a 'o & of isting!ishe citi2ens chosen for $ife, which 1 Swete (p. li6! states that three were there assem(lies: a council ( 0! elected #rom the si6 tri(es into which the population was divided* a senate ( /! charged with the #inance o# the cit& and pro(a(l& o# pu(lic worship as well as with the care o# the pu(lic monuments* a popular assem(l& ( .' /!. $ach had its ).

ten e more an more to 'ecome a mere too$ of the (mperia$ ?overnment. Ephes!s was the Iestern termin!s of the great s&stem of Roman roa s8the great tra e ro!te from the E!phrates '& wa& of Co$ossae an #ao icea, a secon from ?a$atia via "ar is, whi$e a thir came !p from the so!th from the %aean er va$$e&. >rom its evotion to Artemis, Ephes!s appropriate to itse$f the tit$e Temp$e Iar en *!, Acts 1<+36-. .!t this wor too) on an a itiona$ meaning, an came most common$& to 'e app$ie to a cit& as a war en of a temp$e of the imperia$ c!$t!s. The Ephesian ;eocorate is first mentione on coins of ;ero. The first temp$e was pro'a'$& erecte to C$a! i!s or ;ero,1 the secon to Ha rian, an the thir to "ever!s. A 2n cent!r& inscription *Ioo , App. Inscr. vi. 7, p. 6,- spea)s of Ephes!s as 'eing war en of two imperia$ temp$es as we$$ as of that of Artemis *, ! 20 , ! * U-. Ephes!s was a$so a hot1'e of ever& )in of c!$t an s!perstition. (ts wor)s on magic *[1 - were notorio!s thro!gho!t the wor$ . ;ow it was at this cit& that Pa!$ fo!n e a Christian Ch!rch *6,66-, whence proce e a movement that $e to the evange$i2ation of the province *Acts 1<+1,-. Tho!gh of ver& secon ar& importance for a co!p$e of eca es, it m!st after the fa$$ of Eer!sa$em in =, A.J. have 9!ic)$& risen into a position of s!preme importance an 'ecome the chief centre of the Christian >aith in the East. Hence it is right$& name first in 1+11, 2+1. (t was the home of "t. Eohn in the $atter part of the cent!r&B an tra ition states that not on$& were Timoth& an Eohn, '!t a$so the Nirgin %ar&, '!rie at Ephes!s. E! ai2ing an ?nostic teachers ear$& showe themse$ves active, as we ma& infer from 1 Tim. 1+= * -, 0+13, etc., an (gnati!s, Ad 'phes. vii. 1, A& E '% @ 1O 4 F ( $] ^ 3 C '/ ./] A , F ) O *O ^ 3 1 @ ). The presence of s!ch e$ements testifie to the anger of schism. "ee the artic$es on Ephes!s in Hastings D.(., an the 'ncyc. (ib. with the $iterat!re there 9!ote . . This c$a!se occ!rs eight times in the ;.T., seven of these 'eing in 2 an 3 of o!r .oo). 6 occ!rs on$& twice e$sewhere in the ;.T. This sparing !se has 'een o'serve a$so in the _. B RF . : (/? 9$ . This c$a!se has no organic connection with the $etter to the Ch!rch in Ephes!s, an , moreover, it is repeate in 3+1 in a s$ight$& ifferent form. The !se of , which here means to ho$ fast, whi$e in 1+17, 3+1 we have "#!, is strange. (n the case of the "on of %an "#! e/presses a$$ that is nee e . His character is a g!arantee that the "#! contains the . (f it were a man that was in 9!estion here, the !se of *cf. 2+13, =+1, 3to $a& ho$ of,4 2,+2, an 2+10, 16, 26+, 3+11 where 'oth wor s occ!r- wo!$ 'e inte$$igi'$e. . E 8 R # 8 # . ChristLs vigi$ance is not $oca$i2e '!t coe/tensive with the entire Ch!rch. The i ea of the # ret!rns in 2+6, which ma& have occasione the choice of the a'ove tit$e. That the former of these two ivine tit$es was a e '& o!r a!thor when e iting his visions as a who$e, see p. 26 s9., 06 s9. 1 The temple dedicated to 0ugustus some time (e#ore 5 7.". did not entitle the cit& to the Neocorate* #or it was not an independent #oundation, (eing (uilt within the precincts o# the temple o# 0rtemis* and it was a dedication (& the municipalit& merel&, and not (& the S&nod o# 0sia ( U /!. 8.B. 9astings: Dictionary of the Bible.



23. These two verses appear to consist of three co!p$ets. F " O , , , 6 9 )M 0 ) , , ./ B RB , 9 A /O , 7 9B . , "# , .0 F @ , 9 / . Here the theme is F " . These consist of , . These two s!'or inate themes are then rehan $e , the in 2'c an the in 3a'. There are two paronomasias which cannot 'e acci enta$+ an 9 /, an 9 )M 0 an .0 . 2. The phrase F " rec!rs, '!t with the prono!n prece ing the no!n, in 2+1<, 3+1, 5, 16. A''ott *)ohannine *ram., pp. 010, 022, 7,17,=- ca$$s the $atter the vernac!$ar or !nemphatic possessive. (n 2+1< we have a com'ination of 'oth. "ee note. . Christ )nows ever&thing *Eohn 21+1=-8 a$i)e the goo *23, 7- an the 'a *069!a$ities. , . The sing$e prono!n $in)s together the two prece ing no!ns. These two are the wor)s of the Ch!rch in Ephes!s8its severe efforts in resisting an overcoming fa$se teachers *2'c -,an its stea fast en !rance on 'eha$f of the name of Christ *3a'-. Ie might compare 1 Thess. 1+3, ') $ " * / ! , $ * ' , * * * ./, '!t here an are coor inate with an not s!'or inate to "8 with its cognate 3 is c$ose$& associate with Christian wor) in the ;.T. a$i)e in o!r te/t *cf. a$so 10+13- an in the Pa!$ine Epist$es. , as Trench *Synon. 1<1- points o!t, is !se to e/press patience in respect of things, '!t / in respect of persons. .!t the patience is of a high ethica$ character. 3(n this no'$e wor there a$wa&s appears *in the ;.T.- a 'ac)gro!n of / *cf. P$ato, Theaet. 1==', where is oppose to ! 1)-+ it oes not mar) mere$& the en !rance H '!t H the 'rave patience with which the Christian conten s against the vario!s hin rances, persec!tions, an temptations that 'efa$$ him in his conf$ict with the inwar an o!twar wor$ 4 *E$$icott on 1 Thess. 1+3, 9!ote '& Trench, op.cit., p. 1<,-. 9 )M 0 . for )M for ) occ!rs a$so in %ar) <+22, 23B #!)e 17+2. Tho!gh not fo!n in Attic prose it is fo!n in Attic poetr&. The into$erance here commen e is of evi$ oers who c$aime to 'e apost$es. C$em. A$e/. *Strom. ii. 15- we$$ efines as the )now$e ge of what things are to 'e 'orne an what are not *. ' .! , 9 .!-.The nee of testing the c$aims of itinerant teachers who c$aime to 'e prophets an apost$es was ear$& fe$t+ cf. 1 Thess. 6+2, s9.B 1 Eohn 0+1. The& were not to 'e ac)now$e ge !n$ess the& 'ro!ght with them 3commen ator& $etters4 *2 Cor. 3+1-. That the Ch!rch in Ephes!s sh!nne s!ch fa$se teachers we $earn from (gnati!s, 'ph. i/. 1, "! Q ) .O "# #] ^ 9 A A 3O 0) F ` A ( F > 9. (n the Ji ache /i. 5, 1,, the !$timate test of s!ch teachers was conformit& of their $ives with that of Christ. (n Hermas, +and. /i. 1116, the two t&pes of teachers are contraste , an in 11+17 the e/ce$$ent a vice is given+ /+ * +!* , "! 4! R 1 . , ./ . The ver' points to some efinite occasion. + ma& 'e compare with + in 1 Eohn 0+1.

B RB , 9 A / . The 9 A / is here a He'raism for 9 @. *"ee note on 1+6'7, p. 10 s9. . These persons have 'een i entifie + *1- with the E! ai2ers sent from Eer!sa$em *so "pitta-+ cf. 2 Cor. 11+13 s9.+ *2- with the iscip$es of "t. Pa!$ or even "t. Pa!$ himse$f *No$)mar, NO$ter, Ho$t2mann3 *with reservations--B *3- with the ;ico$aitans in 7 *.o!sset-. Accor ing to this view, 7 res!mes 2. This e/p$anation appears to 'e the 'est of the three. (t a$so right$& ifferentiates the " in 2 *i.e. the vigoro!s action against the fa$se teacher an the en !rance !n er aff$iction- from the " in 6, which are i entica$ with the ' H &', or 'rother$& $ove, in 0. The Ch!rch in Ephes!s sti$$ hates, 7, the evi$ mem'ers, the fa$se apost$es which it ha trie an re:ecte . 3. This verse ret!rns to the positive e$ement in the praise given in 2+ it e/p$ains , an refers to in 9 /, 3tho! hast not grown wear&.4 Here we have "# , .0 :!st as in the prece ing verse, )M H , / . (n 'oth cases an ethica$ characteristic is 'ro!ght forwar which ha manifeste itse$f in some act of the imme iate past. 4. .!t, tho!gh the Ch!rch in Ephes!s has preserve its mora$ an octrina$ p!rit& an maintaine an !nwavering $o&a$t& in tria$, it has $ost the warm $ove which it ha at the 'eginning. The $ove here referre to is 'rother$& $ove+ cf. 1<B %att. 20+12 *F '* / K ' -, an 2 Eohn 67. "ome scho$ars see in o!r te/t a reminiscence of Eer. 2+2, 3the $ove of thine espo!sa$s,4 an interpret it of the $ove to ?o an Christ. The controversies which ha rage in Ephes!s ha apparent$& $e to censorio!sness, factio!sness, an ivisions *cf. Acts 2,+2<3,-, an the Ch!rch ha $ost the enth!siastic $ove it ha shown in the a&s of Pa!$ *cf. Acts 2,+3=-. "#! F $ . Cf. 10, 2,. (s this an echo of %att. 6+23, %ar) 11+26K 1*8 A common !sage of this ver' in Eohn+ cf. 0+3, 25, 62, 1,+12, etc. 5. The Ch!rch in Ephes!s is 'i en to recogni2e the spirit!a$ ec$ension that has ta)en p$ace, to repent an o the wor)s which characteri2e its first $ove. As "wete remar)s, 3'O ' O /' answer to three stages in the histor& of conversion.4 ' . Cf. 3+3. A Q O "#/ O , ! #/ . $ 9* a.F Mb . "ince the A Q here ec$ares that if the Ch!rch oes not f!$fi$ the trip$e comman given in ' H , ' H , H /' O :! gment wi$$ ens!e, it is manifest that the c$a!se .F M is rea$$& a wea)er repetition of A Q . This is not in )eeping with o!r a!thorLs st&$e. After A Q . we m!st !n erstan ') H , , . Accor ing$& A Q or .F M m!st 'e e/cise as an intr!sionB an c$ear$& it is the $atter, as a comparison of 2+6 an 2+17 shows. The necessit& for this e/cision 'ecomes o'vio!s if we compare 17 an 22 in this chapter, where we have separately the two constr!ctions occ!rring in this verse. (n the first case we have a goo para$$e$ to o!r te/t hereB for the same se9!ence of i eas, though less full, rec!rs ' ] A Q O "#/ #)O , !8 Here there is no otiose repetition of the i ea conve&e in A Q . After A Q here we have on$& to s!pp$& . (n 2+22 we have the secon possi'$e constr!ction, AB 0! 9 A /' H .F . Ihen the interpo$ate g$oss is remove we fin that 6 consists of two co!p$ets, the secon of which is A Q O "#/ ,

incorrect ren ering of , as in %att. 21+6 *so .$ass, *ram. 113- "#/ refers here as in 2+17 to a specia$ visitation or coming, tho!gh reference to the fina$ :! gment is not e/c$! e . "# is practica$$& !se as e9!iva$ent to .) thro!gho!t the Apoca$&pse. ! #/ , i.e. th& Ch!rch. That the Ephesian Ch!rch pai hee to this warning for the time 'eing we $earn from the Pro$og!e to (gnati!sL Epist$e to Ephes!s, where he ca$$s it ( + an in 1+1, where he ec$ares, ', @ $O +! . Y $O " H '/ . Again in 11+2 he e/presses the wish that he 3ma& 'e fo!n in the compan& of those Christians of Ephes!s who, moreover, were ever of one min with the apost$es in the power of Christ.4 That the threat in o!r te/t imp$ies not egra ation nor remova$ of the Ch!rch to another p$ace, '!t estr!ction, seems o'vio!s. Pet Ramsa& *Letters, 203 s99.- is of opinion that the threat is so e/presse as to mean on$& a change in $oca$ position, an s!pports this interpretation '& the statement that 3Ephes!s has a$wa&s remaine the tit!$ar hea of the Asian Ch!rch, an the .ishop of Ephes!s sti$$ 'ears that ignit&, tho!gh he no $onger resi es at Ephes!s '!t at %agnesia ad Sipylum.4 ;othing now remains on the site of Ephes!s *i.e. A&asa$!) G I - save a rai$wa& station an a few h!ts. 6. The "eer mo ifies the severe criticism in 06 '& 'ringing forwar the re eeming characteristic in the Ephesian Ch!rch, that the& hate the ee s which Christ a$so hate . F " cd . These ;ico$aitans have 'een i entifie from the time of (renae!s *i. 27, 3, iii. 11. 1- an Hippo$&t!s *,hilos. vii. 37-, who was epen ent on (renae!s, with the fo$$owers of ;ico$a!s the prose$&te of Antioch *Acts 7+6-. Tert!$$ian spea)s apparent$& of a secon sect *,raesc. -aer. 33, Adv. +arc. i. 2<, De ,udicitia, 1<-, '!t Epiphani!s *-aer. 26.- ea$s with the ;ico$aitans mentione in o!r te/t. (n C$em. A$e/. *ii. 2,. 115, iii. 0. 26-, the "onstit. Apost. *vi. 5, D $ & c-, an Nictorin!s an attempt was not !nnat!ra$$& ma e to show that the erivation of this immora$ sect from one of the seven Jeacons was an error. Accor ing to C$ement, ;ico$a!s ta!ght 6 #* : , , an accor ing to Hippo$&t!s *,hilos. viii. 37-, c H ./ 1/ 0/ , 0& !. A comparison of the te/t here with 2+1617 $ea s to an i entification of the ;ico$aitans an the .a$aamites not on$& on the gro!n of o!r te/t, '!t a$so from the fact that the& are ro!gh$& et&mo$ogica$ e9!iva$ents, tho!gh He!mann *Act. 'rudit., 1=12, p. 1=<!rge this as a gro!n for regar ing the names as, a$$egorica$ an not historica$. That is, .a$aam G " ! G 3he hath cons!me the peop$e4 *a erivation fo!n in "anh. 1,6a, where " ! is an a$ternative rea ing-, whi$e c G e 8 "!ch a p$a& on the et&mo$og& of wor s is thoro!gh$& "emitic. There is, it is tr!e, no e/act e9!iva$ent to 3 in He'rew. Hence the a'ove can stan . >!rthermore a comparison of 2+10 an 2+2,, which shows that the .a$aamites an the fo$$owers of Ee2e'e$ were g!i$t& of e/act$& the same vices, ma)es it high$& pro'a'$e that the $atter were a 'ranch of the ;ico$aitans. The wor)s of the ;ico$aitans, then, are those given in 2+10, 2,. The& transgress the chief comman s iss!e '& the Aposto$ic Co!nci$ at Eer!sa$em *Acts 16+2<-. 7. "#! ! . Cf. %att. 11+16, 13+<, 03B %ar) 0+<, 23, etc. This form!$a intro !ces the promise to him that overcomes in the first three messages an 7lass, 7lass, Grammar of N.T. Greek (transl. (& Thac-era&!, 1.,..

, ! #/ . $ 9* . "#/ 8 Cf. 2+17. The ative here ma& 'e the dativus incommodi, or an

c$oses it on the $ast fo!r. Here the spea)er t!rns from the in ivi !a$ Ch!rch to the who$e Christian comm!nit&. "ince the .oo) as a who$e was written to 'e rea in p!'$ic worship, s!ch a $arger reference was conceiva'$e in an for itse$f. This c$a!se, which occ!rs seven times,8once in each #etter,8seems to have 'een a e '& the "eer when he incorporate the "even #etters in an e ition of his visions. The seven eschato$ogica$ promises, 2+=', 11', 1=', 272=, 3+6, 12, 21, appear to have 'een a e at the same time. "!ch a phrase as 3 D .' / in 2+23 is no evi ence to the contrar&. $ . Cf. the c$osing wor s of a$$ the #ettersB a$so 10+13, 1<+1,, 22+1=. The "pirit here is the Ho$& "pirit which inspires the prophets, '!t a$so the "pirit of Christ, since in 2+1 Christ is the "pea)er. The "pirit here has nothing to o with the seven spirits in 3+1 C1+0D, 0+6. % $ $ . A e pro'a'$& '& o!r a!thor when he e ite the visions as a who$e *see p. 06-. % & ! 9% . Ie have here a we$$1)nown He'raism. Cf. #FF of Eosh. <+12, D 4 H .1! ' 9). (t is fo!n spora ica$$& in the _, '!t the _ !sage is who$$& ina e9!ate to e/p$ain the fre9!enc& an variet& of the He'raisms in o!r a!thor. >or the occ!rrence of this i iom e$sewhere in the ;.T., see Eohn 7+3<, =+35, 1,+36 s9., 16+26, 1=+2B 1 Eohn 2+20, 2=+ cf, A''ott, *ram 32 s9., 3,<. (n 2+27, H & ! 9% is more He'raistic than the e/pression in 2+=. 3 is a wor characteristic of o!r a!thor, an is !se of the faithf!$ Christian warrior in 2+11, 1=, 27, 3+6, 12, 21a, 12+11, 16+2, 21+5B of Christ Himse$f in 3+21', 6+6, 1=+10. (n the remaining passages it is witho!t this mora$ significance, 7+2, 11+=, 13+=. (t is fo!n once in the >o!rth ?ospe$ an si/ times in 1 Eohn. E$sewhere in the ;.T. on$& fo!r times. Cf. 1 Enoch 1+2. The wor 3 imp$ies that the Christian $ife is a warfare from which there is no ischarge, '!t it is a warfare, o!r a!thor teaches, in which even the fee'$est saint can prove victorio!s. .!t the wor 3 is not !se in o!r a!thor of ever& Christian, '!t on$& of the mart&r who, tho!gh apparent$& overcome in that he ha to $a& own his $ife, &et was in ver& tr!th the one who overcame, 3as ( a$so have overcome,4 saith Christ, 3+21 *cf. Eohn 17+33-. The particip$e % is here, as e$sewhere in o!r a!thor, inf$!ence '& the !se of the He'rew particip$e, which can have a perfect sense or imperfect as the conte/t re9!ires *see p. 2,2 n.-. (n o!r a!thor G '&. This warfare which faithf!$ness entai$s ma& 'e i$$!strate from 0 E2ra =+12= s9., 3An he answere me an sai + This is the con ition of the contest which ever& man who is 'orn !pon earth m!st wage, that if he 'e overcome he sha$$ s!ffer as tho! hast sai B '!t, if he 'e victorio!s, he sha$$ receive what ( have sai .4 & ! 1 . $ () * +!* . & ! H 1 is a fre9!ent constr!ction in o!r a!thor, occ!rring in a$$ e$even times. (n the >o!rth ?ospe$ it is fo!n fo!r times, an in the rest of the ;.T. twent& times. Persona$ victor& over evi$ is the con ition witho!t which none can eat of the tree of $ife. Iith o!r te/t we ma& compare 22+10. Test. #evi 15+11, , & L/ 1 . $ () * +!* + 1 Enoch 20+0, , f . 9 - 9 g 1 , 9, 5 9 91'O , 9Q 5 6 9%8 < # 9! ! !!O , F 1) 9$ , 4 , 9 1/ A A+ 2,+0, , $ 9!/O , 9/ F( .( / "# I 9$ # * ' / ! H / , / + 6, 9$ . A +! A 0O , 1 . E L/E F $ $. Th!s as ear$& as the 2n cent. ..C. it was he$ that the tree of $ife wo!$ 0((ott, 0((ott, Johannine Grammar, 1,3 .

'e transferre to the temp$e of the #or in Eer!sa$em8not apparent$& the Heaven$& Eer!sa$em, '!t the earth$& Eer!sa$em c$eanse from a$$ ini9!it&. That the earth$& Eer!sa$em sho!$ give p$ace to the Heaven$& in this connection was inevita'$e. .!t the com'ination of the two i eas is of s!preme importance as it prepares the wa& for the conception of o!r "eer, who p$aces the tree of $ife in the street of the Heaven$& Eer!sa$em *22+2-. That this -eavenly Eer!sa$em, to which 'e$ongs the tree of $ife *2+=, 22+2-, is to 'e the seat of the %i$$ennia$ Qing om on the present earth 'efore the >ina$ E! gment, an is not to 'e confo!n e with the .e# Eer!sa$em, which is to escen from the new heaven to the new earth after the >ina$ E! gment an 'ecome the ever$asting a'o e of the '$esse , ( have shown at some $ength in the (ntro . to 2,+022. $ () * +!* . Cf. 22+2, 10. The tree of $ife is the s&m'o$ for immorta$it& in o!r a!thor. ;one can eat of it save those who have prove victorio!s in the strife with sin an evi$. The () * +!* is to 'e caref!$$& isting!ishe from the =! * +!*. The $atter is a free gift *22+1=, 21+7-, given witho!t mone& an witho!t price to ever& one that thirsteth for it. (t s&m'o$i2es the ivine graces of forgiveness an tr!th an $ight, etc. *cf. =+1=-. (f a man is faithf!$ to the o'$igations entai$e '& these graces he 'ecomes a victor *- in the 'att$e of $ife, an th!s wins the right to eat of the tree of $ife, that is, he enters fina$$& on immorta$it&. (n the >o!rth ?ospe$ *0+1,, 13, 10-, on the other han , on$& the one s&m'o$ is !se 83the water of $ife,4 an this is given a significance that em'races the two s&m'o$s !se '& o!r a!thor. % / E $ $ . (n o!r a!thor Para ise has 'ecome e9!iva$ent to the Heaven$& Eer!sa$em, which is to escen from heaven 'efore the >ina$ E! gment to 'ecome the seat of the %i$$ennia$ Qing om. (n #!)e 23+03 it is the a'o e of the '$esse eparte , an in 2 Cor. 12+0 it is i entifie with the thir heaven or with part of it. @n some of the other meanings assigne to it an the $oca$ities i entifie with it, see m& 'schatology2, 200, 2<1 s9., 317315, 36=, 0=3 s9. 811. THE MESSAGE TO THE CHURCH IN SM RNA 8. . 2)M . The ancient cit& of "m&rna was estro&e ear$& in the 7th cent. ..C. an refo!n e on a new site !n er the Jia ochoi '& #&simach!s *3,1251 ..C.-. (t has contin!e from that ate to the present one of the most prospero!s cities of Asia %inor. "m&rna prove itse$f a faithf!$ a$$& of Rome from the perio that Rome 'egan to intervene in Eastern affairs an 'efore it ha esta'$ishe its c$aim to wor$ s!premac&. (t open$& s!pporte Rome against %ithri ates, Carthage, an the "e$e!ci )ings. As ear$& as 1<6 ..C. *Tac. Ann. vi. 67- it e icate a temp$e to the go ess of Rome. #&ing at the en of one of the great roa s $ea ing across #& ia from Phr&gia an the east, an forming the maritime o!t$et for the who$e tra e of the Herm!s va$$e&, it 'ecame wea$th& an prospero!s. (t was an assi2e town, an one of the cities 'earing the name '8 Iith Ephes!s an Pergam!m it strove for the tit$e &' U /8a strife which contin!e ti$$ it was sett$e '& the Emperor Antonin!s *Phi$ostr. p. 231. 20, e . Qa&ser-B an of a$$ the Asiatic cities that in A.J. 27 conten e for the right of erecting a temp$e to Ti'eri!s, #ivia an the "enate, it a$one sec!re this privi$ege an co!$ henceforth c$aim the (mperia$ ;eocorate. A secon ;eocorate was accor e to it '& Ha rian *see, however, #ightfoot, Ignatius, i. 07=- an a thir '& "ever!s. @f the power ac9!ire '& the Eews in "m&rna notice wi$$ 'e ta)en. As regar s the origin of the Ch!rch in "m&rna the ;.T. gives no information. Accor ing to /ita ,olycarpi, 2, "t. Pa!$ visite "m&rna on his wa& to Ephes!s. Accor ing to Acts 1<+1,, 3A$$ the& which we$t in Asia hear the wor of ?o .4 "ee the .i'$e Jictionaries on 3"m&rna,4 an Ramsa&, Letters, in loc. , " #8 Repeate from 1+1=.

- . , "+' . These wor s a$so go 'ac) to 1+1= s9., , .' O , AB + A, A $ A A&!. Compare the emonic caricat!re in the case of the Antichrist+ 13+10, - "# ' * #/' , "+' . The wor "+' refers to ChristLs res!rrection+ cf. Rom. 10+<, h , "+' Y , , +&! ) M. This part of the tit$e, - . , "+' , points forwar to 1, , / 4# , & ! 1 * +!*. The ivine tit$e, , " #, seems to have 'een a e '& o!r a!thor when e iting his visions as a who$e. "ee p. 06 s9. 910. These two verses constit!te three stan2as+ the first verse constit!ting the first stan2a of three $ines an the secon verse two stan2as of three $ines an two respective$&. 9. / F ) . The !nemphatic or vernac!$ar !se of the prono!n here throws the emphasis on the conte/t, 3( )now the affliction and poverty tho! en !rest, '!t tho! art not poor '!t rich.4 Iith this we ma& contrast the wor s a resse to #ao icea, 3+1=, 6 i) AO H , 9 6 B H !#. @n the com'ination of materia$ povert& an spirit!a$ riches cf. 2 Cor. 7+1,, C !#/O B Q /++ Eas. 2+6, 9# .(( B !#B % E / . / + a$so #!)e 12+21B 1 Tim. 7+15. The povert& of the Christians in "m&rna appears to 'e !e at a$$ events in part to the espoi$ing of their goo s '& the Eewish an pagan mo's+ cf. He'. 1,+30, L #! F #3 ( . 0 1'/ . ! N/ R) . Here . means 3procee ing from.4 Hence Eohn 3+26 is not a tr!e para$$e$. The 'itter hosti$it& of the Eews to the Christians at "m&rna is !nmista)a'$e from the conte/t. The Eews were strong at "m&rna, an ha maintaine in practice their position as a istinct peop$e apart from the rest of the citi2ens ti$$ the reign of Ha rian as an inscription *"I*. 3105, D Q N- shows, tho!gh the& ha $ega$$& cease to 'e so at =, A.J. >rom other so!rces we )now of their hosti$it& to the Christians. E!stin *Dial. /vi. 11, /$vii. 16, /cvi. 6, etc.- charges the Eews genera$$& with c!rsing in their s&nagog!es those that 'e$ieve on ChristB an Tert!$$ian with instigating the persec!tion of the Christians *Scorp. 1,, 3"&nagogas E! aeor!m, fontes persec!tion!m4-+ cf. E!se'. -.'. v. 17. An this hosti$it& was no o!'t aggravate '& the accession of converts from E! aism to Christianit&, a fact which is atteste in (gnati!s *Ad Smyrn. i. 2, A B L/ , B 9$O H . N/ H . " -. (n the mart&r om of Po$&carp this enmit& of the Eews was e/hi'ite in an a$most incre i'$e egreeB for the& :oine *12+2with the pagans in acc!sing Po$&carp of hosti$it& to the state religion, cr&ing o!t 3with !ngoverna'$e wrath an with a $o! sho!t+ RThis is the teacher of Asia, the father of the Christians, the p!$$er own of o!r go s, who teacheth n!m'ers not to sacrifice nor to worshipL4 * K! 'O B ! ) 'Q -. These Eews, moreover, :oine with the pagans in eman ing from the Asiarch an chief priest Phi$ip the eath of Po$&carp, an were especia$$& active *a$tho!gh it was the "a''ath a&- in co$$ecting tim'er an faggots with a view to '!rning Po$&carp a$ive * N/! )!O C " 9O A $ )!- *op. cit. /iii. 1-. #ater in the Jecian persec!tion the Eews too) a prominent part in the mart&r om of Pioni!s, which, too, too) p$ace on the "a''ath *Act. ,ion. 3-. (n o!r te/t the Eews are charge with '$aspheming Christ an His fo$$owers as the& ha one in the ear$iest a&s of Pa!$Ls preaching in Asia %inor *Acts 13+06, D N H i) 0 1'$-. .!t the Christians are remin e that these Eews

are Eews in name on$&8after the f$esh an not after the spirit+ cf. Rom. 2+25, 9 F . % 1E N . H > . % % NO , / . ) 9 + ?a$. 7+16 s9. The tr!e Eews are those who have 'e$ieve in Christ, an there'& won a $egitimate c$aim to the name an spirit!a$ privi$eges 'e$onging to the Eews. The fact that o!r a!thor attaches a spirit!a$ significance of the highest character to the name N shows that he is himse$f a Eewish Christian. (n s!ch a connection the >o!rth Evange$ist wo!$ have !se the term N '/' *cf. 1+0=-, whereas he represents the N. as specifica$$& an essentia$$& the opponents of Christianit&. "ee Iestcott, )ohn, p. i/. s9. , 9 A / . @n this He'raism for , 9 @! see note on 1+67. ! $ 23 . Cf. 3+<. The Eews were, as their actions showe , a "&nagog!e of "atan tho!gh the& c$aime to 'e a "&nagog!e of the #or + 2! $

_/ *;!m. 17+3 *31+17 ,*$- 27+< ,2,+0 ,* #. Cf. Pss. so$. /vii. 15, !F /!-. The no'$er wor .' / was chosen '& the Ch!rch as a se$f1 esignation, ! 'eing !se on$& once in the ;.T. of a Christian assem'$& *Eas. 2+2-. ! was gra !a$$& a'an one to the Eews, an th!s we fin s!ch an e/pression as ! $ 23 in this .oo), which was a$most the $atest in the Canon. 10. The persec!tion with which the Ch!rch is here threatene shows that the Eews are acting in concert with the heathen a!thorities. "pitta s!ggests that the term 0 *cf. 12+1,, ! 1 K- is here chosen in or er to reca$$ the ca$!mnies of the Eews against the Christians. .!t in that case we sho!$ , as JSster iec) o'serves, e/pect ! $ 0 in <. .( . >or the partitive genitive !se as an o':ect, cf. %att. 23+30B 2 Eohn 0. (n Rev. 11+<B Eohn 17+1=, we have it !se as the s!':ect. A 1 Y * . This phrase efines the character of the tria$ awaiting the Ch!rch in "m&rna, an therefore the meaning to 'e attache to *. + an in 3+1, refer to the emonic attac)s which are to 'efa$$ a$$ the !n'e$ievers on the earth, '!t which cannot affect those who have 'een sea$e + see =+20 *notes-B for the sea$ing has sec!re them against s!ch attac)s. .!t in the present verse + is !se in the sense of testing '& persec!tion. Against s!ch Christ oes not shie$ His own+ rather the& m!st face it an 'e faithf!$ !n er it even !nto eath *1, -. / K . The ro!n n!m'er here points to a short perio + cf. Jan. 1+12, 10. The n!m'er is !se in this sense a$so in ?en. 20+66B ;!m. 11+1<. "ee in Pir)e A'oth, 6+1<, on the vario!s things connecte with the n!m'er 1,. 4# . Here the s!preme tria$ of mart&r om is referre to+ cf. 12+11, 9 T' # 9 4# + He'. 12+0, P! # Y '+ a$so Phi$. 2+5. 1 * +!* . The fig!re appears to 'e 'orrowe from the wreath awar e to the victor in the games. Cf. 1 Cor. <+26B Phi$. 3+10B 2 Tim. 2+6B 1 Pet. 6+0 * * (' 1-. "m&rna was, accor ing to Pa!sanias *vi. 10. 3, cite '& 'ncyc. (ib. 0772-, famo!s for its games. (n the Test. .en:. iv. 1 we have the o$ est reference to s!ch crowns in Eewish $iterat!re+ cf. Eas. 1+12B Asc. (sa. vii. 22, viii. 27, i/. 1,13, etc.B Herm. Sim. viii. 2, 3B Po$&carp, Ad ,hil. i. 1B +artyr. ,olyc. /vii. 1. .!t it is possi'$e, as has 'een s!ggeste '& Jieterich, .e%yia, 0106B No$2, 300B ?ressmann, 0rsprung d. israel. j1d. 'schat. 11,, that these s&m'o$s are erive from heaven$& 'eings. Th!s in 2 Enoch 10+2 the s!n is represente as a orne with a crown of g$or&B simi$ar$& in 3 .ar. vi. 1 with a crown of fire. Jieterich *op. cit., p. 01- states

that in wor)s of art the ?ree) eities were ver& fre9!ent$& represente with crowns of $ight or nim'!ses from the time of A$e/an er the ?reat, an that the nim'!ses in wor)s of ancient Christian art were erive from this so!rce. These crowns are nat!ra$$& associate with the '$esse when once these are conceive as c$othe in $ight+ cf. p. 153 s99. The genitive * +!* is therefore, as .o!sset s!ggests, pro'a'$& to 'e ta)en not epe/egetica$$& as 3the crown which consists in $ife,4 '!t as 3the crown which 'e$ongs to the eterna$ $ife.4 As the tree of $ife *cf. 2+= note, 22+2, 10- is a s&m'o$ of the '$esse immorta$it& in Christ, so the crown of $ife appears to s&m'o$i2e its f!$$ cons!mmation. 11. "#! .' / . Cf. =a. 11!. #i)e =', 1='c , 2725, 3+6, 12, 21, this, too, is pro'a'$& an e itoria$ a ition of o!r a!thor. Here the a ition is !nhapp&, for it comes in the form of an anti1c$ima/ after the great promise in 1,e. 9 ':8 9 with the f!t!re or aorist constit!tes 3the most efinite form of a negative assertion a'o!t the f!t!re4 *.$ass, *ram. 2,<-. 9 is a$wa&s *16 times- fo$$owe '& the aorist s!':!nctive in o!r a!thor e/cept in 15+10, which is not from his han + in the rest of the ;.T. it is fo$$owe '& the in icative once o!t of ever& seven or eight timesB in c$assica$ ?ree) the present s!':!nctive is a$so fo!n . This constr!ction is fre9!ent in the ;.T.8in a$$ a'o!t <7 times, '!t rare in non1 $iterar& pap&ri. %o!$ton *,rol. 1<, s99.- tries to show, notwithstan ing, that the ;.T. an the pap&ri are here in harmon&. ': . . is a$wa&s !se in the sense of 3to h!rt4 in o!r a!thor+ see 22+11, note. The agent or instr!ment is e/presse '& . after a passive ver'. Cf. 3+15, <+2, 15, 15+1. (n this promise there ma& 'e a reference to 1,, / 4# . He that is rea & to s!'mit to ph&sica$ eath for his faith wi$$ not 'e affecte '& the secon eath. $ $ . Cf. 2,+7 C10D, 21+5, where this e/pression is e/p$aine . This is a Ra''inic e/pression. Th!s, in the Eer!s. Targ!m on Je!t. 33+7 we have, 3#et Re!'en $ive in this age an not ie the secon eath * ! whereof the wic)e ie in the ne/t wor$ .4 Targ. on Eer. 61+3<, 6=, 3#et them ie the secon eath an not $ive in the ne/t wor$ 4 B on (sa. 22+10, 3This sin sha$$ not 'e forgiven &o! ti$$ &e ie the secon eath4B a$so on (sa. 76+7, 16B "ota, 36a *on ;!m. 10+3=-, 3the& ie the secon *K- eath4 * -. "ee Ietstein for f!rther e/amp$es. The i ea is fo!n a$so in Phi$o, De ,raem. et ,oen. ii. 01<, F O Q F H Q F O - !. Tho!gh the e/pression is not fo!n in 1 Enoch the i ea pro'a'$& is in <<+11, 1,5+3, where the spirits of the wic)e are sai to 'e s$ain in "heo$, tho!gh their annihi$ation is not imp$ie there'&. 1217. THE MESSAGE TO THE CHURCH IN PERGAMUM 12. * . iE8 This cit& appears as K i in Fenophon an Pa!sanias, '!t as i in "tra'o, Po$&'i!s, Appian, an most other writers. The $atter is the !s!a$ form a$so in the inscriptions. Pergam!m was a %&sian cit&, a'o!t 16 mi$es from the sea. (t comman e the va$$e& of the Caic!s, an $a& 'etween two streams which fe$$ into the Caic!s a'o!t 0 mi$es istant. The ear$iest cit& was '!i$t on a hi$$, 1,,, feet high, which 'ecame the site of the Acropo$is an man& of the chief '!i$ ings of the $ater cit&. Tho!gh a cit& of some importance in the 6th cent. ..C. its greatness ates from the 3r , when it was ma e the capita$ of the Atta$i s, the first of whom to ass!me the tit$e of 7lass, 7lass, Grammar of N.T. Greek (transl. (& Thac-era&!, 1.,.. N.T. New Testament.

)ing was Atta$!s ( in 201 ..C. The $ast of this &nast&8Atta$!s (((8'e9!eathe his )ing om, with the e/ception of Phr&gia %agna, to the Romans. At this ate this )ing om em'race 3a$$ the $an on this si e the Ta!r!s,4 an was constit!te , with the a'ove e/ception, as the Province of Asia '& the Romans, with Pergam!m as its officia$ capita$. Pergam!m was fame for its great re$igio!s fo!n ations in hono!r of Te!s "oter.1 Athena ;i)ephoros, whose temp$e crowne the Acropo$is, Jion&sos Qathegemon, an As)$epios "oter2 @f these the c!$t of As)$epios was the most istinctive an ce$e'rate . (t was the #o!r es of the Province of Asia, an the seat of a famo!s schoo$ of me icine. Th!s ?a$en *De "ompos. +ed. i/.- writes+ A& / H . % 0/E ] F . iE U 'O F . [1 E jO F . k1 U!, an Phi$ostrat!s */ita Apollonii, iv. 30-, V K U / A iO =! A D $ (1/ K _' *'oth passages 9!ote '& Ietstein-+ %art i/. 1=., 3Pergameo H eo.4 .!t from the stan point of o!r a!thor the most important c!$t was that of the Roman Emperors, which was esta'$ishe in Pergam!m8as the chief cit& of the province8in 2< ..C., where a temp$e was e icate to A!g!st!s an Rome '& the Provincia$ "&no *_ U /-B1 cf. Tac. Ann. iv. 3=, where Ti'eri!s refers to the fo!n ing of this temp$e to A!g!st!s an Rome '& Pergam!m. ;o s!ch fo!n ation was officia$$& recogni2e in Asia !n$ess it was ma e '& the "&no with the conc!rrence of the Roman "enate. Th!s Pergam!m won the hono!r of the ;eocorate 'efore "m&rna, which i not o'tain it ti$$ 27 ..C., an Ephes!s, which was not so hono!re ti$$ the reign of C$a! i!s or ;ero. A secon temp$e was '!i$t in Pergam!m in hono!r of Tra:an, an a thir in hono!r of "ever!s. The imperia$ c!$t ha th!s its centre at Pergam!mB an as the imperia$ c!$t was the )e&stone of the imperia$ po$ic&, Pergam!m s!mme !p in itse$f the into$era'$e offence an horror that s!ch a c!$t, the o'servance of which was s&non&mo!s with $o&a$t& to empire, provo)e in the min of o!r a!thor. (t is here an nowhere e$se that we are to fin the e/p$anation of the start$ing phrase, $ 23, in 13. .ehin the cit& in the 1st cent. A.J. arose a h!ge conica$ hi$$, 1,,, feet high, covere with heathen temp$es an a$tars, which in contrast to 3the mo!ntain of ?o ,4 referre to in (sa. 10+13B E2e). 25+10, 17, an ca$$e 3the throne of ?o 4 in 1 Enoch 26+3, appeare to the "eer as the throne of "atan, since it was the home of man& i o$atro!s c!$ts, '!t a'ove a$$ of the imperia$ c!$t, which menace with annihi$ation the ver& e/istence of the Ch!rch. >or ref!sa$ to ta)e part in this c!$t constit!te high treason to the "tate. "ee Ramsa&, Letters to the Seven "hurches, 251 s99. "#! ;1/ . Cf. 1+17. This tit$e is connecte with 17 that fo$$ows. "ee p. 27. 1 ;an& scholars have sought to e6plain $ 23 (& the gigantic altar erected on a huge plat#orm .33 #eet a(ove the cit& to <eus Soter in commemoration, it is (elieved, o# the victor& o# 0ttalus over the =alatai. 2 >ther scholars have #ound in the phrase in the preceding note a re#erence to the worship o# 0s-lepios, (ecause the serpent ( i.e. Satan : c#. 12:,! was universall& associated with him. 1 That the temple was actuall& the seat o# the imperial cult in the province is proved (& an inscription #rom ;&tilene: . ? % % % @ +E 9% * U / . iE (Auoted (& 7ousset!.

13. 6 $ 23 . The reference in these wor s, as has 'een shown in the prece ing verse, is to the primac& of Pergam!m as the centre of the imperia$ c!$t, an as s!ch the centre of "atanLs )ing om in the East8in the Iest it was Rome itse$f+ cf. 13+2, 17+1,. Here stoo the first temp$e erecte to A!g!st!s an RomeB an here we$t the powerf!$ priesthoo evote to the imperia$ c!$tB an from Pergam!m it sprea a$$ over Asia %inor. The Asiarch or chief civi$ a!thorit& is, as we see from the +artyrdom of ,olycarp, $i)ewise the chief priest of this c!$t. @ . ;otwithstan ing a$$ these iffic!$ties tho! 3ho$ est fast %& name.4 9 T ! / . These wor s refer to some efinite persec!tion of which nothing is at present )nown. (n / the is the o':ective genitive, i.e. 3faith in %e4+ cf. 10+12. (n 2+1<, 13+1,, / G 3faithf!$ness.4 K U U/ U. (f with the 'est %"" we accept U/, we m!st treat it as in ec$ina'$e. .!t it is perhaps 'est to fo$$ow #achmann *Studien und 2riti%en, 153,, p. 53<-, IH *ii. App. 13=-, ;est$e, "wete, an Tahn in regar ing lc\mil as the origina$ rea ing, an the fina$ C either as an acci enta$ o!'$ing of the fo$$owing @ *#achmann-, or a e$i'erate change of U/ into the nom. U/ owing to the nominative *Tahn-. The former e/p$anation is to 'e preferre . >or ear$& attempts to emen the te/t see critica$ notes in loc. U/ is an a''reviate form of U/, as _ for _8 Cf. Hermas for Hermo or!s, #!cas for #!can!s. ;othing is rea$$& )nown 'e&on this reference of the mart&r Antipas. #ater mart&rs in Pergam!m are )nown, as Carp!s, Pap&$!s an Agathoni)e *cf. E!se'. -.'. iv. 16-. 8 @n this so$ecism, which is rea$$& a He'raism, see note on 1+6. The R .N. is right essentia$$& in 1=+7 in ren ering )! N' $ '& 3mart&rs of Ees!s.4 The wor sho!$ 'e simi$ar$& trans$ate here. >or, since the "eer e/pects a$$ the faithf!$ to sea$ their witness with their '$oo *13+16-, the wor in o!r te/t is a witness faithf!$ !nto eath, an therefore a mart&r. .!t o!tsi e o!r a!thor this !se was not esta'$ishe ti$$ $ater, tho!gh the wa& was prepare for this !se '& Acts 22+2,, 21 $ , an 1 Tim. 7+13B C$em. "or. 6. Tho!gh the technica$ istinction 'etween an ' *3mart&r4 an 3confessor4- was not a'so$!te$& fi/e ti$$ the Jecian persec!tion, &et, as #ightfoot *on C$em. "or. 6- o'serves, 3after the mi $e of the secon cent!r& at a$$ events O , were !se a'so$!te$& to signif& mart&r omB +artyr. ,olyc. 1< s9.B %e$ito in E!se'. -.'. iv. 27B Jion&s. Corinth. ib. ii. 26. H "ti$$ even at this $ate ate the& contin!e to 'e !se sim!$taneo!s$& of other testimon& to 'e 'orne to the ?ospe$, short of eath+ e.g. '& Hegesipp!s, E!se'. -.'. iii. 2,, 32.4 '8 The passive form of /!, which occ!rs ver& rare$& in the #FF an on$& once o!tsi e the Apoca$&pse in the ;.T. *i.e. %ar) 5+31 G %att. 17+21 G #!)e B Cords so enclosed are corrupt. The $ditor:s restoration is occasionall& given in the pop/up note. C9 Cestcott and 9ort, The N.T. in Greek. " " (v! paris. Sd. +. "ontains 1:1/+:1,, 5:15/4:15, 4:14/.:5, ,:1 /13:13, 11:+/ 1 :+, 1.:2/1,:5. D.E. Devised Eersion. LXX Septuagint.

<+22-, is fre9!ent$& !se in this .oo)+ cf. 2+13, 7+11, <+15, 2, C11+6, 13, 13+1,, 16D, 1<+21B whereas ! is on$& !se strict$& as a passive in 5+11, 10+13. (n the >o!rth ?ospe$, on the other han , whereas the passive of / oes not occ!r, we fin !se as its passive, 11+17, 6,, 61, 15+10, 32, 1<+=. 14. "#! F $ </ . Tho!gh this Ch!rch has withstoo the angers 'esetting it from the imperia$ c!$t, it has s!ffere teachers of fa$se octrine to arise an win a fo$$owing amongst its mem'ers. (n </ on$& one thing is meant, tho!gh the writer spea)s of that one thing generica$$&+ cf. I% 21<. . = > in the prece ing verse. "# . $ # nO - ./ % n . @n the re$ation of this verse to the ne/t see 16. The reference is to ;!m. 31+17 *cf. 26+1, 2-. .a$aam is here represente as the protot&pe of a$$ corr!pt teachers. (n o!r te/t these ear$& ?nostics '& their fa$se teaching, that as the& were not !n er the $aw '!t !n er grace *Rom. 7+16- an were therefore not 'o!n '& the $aw, tempte men to $icentio!sness, even as .a$a) corr!pte (srae$ in accor ance with the a vice of .a$aam. (n ;!m. 31+17 it is not e/press$& state that .a$aam co!nse$$e .a$a) to act so against (srae$, '!t the statement in o!r te/t is a not !nnat!ra$ inference8an inference a$rea & ma e in Phi$o, /ita +oys. i. 6366B cf. Eoseph. Ant. iv. 7. 7B @rigen, In .um. -om. //. 1. The constr!ction ./ % n is, accor ing to I%, p. 2=< *note 0-, fo!n in some $ate writers. (t is !n:!stifia'$e to e/p$ain it as a He'raism, since this constr!ction in the case of an $ is e/ceptiona$ in the @.T. (n 2+2, ta)es the acc. 1 A! , $ . Here the or er is against ;!m. 26+12 an 2+2, *see note- of o!r te/t. (t is o!'tf!$ whether the first phrase refers to the eating of foo which ha 'een 'o!ght in the open mar)et an a$rea & 'een consecrate to an i o$, or to participation in pagan feasts. Pro'a'$& it refers to 'oth. This pro'$em ha , as we )now, arisen in Corinth man& &ears ear$ier in an ac!te form+ cf. 1 Cor. 5+=13, 1,+2, 3,. >rom this $etter we $earn that, tho!gh "t. Pa!$ i not cens!re the con !ct of the Corinthians who regar e the eating of A! as a matter of mora$ in ifference, 'eca!se of the ecree iss!e '& the Aposto$ic Co!nci$ at Eer!sa$em *cf. Acts 16+2<, # A!)!+ cf. 16+2,, # '! A&!-, &et he con emne their action on the princip$e that it p!t a st!m'$ing1'$oc) in the wa& of their wea)er 'rethren, an ten e to 'ring a'o!t their mora$ ownfa$$B an that '& sharing in the heathen feasts which were ma e in hono!r of go s, who tho!gh the& were not in ee go s as the heathen conceive them *1 Cor. 5+0-, were neverthe$ess emons *1,+2,-, the& ma e themse$ves spirit!a$$& !nfit to ta)e part in the E!charist *1,+21-. 15. This verse an the prece ing are iffic!$t, '!t their e/p$anation oes not ca$$ for the s!pposition of mi/e constr!ctions. The tho!ght an connection of the verses are as fo$$ows+ in 10 o!r a!thor states that the Pergamene Ch!rch has certain corr!pt teachers, 'e$onging to the fo$$owing of .a$aam, who se !ce (srae$ into sin. .!t since this statement on$& efines the affinities of these corr!pt teachers #ith the past, we e/pect a f!rther efinition of their affinities with the present. This we fin in 16, where we sho!$ ren er+ 3Th!s in $i)e manner tho! too *i.e. as we$$ as the Ephesian Ch!rch+ cf. 7hast some who ho$ the teaching of the ;ico$aitans.4 =! an /! are not to 'e ta)en as referring to one an the same thing. =! :!stifies the statement ma e in 10, whereas the /! refers to the Ephesian Ch!rch. Th!s the , ) an the /! 'e$ong together+ 3Tho! too *as we$$ as the Ephesian Ch!rch- in $i)e manner4 *with the Ephesian Ch!rch-. The "# in 16 res!mes that in 10. This e/p$anation oes no >.T. >ld Testament.

vio$ence to an& part of the te/t, whi$e it e/p$ains each mem'er of it in a nat!ra$ sense from the conte/t. The right interpretation of , ) $ea s to the right interpretation of the who$e. .& fai$ing to recogni2e this fact e/positors have erre in the past. Th!s Eohannes Ieiss is riven to mistrans$ate 16 as fo$$ows+ 3"o hast ! ort auch *K- so$che, we$che ie #ehre er ;i)o$aiten ha$ten g$eicherweise.4 The / 'e&on 9!estion 'e$ongs to the )8 .o!sset represents the meaning of 1016 to 'e+ 3"o wie .i$eam !rch .a$a) ie (srae$iten verfShrte, so ha'en ie Pergamener ie ;ico$aiten a$s NerfShrer.4 .!t if an& s!ch comparison was inten e , we sho!$ have ha something $i)e V nF ./ % nF 0 H =! $ # cd 0 .& 8 .!t this interpretation fai$s, as it $eaves who$$& o!t of sight the efinitive phrase , )8 .esi es, if, as some scho$ars s!ppose, the constr!ction is irreg!$ar an the =! pres!pposes a prece ing V in this conte/t, then not n '!t D D, N wo!$ 'e the s!':ect with which , ) wo!$ 'e compare + V D D, N # $ # n 8O =! "# , B $ . This wo!$ in itse$f give an e/ce$$ent sense. As the ancient (srae$ ha corr!pt teachers, so too now has the Pergamene Ch!rch. .!t then the present form of the te/t oes not a mit of this interpretation, an , moreover, the conte/t is against it. The , ) reca$$s the fact that not on$& is the Pergamene '!t a$so the Ephesian Ch!rch tro!'$e '& corr!pt teachers. The grammatica$ st! & of the te/t having th!s esta'$ishe the fact, that in 16 we have at once 'oth an e/p$anation of 10 an a comparison with 2+7, serves f!rther to sett$e the re$ation of the .a$aamites an the ;ico$aitans. The term .a$aamites is simp$& a name given for the nonce '& o!r a!thor to the ;ico$aitans. The assignment of this name rests on two gro!n s+ the first is the i entit& of res!$ts as regar s their teachingB the secon is the i entit& in respect of meaning in the view of o!r a!thor as we$$ as of certain Eewish writers of n an c *see note in 2+17-. 16. ' . The who$e Ch!rch of Pergam!m is ca$$e !pon to repent an p!rge itse$f from these ;ico$aitans, in the hope that the& wi$$ !$timate$& come to a 'etter min an ret!rn to her *cf. 1 Cor. 6+06-, e$se Christ wi$$ visit the Ch!rch *"#/ an ea$ rastica$$& with these corr!pt teachers *> 9-. The "eer re9!ires the Ch!rch of Pergam!m to e/pe$ them, as the Ch!rch of Ephes!s ha a$rea & one. (t has not i entifie itse$f with them. A Q . Here e9!iva$ent to A Q as in 2+6', where see note. A Q is a$wa&s e$$iptica$ in o!r a!thor. ! > 98 This constr!ction, which is fre9!ent in the #FF, is confine to the Apoca$&pse *cf. 12+=, 13+0, 1=+10- in the ;.T. The ver' itse$f occ!rs o!tsi e the Apoca$&pse on$& in Eas. 0+2. (n o!r te/t it cannot 'e treate as other than a He'raism, if we ta)e into acco!nt the He'raistic character of the te/t in genera$. The fact that it occ!rs spora ica$$& *see %o!$ton, ,roleg. 2 1,7-8twice or more8pin the Pap&ri is no evi ence to the contrar&. "ee A''ott, *ram., p. 27=. . : ;1/? $ . Cf. 1+17, 2+12, 1<+16. The phrase s!ggests a forensic con emnation, '!t in 1<+16 this wor is conceive as an act!a$ instr!ment of war. 17. % & ! 9% $ . @n % H 9% see =. $ is the on$& instance in the ;.T. of $ with the partitive genitive *see 3+<-. Accor ing to 2 .ar. 2<+5 the treas!r& of manna was to escen from heaven !ring the %essianic Qing om, an the '$esse were to eat of it. This manna is referre to in Chag. 12' *Tanch!maB Pi99! i, 7B .eresh. ra'. 1<B .ammi . ra'. 13-, where it is sai that in 0((ott, 0((ott, Johannine Grammar, 1,3 .

the thir heaven *" # - are the mi$$s which grin manna for the righteo!s. This manna was ca$$e 3'rea from heaven,4 E/. 17+0B 3corn of heaven,4 Ps. =5+20, an $i)ewise 3'rea of the might&4 *i.e. ange$s, cf. Ps. =5+26-. (t is to this heaven$& manna, an not to the go$ en pot of manna which was preserve *E/. 17+3230- in remem'rance of the foo in the wi$ erness an which was in the ar) *He'. <+0-, that o!r te/t appears to refer *cf. r. Sibyl. vii. 105 f.+ > 9 " 9Q #O > I ' <$ 18 (t is 9!ite tr!e that there are severa$ Ra''inic passages which spea) of the restoration of the pot of manna on the a vent of the %essiah+ cf. Tanch!ma, p. 53', an other passages cite '& Ietstein in loc. The i ea of the manna in this connection was pro'a'$& s!ggeste to o!r a!thor '& the association of i eas evo)e '& 1017. There he was thin)ing of (srae$ in the wi$ erness tempte '& .a$aam, :!st as the Pergamene Christians are tempte '& his spirit!a$ s!ccessors. As the ancient (srae$ was fe '& a materia$ manna, the tr!e (srae$ites wo!$ in the f!t!re $ife 'e fe '& a spirit!a$ manna. "ince the materia$ manna co!$ not avert eath !n er the o$ Jispensation, Eohn 7+0< arg!es that it was not 'rea of $ife even in the ver& sphere to which it 'e$onge . As the conte/t shows, as we$$ as a comparison of the other si/ promises, the promise here refers to the f!t!re.1 The manna that is now hi en wi$$ then 'e given to those who have fo!ght the goo fight an con9!ere . Part of this victor& on the part of the Pergamene Ch!rch wi$$ consist in their a'stinence from for'i en meats+ contrast the gift of the manna here with the A! eaten '& the !nfaithf!$, 2+10. The 3hi en manna4 pro'a'$& signifies the irect spirit!a$ gifts that the Ch!rch tri!mphant wi$$ receive in transcen ent meas!re from intimate comm!nion with Christ. This 3hi en manna4 is practica$$& e9!iva$ent in some egree to the water of $ife *see p. 60 s9.-, '!t not to the tree of $ife. *1 8 "tones or pe''$es were vario!s$& !se '& the ancients, an each !sage has 'een app$ie to the interpretation of the present passage. 1. The white stone !se '& :!rors to signif& ac9!itta$B cf. @vi , +et. /v. 01+ 3%os erat anti9!is niveis atris9!e $api$$is, His amnare reos i$$is a'so$vere c!$pa.4 2. The *1 which entit$e him that receive it to free entertainment to ro&a$ assem'$ies. Cf. Fiphi$in, 'pit. Dion., p. 225, where it is sai of Tit!s+ 1/ F () F 4! A ./ )0 "# Q .!/ H o L " B !* 9 . , 0 .8 Hence here a tic)et of a mission to the heaven$& feast. 3. The precio!s stones which accor ing to Ra''inica$ tra ition fe$$ a$ong with the manna *Eoma, 5-. 0. The precio!s stones on the 'reastp$ate of the high priest 'earing the names of the Twe$ve Tri'es. 6. The white stone was regar e as a mar) of fe$icit&+ cf. P$in&, 'p. vi. ((. 3, 3@ iem $aet!m notan !m9!e mihi can i issimo ca$c!$o.4 .!t each of these e/p$anations is !nsatisfactor&B either the *1 is not white or it has no inscription !pon it. The tr!e so!rce of the i eas !n er$&ing the e/pressions in o!r te/t is most pro'a'$& to 'e fo!n in the sphere of pop!$ar s!perstition, which attache m&sterio!s powers to the !se of secret names *see HeitmS$$er, Im .amen )esu, 125 276-. The new name in s!ch a connection wo!$ nat!ra$$& 'e not that of the person who receive the *1O '!t of some s!pernat!ra$ 'eing. The white stone was simp$& an 1 %hilo (Fuis rerum divin. +,, Leg. allegor, iii. 5,, 1!, on the other hand, uses manna as signi#&ing 'the spiritual #ood o# the soul) in the present li#e.

am!$et engrave with some magica$ form!$a or name, s!ch as we fin in %a)). 11a *cf. "!))a, 63a-+ 3Ihen Javi !g the cistern *at the so!th1west corner of the a$tar- the eep s!rge !p an so!ght to overwhe$m the wor$ . Then he as)e if he might inscri'e the ivine name on a potsher an cast it into the eep to ca!se it to sin) 'ac) into its p$ace.4 The va$!e of s!ch an am!$et was enhance if the ho$ er of it was ass!re that the name was new, an so )nown on$& to himB for sho!$ an& one s!ccee in $earning this name he too wo!$ en:o& the same powers as its possessor. Ie have now to as) if o!r a!thor has ta)en over in their entiret& these i eas. Even if this is so, we ma& 'e certain that the& have 'ecome spirit!a$$& transforme . The new name can on$& 'e that of Christ or ?o inscri'e on a *18 The man himse$f ma& 'e regar e as the *1B an since he is O as his victor& in the fina$ strife has prove , he is inscri'e with the ivine name,1 which has a ifferent meaning in character with the so!$ that receives it, an therefore a new meaning to ever& faithf!$ so!$, an which none '!t it )nows *cf. %att. 11+2=-. This interpretation 'rings this passage somewhat into $ine with 2+12, H ! .> 9 @ $ $ H , @ 8 This inscription esignates him as ?o Ls own possession, as the 1/ in =+2 s99. *see note in loc. an para$$e$s-. .!t the *1 with the ivine name inscri'e on it ma& 'e ifferent$& interprete , an ta)en to 'e a s&m'o$ of the transcen ent powers now p$ace in the han of him that has 'een faithf!$ !nto eath. Thro!gh s!ch faithf!$ness the '$esse are fitte to receive from their ivine %aster fresh graces *i.e. the hi en manna- an powers *the stone inscri'e with the ivine name- of a transcen ent character. @ 8 "ee prece ing notes. - 9, A 0!8 As we have o'serve a'ove, the )now$e ge that a faithf!$ heart possesses of ?o is a thing incomm!nica'$e, )nown on$& to itse$f. Cf. 1<+12, "#! @ - 9, A 9O where, however, the genera$ meaning is ifferent, an the c$a!se is pro'a'$& an interpo$ation. 1829. THE MESSAGE TO THE ANGE" O# THE CHURCH IN TH ATIRA 18. % . p/8 The $ongest $etter is a resse to the $east important of the "even Cities. Th&atira $a& a'o!t 0, mi$es to the ".E. of Pergam!m8a$most mi wa& 'etween the Caic!s in the north an the Herm!s in the so!th. (t was a #& ian cit& on the confines of %&sia, to which it was sometimes sai to 'e$ong *"tra'o, 726, p H W q . #' Q 1 /-. (t was fo!n e '& the "e$e!ci ae, its first sett$ers 'eing for the most part o$ so$ iers of A$e/an er the ?reat an their chi$ ren. Hence it was ca$$e / q! '& "tra'o, 726. A'o!t 1<, ..C. it fe$$ !n er the swa& of the Romans an forme part of the Province of Asia. Th&atira was nota'$e for its e/tensive tra ing an the n!m'er of its g!i$ s of craftsmen, an it is with the 9!estion, whether Christians were :!stifie or not in sharing in the common mea$s of a sacrificia$ character, that this #etter to the Ch!rch in Th&atira is main$& concerne + see notes. .!t Th&atira was !n isting!ishe in other respects in $ater timesB for P$in&, -... v. 33, writes s$ighting$& of this comm!nit&+ 3Th&atireni a$iae9!e inhonorae civitates.4 An important roa ran from Pergam!m to Th&atira, thence to "ar is an thro!gh Phi$a e$phia to #ao icea. Th!s the "even Ch!rches were nat!ra$$& $in)e together from 1 Some scholars thin- that the new name given to the victor means a new character (c#. =en. +2:2.* ;att. 1 :14, 1.!. 7ut the has alread& shown (& his #aith#ulness that he possesses this new character* he is alread& a / 8

a geographica$ point of view, starting with Ephes!s an en ing with #ao icea. Th&atira ha temp$es e icate to Apo$$o T&rimnaios, Artemis, an a shrine of "am'athe * 20-, an @rienta$ "i'&$ in the neigh'o!rhoo B '!t it ha no temp$e fo!n e in hono!r of the Emperors. The Christian Ch!rch at Th&atira cease to e/ist towar s the c$ose of the 2n cent. A.J., accor ing to a statement of the A$ogi. (t ear$& 'ecame a centre of %ontanism *Epiphani!s, -aer. $i. 33-. "ee Ramsa&, Letters, an the .i'$e Jictionaries in loc. D $ $8 This tit$e ma& have 'een s!ggeste to o!r a!thor '& Ps. 2+=, seeing that $ater in this $etter he 9!otes Ps. 2+< in its entiret& an a phrase from 2+5. .!t the tit$e is pres!ppose in 1+7, 2+2=, 3+6, 21, 10+1, where ?o is efinite$& spo)en of as the >ather of Christ. ;owhere in o!r a!thor is ?o escri'e as 3>ather4 in re$ation to men save in 21+=+ contrast Eohn 2,+1=, etc. This tit$e was c$aime '& Christ *%att. 11+2=B #!)e 1,+22-, ascri'e to Him '& Peter *%att. 17+17-, an forme the gro!n for the in ictment 'ro!ght against Him 'efore the "anhe rin *%att. 27+73B Eohn 1<+=-. "#! #0E8 >rom 1+10 s9. The presence of the first c$a!se, "#! B <1B C 1 O appears to 'e e/p$aine '& 23, . 1B , / 8O an D 9$ 6 #0E possi'$& '& 2='. Here the ivine tit$e seems to have 'een a e '& o!r a!thor when e iting his visions as a who$e+ see p. 06 s9. 19. F "8 Here as in 1,+< the vernac!$ar possessive genitive intro !cing a gro!p of no!ns is fo$$owe '& the or inar& possessive, , ' H , , F " 8 Here A''ott, *ram., p. 7,7, remar)s+ 3*1- The writer co!$ not we$$ have sai / , an *2- the twofo$ repetition H shows that emphasis is inten e 8the patience that you she# an the ee s that you do3 >or a simi$ar case cf. 1,+<. 3The two passages show that the !nemphatic is not $i)e$& to 'e !se after an !nemphatic wor .4 , ' 8 The / here intro !ces an e/p$anator& escription of the "8 @n ' cf. 2+0, an on cf. 2+2. >!rther, the "eer states that in the f!$fi$ment of s!ch wor)s the Ch!rch in Th&atira has stea i$& a vance , whereas Ephes!s ha gone 'ac)war *2+0-. /! seems here to 'e !se as meaning greater in 9!a$it&, 'etter+ cf. %att. 7+26, 12+01, 02B He'. 3+3, 11+0, etc. As "wete remar)s, 3in these a resses praise is more $i'era$$& given, if it can 'e given with :!stice, when '$ame is to fo$$owB more is sai of the goo ee s of the Ephesians an Th&atirians than of those of the "m&rnaeans an Phi$a e$phians, with whom no fa!$t is fo!n .4 (n ' , / we have the two &namic Christian forces which iss!e in the two Christian activities that fo$$ow / , 8 2023$. The angers which threatene Th&atira were interna$ rather than e/terna$. (t was not the c!$t of the Emperor nor the c!$ts of the pagan eities, the con ition of mem'ership in which was confesse $& wi$$ingness to ta)e part in the worship prescri'e in each case, '!t the tra e g!i$ s that forme the pro'$em in Th&atira. (n the former case there co!$ 'e no o!'t as to the wrongness of participation in s!ch c!$ts, '!t in the case of the $atter the evi ence seeme to the more inte$$ect!a$ c$ass $ess conc$!sive. To the mora$$& so!n amongst this c$ass there co!$ 'e no ivergence of opinion as to the wrongness of fornication, '!t ifferent views were honest$& maintaine as to the $egitimac& of eating foo sacrifice to i o$s, seeing that in the e&es of the en$ightene an i o$ was nothing. ;ow, since mem'ership in tra e g!i$ s *. /O 0& O /- i not essentially invo$ve an&thing 'e&on :oining in the common mea$, which was e icate no o!'t to some pagan eit& '!t was e/act$& in this respect meaning$ess for the en$ightene Christian, to avai$ onese$f of s!ch mem'ership was he$

in certain $atit! inarian circ$es to 'e 9!ite :!stifia'$e. An this was partic!$ar$& the case in Th&atira, which, owing to the fact that it was a'ove a$$ things a cit& of commerce, a'o!n e in '!siness g!i$ s, to one or other of which ever& citi2en a$$ '!t necessari$& 'e$onge + otherwise he co!$ har $& maintain his '!siness or en:o& the socia$ a vantages nat!ra$ to his position. Th!s it was these tra e g!i$ s in Th&atira that ma e the ;ico$aitan octrine so accepta'$e to the Ch!rch in this cit&, an that tho!gh the common mea$s of s!ch g!i$ s too often en e in !n'ri $e $icentio!sness. Against the princip$es an con !ct of the ;ico$aitans the Ch!rch in Ephes!s ha open$& ec$are itse$f *2+7-B '!t no s!ch ec$aration ha as &et emanate from the Ch!rch in Th&atira. @wing to the '!siness an socia$ interests of its mem'ers it was too rea & to accept an& princip$e that wo!$ :!stif& their mem'ership in the cit& g!i$ s. Hence it withhe$ its testimon& against an inf$!entia$ woman who ha $ong *21- an notorio!s$& *23a vocate the princip$es of the ;ico$aitans an &et en:o&e the mem'ership of the Ch!rch. However this person might c$oa) her activities !n er the no'$e name of prophetess, or a vance her teaching as a more en$ightene *?nosticK- Christianit&, the& were, the "eer ec$ares, simp$& sheer $icentio!sness an the negation of the $aws $ai own '& the Aposto$ic Co!nci$. "he was a mo em Ee2e'e$, an the Ch!rch of Th&atira in to$erating her presence in the Ch!rch was no 'etter than a mo ern Aha'. 20. 18 Cf. Eohn 12+= for this !se of 18 @n the form see .$ass, *ram. 61B R o'ertson, *ram. 316. N+08 Ee2e'e$ is here !se s&m'o$ica$$& of some inf$!entia$ woman in the Ch!rch in Th&atira, an chosen in reference to the wife of Aha', who was g!i$t& of whore om an witchcraft *1 Qings 17+31B 2 Qings <+22-, an so!ght to isp$ace the worship of the ?o of (srae$ '& i o$atro!s c!$ts intro !ce from other $an s. There is no 9!estion here of the Cha$ aean "i'&$ at Th&atira with whom "chSrer *Theol. Abhandl. !ei4s5c%er ge#idmet, p. 3< s9., 15<2- so!ght to i entif& her. "!ch a personage co!$ not have 'een a mitte to mem'ership of the Ch!rch in Th&atira, whereas the Ee2e'e$ in o!r te/t stan s a mitte $& within the :!ris iction of the Ch!rch. Tahn *see .o!sset, 1<,7, p. 21= s9.- accepts the rea ing an ta)es her to 'e the wife of the 'ishop of the Ch!rch, whi$e "e$w&n *p. 123- i entifies her with the wife of the Asiarch. K R 1*8 @n this He'raism see note on 1+6. Ie might compare Teph. 1+12, . ! ., B 4 B 1$ H D * in %ar) 12+350, *contrast #!)e 2,+07-, where it is to 'e e/p$aine as !e to the "emitic 'ac)gro!n . .!t a sti$$ more prono!nce He'raism fo$$ows+ see ne/t note. , , e8 Here we have, as we have a$rea & pointe o!t in 1+67 *note-, a reso$!tion of the particip$e into a finite ver'. Th!s o!r te/t is a $itera$ ren ering of the He'rew i iomB $ ! . $ , 18 @!r a!thor appears here to emphasi2e the fact that, when the Ch!rch in Th&atira to$erate this ;ico$aitan teaching 'eca!se it :!stifie their mem'ership in the cit& g!i$ s an their sharing in the common mea$s, it was in rea$it& to$erating fornication. "ee, however, note on 2+10. (t wi$$ 'e o'serve that the or er of the wor s here iffers from that in 2+10. Here it is pro'a'$& inten e to mean that the primar& o':ect of the prophetess was se/!a$ immora$it&. 21. This verse imp$ies that a efinite warning ha 'een a resse to this se$f1st&$e prophetess, an that this warning ha 'een given s!fficient$& far 'ac) in the past to Do(ertson, Do(ertson, Grammar of the Greek of the N.T., 1,15.

" -. This constr!ction is fo!n

pro'a'$& a ref$ection of ! B for in "&mmach!s *tho!gh on$& occasiona$$& in the #FF- is a more fre9!ent ren ering of the He'rew phrase+ cf. Eo' 37+1,B (sa. 31+7, 66+=B Eer. 15+5B E2e). 33+12. 22. AB 0! 9 A /'8 , B #) > 9* A / '8 Ie have here a c$ear instance of He'rew para$$e$ism, an $i)ewise of He'rew i iom, tho!gh, so far as ( am aware, not hitherto recogni2e '& an& scho$ar. Ihi$e some scho$ars have 9!ite wrong$& ta)en /' here to enote a 'an9!eting co!ch, most others have right$& recogni2e it to 'e a 'e of i$$ness or s!ffering, '!t have not e/p$aine how this interpretation can 'e :!stifie . ;ow, if we retrans$ate it $itera$$& into He'rew, we iscover that we have here a He'rew i iom, i.e. ! G 3to ta)e to oneLs 'e ,4 3to 'ecome i$$4 *E/. 21+15-+ hence 3to cast !pon a 'e 4 means 3to cast !pon a 'e of i$$ness.4 This i iom is fo!n in 1 %acc. 1+6, " ., /'O an E! . 5+3, " ., /'O which 'oo)s are trans$ate from the He'rew. Th!s we sho!$ ren er+ 3.eho$ ( cast her on a 'e of s!ffering, An those who commit a !$ter& with her into great tri'!$ation4 i.e. ! $ %! "
>!rthermore, it is to 'e o'serve that in AB 0! *$ate %"" PV 0- the 0! represents a particip$e in the He'rew which can refer to the f!t!re, the present, or the past, accor ing to the conte/t. "ince it is para$$e$ here with *23a, it refers, of co!rse, to the f!t!re. This i iomatic reference to the f!t!re in a present ver' is to 'e fo!n a$so in 1+= *AB "#-, 2+1,, 3+< *where o!r a!thor has 'oth AB an AB ! referring to one an the same thing-, <+12, 17+16 etc. 22!23. B #) > 9* 23. , F 9* . The te/t *#) H - s!ggests that we have here the act!a$ paramo!rs of this woman an her chi$ ren. >!rther, the chi$ ren ma& 'e her $egitimate chi$ ren. Hence the p!nishment is a severe one. There ma& 'e a$so a reference to the fate that 'efe$$ the sons of Aha' *2 Qings 1,+=-. .!t the p!nishments are who$$& isproportionate to the g!i$t on this interpretation. %oreover, this interpretation, even if it is right, is too narrow, an m!st not 'e regar e as e/c$! ing the possi'i$it& of fin ing a spirit!a$ reference in the te/t. The entire Ch!rch in Th&atira, owing to its specia$ circ!mstances, is en angere '& the ;ico$aitan octrine. Hence the #) appear to 'e a$$ those who, owing to the teaching of this woman, tho!ght the& co!$ com'ine faithf!$ness to Christ with the concessions to the pagan spirit that their mem'ership of the '!siness g!i$ s invo$ve B an the to 'e those who have a'so$!te$& em'race this womanLs teaching even to its f!$$est iss!es. >or the former there is sti$$ hope+ the& are striving to reconci$e the c$aims of Christ on the one han an the c$aims of their '!siness $ife on the other. Therein the& have 'een g!i$t& as i o$atro!s (srae$ of o$ + cf. Hos. 2+2, 0, where there is a simi$ar reference to mother an chi$ ren. .!t the& ma& &et come to see that the& cannot serve two masters+ hence for them the oor of repentance is sti$$ open *22c-. .!t as regar s the , the case is ifferent. The& have em'race the ;ico$aitan teaching !nreserve $& an !ncon itiona$$&. The& are one with their spirit!a$ mother in aim an

a$$ow of a f!$$ reformation of the evi$. The warning ma& have come from the "eer himse$f. .!t its so!rce cannot 'e etermine . Y M8 The Y here has its fina$ force+ in <+2, a consec!tive. * . . A$wa&s so with the no!n in o!r a!thor+ cf. 2+22, <+2,, 21, 17+11B

character. >or them, therefore, there is nothing '!t the oom of estr!ction *23a-. (n this interpretation the ifference in the ooms threatene is who$& nat!ra$. . % . Cf. E2e). 33+2=, E , where G in 7+5 *note-. & 3 D .' / . The oom of the offen ers was to 'e )nown as wi e$& as the scan a$ ha 'een. The & 6 is an @.T. form of e/pression+ i.e. )now '& reason of e/perience, as in the case of the Eg&ptians, etc. Cf. E/. =+6, 10+12, 2<+07, etc. . 1B , / . This phrase is from the @.T., '!t it is an in epen ent ren ering of Eer. 11+2,, ! 1B , /. The #FF apparent$& oes an& other Eewish version save A9!i$a in one instance *E2e). 21+15-. The same phrase, tho!gh the or er of the wor s is ifferent, is fo!n in Ps. =+1,. Cf. other variations in Eer. 1=+1,, 2,+12. "t. Pa!$ !ses the phrase % % + F / K *1 Thess. 2+0- an . F / in Rom. 5+2=. 1 is not fo!n e$sewhere in the ;.T. Cf. Iis . 1+7, where a free ren ering is given of the entire phrase. The )i ne&s were regar e '& the He'rews as the seat of the emotions an affections *Eer. 12+2-, an the heart of the tho!ghts. .3 is, accor ing to .$ass **r. 21-, an A$e/an rian form. & ! R E F F " . This phrase rec!rs in 22+12. Cf. %att. 17+2=, D $ & H & R E F 3( 9$. 24. 9 "# . This ma& mean 3are free from4 in contrast to those who 3ho$ fast4 $ , '!t a comparison of 1+17 an 2+1 is not in favo!r of this view, if te/t of 2+1 is right. Y is here genericB in icates a c$ass. (ts !se is therefore c$assica$, as in 1+=, <+0, 2,+0. E$sewhere o!r a!thor !ses 6 practica$$& the e9!iva$ent of 6+ cf. 1+12, 11+5, 12+13, 1=+12, 1<+2. "ee note on 11+5. Y F 0 $ 238 Two interpretations are here possi'$e, an 'oth are forci'$e. *1- "ince the persons referre to in C are the $i'ertine section in the Ch!rch of Th&atira, the a'ove wor s, Y H 23, are an in ignant retort on the part of o!r a!thor, in which he ec$ares that, whereas the& c$aim to 3)now the eep things of ?o 4 *cf. (ren. -aer. ii. 22. 3- even as "t. Pa!$ *cf. 1 Cor. 2+1,, F $ .eO , F 0' $ $ + Rom. 11+33B Eph. 3+15-, it is not the eep things of ?o '!t of "atan that the& have so!ght after. The $ater ?nostics, we )now, professe a$one to )now F 0'+ cf. (ren. Adv. -aer. ii. 22. 1, 39!i prof!n a .&thi a invenisse se ic!nt4B 22. 3, 3profunda Dei a invenisse se icentes4B Hippo$. ,hilos. v. 7, . RB ! )O 1 F 0' & + Tert!$$. Adv. /alent. 1, 3E$e!sinia Na$entiniani fecer!nt $enocinia, sancta si$entio magno, so$a tacit!rnitate cae$estia. "i 'ona fi e 9!aeras, concretov!$t!, s!spenso, s!perci$io, Altum est, ai!nt4 This phrase *F 0- was a nat!ra$ one on the part of men who $ai c$aim to an esoteric )now$e ge8 a )now$e ge that in the case of the Cainites, ;aasenes, Carpocratians, an @phites was he$ to emancipate its possessors from the c$aims of mora$it&. This $ast fact $ea s nat!ra$$& to the secon interpretation. *2- Accor ing to this secon interpretation the wor s represent the act!a$ c$aim of this ?nostic e$ement in the >.T. >ld Testament. LXX Septuagint. N.T. New Testament.

! $ , 3pesti$ence,4 as here an

! where the #FF has +! oes not !se .3 at a$$ as a ren ering of ! , nor

Ch!rch of Th&atira, as Iiese$er, "pitta, Tahn, NO$ter * ffenb. iv. 177-, .o!sset ass!me. These fa$se teachers he$ that the spirit!a$ man sho!$ )now the eep things of "atan, that he sho!$ ta)e part in the heathen $ife of the comm!nit&, two of the most prominent characteristics of which were its sacrificia$ feasts an immora$ practices. Tho!gh he o!twar $& share in this heathen $ife, neverthe$ess as a spirit!a$ man *i.e. the ?nostic of $ater times- he remaine inwar $& !naffecte '& it an so asserte his s!periorit& over it. The insistence on the )now$e ge of intellectual m&steries, either as an in ispensa'$e a ition to or as a s!'stit!te for simp$e o'e ience to the c$aims of the Christian $ife, has a$wa&s 'een a wea)ness of the Ch!rch. 9 0! .1> 3 4 0 . (n themse$ves these wor s co!$ refer either to '!r ens of s!ffering or of the $aw. .!t the conte/t ec$ares c$ear$& for the $atterB for the term * in the fo$$owing verse can on$& refer to the o'$igations of the mora$ $aw, an these o'$igations in partic!$ar re$ate to fornication an the eating of meat offere to i o$s. ;ow these were the two chief enactments of the Aposto$ic ecree in Acts 16+25, "( H 'Q ./ 0 )! .O # A!)! H , /. @n$& these two prohi'itions are ec$are to 'e o'$igator& on the mem'ers of the Ch!rch in Th&atira, which were entang$e in the $i'ertinism of the ;ico$aitans. The other two8# H Y , 8 are not re1enacte . .!t this is not a$$. The !se of the wor 4 in itse$f points to the e/c$!sion of the two $atter. Th!s o!r a!thor ha c$ear$& the Aposto$ic ecree in his min . 25. @nce an for a$$ ta)e a firm ho$ * - on these !ties inc!m'ent on &o!, an sh!n a'so$!te$& the sacrificia$ feasts of the heathen an the mora$ evi$s that atten on them. - "# . Cf. 3+11, - "#8 J(! is to 'e ta)en as a s!':!nctive of the aorist J(! since 4# in o!r a!thor e$sewhere is fo$$owe '& the s!':!nctive+ cf. =+3, 16+5, 2,+3, 6. (n 1=+1= it is fo$$owe '& the in icativeB '!t o!r a!thor is here !sing a so!rce. 26. , ' . The victor& is to him that )eeps ChristLs wor)s !nto the en B in the present instance the specia$ wor)s re9!ire from the Ch!rch of Th&atira. .!t the repetition of the artic$e e9!ates the two phrases. Hence we might trans$ate+ 3he that overcometh8even he that )eepeth.4 The victor is he that )eeps ChristLs wor)s+ he that )eeps ChristLs wor)s is the victor. & E 9% , the nominative res!me in a s!'se9!ent prono!n in the ative. To this nominativus pendens or acc!sative we have an e/act para$$e$ in 3+12, 21. A more norma$ constr!ction occ!rs in 2+=, 1=, an the norma$ in 7+0, 21+7. & ! 9% .( / ., . . A free ren ering of Ps. 2+5, "& ! "' '/ . The tho!ght of these wor s as we$$ as the iction of what fo$$ows are rawn from Ps. 2+5<. This Psa$m was interprete %essianica$$& as ear$& as the 1st cent. ..C. in the Pss. "o$omon *see note on 1<+16-. The nat!re of the power conferre is escri'e in the ne/t verse. @!r a!thor appears to isting!ish caref!$$& the !se of .( / with the artic$e an witho!t it. (n the >o!rth ?ospe$ the artic$e is not !se at a$$. Iith the artic$e f!$$ a!thorit& in the circ!mstances efine in the conte/t is imp$ie + cf. <+1<, 13+0, 12, 17+<, 1=+13. Ihen a $imite a!thorit& is imp$ie , .( / stan s witho!t the artic$e+ cf. 2+27, 7+5, <+3, 13+2, 6, =, 10+15, 1=+12, 15+1, 2,+7. There are three cases which o not come !n er this r!$e, i.e. in <+1,, 11+7, an 22+10. (n 11+7 o!r a!thor is !sing a so!rce+ hence

' B #FF, &

we have here no e/ception. .!t <+1, an 22+10 are a'norma$, since K .( / 9 in these passages appear to 'e e9!a$ simp$& to "# .( /. 27. 2=a' imp$& the act!a$ estr!ction of the heathen nations as in 1<+16, an apparent$& in their estr!ction the tri!mphant mart&rs *cf. 2+27, 1=+10- are to 'e active agents as mem'ers of the heaven$& hosts which sho!$ fo$$ow the wor of ?o , 1<+13 10. At this moment that ( am writing we can witness at $east a partia$ f!$fi$ment of this rea forecast, in which Eng$an an her a$$ies are engage in morta$ strife with the powers of go $ess force an materia$ism. As "wete apt$& writes+ 3The new or er m!st 'e prece e '& the 'rea)ing !p of the o$ * /0-, '!t the p!rpose of the Potter is to reconstr!ctB o!t of the fragments of the o$ $ife there wi$$ rise !n er the han of Christ an of the Ch!rch, new an 'etter t&pes of socia$ an nationa$ organisation.4 To this we might a + the present heathen s&stem of internationa$ re$ations wi$$ sooner or $ater 'e estro&e an rep$ace '& internationa$ re$ations of a Christian character. , 9B . ;0E 'e C F )' F F /0. >rom Ps. 2+<. @!r a!thor here agrees part$& with the #FF+ 9B . ;0E 'e C ) ! / 9). (nstea of "&mmach!s ren ers / *s. -, an instea of / A9!i$a ren ers (. Two important 9!estions arise here. 1. Has o!r a!thor simp$& 'orrowe his ren ering from the #FFK 2. Ihat meaning oes o!r a!thor attach to K ;ow as to 1, since it is o!r a!thorLs !sage e$sewhere to trans$ate the He'rew te/t in epen ent$&, there is no reason to infer that he is here simp$& 'orrowing from the #FF. The #FF was no o!'t fami$iar to him an provi e him with a voca'!$ar&. .!t he was in no sense epen ent !pon it. .!t it has 'een !rge , an no o!'t right$&, that the #FF here erive " from an so voca$i2e it an voca$i2e it " , 3tho! sha$t 'rea)4 *as "&mmach!s-. Ie have now to ea$ with 28 what meaning i o!r a!thor attach to K A comparison of 1<+16 where it is para$$e$ to (M, an of the present te/t, 2+2=, where it is para$$e$ with /0 *cf. a$so 12+6-, is strong evi ence that o!r a!thor attache two istinct meanings to /.1 The or inar& meaning is fo!n in =+1= * G 3wi$$ past!re4-, the other an !n!s!a$ meaning 3wi$$ evastate, $a& waste,4 in 2+2=, 12+6, 1<+16. ;ow, since this sense is so far as ( am aware not fo!n o!tsi e o!r a!thor an the #FF *if in ee it is fo!n in the $atter-, it is inc!m'ent on !s to e/p$ain how o!r a!thor came to attach this meaning to the ?ree) ver'. The e/p$anation is apparent$& to 'e fo!n in the fact that / is the or inar& trans$ation of . .!t whereas 1 That our author did attach two meanings to / is the view universall& adopted (& ancient and modern versions. This the Eulgate and S&riac versions and the 0.E. and D.E., etc., render this ver( (& 'rule) in 2:24, 1,:15. Thus is, o# course, a possi(le meaning and it is also an ancient one, (ut in our author the parallelism and the conte6t are against it. The o(Gect with which authorit& is given to them over the apostate nations is not that the& ma& 'rule) them, (ut may utterly destroy them.

" an

ren ere it , whereas the& o!ght to have erive it from

,4 it means sometimes 3to evastate,4 3 estor&,4 as in %ic. 6+6B Eer. 7+3, 2+17 *where the R.N. ren ers 3'rea)4-, 22+22B Ps. 5,+10 *see 6ford -ebre# Le6., p. <06-. ;ow in the first two passage the #FF ren ers &' /. Hence / sho!$ here mean 3to $a& waste4 or 3to estro&.4 .!t,

genera$$& means 3to shepher

even if the #FF fai$e to grasp the right ren ering of in these passages an ren ere it accor ing to its or inar& sense, it oes not fo$$ow that o!r a!thor oes so a$so. As c$ear$& as $ang!age can in icate, / an in 1<+16 are para$$e$s, :!st as ;1/ <( an ;0E 'e in the same c$a!ses are $i)ewise para$$e$s. (t is noteworth& that in #atin pasco eve$ope this secon ar& meaning a$so. Hence it is high$& pro'a'$e that o!r a!thor assigne to / a secon ar& sense that attaches to * as he oes to other wor s+ cf. , 1,+1 n.-, an that we sho!$ ren er here+ 3He sha$$ estro& them with an iron ro , As the vesse$s of the potter sha$$ the& 'e ashe to pieces.4 C F )' F F /0 . Here we have a free ren ering of Ps.

2+<'+ cf. a$so (sa. 3,+10B Eer. 1<+11. (t is 'est to regar /0 as G % ( in the min of o!r a!thor, an hence ta)e it as a He'raism an e9!iva$ent to a future. #ater %"" saw, in fact, that a f!t!re was re9!ire here an rea 0 . Ie sho!$ not here, with the R.N., ta)e the wor s as fo$$ows+ 3as the vesse$s of the potter are 'ro)en to shivers.4 "!ch a tho!ght is wea)+ there is no point in s!ch a statement. The writer means to sa& that the righteo!s wi$$ 3 ash to pieces4 the strong an the might& among the heathen as easi$& as one ashes to pieces a potterLs vesse$s. Primasi!s s!pports this view+ 3sic!t was fig!$i confringent!r4+ a$so Ticoni!s+ 3!t was fig!$i commin!ent!r.4 .esi es, the para$$e$ism re9!ires /01 to 'e ta)en as a principa$ ver', as it is in Ps. 2+<. Even (sa. 3,+10, Eer. 1<+11 s!pport this view. C G H'1 F $ . These wor s reca$$, of co!rse, Ps. 2+=, _) rD ). Cf. Acts 2+33, ./ $ ) H 0G F $ , for the phraseo$og&. 28. (n this $etter to Th&atira on$& o we fin a o!'$e promise8here an in 2=a'. @n this an other gro!n s "e$w&n, Ie$$ha!sen, an others wo!$ omit 2=a' as an intr!sion. ;o satisfactor& e/p$anation has as &et 'een iscovere of these wor s. .!t in the meantime the 'est interpretation seems to 'e that of .eat!s *9!ote '& "wete-+ 3i est, Jomin!m Ees!m Christ!m 9!em n!m9!am s!scepit vesper, se $!/ sempiterna est, et ipse s!per in $!ce est,4 an of .e e+ 3Christ!s est ste$$a mat!tina 9!i nocte saec!$i transacta $!cem vitae sanctis promittit et pan et aeternam.4 (n 22+17 Christ escri'es Himse$f as !d. Hence the wor s com'ine with 2= mean simp$&+ 3when tho! hast won thro!gh the strife ( wi$$ 'e thine.4 3:1%6. THE MESSAGE TO THE CHURCH IN SAR&IS

D.E. Devised Eersion. 1 0 neuter plural has ver( o#tener in the plural in our author. 7ut /0 here must agree either with F )' or, as 1 ta-e it, with F 5' supplied #rom 2 (. Hor other instances o# the sing. ver( and plural noun c#. 1:1,, o .:+, 1+:15, 15:1+, 1,:15, 23:+, 5, 22:12.

1. . 2 . "ar is *see the .i'$e Jictionaries in loc.+ a$so Ramsa&, Letters, 3=6352- was sit!ate a'o!t 3, mi$es ".E.". of Th&atira. (n (onic its form was 2, in Attic 2, whi$e in $ater ?ree) it was written 2. "ar is was '!i$t on the northern confines of %t. Tmo$!s, an its acropo$is on a sp!r of this mo!ntain. (t ominate the rich Herm!s va$$e&, an was the capita$ of the ancient #& ian )ing om. (t reache the height of its prosperit& !n er Croes!s *circ. 67, ..C.-. @n its con9!est '& C&r!s it 'ecame the seat of a Persian "atrap&, an its histor& for the ne/t three cent!ries is '!rie in o'sc!rit&. An er Roman r!$e it recovere some of its ancient importance, an 'ecame the centre of a conventus juridicusB '!t, notwithstan ing, no cit& in Asia presente a more ep$ora'$e contrast of past sp$en o!r an present !nresting ec$ine. (n 1= A.J. it was overthrown '& a severe earth9!a)e, '!t thro!gh the generosit& of Ti'eri!s *Tac. Ann. ii. 0=-, who remitte a$$ its ta/es for five &ears an contri'!te 1,,,,,,,,, sesterces towar s its re'!i$ ing, it rose so rapi $& from its r!ins that in 27 A.J. it was ca$$e a ' '& "tra'o *726-, an it conten e , tho!gh !ns!ccessf!$$&, with "m&rna for the privi$ege of raising a temp$e to Ti'eri!s *Tac. Ann. iv. 66-. (ts chief c!$t was that of C&'e$e, whi$e its stap$e in !stries were connecte with woo$$en goo s, an it c$aime to have 'een the first comm!nit& which iscovere the art of &eing woo$. To these in !stries there is possi'$& a reference in 3+0, 6a. (ts inha'itants ha $ong 'een notorio!s for $!/!r& an $icentio!sness *Hero . 1+66B Aesch. ,ers. 06-, an the Christian Ch!rch ha manifest$& a har tas) in resisting the evi$ atmosphere that environe it. #i)e the cit& itse$f, the Ch!rch ha 'e$ie its ear$& promise. (ts re$igio!s histor&, $i)e its civi$, 'e$onge to the past. An &et, espite its mora$ an spirit!a$ ec$ension, it sti$$ possesse a n!c$e!s of faithf!$ mem'ers+ it ha 3a few names which ha not efi$e their garments.4 (t was not apparent$& tro!'$e '& persec!tion from witho!t, or '& inte$$ect!a$ error from within, an &et it an the Ch!rch of #ao icea were the most '$ameworth& of the seven. "#! F RF ) $ $ , B RF . This c$a!se is *see p. 27-, as the correspon ing ivine tit$es of Christ in the other si/ #etters, to 'e regar e as a re actiona$ a ition of o!r "eer when he e ite his visions as a who$e. The phrase F RF ) has a$rea & occ!rre in 1+0, '!t there it is a manifest interpo$ation. Hence it rea$$& occ!rs here for the first time. @n its pro'a'$e meaning see 1+0, note. F " . @n this vernac!$ar genitive *contrast 2+2- see notes on 2+<, 1<B A ''ott, *ram, pp. 7,6, 7,=B a$so 01026, 7,1. Here as in 3+5, 16 the emphasis is $ai on the "83the wor)s tho! hast wro!ght are )nown to me4 8the& give thee a sem'$ance of $ife, '!t in rea$it& tho! art ea . This vernac!$ar genitive rec!rs at the c$ose of this verse+ cf. a$so 1,+<, 15+06, 21+3 *A- . 6 @ "# 6 +: , . >or the constr!ction cf. Hero . vii. 135, P #O C .> U .)O / Q R 3 8 s. Contrast 2 Cor. 7+<, C O , AB +, an cf. Eas. 2+1=. K / O .F "#M "O . > R, an 2 Tim. 3+6, "# 1! 9 0/ Q ) 9* T'. The con emnation of the Ch!rch of "ar is is more severe than that of the other si/ Ch!rches. An &et it, too, has a n!c$e!s of faithf!$ mem'ers. 2. / ' . >or this constr!ction cf. 17+1,, . H . !'. ' is a wor of o!r "eerLs *cf. 17+16-, an , tho!gh fo!n in the three "&noptic ?ospe$s, is not !se in the >o!rth. @!r te/t reca$$s %att. 20+02 *%ar) 13+33-, ' O 6 9 H /? K? ) "#. There are ver& c$ose 0((ott, 0((ott, Johannine Grammar, 1,3 . 0 0 (v! London. Sd. 5.

affinities in iction 'etween 20 here an 17+16, which show in !'ita'$& o!r a!thorLs han . Iith / ' H 3, , , ' ] .F ' MO J(! C '. H 0, o 9 . F D 9O , H . , cf. 17+16, AB "# C '8 ' , ' F D 9$O Y :. .!t on the high pro'a'i$it& that 17+16 origina$$& stoo 'etween 3' an 3c, see note on this verse an a$so on 17+16. Ramsa& *Letters, 3=7 s99.- is of opinion that this a monition to 'e watchf!$ was s!ggeste '& two inci ents in the past histor& of "ar is, when the acropo$is fe$$ into the han s of the enem& thro!gh the $ac) of vigi$ance on the part of its efen ers8first in the time of Croes!s in 60< ..C., an ne/t in 215 ..C. when Antioch!s the ?reat capt!re the cit&, a Cretan mercenar& having $e the wa&, 3c$im'ing !p the hi$$ an stea$ing !no'serve within the fortifications.4 F F . This wor is fo!n eight times in o!r a!thor, '!t not in the other ;.T. Eohannine writings. As "wete points o!t, F means not mere$& persons, '!t 3whatever remaine at "ar is o!t of the wrec) of Christian $ife, whether persons or instit!tions.4 The entire comm!nit& nee s to 'e reconstr!cte on a so!n fo!n ation. o " . Ie have here the episto$ar& imperfect. (n the p$!ra$ ver' *contrast 1+1<- we have a constructio ad sensum. The i ea reca$$s E2e). 30+0, 17. .$ass **ram. 1<=- seems right in maintaining that the aorist in correct$& emp$o&e here an in 3+17, 12+0, after . is se$ om fo$$owe '& the aorist in the ;.T.+ it is genera$$& fo$$owe '& the present, as a$so in o!r a!thor+ cf. 1+1<, 2+1,, 3+1,, 7+11, 5+13, 1,+0, 1,+=, 12+6, 12+5. (n c$assica$ ?ree) is fo$$owe most fre9!ent$& '& the f!t!re inf., '!t in v!$gar ?ree) this was isp$ace '& the present. F *M AC- " . Here as at the 'eginning of the verse we have the vernac!$ar possessive. The emphasis is thrown strong$& on the no!n+ 3The wor)s wro!ght '& thee ( have fo!n wanting 'efore m& ?o .4 Cf. Jan. 6+2=. Here the refers to the comm!nit& as a who$e. As a centre of spirit!a$ an mora$ power it has fai$e , tho!gh it contains a few that have 'een faithf!$ *0-. Hence we rea F " against AC. 98 " G 3no wor)s of thine,4 cannot 'e maintaine in the face of 0. '! . @n$& fo!n once again in o!r a!thor in 7+11. (t is a favo!rite Eohannine wor in the >o!rth ?ospe$, occ!ring 13 times *cf. especia$$& 17+20, 1=+13-, an twice in 1 an 2 Eohn. Cf. a$so Co$. 2+1,, . Q . 9% '!. .& $ $ . The comm!nit& has a name 'efore the Christian wor$ for its wor)s, '!t not 'efore ?o B for the faithf!$ness of the few *0- cannot re ress the 'a$ance against the Ch!rch as a who$e. (t is &ing Ch!rch. @n $ $ cf. 3+12B Rom. 16+7. , $ / K N' $ h $+ a$so %ar) 16+30B Eohn 2,+1= 3. ' *cf. 2+6, the a vice to the Ch!rch of Ephes!s- H'1 , S . The change of tenses is here significant. S points to the time when the& hear the ?ospe$+ cf. 1 Thess. 1+6, 7, 2+13. H'1 conce es that the& sti$$ possess this gift of ?o . , ' . The Ch!rch is to )eep fast ho$ of what it has receive an hear , an , repenting forthwith, recover its former spirit!a$ attit! e *aor.-. .F ' M8 As a host of critics have pointe o!t, 17+16 *see note!n o!'te $& 'rea)s !p the conte/t in which it occ!rs. QOnnec)e *fo$$owe '& %offatt? Cords so enclosed are restored (& the $ditor. " " (v! paris. Sd. +. "ontains 1:1/+:1,, 5:15/4:15, 4:14/.:5, ,:1 /13:13, 11:+/ 1 :+, 1.:2/1,:5.

wo!$ restore in 'efore the a'ove wor s, whi$e .e2a transferre it 'efore 3+15. The first s!ggestion is pro'a'$& to 'e preferre . (t might, of co!rse, 'e o':ecte that the repetition after AB "# C ' of J(! C ' wo!$ 'e :e:!ne. .!t the $atter seems more efinite. An &et in 2+6, 17, A Q O "#, the present "# appears to 'e !se !n er e/act$& the same con itions as J(! C ' here. .!t it is pro'a'$e that in the c$a!se AB "# C ' we have a genera$ escription of the nat!re of ChristLs A vent. (t is to 'e !ne/pecte , whereas in the c$a!se J(! C ' there is a efinite menace, in which it is imp$ie that the Ch!rch of "ar is wi$$ 'e ca!ght off their g!ar '& the s! enness of ChristLs A vent. Hence, tho!gh with some hesitation, ( have restore 17+16 'efore 3+3c. 16:15. AB "# C '8 ' , ' F D 9$ , Y : , , 0! #' )' 9$ . 3:3'. .F ' M , J(! C ' , , 9 % / V J(! ., . .F ' M J(! C ' . An o'vio!s echo of %att. 20+03 s9. * G #!)e 12+3< s9., cf. %ar) 13+36-. A t A ' /? 1: ' "# .'' 4 H / 5O 6 u 9 V?O D $ & "#. The "econ A vent is referre to in o!r te/t+ it wi$$ come as a thief in the night, 'eca!se the& are not on the watchB cf. 1 Thess. 6+2, 0. 9 % . The s!':!nctive fo$$ows 9 witho!t e/ception in o!r a!thor, an a$$ '!t !niversa$$& in the rest of the ;.T. (n IH te/t 9 occ!rs <7 times, accor ing to %o!$ton **ram. 1<,-. @f these e/amp$es =1 are with the aor. s!':. an with the f!t. in . The rest are am'ig!o!s. / V . >or V in the acc. when apparent$& referring not to the !ration '!t to a point of time, cf. %o!$ton, *ram.2 p. 73. .$ass, *ram. <0 s9., points o!t that this !sage 'egan in c$assica$ times where V G A VB cf. Ro'ertson, *ram. 0=, s9. Acts 2,+17, Eohn 0+62 genera$$& cite as para$$e$ !sages to that in o!r te/t, "ee, however, A''ott, *ram., p. =6. 4. The case of "ar is is critica$, '!t there is sti$$ room for hopeB for there is a faithf!$ n!c$e!s that has escape the genera$ corr!ption. < . Cf 11+13B Acts 1+16. Jeissmann *(ible Studies, 1<7 s9- has prove that in the 2n cent. A.J. @ was !se in the sense of 3person.4 Hence it is pro'a'$e that in o!r a!thor we have the same !sage. (t is, however, to 'e remem'ere that < is !se in ;!m. 1+2, 2,, 3+0,, 03, as a ren ering of where this wor means 3persons4 rec)one '& name. o 9 . F D 9 . "ee note on 15. The mora$ stains here referre to especia$$& inc$! e / *cf. 10+0.- 3The $ang!age ref$ects that of the votive inscriptions in Asia %inor, where soi$e c$othes is9!a$ifie the worshipper an ishono!re the go . %ora$ p!rit& 9!a$ifies for spirit!a$ comm!nion4 *%offat in loc.-. C9 Cestcott and 9ort, The N.T. in Greek. ;oulton, I ;oulton:s Grammar of N.T. Greek2, vol. 2., 1,3 7lass, 7lass, Grammar of N.T. Greek (transl. (& Thac-era&!, 1.,.. Do(ertson, Do(ertson, Grammar of the Greek of the N.T., 1,15.

> .$ . . Ie have here the first eschato$ogica$ promise, which is not prece e '& the wor s . The raiment here spo)en of is the heaven$& raiment or the spirit!a$ 'o ies awaiting the faithf!$ in the ne/t $ife. "ee note on te/t verse. 4(/ A . Contrast the !se of this phrase in 17+7. 5. "ee note on 2+11'. 0 . . 0 ta)es two constr!ctions in o!r a!thor. (t is fo$$owe either '& . with the at. as here an in 0+0, or '& the acc. in the remaining passages. . D/ . These garments1 are the spirit!a$ 'o ies in which the faithf!$ are to 'e c$othe in the res!rrection $ife. This tho!ght is c$ear$& e/presse in 2 Cor. 6+1, 0, 3(f the earth$& ho!se of o!r ta'ernac$e 'e isso$ve , we have a '!i$ ing from ?o , a ho!se not ma e with han s, eterna$, in the heavens. H >or in ee we that are in this ta'ernac$e o groan, 'eing '!r ene B not that we wo!$ 'e !nc$othe , '!t that we wo!$ 'e c$othe !pon.4 .!t this i ea rec!rs e$sewhere in the ;.T., tho!gh it is not so efinite$& e/presse as here+ cf. %att. 13+03, D / . C J, that is, the& sha$$ have a 'o & of $ight *cf. Ps. 1,0+2, 3who coverest th&se$f with $ight as with a garment4-, 1 Cor. 16+03, 0<, 60, Phi$. 3+21, where it is promise that the 'o & of o!r h!mi$iation wi$$ 'e conforme to the 'o & of His g$or& *% & * (' 9$-. Ie sha$$ fin $ater that 3'o & of $ight4 an 3'o & of g$or&4 are !se interchangea'$&. .!t ret!rning again to Phi$. 3+21 we see that the connection 'etween the earth$& 'o & an the heaven$&8tho!gh the& are ifferent in essence8is of the c$osest, an that the character of the heaven$& 'o & is con itione '& that of the earth$& 'o & *cf. 1 Cor. 7+15-. (n the Asc. (sa. 0+17 *circ. 551,, A.J.- we fin f!rther references to these garments or spirit!a$ 'o ies+ 3.!t the saints wi$$ come with the #or with their garments which are *now- store !p on high in the seventh heaven+ with the #or the& wi$$ come, #hose spirits are clothed H an 'e present in the wor$ .4 Cf. =+22, 5+10, 3when from the 'o & '& the wi$$ of ?o tho! hast ascen e hither, then tho! wi$t receive the garment which tho! seest4+ a$so 5+27, <+<, 3An there ( saw Enoch an a$$ who were with him stript of the garments of the f$esh, an ( saw them in their garments of the !pper wor$ , an the& were $i)e ange$s, stan ing there in great g$or&4B<+1=, 3An then man& of the righteo!s wi$$ ascen with Him, whose spirits o not receive their garments ti$$ the #or Christ ascen 4B a$so <+2027, 11+0,. (n the Apoc. of Peter 3 *circ. 11,126 A.J.- the raiment of the '$esse is sai to 'e $ight, an 6, a$$ the we$$ers in Para ise to 'e 3c$a in the raiment of ange$s of $ight 4 *. f " ! 1!-. ;e/t, in Hermas, Sim. viii. 2. 3, the faithf!$ are rewar e with white garments + D Q 9 # C , # D A ) Again, in the @ es of "o$omon we have three references to these heaven$& 'o ies+ 11+1,, 3An the #or renewe me in His raiment *cf. Ps. 1,0+2- an possesse *K Rforme ,L i.e. . , corr!pt for ./ - H 10, An He carrie me to His Para ise4 B 21+2, 3An ( p!t off ar)ness an c$othe m&se$f with $ight. 3, An m& so!$ ac9!ire a 'o & free from sorrow or aff$iction or pains4 B 26+5, 3An ( was c$othe with the covering of Th& "pirit, an Tho! i st remove from me m& raiment of s)in.4 "ee a$so .!r)itt, 'arly 'astern "hristianity, 1 The idea is not a hard and #i6ed one in 2ewish and "hristian literature. Chile generall& the garments are s&m(ols o# the heavenl& (odies o# the #aith#ul, at times the& seem to denote onl& a sort o# heavenl& vesture distinct #rom the #aith#ul themselves.

p. 216B %o!$ton, )ournal of Theol. Stud. iii. 61062=. (n its present form 0 E2ra 12 is Christian, '!t it is not impro'a'$& 'ase on Eewish so!rces. However this ma& 'e, we have, as in the Asc. (sa., references to this heaven$& 'o & of $ight. Cf. 2+3<, 3V!i se e !m'ra saec!$i transt!$er!nt sp$en i as t!nicas a omino acceper!nt.4 The nat!re of these heaven$& garments is c$ear from 2+06, 3Hi s!nt 9!i morta$em t!nicam epos!er!nt et immorta$em s!mpser!nt.4 Ie have now shown that the res!rrection 'o & was c$ear$& conceive in the first an secon cent!ries A.J. in Christian circ$es as a 3'o & of $ight.4 .!t this conception was a$so pre1Christian. Th!s in 1 Enoch 72+17, where the risen righteo!s are escri'e + 3An the& sha$$ have 'een c$othe with garments of g$or&, An these sha$$ 'e the garments of $ife from the #or of "pirits4B 1,5+12, 3An ( wi$$ 'ring forth in shining $ight those who have $ove %& ho$& name.4 "ee a$so 2 Enoch 22+5, 3An the #or sai !nto %ichae$+ ?o an ta)e Enoch from o!t his earth$& garments H an p!t him into the garments of %& g$or&.4 >or interesting tho!gh on$& partia$ para$$e$s in E! aism an Toroastrianism, see #!e)en, +ichael, 122 s9. B .O)$en, /er#andschaft d. j1disch$christlichen mit d. ,arsischen 'schatologie, 71 76. To ret!rn now to o!r a!thor, it is c$ear that the white garments represent the res!rrection or heaven$& 'o ies of the faithf!$ in 3+0c, 6a, 7+11 *see note-, =+<, 13, 10, 1<+5a *where 5' is a g$oss-. (n 3+0' *note-, 15 *note-, 17+16, the D are !se as a s&m'o$ of the spirit!a$ $ife as manifeste in righteo!s character, which forms the heaven$& vest!re of the re eeme . The i ea ma& go 'ac) to Ps. 1,0+2 where ?o is sai to c$othe Himse$f with $ight as with a garment. The garments of the ange$s are white+ %ar) <+3 G #!)e <+2< B %ar) 17+6 G %att. 25+3 B Acts 1+1,. The ver& 'o ies of the ange$s are white, compose of $ightB cf. 2 Enoch 1+6. This is the o$ er i ea, an it is preserve in o!r a!thor. #ater these garments came to signif& heaven$& vest!res of an accessor& nat!re. .(/! . . Cf. =+1=, 21+0. The "ar ians ha a name to $ive an &et were ea *3+1- B if the& awa)e *3+2- to righteo!sness an show themse$ves victors, then their name wi$$ 'e preserve in the 'oo)s of $ife. * 0/0 * +!*. Cf. 13+5, 1=+5, 2,+12, 16, 21+2=. 3The i ea !n er$&ing this phrase can 'e trace to the @.T. There the 'oo) of $ife *or its e9!iva$ents, E/. 32+32 s9., R?o Ls 'oo)L B Ps. 7<+25, R'oo) of the $ivingL- was a register of the citi2ens of the Theocratic comm!nit& of (srae$. To have oneLs name written in the 'oo) of $ife imp$ie the privi$ege of participating in the temporal '$essings of the Theocrac&, (sa. 0+3, whi$e to 'e '$otte o!t of this 'oo), E/. 32+32, Ps. 7<+25, meant e/c$!sion therefrom.4 He whose name was written in this 'oo) remaine in $ife '!t he whose name was not, m!st ie. 3(n the @.T. this e/pression was origina$$& confine to temporal '$essings on$&, save in Jan. 12+1, where it is transforme thro!gh the inf$!ence of the new conception of the )ing om, an istinct$& refers to an immorta$it& of '$esse ness. (t has the same meaning in 1 Enoch 0=+3. A f!rther reference to it is to 'e fo!n in ( Enoch 1,0+1, 1,5+= The phrase again appears in the .oo) of E!'i$ees 3,+2, s99. in contrast with the 'oo) of those that sha$$ 'e estro&e , '!t in the @.T. sense. H (n the ;.T. the phrase is of fre9!ent occ!rrence, Phi$. 0+3 B Rev. *see a'ove $ist- B an the i ea in #!)e 1,+2,, He'. 12+23, Rwritten in heaven,L is its practica$ e9!iva$ent.4 The a'ove is 9!ote with a few changes from m& note on 1 Enoch 0=+3. (n the same note )in re e/pressions are ea$t with at some $ength8s!ch as the 'oo)s of remem'rance of goo an evi$ ee s8the goo in Ps. 67+5 B %a$. 3+17 B ;eh. 13+10 B E!'. 3,+22 B the evi$ in (sa. 76+7 B 1 Enoch 51+0, 5<+7170, 75, =,, =1, etc. B a .ar. 20+1 B 'oth the goo an the evi$ in Jan. =+1, B 2 Enoch 62+16. 63+2 B Rev. 2,+12 B

Asc. (sa. <+22. "ee Ie'er, )1d. Theol.2 202, 252 s99. B Ja$man, !rote )esu, i. 1=1B 2 .A.T.3 ii. 0,6 B .o!sset, 7el. d. )udenthums, 20=. , ! @ 9$ . Ie have a c$ear reminiscence of o!r #or Ls wor s in %att. 1,+32 *#!)e 12+5-, 3 6 . ., " &!O ! G . 9% " $ $ . 9 v ! $ $, #!)e 12+5-. 713. THE MESSAGE TO THE CHURCH IN PHI"A&E"PHIA 7. * . 11/? . This cit& *see .i'$e Jictionaries in loc.- $ies some 25 mi$es so!th1east of "ar is. >rom the wor s of o!r a!thor it is c$ear that its Christianit& was of a high character, stan ing in point of merit secon on$& "m&rna among the seven Ch!rches. (n the time of (gnati!s *Ad ,hil. 3, 6, 1,- it en:o&e the same high rep!tation. Phi$a e$phia was fo!n e on the so!thern si e of the va$$e& of the Cogamis8a tri'!tar& of the Herm!s8'& Atta$!s ((. Phi$a e$ph!s, an name after its fo!n er *16<135 ..C.-. An er Caraca$$a it receive the tit$e of ;eocoros or Temp$e Iar en, an thenceforwar the _ of Asia met there from time to time to ce$e'rate certain state festiva$s. #i)e other cities of Asia %inor it too s!ffere from the great earth9!a)e in 1= A.J., an was assiste to re'!i$ '& a onation from the imperia$ p!rse. The chief pagan c!$t was that of Jion&s!s, '!t its main iffic!$ties arose from Eewish rather than from pagan opponents *3+<-, as was the case with "m&rna *2+<-. These E! ai2ers were sti$$ a so!rce of tro!'$e in the time of (gnati!s *Ad ,hil. 7-. (n $ater times Phi$a e$phia was nota'$e for the heroism with which it resiste the growing power of the T!r)s. 3(t isp$a&e a$$ the no'$e 9!a$ities of en !rance, tr!th an stea fastness which are attri'!te to it in the $etter of "t. Eohn, ami the ever threatening anger of T!r)ish attac)B an its stor& ro!ses even ?i''on to a miration4 *Ramsa&, Letters, 0,,-. (t was not !nti$ 13=<<,, when :ea$o!s& ivi e the Christian powers, that it fe$$ 'efore the attac) of the !nite forces of the .&2antine Emperor %an!e$ 2. an the T!r)ish "!$tan .a&e2i 1. "ince that time it has 'een )nown as A$a1"heher,8the re ish cit&,8a esignation !e to the re hi$$s in its rear. I ' . 3The Ho$&, the Tr!e.4 This as&n etic !se of two ivine esignations is to 'e fo!n in 1 Enoch 1+3, 10+1 *cf. a$so 1,+1, 26+3, 50+1-, I 8 I was fami$iar to the Eews as a tit$e of ?o B cf. Ha'. 3+3 B (sa. 0,+26 B 1 Enoch 1+2, 3=+2, <3+11, etc.B Acts 3+10. The two wor s I an ', which are com'ine as epithets of ?o in 7+1,, are in o!r te/t app$ie to Christ + cf. 3+10, , ' + 1<+11, a)b , '. As regar s the meaning of ', Hort has right$& !rge that 3it is mis$ea ing to thin) *here- on$& of the c$assica$ sense, tr!e as genuine. H 3;ot on$& 7+1,, '!t 3+10, , ' *cf. 1<+11-, an what is sai of His Rwa&sL or R:! gmentsL *16+3, 17+=, 1<+2-, ' co!p$e with /, show that the Apoca$&pse retains the @.T. conception of tr!th, e/presse , e.g. in 107+7, Rwhich )eepeth tr!th for ever,L i.e. constanc& to a p$ighte wor or p!rpose, the opposite of caprice.4 Cf. a$so (sa. 0<+=, 3'eca!se of the #or that is faithf!$, the Ho$& @ne of (srae$.4 (n the #FF ' is never !se of ?o , '!t ' is !se a few timesB cf. E/. 30+7 B (sa. 76+17 B Ps. 57+16, where the He'rew is either or . Hence ' imp$ies that ?o or Christ, as tr!e, wi$$ f!$fi$ His wor . The thoro!gh$& He'raic character of the Apoca$&pse confirms this view. (n the >o!rth ?ospe$, on the other han , ' G 3gen!ine4 as oppose to !nrea$ rather than to !ntr!thf!$. Hence in o!r a!thor TrenchLs *..T. Synonyms, 2<- a mira'$e J.A.T. Schrader:s Die Keilinschriften und dasalte Testament , edited and rewritten (& 9. <immern and 9. Cinc-ler, 1,3+.

ifferentiation of the wor s ' *not !se in o!r a!thor, '!t 10 times in the >o!rth ?ospe$- an ' oes not ho$ + 3Ie ma& affirm of the ', that he f!$fi$s the promise of his $ips, '!t the ', the wi er promise of his name. Ihatever that name imports, ta)en in its highest, eepest, wi est sense, whatever accor ing to that he o!ght to 'e, that he is to the f!$$.4 This istinction is tr!e of the >o!rth ?ospe$, where 'oth wor s occ!r. "#! k/O /! , 9, / . The passage points 'ac) to 1+15, '!t it is 'ase on (sa. 22+22, where Vw with the %ass. rea , with reference to E$ia)im, & ! H k, ., $ g 9$O , /( , 9 " /! , / , 9 " /!. "ince 'oth . an A rea ifferent$&, o!r a!thor is apparent$& not !sing the #FF here. (n an& case, whi$e the #FF repro !ces the %ass., which here consists of para$$e$ c$a!ses, it is c$ear that o!r a!thor ea$s in epen ent$& with the te/t. The He'rew is fami$iar to him, an what appears in (sa. 22+22 in the form of irect statements an finite ver's is cast '& o!r a!thor into a series of epen ent c$a!ses, which are intro !ce '& particip$es that are s!'se9!ent$& reso$ve into finite ver's, i.e. /! , 9, / , /! , 9, /. This is not ?ree), '!t a He'rew i iom often !se '& o!r a!thor,

The e/pression k/ has apparent$& a %essianic significance. Cf. 6+6, 22+17, ;/+ k/. The wor s teach that to Christ 'e$ongs comp$ete a!thorit& in respect to a mission to or e/c$!sion from the cit& of Javi , the ;ew Eer!sa$em. The a mission referre to ma& primari$& have to o with the ?enti$es an the e/c$!sion with the !n'e$ieving Eews *see <-. .!t their scope is !niversa$. As E$ia)im carrie the )e&s of the ho!se of Javi in the co!rt of He2e)iah, so oes Christ in the )ing om of ?o + cf. Eph. 1+22. He has the same a!thorit& in regar to Ha es, 1+15, an s!preme a!thorit& in heaven an earth, %att. 25+15, an is 3as a son over his own ho!se,4 He'. 3+7. 8. x F " . This c$a!se has '& some scho$ars 'een re:ecte on the gro!n that it 'rea)s the connection an is harmonistic. .!t it is 'etter with IH to ta)e the wor s that fo$$ow, AB ! H 9, as a parenthesis, an connect H " irect$& with 6 F "# 8 is fo$$owe '& 6 in 3+1, 16. AB ! .& ) E' . ! apparent$& is !se He'raistica$$& here, 3( have set.4 (n )8 E' we have a Pa!$ine metaphor+ cf. 1 Cor. 17+<, ) E ' , . + 2 Cor. 2+12, ) E' . /E + Co$. 0+3, Y /(M K ) $ *i.e. an opport!nit& for preaching the wor -. Here the 3open oor4 means that a goo opport!nit& is 'eing given for missionar& effort, an in o!r te/t an in the a'ove Pa!$ine passages the oor stan s for the privi$ege accor e to the Christian teachersB in Acts 10+2=, S( " ) / !, the metaphor is app$ie converse$&, where the oor is opene not to the Christian teacher, '!t to the converts to the Christian Ch!rch. A ifferent e/p$anation has 'een a vance '& %offatt, who in view of a passage written '& (gnati!s to this same Ch!rch of Phi$a e$phia *Ad ,hilad. <+1, 9 y ) $ O > z A # U0F , m F .- connects the phrase with Christ an compares Eohn 1,+=, <, where Christ escri'es Himse$f as K ) 0!. .!t it wo!$ 'e strange for the spea)er8Christ8to sa&, 3.eho$ ( have set 'efore &o! a oor opene ,4 an to imp$& there'& that He Himse$f was this oor. The irect form of statement in Eohn 1,+=, < oes not s!pport this view. .o!sset propo!n s a thir e/p$anation, i.e. that the open oor is for the entrance of the comm!nit& into the %essianic g$or&.

W 9, ) 9 . @n this He'raism cf. =+2, <, 13+5, 12, 2,+5 + cf. 12+7, 10, 1=+< B a$so 2+=, 1=. 6 F "# ) . This c$a!se, as pointe o!t a'ove, epen s irect$& on F ", the intervening c$a!se 'eing a parenthesis. The Ch!rch ha $itt$e weight in Phi$a e$phia so far as concerne its e/terna$ circ!mstances. , .' . The / has here an a versative force * G 3an &et4-, as fre9!ent$& in the >o!rth ?ospe$ *A''ott, *ram. 136 s99.-, 1+6, 3+13, 1<, 0+2,, 7+=,, <+30, etc. The !sage in He'raic in character. Cf. a$so %att. 7+27B Eer. 23+21 *Ro'ertson, *ram. 1153-. @n .' H see note on 10+12. , 9 T !. Cf. 2+13. These c$a!ses point to some perio of faithf!$ness !n er tria$ in the past. @ . Iith the position of the prono!n here cf. 1,+<, / > . % / " ) . The first !nemphatic *or vernac!$ar possessive- throws the emphasis on .' an + 3An &et the wor ( gave &o! tho! i st )eep, an i st not en& %& name.4 9. The conversion of the Eewish e$ement in Th&atira promise . AB . * !* $ 23 . (n *for the ear$ier /!8see Ro'ertson, *ram. 311 s9.- we have a transition from { to {! forms. Cf. 1=+13 * -. As regar s two interpretations are possi'$e. >irst, it ma& 'e ren ere $itera$$&+ 3( give men of the s&nagog!e H as th& converts.4 @therwise is to 'e ta)en He'raica$$&, 3( ma)e *i.e. ( wi$$ ma)e- men of the s&nagog!e H 'eho$ ( wi$$ ma)e4 * !-. This $atter !se is fre9!ent in the #FF. (t is to 'e fo!n a$so in Acts 1,+0,, 10+3 *2+2=, in a 9!otation from the #FF-. The com'ination AB is eci e $& in favo!r of the $atter viewB for it is a p!re He'raism, , with a f!t!re sense. Iith the constr!ction . * !* compare 2+1=, & ! H $ .

* !* $ 23 . (n the #FF # is ren ere K !* $ / *;!m. 17+3, 2,+0 + cf. a$so 27+<, 2=+3, where a ifferent He'rew wor is !se -. ;ot a "&nagog!e of the #or , '!t a "&nagog!e of "atan, oes the "eer prono!nce these Eews to 'e. "ome twent& &ears $ater the Ch!rch of Phi$a e$phia ha greater angers to enco!nter from the E! ai2ers than from the Eews, 'oth of whom were active+ cf. (gnat. Ad ,hilad. 7+1, .F Ad R')M O ) 9$] 4 . F "# # ) | F 0) Ad . ! RB N/ . The ! is in apposition to * !*. @n the who$e c$a!se cf. 2+<. (n c$assica$ ?ree) the !s!a$ constr!ction wo!$ 'e ! v9} N/! . .!t even in c$assica$ ?ree) the acc. with inf. is fo!n where the nom. wo!$ have 'een !s!a$. (n the %o!$ton **ram. 212 s9.- shows the same !sage active. (n fact, as Ro'ertson writes **ram 1,3<-, 3the acc. with the inf. was norma$ when the s!'stantive with the inf. was ifferent from the s!':ect of the principa$ ver'.4 @!r a!thor c$aims that the Christians a$one ha the right to the name 3Eew.4 3>aith in Christ, not mere nationa$it&, constit!te tr!e E! aism. The s!ccession ha passe to Christianit&4 *%offatt in loc.- + cf. Rom. <+7<, 2+25, 2<, 3He is not a Eew which is one o!twar $& H '!t he is a Eew which is one inwar $&.4 Herein o!r a!thor iffers from the >o!rth Evange$ist, with whom N is '& no means an hono!ra'$e esignation. ! , 9 A / . An !nmista)a'$e He'raism. Cf. 2+< an 1+67, note.

! Y cum fut. or subj. Cf. 13+12 *f!t.-, 17 *s!':. K- B Eohn 11+3= *s!':.- B Co$. 0+17 *s!':.-. The Y c$a!se is one of conse9!enceB cf. <+2,, 13+13. The f!t. in . after Y is fre9!ent in o!r a!thor+ see (ntro . to 23. 2 *b-, p. 01 s9. Y J( , .& . Cf. 16+0, 22+5. The $ang!age is 'ase on (sa. 7,+10, where the ?enti$es are escri'e as s!'mitting to the Eews+ ) D, ! ! + 06+10, 0 , / . (t wi$$ 'e o'serve that o!r a!thorLs iction is not epen ent on the #FF. %oreover, o!r te/t more near$& ren ers the %ass. of (sa. 7,+10 than the #FF, for , ., F H#' is fo!n on$& in Vmg an not in the #FF. The homage that the Eews e/pecte from the ?enti$es, the& were themse$ves to ren er to the Christians. The& sho!$ p$a& the rW$e of the heathen an ac)now$e ge the Christians to 'e the tr!e (srae$. .G T' . >rom (sa. 03+0. , . Cf. 22+10, Y " H , H A ! . 10. This verse is a re actiona$ a ition on the part of o!r "eer when he was e iting his visions. (ts meaning is on$& e/p$ica'$e from a right !n erstan ing of vii+, where the 100,,,, are sea$e . There the faithf!$ are sea$e with a view to their preservation from the assa!$ts of emons, '!t are not there'& sec!re against ph&sica$ eath. This persec!tion is not to 'e a mere$& $oca$ one *cf. 2+1,- + it is to em'race the entire wor$ . E$sewhere thro!gho!t the origina$ #etters to the "even Ch!rches there is not even an apprehension of a wor$ 1wi e persec!tion *see 6, p. 00 s9.-. The contin!e e/istence of two of the Ch!rches is pres!ppose ti$$ the "econ A vent + cf. 2+26, 3+3 *K-, 11. (t wi$$ 'e o'serve that the emonic tria$ spo)en of, whi$e wor$ 1wi e, was to affect on$& 3those that we$$ !pon the earth,4 i.e. the non1Christians. 6 .' & ' ! . Cf. Eohn 1=+7, 11, 12, ' H IO ' 9) H 6 S' > 9 .G . 9). As the& have )ept ChristLs wor , so He wi$$ )eep them safe from the emonic assa!$ts which wi$$ affect a$$ who are not His. * * , i.e. 3the wor of m& en !rance.4 The phrase L/! *13+1,, 10+12-, i.e. 3the en !rance practise '& the saints,4 re9!ires a $i)e interpretation here. Hence 3the wor of m& en !rance4 is 3the ?ospe$ of the en !rance practise '& Christ.4 This is to 'e, as Hort writes, Rat once as an e/amp$e an as a power.4 Cf. 2 Thess. 3+6, $ h $ + (gnat. Ad 7om. /. 3, "! A . : N' $ h $. ' ! . . @n$& fo!n e$sewhere in the ;.T. in Eohn 1=+16 *cf. Eas. 1+2=, ' -, where the tho!ght is 9!ite in )eeping with that of o!r "eer+ 9 .! Y 4M . $ > Y ' M 9B . $ '$. Here $ '$ is the Evi$ @ne, or "atan. Hence o!r #or Ls pra&er is that His iscip$es ma& 'e e$ivere from the evi$ swa& of "atan, not that the& ma& 'e save from the ph&sica$ evi$s *inc$! ing eathwhich are inevita'$& inci ent to this $ife. This gives e/act$& the o':ect of the sea$ing in =. The sea$ing provi es the spirit!a$ he$p nee e against the coming manifestation of "atanic wic)e ness $in)e with seeming$& s!preme power. "ee (((. c. in the (ntro . to vii., 6, p. 1<0 s99. Anreserve $o&a$t& to Christ carries with it imm!nit& from spirit!a$ ang!ish an menta$ tro!'$e. * V $ $ . This tri'!$ation is to affect on$& the faith$ess an the heathenB for, as the note on 11+1, shows, the phrase 3those that we$$ !pon the earth4 enotes the wor$ of !n'e$ievers as isting!ishe from that of the faithf!$. Hence whi$st the wor *cf. + $ater- ma& in some egree retain the sense of 3tria$,4 since some of the faith$ess might there'& 'e 'ro!ght to repent, &et its prevai$ing sense in

this passage is aff$iction an temptation8the fitting f!nctions of the emons *<+121-. + in 2+1, means 3to aff$ict,4 '!t the aff$iction is $imite to 3ten a&s.4 @n + as meaning to inf$ict evi$s !pon one in or er to test his character, cf. 1 Cor. 1,+13B He'. 2+15, 0+16. B $ ., * * . These are the heathens or non1Christians. "ee note on 11+1, an 0 of the (ntro . to 13. Th!s the coming , which is to 'e wor$ 1wi e, is to aff$ict on$& those who have not the sea$ of ?o on their forehea *<+0-. "ee note on =+3. 11. "# #) . This refers to the "econ A vent an pres!pposes the contin!ance of the comm!nit& ti$$ that event, as in 2+26, 3+3. .!t the main pres!pposition of the $ater chapters, which represent o!r a!thorLs fina$ view, is that in the fina$ persec!tion a$$ the faithf!$ wi$$ s!ffer mart&r om + cf. 13+16, 15+0 *note-, 2,, an 1 of the (ntro . to 16, an 1 of the (ntro . to 16. - "# . Each Ch!rch is to preserve its own inheritance. Cf. 2+26. "ee note on 2+1 on . Y ', 0M 1 . The promise of the crown is para$$e$ to that ma e to the Ch!rch of "m&rna, 2+1, *see note-. Cf. Co$. 2+15 B 2 Tit. 2+6. 12. "ee note on 2+11'. ! 9 A He'raism. Cf. 2+=, 1=, 27, 3+21. ) . % % $ $ . Iith $ cf. 3+2, 6. Here the phrase occ!rs fo!r times. The e/pression ) is !se metaphorica$$& as e$sewhere in the ;.T. an in E! aism. Cf. 1 Tim. 3+16, .' / H ) , R/! * ' /+ a$so ?a$. 2+<. (n C$em. Rom. 6+2, Peter an Pa!$ are ca$$e D ,

). (n E! aism, R. Eohanan 'en "a))ai was ca$$e $, 3the right pi$$ar,4 with reference to 1 Qings =+21 *.er. 25'-, an A'raham the pi$$ar of the wor$ in E/o . ra'. 2 *see #ev&Ls .euhebr5ishes !8rterbuch, iii. 77,B a$so "choettgen, -or. i. =25 s9.-. The metaphor is c!rrent in most $ang!ages + cf. Pin . l. ii. 107B E!r. Iph. (. 6=, ) F H! A , 4 + Aesch. Agam. 5<=B Hor. d. i. 36. 13. "ince ) is th!s !se metaphorica$$&, it fo$$ows that has a$so a metaphorica$ sense here. Hence the te/t is not inconsistent with 21+22, where it is sai that there is no temp$e in the heaven$& Eer!sa$em, 21+1,22+2, which escen e from ?o to 'e the seat o the %i$$ennia$ Qing om. (n the more spirit!a$ an ;ew Eer!sa$em, 21+20, 22+36, which was to escen after the first :! gment, there co!$ , of co!rse, 'e no temp$e. The $oca$ heaven$& sanct!ar& e/isting in heaven *see notes on =+16, 0+2- was !$timate$& to isappear, an ?o Himse$f to 'e the temp$e. "(! 9 .(M " . The s!':ect is . >i/it& of character is at $ast achieve . "ince ?o is the temp$e, an the faithf!$ have 'ecome pi$$ars in this temp$e, the& have 'ecome one with Him, an therefore can never 'e separate from Him. Cf. Eohn 1=+21a, Y ~ ` + 22, Y ` ~ G K 5+ 21', Y , 9, . K ` . (sa. 22+26, which spea)s of the remova$ of 3the nai$ fastene in a s!re p$ace4 *i.e. E$ia)im-, ma& have 'een in the min of o!r a!thor, inasm!ch as in 3+= he has 9!ote (sa. 22+22. The nai$ can 'e remove , '!t not the pi$$ar. 9 *or - H " , fre9!ent in o!r a!thor '!t not in >o!rth ?ospe$. , ! .> 9 @ . "o far as the ?ree) goes the wor s .> 9 co!$ refer to *1- ), or *2- to . 1. (n favo!r of the first it has 'een !rge that inscriptions on pi$$ars were not infre9!ent in @rienta$ architect!re. (n or er to worship a go it was necessar& to )now his name. Th!s in the magica$ pra&er of Astramps&ch!s, 9!ote '& Reit2enstein, ,oimandres, 2, *see Qen&on, *ree% ,apyri, i. 117-, we fin + x O s* H , F 00F < , '

@ . : De M . % )E . s. .!t there is a nearer para$$e$, as .o!sset points o!t *referring to Hirschfe$ , 57,- B for it was c!stomar& for the provincia$ priest of the imperia$ c!$t!s at the c$ose of his &ear of office to erect his stat!e in the confines of the temp$e, inscri'ing on it his own name an his fatherLs, his p$ace of 'irth an &ear of office. Possi'$& the foregoing fig!re was chosen with reference to this c!stom in or er to set forth the ignit& of the faithf!$ as priests of ?o in the ne/t wor$ . (gnati!s, Ad ,hilad. vi. 1, has 'een tho!ght to refer to the present te/t when he writes in reference to those who o not ac)now$e ge Ees!s Christ, 7 ., */ A , 1 O .1> X < &!. .!t there is rea$$& no i ea in common. (gnati!s is comparing fa$se teachers to sep!$chres, whereas o!r te/t ec$ares that the victors sha$$ 'e !pho$ ers of the spirit!a$ temp$e of ?o , with the name of their ?o '$a2one on their 'rows. "ome thin) that the i ea in o!r te/t is a eve$opment of (sa. 67+6, 3Anto them wi$$ ( give in mine ho!se an within m& wa$$s a memoria$ *$it. Rhan L- an a name 'etter than of sons an a!ghters,4 to which there are para$$e$s in the Phoenician an P!nic stones, which serve as memoria$s within the heathen temp$es. .!t, as we have a$rea & pres!ppose , the other interpretation is eci e $& to 'e preferre . 2. The victor receives the name on his forehea , as in 10+1, 22+0 *cf. =+3, note, 1=+6-. "ee a$so 2+1=, note. @ $ $ . "ee note on 3+2. The name of ?o impresse on the forehea of the victors shows that the& are ?o Ls own possession+ see =+3, note. @ * ! $ $ . These wor s enote that to the victor ?o wi$$ give the right of citi2enship in the ;ew Eer!sa$em+ cf. ?a$. 0+27B Phi$. 3+2,B He'. 11+1,, 12+22, 13+10. * * N . Cf. 21+2. The ;ew Eer!sa$em is the Eer!sa$em that escen s from ?o after the fina$ :! gment an the creation of the new heaven an the new earth. (t is to 'e isting!ishe from the heaven$& Eer!sa$em which escen s from heaven 'efore the fina$ :! gment to 'e the seat of the %i$$ennia$ Qing om. "ee 6 in the (ntro . to 2,+022, vo$. 2. p. 16,. @!r a!thor !ses the form N , '!t the >o!rth ?ospe$ . K 0/ . Cf. 21+2, 1,. @n this He'raism see note on 1+6. @ . Cf. 1<+12, 17. .!t the new name more pro'a'$& is one to 'e revea$e at His "econ A vent. An as Christ was to 'ear a new name at this A vent, so sho!$ a$so His faithf!$ servants, 2+1=. ?ressmann *0rspr. d. Israel. j1d. 'schat. 251- has apt$& remar)e that 3as in the 'eginning of the present wor$ a$$ things receive their efinite names, so wi$$ the& a$so 'e name anew in the f!t!re wor$ .4 A partia$ para$$e$ to the who$e verse is to 'e fo!n in the .a'a .athra, =6', 3Ra''i "am!e$ the son of ;achmani sai in the name of Ra''i Eohanan that three are name after the name of the Ho$& @ne8'$esse 'e He8the righteo!s *(sa. 73+=-, the %essiah *Eer. 23+7-, an Eer!sa$em *E2e). 05+36-. 1422. MESSAGE TO THE CHURCH IN "AO&ICEA As there were at $east si/ cities, 'earing the name #ao icea, fo!n e or restore !ring the $ater He$$enic perio , the #ao icea in o!r te/t was ca$$e / K *or .,- % )E *"tra'o, 6=5-. (n the ;.T. it was written /, '!t in inscriptions an $iterat!re /. (t was fo!n e on the so!th 'an) of the #&c!s, 7 m. so!th of Hierapo$is an 1, west of Co$ossae, '& Antioch!s 11. *271207 ..C.-, an name in hono!r of his wife #ao ice. #ao icea was most favo!ra'$& sit!ate as regar s the imperia$ roa 1s&stem. (t forme the point on the great eastern highwa& where three roa s converge an met+ the first from the ".E. from Atta$eia an PergaB the secon from the ;.I. from "ar is an Phi$a e$phia *a'o!t 0, mi$es istant-B an the thir from the ;.E. from Jor&$ae!m an northern Phr&gia. (ts sit!ation th!s fitte it to 'ecome a

great commercia$ an a ministrative cit&. .esi es 'eing a seat of the Ci'&ratic conventus, it was *1- a 'an)ing centre *th!s Cicero proposes to cash there his treas!r& 'i$$s of e/change8Ad 9am. iii. 6, Ad Att. v. 16-, an ver& op!$entB for when it was overthrown '& the great earth9!a)es of 7,71 A.J. *Tac. Ann. /iv. 2=- it was not o'$ige to app$& for an imperia$ s!'si &, as was !s!a$ in the case of other cities of Asia %inor+ cf. 3+1=, ) A H , 9Q #/ "#!+ it was a$so *2- a $arge man!fact!rer of c$othing an carpets of the native '$ac) woo$, an it was $i)ewise *3the seat of a f$o!rishing me ica$ schoo$, amongst its teachers having 'een Te!/is an A$e/an er Phi$a$ethes. ;ow it can har $& 'e an acci ent that in 3+1= of o!r te/t there are three epithets which refer to these commercia$ an inte$$ect!a$ activities,8!# , 1 , , 8'!t in the wa& of tota$ isparagement. An that this is so is sti$$ c$earer from 3+15, where, in contrast to their materia$ wea$th, their s!ccessf!$ woo$$en factories an their famo!s me ica$ specifics, the #ao iceans are 'i en to '!& from Christ the tr!e riches, the white garments an the e&e sa$ve for their p!r'$in vision. The Ch!rch of #ao icea was pro'a'$& fo!n e '& Epaphras of Co$ossae, Co$. 1+=, 0+12 s9. The #&c!s va$$e& ha not 'een visite '& "t. Pa!$ own to the time of his first imprisonment in Rome, Co$. 2+1. That he wrote a $etter to #ao icea is to 'e inferre from Co$. 0+17B '!t this $etter is $ost, !n$ess it is to 'e i entifie with that to the Ephesians *see 'ncy. (ib. i. 577 s9.-. The #atin Epist$e to the #ao iceans is entire$& apocr&pha$ *see #ightfoot, "olossians, 2=<2<5-. @!r a!thor appears to have 'een ac9!ainte with "t. Pa!$Ls Epist$e to the Co$ossians. "ee note on 10. @n this $etter cf. Ramsa&, Letters, 013 s99., an the artic$es on #ao icea in HastingsL D.(. an the 'ncy. (ib.8especia$$& in the $atter. 14. U . The e/p$anation of this phrase is !ncertain, '!t it ma& possi'$& 'e fo!n in (sa. 76+17,

) , G 3the ?o

of Amen.4 .!t, as mo ern scho$ars

recogni2e, the #FF * '- imp$ies

instea of ) 3the ?o of Amen.4 The i ea is th!s 3the Tr!e @ne,4 3the @ne who )eepeth covenant.4 Hence the wor s that fo$$ow are in part a repetition an in part an e/pansion of the phrase that fo$$ows. "&mmach!s ren ers % %O , an A9!i$a *% %} !!. (n an& case o!r a!thor, as "&mmah!s, fo!n in (sa. 76+17. , ' . >or the first three wor s cf. 1+6, an for the meaning o!r a!thor attaches to ', see note on 3+=. K # * / ! $ $ , i.e. 3the origin *or Rprimar& so!rceL- of the creation of ?o .4 (t is remar)a'$e that in "t. Pa!$Ls Epist$e to the Co$ossians we have severa$ phrases which can har $& 'e regar e as other than the protot&pes of certain e/pressions in o!r a!thor. ;ow we )now *Co$. 0+17- that "t. Pa!$ wrote a'o!t the same time to the Ch!rches of Co$ossae an #ao icea, an gave irections that the Epist$e to the Co$ossians was to 'e rea in the Ch!rch of #ao icea an the Epist$e to the #ao iceans to 'e rea in the Ch!rch of Co$ossae. ;ow it is possi'$e that $i)e phrases to those in the Epist$e to the Co$ossians occ!rre in that to the #ao iceansB '!t even pres!pposing that this was not the case, we )now at a$$ events that "t. Pa!$Ls origina$ Epist$e to the Co$ossians was rea in the Ch!rch of #ao icea an that pro'a'$& copies of it were c!rrent there. "ince, therefore, there are, as we sha$$ show, severa$ points in common 'etween o!r a!thor an the Co$ossian Epist$e, it is high$& pro'a'$e that o!r a!thor was ac9!ainte with it. "ee #ightfoot, "olossians, 01 s99. 8.B. 9astings: Dictionary of the Bible.

) 3the ?o

of tr!th,4

1. >irst of a$$, with K # * / ! $ $ we sho!$ compare Co$. 1+15, 6 . # *where #8the active princip$e in creation G A/, ca!se8has the same meaning as in o!r te/t-, an 1+16, ! ' / ! * G 3sovereign #or over a$$ creation '& virt!e of primogenit!re4 8#ightfoot-. (t is to 'e o'serve that ! 'ears the same meaning in o!r a!thor in 1+6, ! G 3sovereign #or of the ea 4 *i.e. the secon ar& meaning of !-. (n Co$. 1+15, ! . is not 9!ite para$$e$ owing to the presence of the ., which 'rings o!t the primar& meaning of !, i.e. priorit& in time. 2. Iith 3+21, & ! 9% / > .$ . % E O C G ./' , . F $ . % E 9$, compare Co$. 3+1, A '' % h8O F 4! +'O 7 h8 . . (e $ $ . *Cf. Eph. 2+7, , . ./ . h % N' $.- (n o!r te/t the victors are to 'e seate on ChristLs throne as He is seate on ?o Ls throne. (n Co$. 3+1, Christ is seate at the right han of ?o , an the faithf!$ are to sit with Him in heaven$& p$aces *Eph. 2+7-. 3. (n 3+1=1< the se$f1comp$acenc& an se$f1satisfaction of the #ao iceans, arising in part, no o!'t, from their great materia$ wea$th an prosperit& as we$$ as their inte$$ect!a$ a vancement, are eno!nce , an the& are e/horte to see) the tr!e riches an the tr!e wis om which comes from a vision p!rge '& the ?reat Ph&sician. Cf. Co$. 1+2=, where the apost$e emphasi2es in contrast to their pro! '!t 'ase$ess )now$e ge *2+5, 15, 23-, 3the riches of the g$or& of this m&ster& which is Christ in &o!, 4 an 2+2, 3, where he ec$ares that he strives for the Co$ossians an a$so for the Laodiceans that the& ma& 'e 'ro!ght !nto 3a$$ riches of the f!$$ ass!rance of !n erstan ing,4 even 3a$$ the treas!res of wis om an )now$e ge hi en4 in Christ. (t is not !nreasona'$e to conc$! e from the a'ove evi ence that o!r a!thor was ac9!ainte irect$& or in irect$& with "t. Pa!$Ls Epist$e to the Co$ossians. Possi'$& he was ac9!ainte with "t. Pa!$Ls $ost Epist$e to the #ao iceans, an was there'& inf$!ence in his iction an tho!ght. There are no resem'$ances 'etween the iction an tho!ght of the other si/ #etters an the Pa!$ine Epist$es8a matter worth& of consi eration. 15. Ihi$e the Ch!rches of Ephes!s, Pergam!m, Th&atira, an "ar is were g!i$t& of manifest evi$s, no s!ch evi$ is $ai to the charge of the Ch!rch of #ao icea. .!t the evi$, if not manifest, was sti$$ more peri$o!s. The #ao iceans professe Christianit& an were se$f1comp$acent an se$f1satisfie . The& were !nconscio!s that the& were who$$&, or a$$ '!t who$$&, o!t of comm!nion with Christ *3+2,-, at a$$ events the& fe$t no nee of repentance. Hence the start$ing ec$aration that the a'so$!te re:ection of re$igion *3+16were prefera'$e to the #ao icean profession of it. As a Ch!rch an as in ivi !a$s the& we$t with comp$acenc& on what the& ha achieve *1=a-, whi$st the& were serene$& !nconscio!s of what the& 'a $eft !n one. @1 # f8 @1 is !se with the past in . in $ate ?ree) to intro !ce an impractica'$e wish, an with the f!t. in . *?a$. 6+12- to e/press a practica'$e wish. .!t here as in 2 Cor. 11+1 we have @1 with the past in . to e/press a possi'i$it& tho!gh in the present sti$$ !nrea$i2e . %o!$ton efines these as instances of the 3!nrea$4 in icative. "ee .$ass, *ram. 2,7 s9., 22,B %o!$ton, *ram. i. 2,,. + . Here on$& in the #FF or the ;.T. Enth!siasm is re9!ire in the faithf!$, the& were to 'e 3hot to the 'oi$ing point,4 fervent in spirit *% ) +, Rom. 12+11-. 16. #/ , i.e. 3$!)ewarm4 8here on$& in .i'$ica$ ?ree).

! H . . @!r a!thor as a r!$e !ses the pres. inf. after + see note on 3+2. . . This ver' is not !se e$sewhere in the ;.T. an on$& once in the #FF. The re:ection of the #ao icean Ch!rch is not anno!nce as fina$ here, an the possi'i$it& of repentance is a mitte in 152,. The $ang!age is ver& forci'$e tho!gh home$&. The #ao iceans are not on$& eno!nce , '!t eno!nce with the !tmost a'horrence. "!ch a en!nciation is witho!t para$$e$ in the other Epist$es. An imme iate an specia$ :! gment is not here he$ in view, '!t the fina$ :! gment. 17. This verse forms the protasis of the sentenceB the apo osis fo$$ows in 15. "ee note on 1022 a'ove. There it is pointe o!t that in 1=15 we have references to the materia$ an inte$$ect!a$ wea$th of #ao icea. @n the other han it is !rge that the $ang!age is metaphorica$, an states that the Ch!rch of #ao icea is rich in spirit!a$ possessions an has nee of nothing *cf. 1 Cor. 0+=5-. This, no o!'t, is tr!e, '!t the a$$!sion to the materia$ con itions of the cit& cannot 'e ignore . ) A , )' , 3( am rich, an have gotten riches.4 @!r te/t here is a free an irect ren ering of Hos. 12+<,

% . The #FF

ren ers ! n er the inf$!ence of the )in re Ara'ic root, 'O =' # *!1Q, A9!i$a- .%, '!t o!r a!thorLs ren ering is more correct. #ao icea not on$& ec$ares that she is rich, '!t maintains that her wea$th, materia$ an spirit!a$, is the res!$t of her own e/ertions. .!t, as has a$rea & 'een s!ggeste in 2+<, the Ch!rch that is rich in spirit!a$ an more achievements is the most conscio!s of its own spirit!a$ an mora$ povert&. (n 9Q #/ "#! the 9 is an acc. of $imitation or reference. .$ass **ram. <1, note- thin)s it cannot 'e right. .!t it rec!rs in 22+6 *note-. @!r a!thor !ses #/ "# either with the gen. *21+23, 22+6- or with the acc. *3+1=, 22+6-. As "wete points o!t, there is a para$$e$ e/pression an constr!ction in ,etr. 'v. 6, C 'Q "#!. .!t o!r a!thor oes not a$wa&s )eep to the same constr!ction. Th!s ! has a gen. in 0+7, 5, 6+5, 16+=, 1=+0, 21+<, '!t an acc. in 1=+3, 0. , 9 . Contrast this with F " in 3+16. B /! . The ) is emphatic+ it is tho! who art se$f1satisfie an 'oastf!$ that art the wretche one par e6cellence. Iith the emphatic !se of the art. 'efore the pre icate cf. #!)e 15+13B %att. 6+13, . I * *, i.e. the on$& sa$t that eserves the name *cf. .$ass, *ram. 16=-. /! occ!rs on$& here an in Rom. =+20, where it is !se respective$& of the e/tremes of !nconscio!s an conscio!s wretche ness. ., 3pitia'$e,4 as in Jan. <+23B 1 Cor. 16+1<. !# , 1 , . (n these three terms we have most pro'a'$& a$$!sions to $oca$ s!':ects of se$f1comp$acenc& in #ao icea an its Ch!rchB see note on 1022, p. <3. @n the spirit!a$ significance of !# see note on 2+<. 18. Here at the c$ose of the s!'or inate c$a!ses comes the chief sentence. This sentence is an a monition ea$ing with the spirit!a$ con ition of the #ao iceans as set forth in the c$osing wor s of the prece ing verse8!# , 1 , . "ince the #ao iceans are a$$ '!t spirit!a$$& estit!te *!#-, the& are e/horte to '!& for themse$ves a new an iscip$ine spirit *# / ! . -. This spirit constit!tes the tr!e riches, an since it cannot remain fr!it$ess or inoperative, it manifests itse$f in a righteo!s character. ;ow this righteo!s character as it a vances towar s perfectionment weaves a garment for the spirit8the spirit!a$ 'o &8the white raiment of the '$esse in the heaven$& wor$ . The Christian character *or its erivative the spirit!a$ 'o &- ma& 'e regar e from two stan points. >rom the h!man stan point s!ch character is a persona$ ac9!isition of the faithf!$, an , therefore, so far a$wa&s imperfect+ hence it can 'e soi$e '& !nfaithf!$ness *3+0'-, or c$eanse an ma e white

in the '$oo of the #am' *=+10-. @n the other han , from the ivine stan point the Christian character is a gift of ?o . (ts erivative, the spirit!a$ 'o &, is not 'estowe ti$$ the faithf!$ have attaine their perfectionment. "ince the mart&rs were regar e as having a$rea & reache this stage, the& were c$othe in heaven$& 'o ies *7+11-, whereas from the rest of the faithf!$ this gift was withhe$ ti$$ the en of the wor$ , as the& were sti$$ in a state of imperfection, even tho!gh re eeme . 0)! . This constr!ction here an in Eohn 15+10 on$& in ;.T. @ccasiona$$& in the #FF. > .$ # / . Cf. (sa. 66+1, 3Ho, ever& one that thirsteth, come &e to the waters, an he that hath no mone&B come &e H '!& * - wine an mi$) witho!t mone& an witho!t price.4 >or the metaphorica$ !se of this ver' cf. 6+<, 10+3, 0 B %att. 26+<, 1,. The wor s > .$ are emphatic. Cf. %att. 7+1<, 2, for the tho!ght. As regar s the constr!ction , cf. 2 Es r. 2,+31. (n 6+< of o!r a!thor this ver' is fo$$owe '& ., an in 10+3, 0 '& + '!t the sense is ifferent. @n the s&m'o$ic meaning of # / here see note at 'eginning of verse. ! . . Cf. 1 Pet. 1+=, / * / ! # / H F Q +. @ther para$$e$s ma& 'e fo!n

in Ps. 15+31, Prov. 3,+6, where the wor of the #or is sai to 'e 3trie 4 * %, in the #FF !-, or in Pss. "o$. 1=+0=, ! Q # /. "ee a$so Ps. 77+1,. >rom these para$$e$s it is c$ear that the meaning of ! . is that this go$ has 'een teste an is to 'e tr!ste . >!rther, since in the present passage this go$ is not a materia$ '!t a spirit!a$ thing, the i ea of the te/t is that Christ gives to the tr!e see)er a spirit!a$ gift, which constit!tes the on$& tr!e riches *Co$. 1+2=-. This spirit!a$ gift, consisting as it oes in a new heart or spirit, 'ecomes in fe$$owship with Christ the fons et origo of the Christian character, an this in t!rn the so!rce an artificer of the spirit!a$ 'o &. Another f!nction of this new spirit in man is that it en ows him with spirit!a$ vision *3+15c-. (nterprete th!s, the D an the ) are no separate an in epen ent gifts, '!t gifts that are s!'si iar& to or rather springing o!t of the chief gift8the # / ! . 8i.e. the new heart. D . "ee the prece ing noteB a$so the note at 'eginning of verse, an on 3+6. 1!: K A #)' * ' . "ee 17+16, note. >or the iction, cf. E2e). 17+37, 1 K A #)' * -+ a$so 23+2<B E/. 2,+27. The so!$ of the faith$ess wi$$ appear na)e in the ne/t wor$ . Cf. 2 Cor. 6+2, 3, A' K .( 9$ .) .$O H , . 9 , ' . Accor ing to 2,+1113, the ea *the righteo!s, e/c$! ing the mart&rs, an the wic)e - are raise isem'o ie + see note on 2,+13. The righteo!s then receive their spirit!a$ 'o ies, '!t the wic)e remain isem'o ie so!$s an are cast into the $a)e of fire. This is a$so the teaching of "t. Pa!$, as 2 Cor. 6+2, 3 proves. ) .# B <1) . The ) was shape $i)e a ) *of which it is a imin!tive-. (t was prepare from vario!s ingre ients, an was !se as an e&e sa$ve. (n o!r te/t it is the famo!s Phr&gian pow er !se '& the me ica$ schoo$ at #ao icea. (t appears in the Eer!sa$em Ta$m! *"ha''. 1. 3 , vii. 1,', # # viii. 11'- *see #ev&Ls .euhebr5ishes !8rterbuch, iv. 2<3- as an in the genera$ sense of an e&e sa$ve, an in #atin as Co$$&ri!m+ cf. Hor. Sat. i. 6. 3,, 3nigra H co$$&ia4+ E!v. 7+6=<. Ce$s!s, vi. =, spea)s of man& co$$&ria of ever& )in + 3E/

fre9!entissimis co$$&riis4+ vii. =. 0. "ee Ietstein for f!rther references, from which ma& 'e 9!ote the fo$$owing+ Ia:i)ra R. 167a + 3Ner'a $egis corona s!nt capitis, tor9!es co$$o, co$$&ri!m oc!$is.4 .# . Here on$& in the ;.T. an on$& fo!r times in the #FF. The app$ication of the e&e sa$ve in o!r te/t res!$ts in spirit!a$ vision. There'& the #ao iceans can get ri of their se$f1 eception, an so gain tr!e se$f1)now$e ge, an therewith a )now$e ge of 3the riches of the g$or& of this m&ster&, which is Christ in &o!, the hope of g$or&4 *Co$. 1+2=-, 3in whom are a$$ the treas!res of wis om an )now$e ge hi en4 *Co$. 2+3-. (n the note on ! . a'ove ( have ta)en the spirit!a$ gift s&m'o$i2e '& ) as a gift springing o!t of the chief gift s&m'o$i2e '& # / 8 . , as not as a separate an in epen ent gift. @n the other han , the ) in o!r te/t has 'een ta)en '& some interpreters to mean the wor of ?o *or of prophec& as oppose to the #aw-, or en$ightening power or . *Eohn 17+5 s99.- of the Ho$& "pirit *so JSster iec) an "wete-. 1920. The severit& of the re'!)e :!st a ministere is a sign of ChristLs $ove which s!mmons to repentance an a'i ing earnestness first the Ch!rch as a who$e *1<- an ne/t the in ivi !a$ mem'ers of it, an promises that if the& wi$$ open their hearts He wi$$ enter into the c$osest comm!nion with them for ever. 19. .G 6 .F 1 .#! , )! . Cf. Pss. "o$. 1,+2, 10+1,B He'. 12+7. The te/t is remar)a'$e here. (t is rawn from Prov. 3+12,

* , which the #FF ren

! ) ' ers, - F e _) .#, *.B ), + A + -.

Here first of a$$ we o'serve that o!r a!thor !ses 1 an not 3 as in the #FF. This is f!rther remar)a'$e, since in 1+6, 3+<, 3 an not 1 is !se of ChristLs $ove for man. 1 is not !se in the #FF or the ;.T. *e/cept in Eohn 17+2=- of ?o Ls $ove for man, '!t 3. %oreover, men are 'i en 3 '!t never 1 save in Prov. 5+1=. This $ast passage is instr!ctiveB for here the #FF ren ers '& the two wor s+ .G B8 .Q 1$ . The two ?ree) wor s iffer in that 3 3e/presses a more reasoning attachment, H whi$e the secon H is more of the fee$ings or nat!ra$ affections, imp$ies more passion4 *Trench, Synonyms of the ..T. 5-. "ee, however, %. X %.Ls /oc. of *%. T., p. 2. (n Eohn 11+3, 37, 2,+2, 1 is !se of ChristLs $ove for #a2ar!s an Eohn, '!t e$sewhere in the ?ospe$ 3 is !niversa$$& emp$o&e in this connection. Hence there is no perfect para$$e$ in the ;.T. to the !se of 1 here. The e/ceptiona$ !se of the emotiona$ wor *contrast 3+<- here can on$& 'e e$i'erate. (t is a to!ching an !ne/pecte manifestation of $ove to those who eserve it $east among the "even Ch!rches. ;e/t, .#! an )! ca$$ for attention. Here "wete o'serves that these two wor s ma& 'e !p$icate ren erings of , or that )! ma& have 'een s!ggeste '& the prece ing verse in Prov. 3+11, <& / /. The $atter view is to Prov. 3+12 *in +A + , etc.-, '!t is a norma$ ren ering of , whereas the stoc)

! which is twice !se

'e preferre , since ) never appears in the #FF as a ren ering of e/cept in trans$ation of is .#. Reproof an chastisement are evi ence not of ChristLs re:ection of the #ao iceans, '!t of His $ove *1- for them. #ove is never cr!e$, '!t it can 'e serve. There has hitherto 'een no hint of an& persec!tion of the #ao icean Ch!rch. Even here the K,

( iv! %etrograd. Sd. .

mention of it carries with it not even the faintest a$$!sion to the great persec!tion which was e/pecte '& the "eer in <6 A.J. an to which there is a efinite reference in 21. + , ' . Here 2ea$ is en:oine as a permanent e$ement in the Christian character8hence + an not + , whi$e repentance is re9!ire as a efinite change once an for a$$ from their present con ition8hence ' . The& are to 'egin '& one ecisive act, the $ife of Christian enth!siasm as oppose to their former $ife of $!)ewarmness an in ifference. 20. The eep note of affection in the prece ing verse perva es this a$so. As a frien He a monishes the #ao icean Ch!rch to repent in 1<B as a frien in this verse He oes more+ He comes to each in ivi !a$ an see)s an entrance into his heart. Here the wor s *. ) M * 1!* - have a persona$ an in ivi !a$ character not app$ica'$e to the Ch!rch of #ao icea as a who$e. (f 2, were a resse to the Ch!rch we sho!$ e/pect .F B ) M 8 18 . Cf. + , ' in 1<. Hence with Je Iette, A$for , Ieiss, an others this verse is to 'e interprete as referring to repentance in the present. .!t man& scho$ars8JSster iec), .o!sset, "wete, Ho$t2mann an %offatt8 interpret this verse in con:!nction with 21 eschato$ogica$$&, an a !ce as para$$e$s s!ch !nmista)a'$e eschato$ogica$ passages as %ar) 13+2< *G %att. 20+33-, & 6 .) . ., )+ #!)e 12+37, 6 & # ) H Y . , ) 9! /(! 9%+ Eas. 6+<, AB 5 '. (t is shown f!rther that in #!)e 22+2< s9., G / O G 0 /O Y " ' , /' ., * +' . : 0 /? O , * ., ! F & 1F / $ N , we have a com'ination of the metaphors eating an rin)ing with those of thrones an :! ging, :!st as we have a com'ination of the metaphors of eating an sitting on thrones in 2,21 in o!r te/t. .!t tho!gh the para$$e$s in iction are in isp!ta'$e, the tho!ght iffers. >or whereas in %ar) 13+2< *G %att. 20+33- an Eas. 6+< we have the fina$ a vent of Christ as )udge, in 2, of o!r te/t He comes as a Preacher of repentance8an office incompati'$e with that of E! ge. A$so in #!)e 12+37 the reference to the $ast coming an the giving of an acco!nt is manifest+ He comes there to rewar the faithf!$, not to ca$$ the care$ess an in ifferent to repentance. Hence the eschato$ogica$ interpretation is to 'e re:ecte . As !s!a$ o!r "eer ta)es his own $ine with tra ition, even when the tra ition is concerne with o!r #or Ls own wor sB for 3+2,21 shows, as .o!sset recogni2es, that he was fami$iar with #!)e 22+2< s9. The iction reca$$s Cant. 6+2, where the #FF rea s 1! 1$ O ) ., )] 4( 1 . "ince in 0 E2ra 6+2327 there is contemporar& evi ence of the a$$egorica$ !se of Cantic$es *see .o/Ls e ., p. 62 s9., notes-, it is more than pro'a'$e that o!r a!thor has here come !n er its inf$!ence. "ee a$so .ac)erLs Agada der Tannaiten2, i. <0, 157, 22< s9., 31, s99., 335, ii. *1st e .- 0= s9. etc. . ) M * 1!* , A ) . ( have with some hesitation fo$$owe +V + , a consi era'$e 'o & of c!rsives, s1 an Prim. in retaining the / 'efore the apo osis. ) M * 1!* . Cf. Eohn 1,+3, F 0 1!* 9$ )+ 15+3=, 3 y . * '/ ) * 1!*. @'e ience to Christ $ea s to fe$$owship with Him. , .) 9 , ! > 9$ . Cf. Eohn 10+23, 9 . , > 9% ' 8 >or A # of entering into a manLs ho!se, cf. %ar) 16+03. s S&riac. %hilo6enian Eersion, edited (& 2ohn =w&nn, 1.,4.

Participation in the common mea$ was for the @rienta$ a proof of confi ence an affection. The intimate fe$$owship of the faithf!$ with ?o an the %essiah in the Coming Age was fre9!ent$& s&m'o$i2e '& s!ch a metaphor. Cf. 1 Enoch 72+10, 3An the #or of "pirits wi$$ a'i e over them, An with that "on of %an sha$$ the& eat, An $ie own an rise !p for ever an ever.4 Cf. "ha''ath, 163a. That this $ang!age is metaphorica$ a$wa&s in the ;.T. an genera$$& in Eewish writings is shown '& s!ch statements as 1 Cor. 7+13a an .er 1=a, 3(n the wor$ to come there is neither eating nor rin)ing H '!t the righteo!s H fin their e$ight *" - in the g$or& of the "hechina.4 21. This verse is who$$& eschato$ogica$. Christ promises to the mart&rs8to those who sha$$ 'e victors '& 'eing faithf!$ !nto eath8that the& sha$$ sit on His throne even as He ha 'een victorio!s thro!gh 'eing faithf!$ !nto eath an ha sat own on His >atherLs throne. The f!$fi$ment of this promise is seen '& the "eer in his vision in 2,+0, where the mart&rs sit on thrones an reign with Christ for 1,,, &ears. #i)e 2+=, 11', 1=', 272=, 3+6, 12, this verse is a $ater a ition of o!r a!thor when he e ite his visions as a who$e. 9% . "ee note on this He'raism on 2+=B a$so on fo$$owe '& the inf. & ! / > .$ . 8 E 8 The "eer witnesses in a vision the f!$fi$ment of this promise in 2,+0, , . .> 9B , / .' 9 H , "+' , .0 / F $ h $ #/ "'8 The promise re$ates to the %i$$ennia$ Qing om. To the same perio sho!$ pro'a'$& 'e referre #!)e 22+3,, G / G 0 / Y H * ., ! 8 & 1F / $ N *cf. %att. 1<+25-, an $i)ewise 2 Tim. 2+1112, A F O , + O A O , 0 ) , where the tho!ght is certain$& a)in to that in o!r te/t. Cf. %ar) 1,+0,. Pet the reign of the saints is not $imite to the %i$$ennia$ Qing om+ it wi$$ enter at $ast into the f!$ness of its potentia$ities in the ever$asting )ing om of ?o , when 3the& sha$$ reign for ever an ever,4 22+6. C G ./' . Cf. Eohn 17+33, O .G /' . , . F $ . 8 E 9$ . Cf. 21+2, 22+3, notes, an Co$. 3+1, 7 h . . (e $ $. @!r a!thor appears to !se /+ in the finite tenses *cf. 2,+0- an the infinitive, '!t never the particip$e /+!, in p$ace of which he !ses . >inite tenses of * are fo!n in so!rces !se '& o!r a!thor *1=+<, 16, 15+=-.