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The Gastrointestinal system

Lecture 1

Learning Objectives
Describe how structure relates to function in the GIT Outline the primary functions of the GIT Describe the functional movement through the gut and the principles of digestion Integrate an understanding of function and movement with knowledge of key enzymes to explain how key nutrients are digested and absorbed

Significance of the gastrointestinal system

Source of energy for daily activities and exercise

Major Subdivisions of the Digestive Tract


Oral Cavity, Teeth, Tongue

Mouth

Accessory Organs of the Digestive System


Pharynx Salivary glands

Esophagus Liver Stomach

Gallbladder
Small Intestine Pancreas Large Intestine

Mesenteric artery and vein Plica circulares

Plica circulares Mucosal epithelium Lamina propria Mucosa

Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis externa Serosa

Muscularis mucosae Lymphatic vessel Artery and vein Submucosal plexus Circular muscle layer Myenteric plexus Longitudinal muscle layer

FOUR PROCESSES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Digestion


Chemical and mechanical breakdown of food into absorbable units
Movement of material from GI lumen to ECF Movement of material through the GI tract as a result of muscle contraction Movement of material from cells into lumen or ECF

Absorption Motility Secretion

Lumen of digestive tract

Wall

Interstitial fluid

Blood

Food
SECRETION

DIGESTION

ABSORPTION

MOTILITY

Figure 21.4a

Functional movements in the gut

Bolus

Bolus moves forward

Stages of digestion
Cephalic Gastric Intestinal

LONG AND SHORT REFLEXES OF THE CEPHALIC AND GASTRIC PHASES OF DIGESTION
The sight, smell, and taste of food initiate long reflexes that prepare the stomach for the arrival of food. Food! Food

Medulla oblongata

Stomach Preganglionic parasympathetic neuron in vagus nerve

Lumen of stomach

Gastric mucosa

LONG REFLEX

Sensory input Distension or peptides and amino acids initiate short reflexes. Target cells Secretion and motility SHORT REFLEX

Enteric plexus

Postganglionic parasympathetic and intrinsic enteric neurons

Extrinsic neural mechanisms


ANS

Parasympathetic

Sympathetic

Innervation of smooth muscle in submucosal and myenteric plexus

Reduce peristalsis and excretion Increase sphincter contractions

Intrinsic neural mechanisms


Enteric nervous system controls:
Motility (myenteric plexus) Secretion Growth

Stimulation increases:
Tone of the gut wall Rate of contraction Peristalsis

Eg. Waves increased by Acetylcholine; decreased by noradrenaline, NO, VIP

Hormonal mechanisms
Peptides secreted by cells of the digestive tract act as hormones or paracrine signals

At least 18 peptide hormones that affect


Most aspects of digestive function Activities of other systems

Excite or inhibit motility and secretion

Eg.

CCK increases feeling of satiety Ghrelin increases food intake

Mouth (oral cavity)


Ingestion of food Mastication Deglutition

The swallowing process

Major functions
Storage Digestion but NOT absorption

Layers of the Stomach Wall Mucosa


Gastric pit (opening to gastric gland) Mucous epithelium

Lamina propria Muscularis mucosae

Submucosa Muscularis externa


Oblique muscle Circular muscle Longtudinal muscle

Artery and vein

Lymphatic vessel Myenteric plexus

Serosa

Secretory cells of the gastric mucosa


GASTRIC MUCOSA CELL TYPES SUBSTANCE SECRETED STIMULUS FOR RELEASE FUNCTION OF SECRETION

Opening of gastric gland

Mucus Mucous neck cell Bicarbonate

Tonic secretion; with irritation of mucosa Secreted with mucus Acetylcholine, gastrin, histamine

Physical barrier between lumen and epithelium Buffers gastric acid to prevent damage to epithelium Activates pepsin; kills bacteria Complexes with vitamin B12 to permit absorption Stimulates gastric acid secretion Digests proteins Digests fats Inhibits gastric acid secretion Stimulates gastric acid secretion

Parietal cells Enterochromaffinlike cell Chief cells

Gastric acid (HCl)


Intrinsic factor Histamine Pepsin(ogen) Gastric lipase

Acetylcholine, gastrin Acetylcholine, acid secretion Acid in the stomach Acetylcholine, peptides, and amino acids

D cells G cells

Somatostatin

Gastrin

Secretion of HCl
Hydrogen ions (H) are generated inside a parietal cell as the enzyme carbonic anhydrase converts CO2 and H2O to carbonic acid (H2CO3), which then dissociates.

Parietal cell

KEY
Diffusion

Carbonid anhydrase

Carrier-mediated transport

A countertransport mechanism ejects the bicarbonate ions into the interstitial fluid and imports chloride ions into the cell.

The hydrogen ions are actively transported into the lumen of the gastric gland.

Active transport Countertransport

Interstitial fluid

Alkaline tide

To bloodstream

The chloride ions then diffuse across the cell and exit through open chloride channels into the lumen of the gastric gland.

Lumen of gastric gland

Peptic ulcers
Erosion of mucous membrane Caused by:
NSAIDs HCl levels Helicobacter pylori

Treated by:
Avoiding coffee, wine Taking antacids Proton pump inhibitors/ antihistamines

Vomiting
Protective reflex to remove toxic materials Caused by:
Chemicals in the blood Pain Disrupted equilibrium Tickling the pharynx

Co-ordinated through the medulla

Learning Resources
Silverthorn
Chapter 21
Pgs 710-715

Martini et al Anat & Phys


Chapter 24
Pgs 904-905

Mastering A&P
Chapter 21