Sunteți pe pagina 1din 12

Chapter #28: Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt Chapter# 28: Identifications Jacob Riis Jacob Riis was

a reporter for the New York Sun who shocked middle-class Americans with his description of the New York slums. Ida Tarbell Ida Tarbell was a pioneering journalist who published a true but devastating article on the Standard Oil Company. Robert M. LaFollete La Follete was the governor of Wisconsin who was the most militant of all the Progressive leaders. He took power from corrupt corporations and returned it to the public. Charles Evans Hughes Charles Evans Hughes was an able reformist Republican governor of New York who became famous through his position as an investigator of malpractices in the gas, insurance, and coal industries. Upton Sinclair Upton Sinclair published the novel The Jungle which revealed to the American public the horrors of the canned food industry and the factories in which canned foods were produced. Initiative Initiative was the idea that voters could directly propose the legislation itself and therefore bypass the boss-bought state legislatures. Referendum Referendum would place laws on the ballot for final approval. This was another way in which progressives fought to place power back into the peoples hands. Recall Recall enabled voters to remove faithless elected officials. This especially targeted those who had gained their positions through bribery. Muckrakers Muckrakers were young reporters who uncovered the stories of corrupt businesses and put them out in the open for the public to see. Elkins Act The Elkins Act was passed in 1903 and aimed to curb rebate evil. Heavy taxes could now be placed on both the railroads and the shippers themselves.

Hepburn Act The Hepburn Act of 1906 was more effective than the Elkins Act and free passes, including bribery, were severely restricted. The Interstate Commerce Commission was expanded. Northern Securities Case The Northern Securities Company was a railroad holding company organized by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill to achieve a monopoly. The decision made in the case upheld Roosevelts antitrust suit and strengthened his reputation. Meat Inspection Act The Meat Inspection Act came as a result of Sinclairs novel and was passed in order to reduce the appalling aspects of the factories. Pure Food and Drug Act The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was enacted in order to ensure that adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals would be prevented. Newlands Act The Newlands Act of 1902 authorized the government collection of money from the sale of public lands in the western states and use them for irrigation projects. Dollar diplomacy Dollar diplomacy was the policy of investing US dollars in foreign markets in order to advance foreign interests and ensure the prosperity of Wall Street at home. Payne-Aldrich Act The Payne-Aldrich Act angered the Progressives of the Republican Party and ensured the split of the GOP in the future election. Ballinger-Pinchot Affair The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair erupted in 1910, and was significant in that it widened the gap that was already evident between Taft and Roosevelt. Chapter #28: Guided Reading Questions Progressive Roots Know: Progressives, Laissez-faire, Henry Demarest Lloyd, Jacob Riis, Theodore Dreiser, Jane Addams, Lillian Weld 1. What were the goals of the Progressives? One of the goals of the Progressives was to rid society of the laissez-faire economic policy because it could no longer afford it. They fought many evils found within the nation, including monopoly, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice. Progressives fought such evils successfully due to their large numbers and widespread notoriety. Another one of their goals was to strengthen the state. Progressives emerged well

before 1900 and came from a variety of groups: such people included Lloyd, Riis, Dreiser, Addams, and Weld. Raking Muck with the Muckrakers Know: McClure's, Lincoln Steffens, Ida M. Tarbell, Thomas W. Lawson, David G. Phillips, Ray Stannard Baker, John Spargo 2. What issues were addressed by the major muckrakers? Muckraking became an industry through the publishing of magazines such as McClures. They were criticized by President Roosevelt, but continued to flourish due to brilliant writers and publishers such as Steffens, Tarbell, and Lawson. Major muckrakers addressed corrupt alliances between big businesses and municipal governments. In addition, insurance companies, tariff lobbies, barons, and various trusts were assailed by muckrakers. Baker and Spargo uncovered many social evils, while those who sold potent medicines also came under fire. Political Progressivism Know: Direct Primary Elections, Initiative, Referendum, Recall, Australian Ballot, Millionaires' Club, Seventeenth Amendment, Suffragists 3. Define each of the major political reforms that progressives desired. Progressives desired many major political reforms. They wanted to transfer power that had previously been in the peoples hands back to the people. They aimed to do this through direct primary elections so that party bosses would not be at an advantage. Another reform was the eradication of graft. Some state legislatures passed corruptpractices acts that limited the amount of money that candidates could spend on the election as to reduce bribery. Finally, direct election of US senators was brought about through a constitutional amendment and the efforts of muckrakers. Progressivism in the Cities and States Know: Robert M. La Follette, The Wisconsin Idea, Hiram W. Johnson, Charles Evans Hughes 4. What changes did progressives make at the city and state level? Progressives appointed expert-staffed commissions to manage urban affairs and adopted the city-manager system to remove politics from municipal administration. Slumlords, juvenile delinquency, and explicit prostitution were attacked due to the corruption of police that they brought along. Most famous for state reform was La Follette, who took the power from corrupt corporations and gave it back to the citizens. Other states used public utilities commissions to regulate railroads and trusts. Progressive Women

Know: Triangle Shirtwaist Company, Muller v. Oregon, Lochner v. New York, Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Frances E. Willard, "Wet" and "Dry" 5. How successful were Progressives in combating social ills? Progressives were successful in their fight against social issues. The settlement house movement allowed women to participate in public life while being denied political involvement. Another movement was the womens club movement, which allowed middle-class women to do things that they would not have been able to before. Literary clubs set aside literature for discussion of social issues and current events. Female reformers did not neglect factory reform or temperance, either. TR's Square Deal for Labor Know: Square Deal, Department of Commerce and Labor 6. What were the three C's of the Square Deal? The three Cs of the Square Deal were control of the corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. This was a result of Roosevelts interest in the progressive movement and was aimed at capital, labor, and the general public. One large result of Roosevelts Square Deal was the creation of the Department of Commerce and Labor in 1903, which was created as a result of increasing tension between capital and labor. TR Corrals the Corporations Know: Elkins Act, Hepburn Act, Trustbusting, Northern Securities Company 7. Assess the following statement, "Teddy Roosevelt's reputation as a trustbuster is undeserved." The statement in which Teddy Roosevelts reputation as a trustbuster was undeserved is made is true. Roosevelt did not believe in busting all trusts, but only the bad ones that were greedy for power in his eyes. In general, many of the industrial trusts were stronger, but more tamed, after Roosevelt left office. Roosevelt simply busted trusts because he needed to prove that government and not the trusts and their owners ruled the country. He, in fact, favored some of the trusts over others. Caring for the Consumer Know: The Jungle, Meat Inspection Act 8. What was the effect of Upton Sinclair's book, The Jungle? The Jungle allowed Sinclair to consumers to realize the true nature of canned foods and the factories in which they were produced. His intention was to emphasize the struggle of the workers within the factories, but he ended up describing the appallingly unsanitary conditions of the factories. It had such a widespread effect that many citizens refused to touch meat for some time, and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 was passed.

Earth Control Know: Forest Reserve Act, Gifford Pinchot, Newlands Act, Conservation, Call of the Wild, Boy Scouts, Sierra Club 9. What factors led Americans to take an active interest in conservation? While American citizens at the time believed that natural resources were inexhaustible and continued to waste them with unparalleled speed and greed, visionary leaders were able to see that this would have to be changed in order to preserve the nations resources. Roosevelt was able to aid conservation with the enactment of acts such as the Newlands Act in addition to prior acts such as the Forest Reserve Act. The "Roosevelt Panic" of 1907 10. What were the results of the Roosevelt Panic of 1907? The Roosevelt Panic of 1907 cause Roosevelt to become the center of financial criticism as it became known that he had disturbed the balance and calm of industry with his policies. Roosevelt, in turn, blamed the wealthy trust owners for fabricating the panic itself so that the government would loosen its hold on trusts. One of the bright sides of the panic was the enactment of much-needed fiscal reforms. The AldrichVreeland Act and Federal Reserve Act of 1913 were enacted. The Rough Rider Thunders Out Know: William Howard Taft, Eugene V. Debs 11. What was the legacy of Teddy Roosevelt's presidency? Roosevelt felt that he needed to keep his promise that he made at the beginning of his election, and therefore appointed Taft to carry on his policies. Although the amount of policies that he instituted while in office were little compared to his bombastic nature and he seemed to be enemies of many business lords of the time, he should be remembered most for his ability to tame and ensure the longevity of capitalism in the US. Taft: A Round Peg in a Square Hole 12. "William Howard Taft was less suited for the presidency than he appeared to be." Explain William Howard Taft was somewhat incompetent for the position of president, as he could not lead the Republican Party by personality alone as Roosevelt did. He could not and did not take much needed action against Congress due to his passive attitude. He also did not pay much attention to public opinion, which would cause him trouble in the future. He was more attached to the status quo and did not favor change over the current times.

The Dollar Goes Abroad as a Diplomat Know: Dollar Diplomacy 13. What was dollar diplomacy and how was it practiced? Dollar diplomacy was investment of American dollars in foreign nations in order to promote foreign interests. This would allow the strengthening of American defenses and foreign policies while the US and its bankers prospered as well. Some areas of interest when it came to dollar diplomacy included Manchuria in China and the Caribbean. Taft the Trustbuster Know: Rule of Reason 14. Who deserves the nickname "Trustbuster," Roosevelt or Taft? Taft truly deserves the nickname of Trustbuster because he busted a total of 90 trusts in his four years in office, while Roosevelt only busted 44 trusts in his seven and a half years in office. However, the judicial offices were much more active during the time in which Taft was in office. Tafts furious action against trusts made him enemies with the very person who recommended him for the office of president. Taft Splits the Republican Party Know: Payne-Aldrich Tariff, Richard Ballinger, Gifford Pinchot, Joe Cannon 15. Why did the Progressive wing of the Republican Party turn against Taft? The Progressive wing of the Republican Party at first trusted Taft because kept the promise that he had made and lowered tariffs through a moderately reductive bill. This, however, turned out to be futile due to upward tariff revisions made by senatorial reactionaries. Tafts signing of the Payne-Aldrich Bill and his declaration of it being the best bill that the Republican party ever passed sealed his fate with the Progressive wing. The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture 16. How did the Republican Party split at the party's 1912 convention? The Republican Party split due to the conflict that Taft brought about in his term as president. By 1911, The National Progressive Republican League was formed, with La Follette the leader at first. Later on, Roosevelt would seize the reigns, effectively making what was left of the Republican Party the Progressives their enemies because Taft was on their side. Chapter #29: Wilsonian Progressivism Abroad Chapter #29: Identifications

Eugene Debs Eugene V. Debs was the candidate for the presidency of the Socialist party. Surprisingly, he gathered twice as many votes as he did four years ago. Pancho Villa Villa was a combination of a bandit and Robin Hood and emerged as the chief rival to President Carranza. He attempted to start a war between Wilson and Carranza, who had become halfway friends. John J. Pershing General John J. Pershing was a veteran of the Cuban and Philippine campaigns and was ordered to stop the bandit bands of Villa. His forces fought with Carranzas and the Villistas. Central Powers The Central Powers was an alliance during World War I that consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. Allies The Allies was an alliance during World War I that consisted of France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and Italy. Lusitania The Lusitania was a British passenger ship that was torpedoed as a result of Germanys new submarine warfare. 128 Americans died in the incident, leading the American public to declare mass murder and piracy. Sussex Pledge The Sussex Pledge was made by the Germans after the torpedoing of a French passenger steamer named the Sussex. Wilson forced the Germans to renounce the practice of sinking merchant ships without warning. Federal Reserve Act The Federal Reserve Act was signed in 1913 and was part of Wilsons plan to battle the bankers. It created the Federal Reserve Board which delegated some of the power over regional banks to the public. New Nationalism New Nationalism was the program that Roosevelt and his progressive followers chose to institute. It favored consolidation of trusts and labor unions along with growth of powerful regulatory agencies of the federal government. New Freedom New Freedom was a program that the Democrats and Wilson instituted during the election of 1912. It was a progressive platform that included calls for stronger antitrust legislation, banking reform, and tariff reductions.

Underwood Tariff The Underwood Tariff Bill was passed by the House in response to Wilsons declaration to take care of tariffs. It reduced rates, yet came under fire by lobbyists although it survived due to the publics support. Federal Trade Commission The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 created a presidentially-appointed commission in order to scrutinize any corporations involved in interstate commerce. The commissioners were expected to crush monopoly. Clayton Antitrust Act The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 lengthened the list of practices that were considered objectionable. It also conferred long-overdue benefits on labor. It sought to legalize strikes and peaceful picketing. Chapter #29 Identifications The "Bull Moose" Campaign of 1912 Know: Bull Moose, New Nationalism, New Freedom 1. Explain the difference between Roosevelt's form of progressivism and Wilson's. Roosevelts progressivism favored consolidation of trusts and labor unions, while Wilson wanted to weaken trusts through stronger antitrust legislation. In addition, Roosevelt fought for social welfare and womens rights. Wilson favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and unregulated and unmonopolized markets. He and the Democratic Party disliked social welfare reform and saw economic prosperity as a result of competition. He wanted not to regulate industries, but to split the big industrial combines. Roosevelts ideals were known as New Nationalism, while Wilsons ideas became known as New Freedom. Woodrow Wilson: A Minority President 2. "The [1912] election results are fascinating." Explain. The 1912 election results were somewhat eerie. Wilson won only 41 percent of the popular vote, although his party had the majority in Congress. Taft and Roosevelt, being from the split Republican party, gathered about 1.25 million more votes than Wilson did. The most eerie thing of all, however, might have been the amount of votes that the Socialist party and its candidate Debs were able to gather. Wilson: The Idealist in Politics 3. How did Wilson's personality and past affect the way he conducted himself as president? Wilson grew up as a follow of Jeffersonian democracy and supported the ideal of

self-determination for people. His uprising in an atmosphere of fervent piety allowed him to become a great orator as president. He based his power on sincerity and moral appeal. His personality, however, was less than ideal. He could not connect with the masses and had a somewhat cold-hearted in manner in public. In addition, his strict sense of moral righteousness made compromise difficult for Wilson. Wilson Tackles the Tariff Know: Underwood Tariff 4. What were the three parts of the "triple wall of privilege?" The triple wall of privilege consisted of three parts: the tariff, the banks, and the trusts. Wilson battled the tariff issue first through the Underwood Tariff Bill, which provided for a major decrease in rates. It also reduced import fees and became a landmark in tax legislation. Shortly afterwards, Congress enacted an income tax that would prove to be crucial in the future. Wilson Battles the Bankers Know: The Federal Reserve Act 5. How was the Federal Reserve System different than the banking system that existed in the U.S. in 1913? The Federal Reserve Act created the new Federal Reserve Board which had members that were appointed by the president. It oversaw a nationwide system of twelve regional reserve districts, each district having its own bank. Although the regional banks actually belonged to the member financial institutions, the Federal Reserve Board delegated a considerable portion of power to the public. The Federal Reserve Act ensured economic success and advancement in the future. The President Tames the Trusts Know: Federal Trade Commission Act, Clayton Anti-Trust Act 6. How did Wilson curb the trusts? Wilson curbed trusts through multiple acts. Congress enacted the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914, which allowed a president-appointed commission to investigate industries that took part in interstate commerce. The commissioners would crush monopolies with a variety of actions. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914 added to the list of business practices that were considered objectionable. It also legalized strikes and peaceful rioting. Wilsonian Progressivism at High Tide Know: The Federal Farm Loan Act, Warehouse Act, La Follette Seamen's Act, Workingmen's Compensation Act, Adamson Act, Louis D. Brandeis

7. Describe some of the positive and negative outcomes of Wilsons progressive legislation and actions. Wilsons progressive legislation and actions had mixed results. He continued to enact legislation that aided rural America; for example, credit was made available to farmers at low rates of interest and loans on security of staple crops were authorized. Sailors and workers benefitted even more from the La Follette Seamens Act of 1915 and Workingmens Compensation Act of 1916. As much action as Wilson took, he knew that he would have to gather more progressive support because he had won the previous election due to the split of the Republican party. New Directions in Foreign Policy Know: Haiti 8. Contrast Wilson's ideas of foreign policy with those of Roosevelt and Taft. Unlike Roosevelt and Taft, Wilson disliked an aggressive foreign policy. He hated imperialism and disliked even more the dollar diplomacy employed by Taft. Wilson declared war on dollar diplomacy within a week of entering office. Following his ideals, Wilson persuaded Congress to repeal the Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912. However, political trouble in Haiti led to a chain of events in which Wilson was forced to respond in order to ensure American safety. Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico Know: Victoriano Huerta, Venustiano Carranza, Francisco ("Pancho") Villa, ABC Powers, John J. ("Black Jack") Pershing 9. Why did Mexico give such trouble to the Wilson administration? Mexico disliked America because it had been exploited for some time by foreign investors in the oil, railroad, and mine industries. Even though Mexico as a country was rich, its people were poor and decided to revolt; this led to massive immigrations. The revolution in Mexico threatened American people and property in Mexico. Wilson was able to escape a bigger conflict with help from the ABC Powers (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.) Thunder Across the Sea Know: Central Powers, Allied Powers 10. What caused Europe to plunge into WWI in 1914? The first of a chain of events that led to World War I in 1914 was the assassination of Austria-Hungarian prince. Vienna and Germany sent an ultimatum to Serbia soon after. Serbia, with its neighbor Russia, began to mobilize. Germany faced a two-front war with Russia on the east and France on the west. The Germans attacked France through Belgium, and Great Britain joined the war to support the France. The Central Powers:

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria found itself against the Allies: France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and Italy. A Precarious Neutrality Know: Kaiser Wilhelm II 11. What caused an officially neutral America to turn against the Central Powers? Both the Allies and the Central Powers attempted to drag the US into the war on their respective sides. Britain shared culture, language, and economy with the US, yet Germany and Austria-Hungary had many of their countrymen in the US as immigrants. Most Americans were anti-German from the start, seeing as Germany seemed to embody arrogant autocracy. Unrestricted submarine warfare and the sinking of the Lusitania led the US to join the Allies. America Earns Blood Money Know: Submarine, Lusitania, Arabic, Sussex 12. How did Germany's use of submarines lead to tense relations with the U.S.? The Central Powers disliked the great trade that took place between the US and the Allies, but the trade was not a violation of the international neutrality laws. Therefore, the Germans began to wage submarine warfare against any kind of ship that could be found in the war zone. After the sinking of the Lusitania and the Sussex, Wilson sent Germany an ultimatum that they were forced to bend down too. Wilson therefore won a small diplomatic battle, but the peace was hanging in the balance. Wilson Wins Reelection in 1916 Know: Charles Evans Hughes, "He Kept Us Out of War" 13. What were the keys to Wilson's electoral victory in 1916? Wilson found that he was facing both Roosevelt and Hughes in the election of 1916. Wilsons appeal to the Midwesterners and westerners saved Wilson from Hughes and his domination of the east. Wilson received strong support from the working class and renegade bull moosers. This was probably because the Republican party failed to promise anything of interest, where as they believed that Wilson would probably keep the country out of war. Varying Viewpoints: Who Were the Progressives? Know: Richard Hofstadter, New Left Historians 14. Which answer to the question above seems correct to you? Why? It seems to me that the Progressives were middle-class people threatened by the emerging corporate elites, similar to Richard Hofstadters opinion. Those who sought

reform as progressives and muckrakers were not usually the poor or marginalized of society. However, their lives might have looked like those of the poor because the business elites and corporation owners had built great wealth while giving nothing back to the general public.