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Analele Universit ii Constantin Brncu i din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiin e Juridice, Nr.

3/2011

CONSIDERATII PRIVIND LIMITELE LEGALE ALE DREPTULUI DE PROPRIETATE PRIVAT REGLEMENTATE DE NOUL COD CIVIL

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE LEGAL LIMITS OF THE PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHT REGULATED BY THE NEW CIVIL CODE

Lect. univ. Ana Maria DIACONU Departamentul tiine Juridice Facultatea de Administraie Public i Studii Politice Comparate Universitatea Constantin Brncuidin Trgu-Jiu
Abstract: Premisele limitrii dreptului de proprietate rezult din prevederile art. 555 alin. l din Noul Cod civil1 care, n partea sa final, precizeaz c dreptul de proprietate se exercit n limitele determinate de lege, la care se adaug dispoziiile art. 44, alin.1, teza a II a din Constituia Romniei, potrivit crora coninutul i limitele dreptului de proprietate sunt stabilite de lege. Noul cod civil distinge intre limitele materiale2 i limitele juridice3 ale dreptului de proprietate, acestea din urm fiind clasificate in limite legale, limite convenionale si limite judiciare. Cuvinte cheie: drept de proprietate, limite legale, drept de trecere, fond dominant, servitutea legal de trecere

University Lecturer Ana Maria DIACONU Juridical Sciences Department Faculty of Public Administration and Compared Political Sciences Constantin Brncui University of TrguJiu
Abstract: The premises of limiting the property right results from the stipulations of art. 555 paragraph l of the New Civil Code27 that, in its final part, specifies that the property right is exerted in the limits determined by the law, where we add the stipulations of art. 44, paragraph 1, the 2nd thesis of the Romanian Constitution, according to which the content and the limits of the property right are established by the law. The New Civil Code distinguishes between the material limits28 and the juridical limits29 of the property right, the latter ones being classified in legal limits, conventional limits and judicial limits. Key words: property right, legal limits, right of way, dominant grounds, legal servitude of way

1. Introduction. 1. Introducere. Potrivit art. 602 alin. (1) din Noul Cod civil legea poate limita exercitarea dreptului de proprietate fie n interes public, fie n interes privat. Deoarece Codul civil nu precizeaz dac limitarea dreptului de proprietate se face prin lege organic sau nu, prin raportare la dispoziiile constituionale privind protecia proprietii indiferent de formele sale, se poate aprecia c limitrile legale reglementate de Codul civil pot fi stabilite doar prin lege organic. According to art. 602 paragraph (1) of the New Civil Code, the law may limit the exertion of the property right either in public interest, or in private one. As the Civil Code does not specify whether the limitation of the property right is made by organic law or not, by report to the constitutional stipulations regarding the property protection irrespective of its forms, we may appreciate that the legal limitations regulated by the Civil Code may be established only by an organic law. Also, in report to the interest protected by these limitations, art. 602

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De asemenea, n raport de interesul ocrotit prin aceste limitri, art. 602 alin. (2) precizeaz c limitele legale n interes privat pot fi modificate ori desfiinate temporar prin acordul prilor, sub rezerva ndeplinirii formalitilor de publicitate aplicabile, ceea ce nseamn c aceste norme au caracter dispozitiv i nu imperativ, cum este cazul limitrilor n interes public. n concordan cu art. art. 44 alin. 7 din Constituie4, Noul cod civil instituie obligaia proprietarului de respectare a sarcinilor privind protecia mediului i asigurarea bunei vecinti, precum i de respectare a celorlalte sarcini care, potrivit legii sau obiceiului, revin proprietarului.

paragraph (2) specifies that the legal limits in private interest may be changed or temporary abolished by the agreement of the parties, under the reserve of accomplishing the applicable advertising formalities, meaning that these norms have a dispositive, not imperative feature, as it is the case of the limitations in public interest. According to art. 44 paragraph 7 of the Constitution,30 the New Civil Code institutes the owners obligation to respect the targets regarding the environmental protection and the providing of a good neighbourhood, and also to respect the other targets that, according to the law or to the custom, belong to the owner.

2. Analiza limitelor legale ale 2. Analysis of the legal limits of dreptului de proprietate privat the private property right regulated by the reglementate de Noul Cod civil New Civil Code Cod civil n vigoare a preluat opinia doctrinar5 conform creia servituile The Civil Code in force took over the naturale i legale ( reglementate n Codul doctrinaire31 opinion according to which civil de la 1865 n capitolul I Titlul IV, natural and legal servitudes (settled in the Despre servitui ce se nasc din situaia Civil Code from 1865 in chapter I Title IV, locurilor i Despre servituile stabilite prin lege (art. 576-619), nu sunt, de fapt, On servitudes appearing from the situation servitui, ci restricii legale aduse dreptului of the places and On servitudes established de proprietate ce izvorsc din raporturile de by law (art. 576-619), are not, in fact, vecintate, astfel nct n concepia acestui servitudes, but legal restrictions brought to nou act normativ ele sunt considerate drept the property right appearing from the limite legale ale dreptului de proprietate, proximity rapports, so that in the conception fiind reglementate n seciunea I a of this new normative document, these are capitolului III din Cartea a III-a a noului Cod considered as legal limits of the property civil. n consecin, n categoria limitelor right, being settled in section I of chapter III legale consacrate de Noul Codul civil se from Book III of the new Civil code. ncadreaz : folosirea apelor, pictura streAs a consequence, in the category of inii, vederea asupra proprietii vecinului, the legal limits consecrated by the New Civil dreptul de trecere i alte limitri legale (cum Code, there are: the using of waters, the drop ar fi: dreptul de trecere pentru utiliti, of eave, the view on the neighbours dreptul de trecere pentru efectuarea unor property, the right to pass and other legal lucrri i dreptul de trecere pentru reintrarea limitations (the right to pass for the utilities, n posesie). the right to pass for accomplishing certain Limitele dreptului de proprietate works and the right to pass for re-entering privat referitoare la folosirea apelor sunt the possession). reglementate n art. 604-610 din Codul civil
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sub denumirea de reguli ce privesc curgerea fireasc sau provocat a apelor, irigaiile, ntrebuinarea izvoarelor, precum i obligaia proprietarului cruia i prisosete apa. n privina regulilor referitoare la curgerea fireasc a apelor, aceste sunt reglementate de art. 604 din Noul cod civil i constituie o limit att pentru proprietarul fondului inferior, ct i pentru proprietarul fondului superior. Proprietarul fondului inferior este obligat s nu ntreprind nimic prin care s mpiedice curgerea fireasc a apelor provenite de pe terenul superior. Prin excepie, dac fondul inferior este prejudiciat de curgerea apelor, atunci proprietarul acestuia poate s fac lucrrile necesare schimbrii direciei apelor, cu respectarea a dou condiii: s aib autorizarea justiiei i s suporte cheltuielile ocazionate de efectuarea lucrrilor.6 La rndul su proprietarul fondului superior este obligat s nu efectueze nicio lucrare de natur s agraveze situaia fondului inferior. Art. 605 N.C.civ. instituie reguli privind curgerea provocat a apelor, ipotez n care proprietarul fondului inferior nu poate mpiedica curgerea apelor. n acest sens, poate fi vorba de nirea apelor, pe fondul superior ori din cauza unor lucrri subterane sau din secarea terenurilor mltinoase ori a apelor folosite n scop casnic, agricol sau industrial, cnd acestea urmeaz a se vrsa ntr-un curs de ap sau ntr-un an . n ceea ce l privete pe proprietarului fondului superior, acestuia i revin dou obligaii, i anume: s aleag calea i mijloacele de scurgere de natur s aduc prejudicii minime fondului inferior; s plteasc o despgubire just i prealabil ctre proprietarul fondului inferior. Despgubirea just se refer la acoperirea ntregului prejudiciu produs fondului inferior, ns despgubirea prealabil este mai greu de ndeplinit, avnd n vedere caracterul instantaneu, n cele mai multe cazuri, a curgerii provocate i a dificultii de estimare a cuantumului despgubirii nainte

The limits of the private property right referring to the use of waters are regulated in art. 604-610 of the Civil Code called rules regarding the natural or provoked flow of waters, the irrigations, the use of springs, and also the obligation of the owner who has a lot of water. Regarding the rules referring to the natural flow of waters, these are regulated by art. 604 of the New Civil Code and it is a limit both for the owner of the lower fund and for the owner of the higher fund. The owner of the lower fund is forced to accomplish nothing that could stop the natural flow of the waters coming from the higher field. As an exception, if the lower fund is prejudiced by the water flow, then its owner may accomplish the works necessary for the change of the water direction, by respecting two conditions: having the justice authorization and supporting the expenditures occasioned by the accomplishment of the works.32 At his turn, the owner of the higher fund is forced to accomplish no work able to aggravate the situation of the inferior fund. Art. 605 of the New Civil Code institutes the rules regarding the provoked water flow. In this sense, it may be about the water spring, on the higher fund or because of certain underground works or of the drying up of the swampy fields or of the waters used domestically, agriculturally or industrially when they are to empty in a water flow or in a water or in a dyke. Regarding the owner of the higher fund, he has two obligations, namely: choosing the way and the means of flow able to bring minimum prejudices to the lower fund; paying a fair and prior compensation to the owner of the lower fund. The fair compensation refers to the cover of the entire prejudice produced to the lower fund, but the prior compensation is harder to accomplish, considering the instantaneous feature, in most of the cases, of the provoked flow and of the difficulty to

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de a se produce.7 Potrivit alin 3 al art. 605 din noul Cod aceste dispoziii nu se aplic n cazul n care pe fondul inferior se afl o construcie cu curte i grdin sau un cimitir. Dup cum s-a apreciat in doctrin8 Noul cod civil instituie, prin art. 606 i 607 reguli privind buna vecintate i care trebuie respectate i aplicate exprimnd buna credin ce se impune n relaiile de vecintate. Astfel, conform art. 606, proprietarul care vrea s foloseasc pentru irigarea terenului su apele naturale i artificiale de care poate dispune n mod efectiv are dreptul ca, pe cheltuiala sa exclusiv, s fac pe terenul riveranului opus lucrrile necesare pentru captarea apei. n acest caz limita const n obligaia ce-i incumb proprietarului fondului riveran de a nu se opune efecturii de ctre un proprietar vecin a lucrrilor necesare pentru irigarea terenului su. Pentru ca proprietarul terenului ce urmeaz a fi irigat s-i poat exercita dreptul de a efectua lucrrile de captare trebuie ndeplinite unele condiii, respectiv s suporte cheltuielile lucrrii; s aleag calea i mijloacele de scurgere de natur s aduc pagube minime proprietarului fondului riveran i s plteasc o despgubire proprietarului fondului riveran. De asemenea, intervine si in acest caz excepia prevzut de alin 3 al art. 605 din noul Cod de care am fcut vorbire anterior. Articolul 607, alin 1. din Noul cod civil reglementeaz o alt limitare a dreptului de proprietate instituind obligaia proprietarului cruia i prisosete apa pentru necesitile curente de a oferi surplusul, n schimbul unei juste i prealabile compensaii, proprietarului care nu i-ar putea procura apa necesar pentru fondul su dect cu o cheltuial excesiv. Potrivit alineatului (2) al art. 607 C. civ. proprietarul surplusului de ap nu se poate fi scutit de aceast obligaie prin invocarea faptului c ar acorda acestuia o

estimate the quantum of the compensation before it is produced.33 According to paragraph 3 of art. 605 of the new Code, these stipulations are not applied if there is a building with a yard and a garden or a cemetery on the lower fund. As it was appreciated in the doctrine,34 the New Civil Code institutes, by art. 606 and 607 the rules regarding the good neighbourhood and that should be respected and applied by expressing the good faith that is imposed in the neighbourhood relations. Thus, according to art. 606, the owner that wants to use, for the irrigation of his field, the natural and artificial waters that he efficiently disposes of, has the right to do, on his exclusive support, on the opposite river field, the works necessary for catching the water. In this case, the limit consists of the obligation that devolves upon the owner of the river fund not to oppose to the accomplishment by a neighbouring owner of the works necessary for irrigating his field. For the owner of the field that is to be irrigated to be able to exert his right of accomplishing the works of catching, some conditions should be accomplished, namely supporting the work expenditures; choosing the way and the means of flow able to bring minimum damage to the owner of the river fund and paying a compensation to the owner of the river fund. Also, in this case it appears the exception stipulated by paragraph 3 of art. 605 of the new Code we previously talked about. Article 607, paragraph 1 of the New Civil Code regulates another limitation of the property right instituting the obligation of the owner who has a lot of water for the current necessities of offering the surplus, in exchange for a fair and prior compensation, the owner who could purchase the water necessary for his fund only by excessive expenditures. According to paragraph (2) of art. 607 of the Civil Code, the owner of the water surplus cannot be dispensed by this obligation by invoking the fact that he could

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alt destinaie dect satisfacerea nevoilor curente, ns dac dovedete c destinaia pretins este real, atunci poate solicita despgubiri suplimentare proprietarului aflat la nevoie, n plus fa de despgubirea pe care acesta din urm deja o pltea i n lipsa invocrii unei alte destinaii pentru surplusul de ap. n ceea ce privete ntrebuinarea izvoarelor, art. 608 din Codul civil, dispune c proprietarul fondului pe care se afl un izvor poate acorda orice ntrebuinare acestuia, cu dou excepii, care reprezint, totodat limite legale ale exercitrii dreptului de proprietate, respectiv obligaia de a nu aduce atingere drepturilor dobndite de proprietarul fondului inferior atunci cnd ntrebuineaz ntr-un anume fel izvorul, la care se adaug obligaia de a nu schimba cursul izvorului dac prin aceast schimbare ar lipsi cetenii unei localiti de apa necesar pentru satisfacerea nevoilor curente.9 n conformitate cu prevederile art. 609, alin 1 i 2 proprietarul fondului pe care se afl izvorul poate cere repararea prejudiciilor cauzate de persoana care, prin lucrrile efectuate, a secat, a micorat ori a alterat apele sale i dac starea de fapt o permite, poate pretinde restabilirea situaiei anterioare atunci cnd apa era indispensabil pentru exploatarea fondului su. n ipoteza n care izvorul se ntinde pe dou fonduri nvecinate, dispoziiile alin. (1) i (2) se aplic n mod corespunztor, inndu-se seama de ntinderea izvorului pe fiecare fond. n categoria limitelor legale se ncadreaz si cele ce privesc pictura streinii, distana lucrrilor intermediare cerute pentru construcii, lucrri i plantaii, precum i vederea asupra proprietii vecinului. Acestea sunt reglementate de art. 611-616 din Noul civil, fiind consacrate si de vechiul Cod civil (art. 610-615) drept servitui legale cu aceleai denumiri i cu o semnificaie aproape identic.10

grant it another destination different from satisfying the current needs, but if he proves that the claimed destination is require additional compensations to the owner in need, in plus to the compensation that the latter one had already been paying and in the absence of the invocation of another destination for the water surplus. Regarding the use of springs, art. 608 of the Civil Code states that the owner of the fund where there is a spring may grant it any use, except for two situations representing at the same time the legal limits of exerting the property right, respectively the obligation of not reaching the rights gained by the owner of the lower fund when it uses the spring in a certain way, where we add the obligation of not changing the spring flow if this change would divest the citizens of a locality of the water necessary for satisfying the current needs.35 According to the stipulations of art. 609, paragraph 1 and 2 the owner of the fund where the spring is may require the reparation of the prejudices caused by the person who, by the accomplished works, has dried out, has decreased or has damaged his water and if the state of fact allows it, he may claim the reestablishment of the previous situation when the water was indispensable for exploiting its fund. If the spring lies on two neighbouring funds, the stipulations of paragraph (1) and (2) is correspondingly applied, considering the extension of the spring on each fund. In the category of the legal limits, there are also the ones regarding the drop of the eave, the distance of the intermediary works required for constructions, works and plantations, and also the view on the neighbours property. These are regulated by art. 611-616 of the New Civil Code, being also consecrated by the old Civil Code (art. 610615) as legal servitudes having the same names and an almost identical signification.36 Thus, referring to the drop of the eave, the new regulation (art. 615) stipulates

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Astfel, referitor la pictura streinii, noua reglementare ( art. 615) prevede c proprietarul este obligat s i construiasc streain casei astfel nct apele provenind de la ploi s nu se scurg pe fondul proprietarului vecin. n privina distanei lucrrilor intermediare cerute pentru anumite construcii, lucrri i plantaii, Noul cod civil in art. art. 612-613, instituie obligaia proprietarului de a respecta o anumit distan minim fa de linia de hotar. Aceasta este de 60 centimetri11 n cazul construciilor, lucrrilor sau plantaiilor, respectiv 2 metri 12n cazul arborilor, cu excepia acelora mai mici de 2 m, a plantaiilor i a gardurilor vii.13 Aceste reguli se aplic n msura n care legea regulamentul de urbanism sau obiceiul locului nu prevd dispoziii contrare. Orice derogare de la distana minim prevzut de art. 612 se poate face prin acordul prilor exprimat printr-un nscris autentic. Limitele legale privitoare la vederea asupra proprietii vecinului sunt reglementate de art. 614-616, din Noul Cod civil i vizeaz fereastra sau deschiderea n zidul comun, distana minim pentru fereastra de vedere , fereastra de lumin. Astfel art. 614 din cod prevede in mod expres c nu se permite se fac fereastra sau deschiderea n zidul comun dect cu acordul proprietarilor, iar art. 615 instituie obligaia meninerii unei distane de cel puin cel puin 2 metri ntre fondul vecin i fereastra pentru vedere, respectiv de l metru, dac fereastra nu este paralel cu linia de hotar, acestea constituind distane mai mari fa de vechea reglementare. Noul cod civil preia soluia adoptat de practica judiciar privind fereastra de lumin, recunoscnd in art. 616 dreptul proprietarului de a-si deschide, fr limit de distan, ferestre de lumin dac sunt astfel construite nct s mpiedice vederea spre fondul nvecinat. Noul Cod civil romn reglementeaz

that the owner is forced to build the house eave so that the waters coming from the rain should not drain off on the fund of the neighbouring owner. Regarding the distance of the intermediary works required for certain constructions, works and plantations, the New Civil Code in art. art. 612-613, institutes the owners obligation to respect a certain minimum distance to the border line. This has 60 centimetres37 in case of constructions, works or plantations, respectively 2 metres 38 in case of the trees, except for the ones smaller than 2 m, for the plantations and for the hedges.39 These rules applied as much as the law of the urbanism regulation or the local custom stipulates no contrary stipulations. Any derogation from the minim distance stipulated by art. 612 may be made by the agreement of the parties expressed by an authentic paper. The legal limits regarding the view on the neighbours property are regulated by art. 614-616, of the New Civil Code and they refer to the window or the opening in the common wall, the minimum distance for the vision window, the light window. Thus art, 614 of the code expressly stipulates that it is not allowed to make the window or the opening in the common wall unless we have the owners agreement, and art. 615 institutes the obligation to keep a distance of at least 2 metres between the neighbouring fund and the vision window, respectively measuring 1 metre, if the window is not parallel to the border line, as they constitute bigger distances than in the old regulation. The New Civil Code takes over the solution adopted by the judicial practice regarding the light window, acknowledging in art. 616 the owners right to open, with no distance limit, light windows if they are built so that they could stop the view to the neighbouring fund. The New Romanian Civil Code is

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dreptul legal de trecere in art. 617 620, calificndu-l drept o limit legal a dreptului de proprietate. Astfel, conform art. 617, alin 1. din Noul Cod civil, proprietarul fondului care este lipsit de acces la calea public are dreptul s i s permit trecerea pe fondul vecinului su pentru exploatarea fondului propriu. n vechiul Cod civil dreptul de trecere avea natura juridic a unei servitui de trecere stabilit de lege, drept real, dezmembrmnt al dreptului de proprietate. Doctrina de specialitate 14 a argumentat n mod judicios, c exist distincie ntre dreptul legal de trecere i servitutea legal de trecere, deosebire care privete att natura juridic diferit a celor dou instituii dar i mijloacele juridice de aprare a acestora. Astfel, nu trebuie confundat servitutea legal de trecere stricto sensu, reglementat n art. 616-619 C.civ.din vechiul Cod civil (art. 617-620 din Noul Cod civil), cu servitutea de trecere stabilit prin fapta omului, aceasta din urm fiind, de regul, un dezmembrmnt veritabil al dreptului de proprietate privat, i numai uneori o simpl restrngere a exercitrii acestui drept n raporturile de vecintate.15 n opinia literaturii de specialitate de dat recent16 dreptul de trecere, ca limit legal a dreptului de proprietate, constituie posibilitatea proprietarului fondului care este lipsit de acces la calea public (fondul dominant) de a avea acces la calea public prin fondul vecinului (fondul aservit) n vederea exploatrii fondului propriu. Rezult c, in viziunea noii reglementri titularul dreptului de trecere poate fi doar proprietarul unui fond care este un teren lipsit de acces la calea public (denumit fond dominant, deci terenul n favoarea cruia se stabilete dreptul de trecere). Aceast formulare conduce la concluzia c nu vor mai beneficia de drept de trecere proprietarii acelor terenuri care au o cale de acces la drumul public, dar aceasta

governing the right of way in art. 617-620 qualifying it as a legal limit of ownership. So, in according with art. 617, al. 1 of The New Romanian Civil Code - the owner of the fund which is deprived of access to a public way has the right to be allowed for him the passing on his neighbor fund in order to exploit his own fund. In the former Civil Code, the right of way had a juridical nature of a servitude of way established by law, real law, dismembered property. The specialty doctrine40 stated in a judicious way that there is a distinction between the legal law of way and the legal servitude of way, difference concerning the different juridical; nature of the two institutions but also their juridical means of defense. So, it shouldnt be confused with the legal passage servitude stricto sensu, settled in art. 616-619 Civil code from the former Civil Code (art. 617-620 from the New Civil Code), with servitude of way established though the action of the human being, this latter being, commonly, a veritable dismemberment of the private property right, and only sometimes a simple limitation of exercising this right in proximity rapports.41 In the opinion of recent time specialty literature42 the right of way, as legal limit of the property right, constitutes the possibility of the owner of the ground connected to the access at the public road dominant ground) to have access at the public road from the ground of the neighbor (locked ground) for the exploitation of own ground. It results that, in the vision of the new settlement, the titular of the right of way can be only the owner of a ground which is a field attached on access to the public road

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presupune inconveniente grave sau este periculoas, situaie permis de vechiul Cod civil si acceptat, n egal msura de doctrina si practica judiciara.17 Dreptul de trecere are caracter imprescriptibil i se stinge n momentul n care fondul dominant dobndete un alt acces la calea public. Exercitarea dreptului de trecere trebuie s se fac cu respectarea urmtoarelor condiii: s nu se aduc dect o minim stnjenire exercitrii dreptului de proprietate asupra fondului aservit; dac mai multe fonduri vecine cu fondul dominant au acces la calea public, trecerea se va face pe fondul cruia i s-ar aduce cele mai puine prejudicii.18 De asemenea o prevedere special este aceea c daca dac lipsa accesului la drumul public se datoreaz unor acte juridice de partaj, vnzare etc., va trebui meninut calea de acces anterioar.19 O alt prevedere cu caracter de noutate coninuta de Nou Cod civil este aceea c, dac lipsa accesului este imputabil proprietarului fondului dominant, instana judectoreasc nu poate stabili dreptul de trecere n lipsa acordului proprietarului fondului aservit (pe care se solicit trecerea). Chiar n situaia n care acest acord ar exista, proprietarul fondului aservit va trebui s fie despgubit cu dublul despgubirii ce i s-ar cuveni n mod obinuit.20 Cu privire la acest ultim caz, in literatura de specialitate s-a considerat c prevederea ca despgubirea s fie dubl este dificil de ndeplinit atta vreme ct ce nu se poate ti cu exactitate care este cuantumul despgubirii pentru ca aceasta s fie dublat.21 n acest sens, legiuitorul a oferit soluia, instituind, cu titlu general c pentru pierderile suferite ca urmare a exercitrii dreptului de trecere de ctre proprietarul fondului dominant, proprietarul fondului aservit trebuie s fie despgubit, iar n cazul n care prile nu se neleg de comun acord cu privire la valoarea despgubirilor, este chemat s se pronune instana

(named dominant ground, so the field in favor of which is established the right of way). This formulation leads to the conclusion that the owners of these fields, having a road of access to the public road, would not take advantaged on the right of way, but this supposes grave inconvenient or is dangerous, situation permitted by the former Civil Code and accepted, in equal extent by the judicial doctrine and practice.43 The right of way has an indefeasible character and ceases at the moment when the dominant grounds achieve another access to the public road. Exercising the right of way should be realized by respecting the following conditions: not to be brought but a minimal encumbrance for exercising the right of property on the locked ground; in case several closed grounds with the dominant one have an access to the public road, the passage would be done on the grounds of that bringing less prejudices.44 Also, a special provision is the one that, in case the lack of the access to public road is due to some juridical partition or sale deeds, etc, should be maintained the previous road of access .45 Another provision with novelty character, contained in the new Civil Code is the one that, in case the lack of access is imputable to the owner of the dominant grounds, the trial instance is not able to establish the right of way, in the absence of the consent of the locked grounds owner (of which the right of way is requested). Even in case when this consent would exist, the owner of the locked grounds should be reimbursed with the double of the indemnification that normally would be due to him.46 Concerning this latter case, in the

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judectoreasc (conform art. 620 din Noul Cod civil) Potrivit dispoziiilor art. 619 din Codul civil referitoare la ntinderea i modul de exercitare a dreptului de trecere, acestea sunt determinate prin nelegerea prilor, prin hotrre judectoreasc sau printr-o folosin continu pe timp de zece ani.22 Alte limite legale prevzute n noul Cod civil se refer la: dreptul de trecere pentru utiliti (art. 621)23 cum ar fi, de pild, reelele edilitare de natura conductelor de ap sau gaz, cablurile electrice subterane sau aeriene i alte asemenea; dreptul de trecere pentru efectuarea unor lucrri (art. 622),24 cum sunt lucrrile necesare unui fond nvecinat ori dreptul de trecere pentru reintrarea n posesie a unui bun ajuns ntmpltor pe fondul respectiv (art. 623) 25. Spre deosebire de dreptul legal de trecere, stabilit n interes privat, n cadrul raporturilor de vecintate, dreptul de trecere pentru utiliti este stabilit de lege n interes public, n beneficiul autoritilor publice competente sau a celor crora li s-a acordat dreptul de a realiza asemenea reele edilitare. De asemenea, trebuie menionat c, pentru realizarea lucrrilor n domeniul minier, n cel petrolier sau n cel al energiei electrice, exist prevederi speciale,26 ce instituie de pild servitutea de trecere de suprafa sau servitutea legal de trecere. O noutate in materie o reprezint reglementarea de ctre Noul cod civil in art. 624 a strii de necesitate care permite folosirea sau chiar distrugerea unui bun al altuia, pentru a se apra pe sine ori pe altul de un pericol iminent. n aceast situaie, proprietarul bunului folosit sau distrus are dreptul s cear o despgubire, numai de la cel care a fost salvat. Noul Cod civil precizeaz c proprietarul care a provocat sau a favorizat apariia pericolului nu poate cere nici o despgubire. Sub denumirea de Reguli speciale art. 625 din cod precizeaz c ngrdirile legale reglementate de art. 604 624 se completeaz cu dispoziiile legilor speciale

specialty literature, it has been considered that the provision that indemnification be double can hardly be accomplished meanwhile it cannot be exactly known which is the total of the indemnification for that to be doubled.47 To this extent, the legislator offered the solution, establishing, as a general title the fact that losses suffered as a result of exercising the right of way by the owner if the dominant grounds, the owner of the locked grounds should be indemnified, and in case parties do not reach a common agreement concerning the values of the indemnifications, it is called to be pronounced the trial instance (according to the art. 620 from the New Civil Code). According to the dispositions of art. 619 from the Civil Code concerning the elongation and the modality of exercising the right of way, these are determined by the consent of the parties, by judicial decision or by continuous usage for a period of ten years.48 Other legal limits stipulated in the new Civil Code refer to: the right to pass for the utilities (art. 621)49 such as, for example, the town networks like the water or gas conducts, the underground or air underground electric cables and others such; the right to pass for accomplishing certain works (art. 622)50, such as the works necessary for a neighbouring fund, or the right to pass for re-entering the possession of a good that has accidently got to the respective fund (art. 623).51 Unlike the legal right of way, established in private interest, as part of proximity rapports, the right of way for utilities is established by law in public interest, in the benefit of the competent public authorities or of the ones to whom has been granted the right to realize also some

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privind regimul juridic al anumitor bunuri, cum ar fi terenurile i construciile de orice fel, pdurile, bunurile din patrimoniul naional-cultural, bunurile sacre ale cultelor religioase, precum i altele asemenea. Menionm c potrivit art. 59 din Legea nr. 71/2011 pentru punerea n aplicare a Legii nr. 287/2009 privind Codul Civil, dispoziiile art. 602- 625 ( cele cu privire la limitele legale) din noul Cod Civil nu se aplic situaiilor juridice nscute anterior intrrii n vigoare a acestuia. Bibliografie: Codul civil 2011 pe intelesul tuturor, Editura Adevarul Holding, Bucuresti, 2011; C. Brsan, Drept civil. Drepturi reale principale, Ediia a a III-a revzut i adugit, Editura Hamangiu, Bucureti, 2008; L. Dnescu, L. Popoviciu, Dreptul de proprietate privat n noul Cod, in Codul civil, adnotat de expertii Caselor de avocatura de top din Romania, Colectia Lex Dex, Saptamina Financiar; B. Florea, Civil Law. The Main Real Rights, Universul Juridic Press, Bucharest, 2011; V. Terzea, Servituile in dreptul civil romn, Editura C. H. Beck, Bucureti, 2006; M. Uliescu ( ccordonator), Noul Cod civil. Comentarii., ediia a II a, , revzuta si adaugita, Editura Universul Juridic, Bucureti, 2011; M. Uliescu, A. Gherghe, Drept civil. Drepturile reale principale, Editura Universul Juridic, Bucureti, 2011; O. Ungureanu, C. Munteanu, Tratat de drept civil. Bunurile. Drepturile reale principale, Editura Hamangiu, Bucureti, 2008; V. Stoica, Servitutea legal de trecere, Dreptul nr. 11/2003; V. Stoica, Drept civil. Drepturile reale principale, Editura C. H. Beck, Bucureti, 2009.

urbanistic nets. Also, it should be mentioned that, to realize activities in the mining or petroleum field or in the one of electricity, there are special provisions,52 establishing, for instance, the servitude of way on surface or the legal servitude of way. A new element in matter is represented by the regulation by the New Civil Code in art. 624 of the necessity state allowing the use or even the destruction of another persons good, in order to protect himself or another person from an imminent danger. In this situation, the owner of the used or destructed good has the right to demand compensation, only from the one who was saved. The New Civil Code specifies that the owner who has provoked or favoured the appearance of the danger can demand no compensation. Under the name of Special Rules, art. 625 of the code specifies that the legal borders regulated by art. 604 624 are completed by the stipulations of the special laws regarding the juridical system of certain goods, such as the fields and the constructions of any kind, the forests, the good of the national-cultural patrimony, the sacred goods of the religious cults and others such. We mention that, according to art. 59 of Law no. 71/2011 for applying Law no. 287/2009 regarding the Civil Code, the stipulations of art. 602- 625 (the ones regarding the legal limits) of the new Civil Code are not applied to the juridical situations born before its enforcement. Bibliography: Civil code 2011 to be understood by everybody, Adevarul Holding Publishing House, Bucharest, 2011; C. Brsan, Civil law. Main real laws, Third edition revised and complemented, Hamangiu Publishing House, Bucharest,

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2008 ; L. Dnescu, L. Popoviciu, Law of private property in the new Civil Code, in Civil Code, annotated by the experts of the Top Lawyers house in Romania, Collection Lex Dex, Financial Week.; B. Florea, Civil law. Main real rights, Juridical Universe Publishing House, Bucharest, 2011; V. Terzea, Servitudes in Romanian Civil Law, C. H. Beck Publishing House, Bucharest, 200; M. Uliescu (coordinator), New Civil Code. Commentaries, second edition, revised and added, Juridical Universe Publishing House, Bucharest, 2011; M. Uliescu, A. Gherghe, Civil law. Main real rights, Juridical Universe Publishing House, Bucharest, 2011; O. Ungureanu, C. Munteanu, Civil law treaty. Goods. Main real laws, Hamangiu Publishing House, Bucharest, 2008; V. Stoica, Legal right of way servitudes, Law no. 11/2003 V. Stoica, Civil law. Main real laws, C. H. Beck Publishing House, Bucharest, 2009;

Legea nr. 287/2009 privind Codul civil a fost publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 511 din 24 iulie 2009, a fost modificat prin Legea nr. 71/2011 si rectificat in Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 427 din 17 iunie 2011 i n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 489 din 8 iulie 2011. Legea nr. 287/2009 a fost republicat n temeiul art. 218 din Legea nr. 71/2011 pentru punerea n aplicare a Legii nr. 287/2009 privind Codul civil, publicat in Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 409 din 10 iunie 2011. 2 Conform art. 556, alin 1 din Noul Cod civil, dreptul de proprietate poate fi exercitat n limitele materiale ale obiectului su. Acestea sunt limitele corporale ale bunului care formeaz obiectul dreptului de proprietate, cu ngrdirile stabilite prin lege. Astfel, limitarea privete att corporabilitatea bunului, ct i voina legiuitorului. 3 Alineatul 2 al art. 556 din Noul Cod civil precizeaz posibilitatea limitrii exercitrii atributelor dreptului de proprietate prin efectul legii, iar alin. 3 al aceluiai articol menioneaz c proprietatea poate fi limitat i prin voina proprietarului, cu excepiile prevzute de lege. 4 Art. 44, alin .7 din Constituie : Dreptul de proprietate oblig la respectarea sarcinilor privind protecia mediului i asigurarea bunei vecinti, precum i la respectarea celorlalte sarcini care, potrivit legii sau obiceiului, revin proprietarului. 5 n acest sens a se vedea O. Ungureanu, C. Munteanu, Tratat de drept civil. Bunurile. Drepturile reale principale, Editura Hamangiu, Bucureti, 2008, p. 527; C. Brsan, Drept civil. Drepturi reale principale, Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 3/2011

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Ediia a a III-a revzut i adugit, Editura Hamangiu, Bucureti, 2008, p. 52; Pentru o tratare detaliat a acestei problematici se vedea V. Terzea, Servituile in dreptul civil romn, Editura C. H. Beck, Bucureti, 2006, p. 13- 206 6 A se vedea B. Florea, Drept civil. Drepturile reale principale, Editura Universul Juridic, Bucureti, 2011, p. 55 7 A se vedea B. Florea, op.cit. p. 56 8 A se vedea M. Uliescu ( ccordonator), Noul Cod civil. Comentarii., ediia a II a, revzut i adugit, Editura Universul Juridic, Bucureti, 2011, p. 83 9 A se vedea B. Florea, op.cit. p. 58 10 M. Uliescu, A. Gherghe, Drept civil. Drepturile reale principale, Editura Universul Juridic, Bucureti, 2011, p. 118 11 Art. 612, din Noul Cod civil dispune: Orice construcii, lucrri sau plantaii se pot face de ctre proprietarul fondului numai cu respectarea unei distane minime de 60 de cm fa de linia de hotar, dac nu se prevede altfel prin lege sau prin regulamentul de urbanism, astfel nct s nu se aduc atingere drepturilor proprietarului vecin. Orice derogare de la distana minim se poate face prin acordul prilor exprimat printr-un nscris autentic. 12 Art. 613, alin. 1 din Noul Cod civil prevede c n lipsa unor dispoziii cuprinse n lege, regulamentul de urbanism sau a obiceiului locului, arborii trebuie sdii la o distan de cel puin 2 metri de linia de hotar, cu excepia acelora mai mici de 2 metri, a plantaiilor i a gardurilor vii. 13 Conform art. 613. alin 2 n caz de nerespectare a distanei, proprietarul vecin este ndreptit s cear scoaterea ori, dup caz, tierea, la nlimea cuvenit, a arborilor, plantaiilor ori a gardurilor vii, pe cheltuiala proprietarului fondului pe care acestea sunt ridicate. De asemenea, alin. 3 al aceluiai articol prevede dreptul proprietarului fondului peste care se ntind rdcinile sau ramurile arborilor aparinnd proprietarului vecin de a le tia, precum i dreptul de a pstra fructele czute n mod natural pe fondul su. 14 A se vedea, V. Stoica, Drept civil. Drepturile reale principale, Editura C. H. Beck, Bucureti, 2009, p. 119 15 Pentru o analiz detaliat a se vedea V. Stoica, Servitutea legal de trecere, n Dreptul nr. 11/2003, pp. 53-65. 16 A se vedea B. Florea, op.cit, p. 59 17 V. Stoica, op.cit. p. 121. 18 A se vedea B. Florea, op.cit. p. 59 19 A se vedea M. Uliescu ( ccordonator), op. cit. p.85 20 L. Dnescu, L. Popoviciu, Dreptul de proprietate privat n noul Cod, in Codul civil, adnotat de expertii Caselor de avocatura de top din Romania, Colectia Lex Dex, Saptamina Financiar, p. 140 21 M. Uliescu, A. Gherghe, Drept civil. Drepturile reale principale, Editura Universul Juridic, Bucureti, 2011, p. 119 22 Codul civil 2011 pe intelesul tuturor, Editura Adevarul Holding, Bucuresti, 2011, p. 243; 23 Astfel, conform art. 621 din Noul Cod civil, alin 1 Proprietarul este obligat s permit trecerea prin fondul su a reelelor edilitare ce deservesc fonduri nvecinate sau din aceeai zon de natura conductelor de ap, gaz sau altele asemenea, a canalelor i a cablurilor electrice, subterane ori aeriene, dup caz, precum i a oricror alte instalaii sau materiale cu acelai scop. 24 Potrivit art. 622, din Noul Cod civil, alin 1. de asemenea, proprietarul este obligat s permit folosirea fondului su pentru efectuarea unor lucrri necesare fondului nvecinat, precum i accesul vecinului pe terenul su pentru tierea crengilor i culegerea fructelor, n schimbul unei despgubiri, dac este cazul. 25 n acest sens art. 623 , alin 1 din Noul Cod civil prevede c proprietarul unui fond nu poate mpiedica accesul altuia pentru a redobndi posesia unui bun al su, ajuns ntmpltor pe fondul respectiv, dac a fost ntiinat n prealabil, iar alin 2 al aceluiai articol precizeaz c n toate cazurile, proprietarul fondului are dreptul la o just despgubire pentru prejudiciile ocazionate de reintrarea n posesie, precum i pentru cele pe care bunul le-a cauzat fondului. 26 A se vedea, n acest sens, urmtoarele acte normative: Legea nr. 85 din 18 martie 2003 a minelor, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 197 din 27 martie 2003 , Legea nr. 238 din 7 iunie 2004 a petrolului i Legea nr. 13 din 9 ianuarie 2007 a energiei electrice, publicat n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 51 din 15 ianuarie 2007, cu modificrile i completrile intervenite ulterior. 27 Law no. 287/2009 concerning Civil Code has been published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 511 from 24 July 2009, has been modified by Law no. 71/2011 and rectified in the Official Gazette of Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 3/2011

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Romania, Part I, no. 427 from 17 June 2011 and in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 489 from 8 July 2011. Law no. 287/2009 has been republished based on art. 218 from Law no. 71/2011 to apply the Law no. 287/2009 concerning Civil Code, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 409 from 10 June 2011. 28 According to art. 556, paragraph 1 of the New Civil Code, the property right may be exerted in the material limits of its object. These are the corporal limits of the good forming the object of the property right, with the borders established by the law. Thus, the limitation regards both the good corporal feature and the legislators will. 29 Paragraph 2 of art. 556 of the New Civil Code specifies the possibility to limit the exertion of the attributes of the property right by the law effect, and paragraph 3 of the same article mentions that the property may be also limited by the owners will, except for the situations stipulated by the law. 30 Art. 44, paragraph 7 of the Constitution: The property right forces to respect the targets regarding the environmental protection and the providing of a good neighbourhood, and also the respecting of other targets that, according to the law or the custom, belong to the owner. 31 To this extent, to be seen O. Ungureanu, C. Munteanu, Civil law treaty. Goods. Main real laws, Hamangiu Publishing House, Bucharest, 2008, p. 527; C. Brsan, Civil law. Main real laws, Third edition revised and complemented, Hamangiu Publishing House, Bucharest, 2008, p. 52; For a detailed treaty of this problem, to be seen V. Terzea, Servitudes in Romanian Civil Law, C. H. Beck Publishing House, Bucharest, 2006, p. 13- 206 32 See, B. Florea, Civil Law. The Main Real Rights, Universul Juridic Press, Bucharest, 2011, p. 55 33 See, B. Florea, op. cit. p. 56 34 To be seen M. Uliescu (coordinator), New Civil Code. Commentaries, second edition, revised and added, Juridical Universe Publishing House, Bucharest, 2011, p. 83 35 See, B. Florea, op. cit. p. 58 36 M. Uliescu, A. Gherghe, Civil law. Main real rights, Juridical Universe Publishing House, Bucharest, 2011; 37 Art. 612, of the New Civil Code states: Any construction, work or plantation may be made by the fund owner only by respecting a minimum distance of 60 cm to the border line, unless it is differently stipulated by the law or by the urbanism regulation, so that we do not reach the neighbouring owners rights. Any derogation from the minimum distance may be made by the agreement of the parties expressed in an authentic paper. 38 Art. 613, paragraph 1 of the New Civil Code stipulates that, in the absence of certain stipulations contained in the law, the urbanism regulation or the one of the local custom, the trees should be planted at the distance of at least 2 metres from the border line, except for the ones smaller than 2 metres, for the plantations and the hedges. 39 According to art. 613. paragraph 2 in case of non-respecting the distance, the neighbouring owner has the right to require the taking out or, where applicable, the cutting, at the appropriate height, of the trees, of the plantations or of the hedges, on the support of the owner of the fund where they are raised. Also, paragraph 3 of the same article stipulates the right of the owner of the fund where there are lied the roots or the branches of the trees belonging to the neighbouring owner to cut them, and also to keep the fruits naturally fallen down on his fund. 40 To be seen, V. Stoica, Civil law. Main real laws, C. H. Beck Publishing House, Bucharest, 2009, p. 119 41 For a detailed analysis, to be seen V. Stoica, Legal right of way servitudes, in Law no. 11/2003, p. 53-65 42 To be seen B. Florea,op.cit. p. 59 43 V. Stoica, op.cit. p. 121 44 B. Florea, op. cit. p. 59 45 To be seen M. Uliescu (coordinator), op. cit. , p. 85 46 L. Dnescu, L. Popoviciu, Law of private property in the new Civil Code, in Civil Code, annotated by the experts of the Top Lawyers house in Romania, Collection Lex Dex, Financial Week., p. 140 47 M. Uliescu, A. Gherghe, Civil law. Main real rights, Juridical Universe Publishing House, Bucharest, 2011, p. 119 48 Civil code 2011 to be understood by everybody, Adevarul Holding Publishing House, Bucharest, 2011, p. 243 Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 3/2011

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So, according to art. 621 from the New Civil Code, paragraph 1 The owner compels to allow the passage by his grounds of the urbanistic nets servicing adjacent grounds or from the same area of the type of water, gas or other similar pumps, of the channels and or the electrical cables, underground of aerial, depending on case, as well to any other installations or materials with the same purpose. 50 According to art. 622, from the New Civil Code, paragraph 1. also, the owner is obliged to allow the usage of his grounds to realize some works which are necessary to some activities, as well as the access of the neighbor on this grounds or for cutting branches and collecting fruits, in exchange of some indemnifications, it adequate. 51 To this extent art. 623, paragraph from the New Civil Code indicates that the owner of a ground cannot present the access of another to re-obtain the possessions of his property, arrived by change on those grounds, in case it has been announced previously, and paragraph 2 of the same article indicates that, in all cases, the owner of the grounds has the right to a correspondent indemnification for prejudices caused by re-entering in possession, as well as for the ones that the property caused the grounds. 52 To this extent, to be seen the following normative documents: Law no. 85 from 18th March 2003 of mines, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 197 from 27th March 2003 , Law no. 238 from 7th June 2004 of the petroleum and Law no. 13 from 9th January 2007 of the electricity, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 51 from 15th January 2007, with the modifications and completions realized ulterior .

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