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1. (20%) Briefly describe the seven layers in OSI model.

(Hint: Layer names

and functions)

Application (Layer 7) This layer supports application and end-user

Presentation (Layer 6) This layer provides independence from
differences in data representation by
translating from application to network format,
and vice versa
Session (Layer 5) This layer establishes, manages and terminates
connections between applications
Transport (Layer 4) This layer provides transparent transfer of data
between end systems, or hosts, and is
responsible for end-to-end error recovery
and flow control
Network(Layer 3) This layer
provides switching and routing technologies,
creating logical paths, known as virtual
circuits, for transmitting data from node to
Data Link(Layer 2) At this layer, data packets are encoded and
decoded into bits
Physical(Layer 1) This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical
impulse, light or radio signal -- through
the network at the electrical and mechanical

2. (20%) Answer the following question briefly.

(a) (10%) How many bites are in IPv4, IPv6 and MAC addresses,

IPv4 32bits
IPv6 264bits
Mac 48bit

(b) (10%) How to differentiate class A, B, C, D IP address.

IP Address consists of 32 Bits, which means it's 4 bytes long. The first octec (first 8 Bits or
first byte) of an IP Address is enough for us to determine the Class to which it belongs. And,
depending on the Class to which the IP Address belongs, we can determine which portion of the
IP Address is the Network ID and which is the Node ID.

3. (20%) Compare the circuit switching and packet switching

Networks Technology
Circuit switch A circuit switching network is one that
establishes a circuit (or channel) between
nodes and terminals before the users may
communicate, as if the nodes were physically
connected with an electrical circuit.
Packet switch Packet switching is a digital network
communications method that groups all
transmitted data, irrespective of content, type,
or structure into suitably-sized blocks, called
packets. The network over which packets are
transmitted is a shared network which routes
each packet independently from all others and
allocates transmission resources as needed

4. (40%, 課本
HW#20) Use your web browser to access the IETF web page (currently at and
learn the Interet Standards process documented in RFC 2026.

a. What are the different types of Requests for Comments (RFC)s? (Hint: The
status ofInternet protocol and service specifications is summarized periodically in
an RFC entitled Internet Official Protocol Standards.)

Some RFCs document Internet Standards. These RFCs form the 'STD' subseries of the RFC
Some RFCs standardize the results of community deliberations about statements of principle
or conclusions about what is the best way to perform some operations or IETF process function.
These RFC form the BCP (Best Current Practices) subseries.
Not all specifications of protocols or services for the Internet should or will become Internet
Standards or BCPs. Such non-standards track specifications are not subject to the rules for
Internet standardization. Non-standards track specifications may be published directly as
"Experimental" or "Informational" RFCs at the discretion of the RFC Editor in consultation with
the IES

b. What is an Internet Draft?

During the development of a specification, draft versions of the document are made available
for informal review and comment by placing them in the IETF's "Internet-Drafts" directory,
which is replicated on a number of Internet hosts. This makes an evolving working document
readily available to a wide audience, facilitating the process of review and revision.

c. What are the difference among Proposed Standard, Draft Standard, and Standard?

Proposed Standard specification is the entry level for the IETF standards track. A Proposed
Standard specification is generally stable, has resolved known design choices, is believed to be
well-understood, has received significant community review, and appears to enjoy enough
community interest to be considered valuable. However, further experience might result in a
change or even retraction of the specification before it advances.
A specification from which at least two independent and interoperable implementations from
different code bases have been developed, and for which sufficient successful operational
experience has been obtained, may be elevated to the "Draft Standard" level. Elevation to Draft
Standard is a major advance in status, indicating a strong belief that the specification is mature
and will be useful. A Draft Standard may still require additional or more widespread field
A specification for which significant implementation and successful operational experience
has been obtained may be elevated to the Internet Standard level. An Internet Standard is
characterized by a high degree of technical maturity and by a generally held belief that the
specified protocol or service provides significant benefit to the Internet community.

d. Which group in the IETF approves a certain specification for standards‐track?

A "standards action" -- entering a particular specification into, advancing it within, or

removing it from, the standards track -- must be approved by the the Internet Engineering Steering
Group (IESG).