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Lab 6

Name__________________________________ Last First GROUNDWATER

In Math Problems, show all work. Introdu tion! In man" #$a es% #eo#$e obtain t&eir 'ater (rom t&e )round! *&e tota$ )round 'ater reser+oir on Eart& is some ,-./06 1m3% '&i & (ar e2 eeds t&e a#a it" o( a$$ t&e 'or$d3s ri+ers and $a1es ombined! *&is )round 'ater is $ar)e$" on(ined to t&e sma$$ s#a es bet'een )rains o( soi$ or in t&e sma$$ ra 1s in t&e ro 1s! Near t&e sur(a e t&ese s#a es are on$" #art$" (i$$ed 'it& 'ater and #art$" (i$$ed 'it& air! *&is 4one is 1no'n as t&e +adose 4one or t&e 4one o( aeration! 5e$o' a $e+e$ 1no'n as t&e 'ater tab$e% a$$ t&e #ore s#a es are (i$$ed 'it& 'ater! 6orosit" is t&e #er enta)e o( t&e tota$ ro 1 +o$ume t&at an be o u#ied b" 'ater! *&us i( a o$umn o( ro 1 . meter &i)& &as a #orosit" o( P7!4 t&at means t&at i( a$$ t&e 'ater 'ere remo+ed it 'ou$d be a o$umn !4 m &i)&! Genera$$"% t&e #orosit" o( soi$s is about 8/94/: and de reases 'it& de#t& in t&e soi$ or eart&; A ro 1 (i$$ed to its #orosit" is <ust $i1e a soa1ed s#on)e! =&en t&e s#on)e is a$$o'ed to dri#% it 'i$$ not )i+e u# a$$ its 'ater! *&e #er enta)e o( 'ater t&at an dri# o(( b" t&e a tion o( )ra+it" is 1no'n as t&e s#e i(i "ie$d% Sy! Genera$$" t&e s#e i(i "ie$d o( ro 1 and soi$ is about ./98/:! =&en t&e soi$ or ro 1 &as dri##ed a$$ it an t&e amount o( 'ater remainin) is 1no'n as t&e (ie$d a#a it"! *&is 'ater is &e$d b" a#i$$ar" a tion% '&i & in reases as )rain si4e de reases! At t&e (ie$d a#a it" #$ant roots an sti$$ e2tra t some o( t&e remainin) 'ater! 6$ants an e2tra t )round 'ater unti$ it rea &es a #oint 1no'n as t&e 'i$tin) #oint! For most soi$s e2 e#t t&e (inest $a"s% 'ater +o$ume #er enta)e at t&e 'i$tin) #oint is some'&at $ess t&an ./:! In a on(ined a>ui(er 'ater annot dri# o(( so t&e a+ai$ab$e 'ater is due to t&e om#ressibi$it" o( t&e ro 1 and 'ater $a"er% and is mu & $ess t&an t&e s#e i(i "ie$d! *&e re$e+ant >uantit" is t&en t&e Storati+it"% S% or t&e +o$ume o( 'ater e2tra ted (rom an a>ui(er #er unit area and unit $o'erin) o( t&e &ead or t&e 'ater tab$e! S is t"#i a$$" ./93 and ./95 (or a on(ined a>ui(er but e>ua$s s#e i(i "ie$d% S" (or an un on(ined a>ui(er! =&en 'ater ($o's t&rou)& t&e )round% t&e soi$ or ro 1 is #ermeab$e! ?ost soi$s -e2 e#t (ine $a"s0 and some ro 1s su & as sandstone are #ermeab$e to some de)ree! @r"sta$$ine ro 1s su & as )ranite are +irtua$$" im#ermeab$e un$ess ridd$ed 'it& <oints and ra 1s! 6ermeab$e ro 1s are a$$ed a>ui(ers '&i$e im#ermeab$e ro 1s are a$$ed a>uitards! 6ermeab$e soi$s and ro 1s &a+e a &i)& &"drau$i ondu ti+it"% K! *&e &"drau$i ondu ti+it" o( di((erent ro 1s and soi$s is &i)&$" +ariab$e! In )enera$% t&e oarser t&e )rains and t&e $ar)er t&e ra 1s in t&e ro 1s t&e $ar)er t&e +a$ue o( K% '&i & an ran)e (rom ./9. or &i)&er in oarse )ra+e$ to $ess t&an ./ 9A in (ine $a"s and )ranite! ?an" sedimentar" ro 1s o(ten are $a"ered in su & a manner t&at a>ui(ers are on(ined bet'een im#ermeab$e ro 1 $a"ers! Su & $a"ers are 1no'n as on(ined a>ui(ers! Buite o(ten it is ne essar" to dri$$ a 'e$$ t&rou)& an im#ermeab$e $a"er to rea & t&e a>ui(er! On o asion t&e #ressure or &ead in t&e a>ui(er is so $ar)e t&at its 'ater 'i$$ rise and ($o' out on t&e sur(a e on e t&e im#ermeab$e $a"er &as been #enetrated! *&is is 1no'n as an artesian 'e$$! *&e basi $a' o( )round 'ater ($o' is Dar "3s e>uation% q h =- K A x

'&ere% q is t&e dis &ar)e or ($o' rate A is t&e ross se tiona$ area K is t&e &"drau$i ondu ti+it" h is t&e &ead or t&e &ei)&t o( t&e (ree 'ater tab$e! Dar "3s e>uation states t&at t&e rate o( 'ater ($o' is #ro#ortiona$ to t&e s$o#e o( t&e 'ater tab$e% and 'ater ($o's (rom #oints '&ere t&e 'ater tab$e is &i)&er to '&ere it is $o'er! =ater 'i$$ )enera$$" ($o' do'ns$o#e% but in ases '&ere 'ater is on(ined it ma" a tua$$" ($o' u#'ards! *&e (orm o( Dar "3s e>uation is identi a$ to t&e (orm o( t&e $assi a$ &eat ondu tion e>uation% and man" o( its so$utions &a+e been borro'ed dire t$" (rom so$utions to &eat ondu tion #rob$ems! *&e ($o' #er unit 'idt& in a on(ined a>ui(er o( t&i 1ness% H is% q h = - KH L x 5e ause t&e #rodu t% KH a##ears so o(ten% it is (re>uent$" ombined into a sin)$e term% TKH% or transmissibility! -S#e$$in) t&is 'ord orre t$" )i+es an e2tra 8/: on &"dro$o)" e2ams!0 T is t&e +o$ume dis &ar)e #er unit 'idt& o( a>ui(er '&en t&e s$o#e o( t&e &ead% hCx7.! *&e s#eed o( t&e mo+in) 'ater in t&e )round (or a )i+en dis &ar)e +aries in+erse$" 'it& t&e #orosit"! Sin e t&e +o$ume o( )round 'ater dV' e>ua$s t&e +o$ume o( ro 1 times t&e #orosit"% or% PdV 'e &a+e a(ter di+idin) b" t&e time inter+a$% dt% P So$+in) (or t&e +e$o it"% v "ie$ds% v= q PA dV = PAv = q dt

=&en 'ater is dra'n (rom t&e )round it de#resses t&e 'ater tab$e! *&e amount o( 'ater dD' t&at an be obtained is t&e +o$ume o( ro 1 or soi$% dV mu$ti#$ied b" t&e storati+it"% S! On e a)ain% di+idin) b" t&e time inter+a$ and notin) t&at no' dV7Abasedh% 'e )et%

dh q =dt SAbase
5e ause bot& SE. and PE.% 'ater mo+es (aster t&rou)& t&e )round and t&e 'ater tab$e &an)es some'&at (aster t&an mi)&t be e2#e ted!


Lab 6

Name__________________________________ Last First GROUNDWATER

In Math Problems, show all work. .! @a$ u$ate t&e &"drau$i ondu ti+it"% K (or an un on(ined a>ui(er 'it& bottom at h 7 / '&ere t'o #ie4ometers 4/ meters a#art re ord &eads -or 'ater tab$e &ei)&ts0% h.75/ m and h8 7 35 m! *&e dis &ar)e% qCL 7 /!/. m3s9.Cm is uni(orm and ($o's (rom h. to h8!

K 7 _______ 8! A on(ined a>ui(er 5/ m t&i 1 'it& &"drau$i ondu ti+it"% K 7 ./93 and &ead 'it& s$o#e hCx 7 /!. em#ties into a ri+er . 1m $on)! Find t&e ontribution o( )round 'ater ($o' into t&e ri+er!

q5ase 7 ________ m3 s9. 3! Find t&e tota$ and a+ai$ab$e +o$ume o( 'ater -to a 'e$$0 in an a>ui(er .// m t&i 1 'it& an area o( . 1m 8 i( #orosit"% P 7 /!4 and s#e i(i "ie$d% Sy 7 /!.5!

Vtot 7 _______ m3

VA+ai$ 7 _______ m3

4! @a$ u$ate &o' $on) 'ater in t&e a>ui(er o( #rob$em 3 'ou$d $ast i( it is not re#$enis&ed and i( it is #um#ed at t&e rate% q 7 /!/. m3 s9.

dt 7 __________ s 5! I( 8 m o( rain (a$$s but /!, m runs o(( on t&e sur(a e% a$ u$ate t&e rise o( t&e 'ater tab$e i( t&e s#e i(i "ie$d% Sy 7 /!8 and t&e soi$ 'as at (ie$d a#a it"!

z 7 ________ m
6! Find t&e rate o( &an)e o( &ei)&t o( t&e 'ater tab$e% hCt% in a re tan)u$ar area 2 7 8// m $on) and " 7 .// m 'ide o( an un on(ined a>ui(er 'it& bottom at h 7 / i( t&e 'ater tab$e &as a &ei)&t H 7 35 m on t&e $e(t side and H 7 8/ m on t&e ri)&t and t&e s$o#e o( t&e 'ater tab$e hCx 7 9!85 on t&e $e(t and hCx 7 9!./ on t&e ri)&t! Assume t&e #orosit" is P 7 /!85% s#e i(i "ie$d% S" 7 /!.5 and &"drau$i ondu ti+it"% K 7 ./94! *o do t&is "ou must a$ u$ate t&e dis &ar)e at t&e $e(t -in($o'0 and ri)&t -out($o'0 sides o( t&e a>ui(er% ta1e t&e di((eren e to (ind t&e +o$ume a umu$ation rate and di+ide b" t&e sur(a e area o( t&e re)ion!

hCt 7 ___________ m s9. In t&is #rob$em% t&e 'idt&% y o( t&e re)ion is irre$e+ant! E2#$ain!

F! Find t&e s#eed o( 'ater mo+in) t&rou)& an a>ui(er 'it& K 7 ./95 and #orosit"% P 7 /!4 i( t&e s$o#e o( t&e 'ater tab$e% hCx 7 .!

v 7 _________ m s9. ,! Obser+ations s&o' t&at t&e tota$ $en)t& o( a$$ tributaries is re$ated to t&e 'aters&ed3s area b"%

L = 1.7 A!."#
'&ere t&e $en)t& is in 1m and t&e area in 1m8! I( t&e same un on(ined a>ui(er as in 6rob$em F em#ties into a$$ t&e tributaries in an area% A 7 .// 1m8% (ind t&e tota$ $en)t& o( t&e tributaries% and t&e tota$ base ($o' t&at 'i$$ resu$t! Assume t&e a>ui(er is H 7 35 m t&i 1! L 7 ______

q5ase 7 ________ m3 s9.