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I. Reading Digest 1: STORYTELLING Grammar Digest 1: Expressing Likes and Dislikes, Rejoinder Phrases and Hedges, Gerunds as Subjects and Objects, Want and Need

II. Reading Digest 2: A SENSE OF ADVENTURE Grammar Digest 2: Quantity Classifiers with Food Items, Direct and Indirect Objects, For versus To Tutor-assessed Task 1 III. Reading Digest 3: CHANGES Grammar Digest 3: Articles: Definite, Indefinite and , Articles with Geographical and Institutional Terms IV. Reading Digest 4: TEENAGE CULTS Grammar Digest 4: The Passive, Get-passive Tutor-assessed Task 2 V. Reading Digest 5: ANIMALS AND US Grammar Digest 5: Modals of Probability and Possibility: Could, May, Might, Must, Noun Complements. That Clauses Tutor-assessed Task 3 VI. Reading Digest 6: CRIME AND SOCIETY Grammar Digest 6: Participles as Adjectives, Conditionals: Future and Hypothetical VII. Reading Digest 7: BEYOND BELIEF Grammar Digest 7: Question Review, Emphatic Structures Tutor-assessed Task 4

SCOPUL MODULULUI DE CURS: Acest modul urmrete consolidarea i dezvoltarea cunotinelor de limb englez a cursanilor ID din anul II Psihologie prin exersarea deprinderilor de limb specifice, relevante pentru viitoarea lor profesiune. OBIECTIVE OPERATIONALE: Consolidarea, aprofundarea i dezvoltarea deprinderilor generale de limb englez mbuntirea capacitii studenilor de a-i edita i aprecia propriile rezultate. EVALUAREA ACTIVITII: Temele de la sfritul unitilor II, IV, V, VII semnalate prin denumirea "Tutor-assessed Task i prin simbolul de mai jos

trebuie trimise tutorilor prin pota clasic sau electronic la termenele anunate n timpul tutorialelor. n cazul n care studenii folosesc pota electronic, mesajele vor fi trimise concomitent ambilor tutori. Mesajul este considerat recepionat n momentul n care studenii primesc confirmare de primire de la tutori. Studenii vor avea grij s menioneze n aceste mesaje (n 'subject line' i n interiorul mesajului) toate elementele de identificare necesare (nume i prenume, an, grup, subgrup). Media obinut din notele de la aceste teme va constitui 30% din nota la examenul final.



Exercise 1.1 All around the world small children are told stories at bedtime. What stories were you told? What were your favourites? LANGUAGE STUDY Past tenses Exercise 1.2
A. Read the beginning of the tale of Little Red Riding Hood and find examples of these past tenses in the text:

1 the past simple tense, e.g. She went... . 2 the past continuous tense, e.g. She was going... . 3 the past perfect tense, e.g. She had gone... .

Once upon a time there was a girl called Little Red Riding Hood who lived with her
mother. Little Red Riding Hood's grandmother had invited her to her cottage, so one fine day she set off to visit her. The little girl got ready, waved goodbye to her mother and promised to be careful. On her arm she carried a basket which contained a cake her mother had baked specially. It was a lovely spring morning, the sun was shining and the birds were singing, happy that the winter was over. Even though Little Red Riding Hood's mother had told her to follow the path through the fields, the naughty child decided to take a short cut through a wood. As she went deeper and deeper into it, the cold and darkness frightened her. She was making her way along the narrow path when she heard a noise. All of a sudden a big, fierce-looking wolf jumped out from behind a bush and came towards her ...
B. Put the verbs in this continuation of the story of Little Red Riding Hood into the most suitable past tense.

... licking his lips in anticipation of a tasty meal. He (1) ..................... (ask) her where she (2) ..................... (go). The girl, who never (3) ..................... (see) a wolf before, (4) ..................... (tell) him all about her grandmother and where she (5) ..................... (live). Just as he (6) ..................... (be) about to attack, he (7) ..................... (hear) two woodcutters approaching and (8) ..................... (hurry) off saying he (9) ..................... (forget) an important meeting on the other side of the forest. While the little girl slowly (10) ..................... (make) her way along the path, the wolf (11) ..................... (rush) through the forest towards the old lady's cottage. The cottage door (12) ..................... (be) locked so the wolf (13) ..................... (pretend) to be Little Red Riding Hood by copying her voice. Granny (14) ..................... (open) the door to let her in and ...



USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 1.3

A. Complete the sentences with a word or expression based on sleep.

1 Do you know the story of ..................... Beauty? 2 I feel ..................... . It's bedtime. 3 The driver fell ..................... as he was driving along. 4 The doctor gave her some ..................... to help her sleep. 5 She is a light . . The slightest noise wakes her up. 6 Take a if you go camping. 7 Since the baby was born, they have had a lot of .. nights.
B. Complete the story using just one word for each gap. Here are ten of the words. Supply the other ten.

needless bright

accordingly been

popular from

up it

on so

A lot of people are familiar with the story of Brave Gelert, the dog that faithfully defended the prince's baby son, but which was then killed through a ..................... (1) misunderstanding. However, only a ..................... (2) people know that the story is really a pack of lies. Let me explain. About a hundred or ..................... (3) years ago there was a hotel owner in Wales who was fed ..................... (4) with business being so bad. His hotel was stuck in the middle of nowhere and ..................... (5) anyone came to stay. Then, one day, he had a ....................: (6) idea. A famous prince called Llewellyn ..................... (7) lived in the area during the Middle Ages and he had been fond of dogs. This is hardly ..................... (8) as hunting was extremely ..................... (9) at that time. So ................ (10) he did was to invent the story of the brave and faithful Gelert and how he had ..................... (11) killed by his ungrateful master. Of course, people ..................... (12) be far more likely to believe the story if there was ..................... (13) something they could see. ..................... (14), one day, the hotel keeper went to the top of a high hill and built a sort of monument from the stones he found lying around. A friend of ..................... (15), who was, incidentally, an accountant, helped him to construct ..................... (16). The legend' soon caught ..................... (17) and developed a life of its own. People came ........:............ (18) far and wide to see the spot where ..................... (19) hound was buried. ..................... (20) to say, business became very good for the hotel owner!

VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs Exercise 1.4

A. Match the phrasal verbs with their definitions.

A put up with B take in C find out D look after E set off F turn down

1 find by chance 2 stop/discourage from doing something 3 criticize 4 discover information/facts 5 have relationship with someone 6 give hospitality/shelter


G tell off H fall for I come across J get on with K turn up L put off

7 endure/tolerate 8 take care of 9 refuse/reject 10 love/be attracted to someone 11 leave on a journey 12 arrive

B. Complete the following sentences using one of the phrasal verbs above.

1 They went to the bus station to ..................... the time of the next bus to Edinburgh. 2 When they were cleaning out the attic, they ............... their grandmother's old school books. 3 The teacher .................... the children ..................... for not doing their homework. 4 A farmer ..................... the travellers ..................... during the snow storm and gave them a bed for the night. S She did not ..................... her new boss so she got another job. 6 Please could you make less noise. It's ..................... me ..................... my work. 7 While she was studying in England, she ......... her landlady's son and they later got married. 8 I can't ..................... your childish behaviour any longer. I'm leaving. 9 He was ..................... for the job because of his dirty appearance and long hair. 10 A babysitter ..................... the kids while they went to the cinema. 11 They finally .................... at the party at twelve o'clock just as everybody else was leaving. 12 After she had finished loading the car, she ..................... on her holiday.

Time expressions Exercise 1.5

Complete the sentences using one of the time expressions in the box.

whenever at the end

before until for eventually

during afterwards previously in the meantime in the end while

1. The phone rang ..................... he was in the bath. 2. Mary had a stomach-ache ..................... the night. 3. Everybody got up and left ..................... of the film. 4. We queued for the tickets ..................... two hours. 5. She told us she had ..................... lived in Paris. 6. The bus ..................... arrived half an hour late. 7. ..................... I decide to play tennis it always seems to rain. 8. The plane's arriving in an hour. ..................... , let's have a cup of tea. 9. She insisted on staying ..................... the film ended even though it was awful. 10. Why don't we go to the park? ..................... we can visit Lucy. 11. We couldn't get a taxi and we had decided to walk but ..................... someone gave us a lift. 12. Just ..................... leaving work, an important customer arrived. READING Exercise 1.6
A. Read the story of Dick Whittington and complete the empty spaces by using one of the words or expressions below.



however once nevertheless as afterwards

unfortunately following one day finally once upon a time eventually meanwhile whenever when

each time on so

(1) ..................... there was a poor orphan called Dick Whittington. The boy had heard stories about the great city of London where the streets were paved with gold. Although London was a long way away from his tiny village, he wasn't put off from making a bundle of his few possessions and setting off to seek his fortune. (2) ..................... Dick had arrived, he soon realized that work and money were no easier to come by than in the country. At every shop and market stall he came across, he asked for work but the answer was always no. (3) ..................... he was turned down, his bundle seemed to grow a little heavier. (4) ..................... night fell, he grew tired and hungry. While he was walking through the streets, he came across the doorway of a fine house which looked like a good place to sleep. Having nowhere else to go, he lay down using his precious bundle as a pillow. The house belonged to a rich merchant called Mr. Fitzwarren who, being a kind gentleman, took pity on the boy. He took him in and fed him. (5) ..................... hearing Dick's story, Mr. Fitzwarren told him that he would give him a job. The boy was given a place to sleep in the attic but was greatly disturbed by the rats and mice that lived there too. (6) ....................., with his last penny, Dick bought a cat which soon chased the rats and mice away. It became his greatest friend. Dick was extremely grateful to Mr. Fitzwarren and fell for his lovely daughter, Alice. Dick got on well with everybody. (7) ....................., his life was made a misery by the cook, who always told him off (8) ..................... he did anything wrong. (9) ....................., his master called all the servants together to tell them that he was going to send a ship off on a long trading voyage. He then asked whether anyone had anything they wished to send on the voyage which could be sold or bartered. Young Dick thought about this a lot and (10) ....................., after much heart searching, decided to send his beloved cat. (11) ..................... , he felt sad and lonely and the cook's treatment of him became more and more cruel. (12) ..................... he couldn't put up with it any longer and decided to run away. (13) ....................., as he reached the edge of the city, he heard the bells of a nearby church which seemed to be telling him to turn back from his journey. What is more, the bells told him that he would become Lord Mayor of London, not just once but three times. He decided to obey the message and returned home before anyone had noticed that he was missing. (14) ....................., Mr Fitzwarren"s ship had arrived in port where no European had ever been before. The captain was invited to the palace of the king of this strange country for a feast in his honour. When he got there, he was taken to a dining room where there was a magnificent meal waiting. The moment they sat down to eat, hundreds of rats rushed in and ate the food in front of their eyes. The king was embarrassed and apologized to his guest who told him that what he needed was a cat. The monarch had no idea what a cat was, so the sailor ordered Dick's cat to be sent ashore. It was the first time anyone had ever seen one and the king himself was even a little afraid of the creature. However, (15) ..................... he saw how it dealt with the rats, he was delighted. Within a couple of days, the entire palace had been cleared of them. The king was so pleased that he gave the captain gold and silver in return for the cat. (16) ....................., on the ship's return to England, the captain handed over the money and jewels he had got and Dick became extremely rich (17) ..................... the sale of his pet. He continued to work for Mr Fitzwarren and he eventually married Alice. His fortune grew and, as the bells had promised, he became Lord Mayor of London. He never forgot what it had



been like to be poor and he became famous for the good work he did to help the poor and orphans.
B. Read the summary of a film and say if statements 1-7 are true or false. If they are false, say why.

1 Callahan's nickname is Dirty Harry. 2 The killer was above the woman in the pool. 3 The killer's real name is Scorpio.

4 Scorpio plays a lot of sport. 5 Scorpio kills four people. 6 Scorpio and Callahan meet twice. 7 Callahan always follows the law.

Dirty Harry
This is a thriller set in San Francisco and stars Clint Eastwood as inspector Harry Callahan. He is known as Dirty Harry because he gets all the tough cases and uses his own special methods. The film opens with a young woman swimming in a pool on the top of a tall building. A gunman shoots and kills her from the top of a nearby skyscraper. Dirty Harry is given the case and finds a note from the killer, demanding $100,000. The killer, who calls himself Scorpio, threatens to kill again unless he receives the money. The mayor wants to pay the money but Callahan disagrees. As the money is not paid, Scorpio kills a young black boy. He escapes a trap set by Callahan and kidnaps a little girl. This time he asks for $200,000. Callahan almost manages to trap Scorpio and wounds him with a knife. Later on, he tracks him to a football stadium and forces Scorpio to tell him where the girl is. The girl is found but she is dead. However, Scorpio is released because of the way Callahan got his confession. Even though the case is closed, Callahan tracks Scorpio waiting for his next move. Scorpio then hijacks a school bus full of young children. After an exciting battle, the inspector kills the criminal. It is an exciting and sometimes brutal film.



FOCUS 1 Expressing Similarity examples Affirmative sentences I like fruit. Robert likes fruit. I like fruit and Robert does too. explanations These sentences express similarity. In each example, the subjects are different (Robert and I), but everything else expresses similarity between us.

Negative sentences Be careful with subject verb agreement. I dont eat meat. Robert doesnt eat meat. I dont eat meat and Robert doesnt either. Inverted forms Affirmative sentences I like dancing. Dora likes dancing. Robert likes dancing. I like dancing and Dora likes too. I like dancing and so does Dora. I like dancing and so do Dora and Robert. Negative sentences Neither is a negative word; therefore, do not I dont like hard rock and Ben doesnt either. use not with the second verb. I dont like hard rock and neither does Ben. I dont like hard rock and neither do Ben and Robert. When the verbs are the same but the subjects are different, do not repeat the second verb; instead, do one of the following: Use do. a) I speak French and so does my sister. Use an auxiliary verb if the first verb is an b) I can speak French and so can he. auxiliary verb. c) I have seen it and so have you. Use be if the first verb is be. d) I am happy and so is she. NOTE: The second verb takes the same tense as the first verb.



Exercise 1.1 Match the first half of the sentences in Column A with the second half in Column B. Draw an arrow to show the connection. The first one has been done for you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. She is late We saw it last night Theyve never eaten there Shell call you tomorrow Barbara was looking sad The children have seen that movie You didnt do the right thing I cant play tennis Her bike wasnt cheap Scott doesnt have any money The secretary speaks Spanish a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. and so have I. and Peter doesnt either. and my brother cant either. and so is her boyfriend. and we do too. and her friend was too. and so will I. and neither do we. and we havent either. and they did too. and neither was her car.

1.d . Exercise 1.2 The students in Normas class have a lot in common. Complete the following sentences about them, using too or either and the appropriate form of do. Example: Her son doesnt eat vegetables, and my daughter doesnt either. 1. Ramon studies Spanish, and Maria ________________. 2. I dont understand Hungarian, and my friends ________________. 3. Ann doesnt like liver, and her sister ________________. 4. Cheryl loves animals, and her children ________________. 5. Ella loves the English language, and my friends ________________. 6. Maria doesnt like to write in English, and Doris ________________. 7. Kathy listens to classical music, and I ________________. 8. She doesnt listen to rock and roll, and I ________________. 9. I like the teachers new haircut, and most of the students ________________. 10. Robert doesnt like it, and David ________________.

FOCUS 2 REJOINDER PHRASES (SO DO I, NEITHER SO I, I DO TOO, I DONT EITHER examples explanations Rejoinder phrases (So do I, Neither so I, I do too, I dont either) are very common in conversation. We use them when we want to show agreement with somebody elses opinions or ideas. Neither do I and so do I emphasise the speakers feelings about the topic. I do too and I dont either are more neutral because they do not emphasise the speakers feelings as strongly. Rejoinder phrases follow a statement.

Tina: I love going to the cinema. Ben: So do I. Tina: I never go to violent films. Ben: Neither do I. Tina: I prefer comedies. Ben: Really? I do too. Stanley: I like basketball. Jeff: I do too. / So do I. Stanley: I dont like football. Jeff: I dont either. / Neither do I.



Exercise 1.3 Match the sentences in the first column with the appropriate rejoinder phrase in the second column. Remember to use the inverted form to emphasise the speakers feelings about the topic. The first one is done for you as an example. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Oliver went to the union meeting last night. His boss wasnt there. My boss thinks everything is fine at work. He wasnt happy to hear about the meeting. He hasnt been very professional. I felt bad about what he said to us. I think its wrong not to say what you think. Well, Im for the union. My boss doesnt like unions. My manager wont be happy if we vote for a union. Oliver can do what he wants. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. l. I am too. I did too. Mr. Fagin does too. Mr. Fagin hasnt either. Mr. Fagin wasnt either. Neither does Mr. Fagin. Neither was Mr. Fagin. Neither will Mr. Fagin. So can I! So did I. So do I.

1. b/j .. Exercise 1.4 Rewrite the sentences from Exercise 1.2, changing too and either to so and neither. Example: Her son doesnt eat vegetables, and neither does my daughter. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10.

Exercise 1.5 Correct the mistakes in the following sentences. does Example: Scott lives in Durham and so is Debbie. 2. I dont know how to windsurf, and my brother doesnt neither. 3. Sue cant type and neither Fleur can. 4. Mark went to the wrong restaurant, and Al didnt too. 5. Bob didnt go sailing, and either did Irene. 6. Mike hasnt been here long, and Sue isnt either. 7. Cynthia was in class yesterday, and you was too.


8. You was sick last week, and so was Sheila. 9. Lee wont come with us, and either will Ed. 10. Mary has a cute boyfriend, and so had Pat. Exercise 1.6 Read the dialogue below. Can you find the missing parts of the conversation in the list below? 1. Ben: Actually, I dont come to places like this often. Tina: 2. Ben: I prefer to read a good book or listen to music. Tina: 3. Ben: And lately, Ive been spending a lot of time working out at the health club. Tina: . 4. Ben: Im too busy to come to places like this! Tina: . 5. Ben: So, I cant hang out in bars. Tina: . 6. Ben: And besides, I dont need it, you know Tina: . 7. Ben: I get along great by myself. Tina: . 8. Ben: My life is full. Tina: . 9. Ben: Im happy! Tina: . Ben: Well, Ive got to go. It has been nice lying to you. Tina: Likewise. a. So is mine! b. I have too! c. So am I! d. Neither do I! e. So do I! f. I cant either! g. I do too! h. I am too! i. I dont either!

1. Exercise 1.7 One way to meet people is through personal ads in newspapers or magazines. These personal ads appeared in a local newspaper. Read them quickly and then read the statements that follow. Circle T (true) if you think the statement is true and F (false) if you think it is false.

You are attractive, slim, and athletic. You like dancing, eating, candlelit dinners, and walking on the beach by moonlight. Like me, you also enjoy camping and hiking. You love dogs and you dont smoke. If you are the woman of my dreams, send a photo to Box 3092.




Warm, humorous, well-educated woman loves walking on the beach, dancing, cycling, and hiking. Seeks intelligent life partner with compatible interests. PS Im allergic to cats, dogs, and smokers. Box 875.

Athletic, professional, animal-lover seeks active man who knows how to treat a lady. Box 4021.

Cooking for my friends; cycling; walking on the beach with my dog; wise and witty women. I cant stand: snobs; cheap wine; jogging; people who smoke; women who wear makeup. Male looking for a special woman. Box 49. 1. A likes walking on the beach and so do D and B. 2. B does not like smokers and neither do A and C. 3. Cooking for friends is one of Bs favourite pastimes. 4. D does not like women who wear makeup. 5. D likes dancing, and A does too. 6. A wants to find someone who likes hiking, and so does D. 7. Jogging and cycling are two of Bs favourite sports. T T T T T T T F F F F F F F

Do you think any of these people would make a good couple? If so, why? If not, why not? .

FOCUS 3 HEDGES examples Stanley: I love opera. Jeff: So do I! Stanley: I love opera. What about you? Jeff: Sort of. Stanley: Do you like ballet? Jeff: Kind of. (Jeff does not like opera or ballet very much.) Stanley: Do you like football? Jeff: Kind of. / Sort of. explanations In conversation, rejoinder phrases show agreement with the speaker. However, if you do not strongly agree with the speakers opinion, you can use a hedge. Sort of and kind of are used in informal conversation. In fast speech, they are often reduced to kinda and sorta. Hedges often follow a question.



Exercise 1.8 Claire and Chris have just met at a party and are finding out how much they have in common. Look at the chart showing their likes and dislikes and complete the conversation below, using appropriate information form the chart. The first one has been done for you. = a lot = a little Likes swimming cats cooking cats eating in restaurants Chinese food hiking music Chinese food cooking music swimming hiking Dislikes TV getting up in the morning rap music rap music getting out of bed staying home watching TV



Chris: Claire Chris: Claire: home Chris: Claire: Chris: Claire: Chris: Claire: Chris: Claire: Chris: Claire: Chris:

Well, let me see what are some of my favourite things? The ocean I love swimming in the ocean. (1) So do I. Maybe we should go for a swim sometime. Yes, thatd be great! Do you like hiking too? (2) ____________. In general, I prefer to be active. I mean, I dont like sitting and watching TV. (3) ____________. But I dont like getting up in the morning. Well, (4) ____________. Most people dont like getting out of bed in the morning! What about music? Do you like music? (5) ____________. I dont know too much about it actually. Really? I love all kinds of music, except for rap. I hate rap! (6) ____________. We certainly agree on that one! What else? I love cooking; do you? (7): ____________. I really prefer eating out in restaurants. I really love Chinese food. (8) ____________. Ive heard that the new Chinese restaurant on Main Street is supposed to be really good. (9) ____________. Why dont we give it a try? That sounds good. By the way, I have six cats. Do you like cats? Well, (10) ____________. Thats OK as long as you dont hate them

Exercise 1.9 Complete the conversation below with rejoinder phrases, such as So do I or I dont either, or hedges, such as Kind of or Sort of. In writing class Brian: Did the teacher like your composition? Dan: Well, (1) _______________ . Brian: What grade did you get? Dan: I got a C. Brian: (2) _______________. Actually, Im happy. I dont usually pass. Dan: (3) _______________. Im terrible at writing. Conversation class s more fun. Im better at speaking.


Brian: (4) _______________. How about reading? Do you like Reading class? Dan: (5) _______________. I dont really like the teacher. Dan: (6) _______________. Im tired of studying English. Brian: (7) _______________. Dan: I like my other classes a lot better. Brian: What other classes? Dan: Im taking music classes. Brian: Really? (8) _______________! Im taking Music Theory and guitar lessons. How about you? Dan: Im taking Theory and voice lessons. Whos your Theory teacher? Brian: Professor Graham. Dan: Do you like the class? Brian: (9) _______________. Its difficult. I like the other class better. Do you like your voice lessons? Dan: (10) _______________. Music Theory is my favourite class.

FOCUS 4 GERUNDS AS SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS examples He is smoking a cigarette right now. (part of a verb phrase) Smoking us bad for your health. (noun: subject of a sentence) Ben stopped smoking last month. (noun: object of a sentence) a) Cooking is his favourite hobby. b) He likes cooking. c) He talked about cooking. d) His favourite hobby is cooking. explanations Smoking, drinking, and dancing are often used as verbs; however, you can also use them as nouns

Gerunds are formed from verbs: verb + -ing = reading. Gerunds work like nouns; therefore, they can be: the subject of a sentence (a); the object of a verb (b); the object of a preposition (c); the complement of a sentence (d).

Exercise 1.10 Complete the following sentences. Use a gerund in your answer. Example: I hate ironing. 1. One of my favourite hobbies is ___________________. 2. I enjoy ___________________ and ___________________. 3. I cant stand ___________________. 4. I like to talk about ___________________. 5. Im good at ___________________. 6. When I was little, ___________________ was something that I loved to do. 7. I usually postpone ___________________. 8. I feel good after I finish ___________________. 9. I eel bad after I finish ___________________. 10. Two Olympic sports are ___________________ and ___________________.



Task You are shipwrecked on a desert island. Complete the list below. Things I need (because they are necessary for survival on the island) 1. __________________________________ 2. __________________________________ 3. __________________________________ 4. __________________________________ 5. __________________________________ 6. __________________________________
examples I want a radio. Anthony needs some medicine. We want several good books. Carole needed a cup of coffee.

Things I want (because they will make me happy on the island) 1. __________________________________ 2. __________________________________ 3. __________________________________ 4. __________________________________ 5. __________________________________ 6. __________________________________

explanations Want expresses desires, things that would be nice to have, things that would make your life happier or more comfortable. (Unfortunately, we can sometimes only dream about the things we want in life! Need is used for something that is necessary and essential. Want and need are followed by a noun or a noun phrase. Want and need are also followed by an infinitive.

Jack needed to sleep. Delphine wanted to go. They need to eat more vegetables. We want to build a house. I dont want to go. They do not need to tell her. She doesnt want to drive. We didnt need your help. He didnt want to see us. They need some new books. They dont need any new books. She wants some sugar in her coffee. She doesnt want any sugar in her coffee.

For negative statements, add: do not (dont) or does not (doesnt)

did not (didnt)

In negative statements with plural count nouns or with non-count nouns, some changes to any.

Exercise 1.11 Match the first half of the sentences in the first column with the second half in the second column. The first one has been done for you as an example. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Human beings need Sam needs to eat his vegetables, but he Ricks doctor says that Mark wants to watch TV He wants some desert, but a. b. c. d. e. but his mother says that he needs to do his homework. even though she had 200 pairs in her closet. food, shelter, and clothing. he doesnt really need it. he needs to lose fifty pounds.



Maggies at summer camp and she misses her family; 7. Imelda wanted to buy some new shoes, 8. Mercy wants to take an aerobics class, but 9. Jon wants to travel, but 10. Pets, like people, 11. Connies doctor says that shes too thin and


f. g. h. i. j. k.

her advisor says that she doesnt need the credits. his girlfriend wants to stay home. need love and attention. needs to gain ten pounds. she wants to go home. wants some ice-cream instead.

1. c Exercise 1.12 Use the lists from the Task to write six sentences about what you would want or need on a deserted island. Use want and need as appropriate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ____________________________________________________________________. ____________________________________________________________________. ____________________________________________________________________. ____________________________________________________________________. ____________________________________________________________________. ____________________________________________________________________.

Exercise 1.13 It is your birthday. Your family wants to buy you things that you really need. Make a list of three things that you really need right now. Beside each item, write a short description of the kind or type you really want. (You can specify colour, make, size, material, etc.) Examples: I need some warm clothes for the winter. I want a black leather jacket and a pair of dark brown boots. THE TYPE I WANT 1. __________________________________ 2. __________________________________ 3. __________________________________

WHAT I NEED 1. __________________________________ 2. __________________________________ 3. __________________________________

Exercise 1.14 Look at the statements and decide what the person needs or wants, as appropriate. Some of the items in the list at the end will help you, but you probably have better ideas of your own. 1. 2. 3. Help!! I just cut my finger! She needs a Band-Aid. Im going to Hawaii next week, and I really dont like any of my summer clothes. She _________________________________________________________________. I have a terrible toothache. You _________________________________________________________________.



4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I cant pick this pan up. Its too hot. He __________________________________________________________________. Ugh! This grapefruit is too sour. I ___________________________________________________________________. This class is very boring! The students __________________________________________________________. I cant read the instructions on this bottle because the print is too small. He _________________________________________________________________. No, thanks, I dont like red wine. Do you have anything else? He __________________________________________________________________. Oh, no! The button has just come off my blouse, and I dont have time to fix it. She _________________________________________________________________. Oh, no! The flowers are dying! They ________________________________________________________________. a. a pot holder b. a safety pin c. some salt d. some sugar e. something to drink a Band-Aid g. a pair of binoculars h. change classes i. go to the dentist j. new eyeglasses k. some new clothes l. a needle and thread m. some water

Exercise 1.15 Read the statements below and decide what the person needs/needed or wants/wanted. The list at the end includes some possible answers. The gas gauge in the car reads E for empty. We need some gas. Where would you like to go on vacation? I _______________________________________________________________ This table is too heavy for him to move alone. He _______________________________________________________________ Nicole has too many emotional problems to handle alone. She _______________________________________________________________ What can I bring you for dessert? I _______________________________________________________________ Whats wrong with little Susie? Doesnt she like visiting her Aunt Ethel? Well, Susie really ___________________________________________________ Why the sad face? You got a B on the test! I _______________________________________________________________ Victor would like to go to Syria. They require a visa to enter the country. He _______________________________________________________________ Gidget wants a Coke from the vending machine, but she has only a $20 bill. She _______________________________________________________________ Whats the matter? You have a healthy baby boy. I _______________________________________________________________ That light is too high for Florence to reach. She _______________________________________________________________ Example:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.



an A go to Disneyland some professional help

go to Australia some change a ladder

some help some ice cream a visa

a girl

Exercise 1.16 Fill in each blank with the correct form of want or need. Remember to make the appropriate changes when the sentence is negative. The first one has been done for you as an example. Philip: Oh, Hillary. I want you. I (1) need you. I cant live without you. What do I (2) ___________ to do to make you marry me? Hillary: Philip, I cant marry you. I dont love you. I (3) ___________ to hurt you, Philip, but I love another man. Philip: Hillary, I can give you the world. What do you (4) ___________? Diamonds? A yacht? Money? Servants? Hillary: Servants? I (5) ___________ any servants. I know how to cook and clean. And I (6) ___________ or (7) ___________ your money. I have my own money. I have my own job. Philip: What do you (8) ___________, then? Hillary: I (9) ___________ to marry William. I love William. I (10) ___________ to spend the rest of my life with someone I dont love.




VOCABULARY Exercise 2.1

Complete the following sentences with one word to do with the topic of holidays and travel.

1 We sent off to the tour operators for a b..................... giving details of their holidays in Thailand. 2 Last year we went on a p..................... t..................... . Everything was organized for us: the flight, the hotels and all the entertainments. It was all included in the price. 3 They're going on s..................... in Kenya. They'll be able to see lots of wildlife. 4 We brought back some local handicrafts as s..................... . Each time we look at them, we remember what a great time we had. 5 I wouldn't get a scheduled flight, if I were you. A c..................... flight would be much cheaper. 6 A holiday r.................... is a town which welcomes and entertains tourists. 7 Bed and breakfast is 15 a night. If you want h..................... b..................... , it costs an extra 6 which includes either lunch or dinner. 8 We really enjoy s..................... -c..................... holidays where you rent a house and look after yourselves.

READING Exercise 2.2

A. Read the text and find out how many different types of transport are used. B. Note the best places for buying souvenirs.

The Ivory Coast Train

Two weeks by rail and local taxis in West Africa visiting Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast. This escorted tour lets you experience two of West Africa's most important railways, the lifelines from the coastal countries of Senegal and the Ivory Coast to landlocked Mali and Burkina Faso. We use hotels and sleeper trains throughout the tour. We spend time in the busy modern coastal capitals of Dakar and Abidjan. We also explore the remote region of the Niger river around Mopti where ancient kingdoms once held power in this fascinating area of West Africa. Our journey starts in Dakar, the capital of Senegal, which is situated on the Cape Verde peninsula. The modern buildings contrast with the lively African markets, which are a photographer's delight and a source of fine souvenirs such as tie-dyed cloth and exquisite jewellery.



We shall take a boat ride to the isle of Goree which was once an important slave trading centre. Slaves were brought here from the interior and shipped to the New World until the abolition of this shameful trade. Goree's museum and the terrible House of Slaves show visitors what life must have been like. We board the train in Dakar for a two-day journey through an ever-changing landscape. The train takes us across the dry region of Sahel to the lushness of Bamako, the capital of Mali. Bamako is a modern city dependent on the river Niger which supports this arid area of West Africa. There are busy, colourful markets and many interesting areas for us to see and explore. The next stage of our journey will be by local taxi from Bamako to Mopti with a night stop at Segou on the way. Mopti, an important market town, is often called the Venice of Africa, because it lies in the middle of islands and waterways where the Bani and Niger rivers join. Mopti is an exotic and fascinating city. It is extremely cosmopolitan. Here you will see members of many different African tribes who come to Mopti to trade. A boat trip on the river Niger is a must. There is a wide variety of river transport ranging from marvellous old river steamers to narrow canoes called Pirogues, the type we are going to use. There is a constant flow of river traffic carrying all forms of goods to and from the major ports with magical names like Gao and Timbuctoo. Leaving Mopti, we travel by local taxi to Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso. The next day we will take the train to Abidjan, capital of the Ivory Coast. The train journey will take approximately 15 hours and goes from arid, landlocked Burkina Faso to the rich green lands of the Gulf of Guinea. Abidjan is built in an area of lakes, forests and beaches. The city has clean, modern buildings but its market offers all the excitement of West Africa, with exciting spicy foods, colourful traders and African music. We will have a guided tour of the city and visit the excellent museum. Local craftsmen, who are famous for their wood-carvings, will give us the opportunity to buy souvenirs. Our tour ends in Abidjan and in just two weeks you will have experienced many of the different faces of West Africa, travelling with the local people as they go about their everyday lives on West African railways. Exercise 2.3
Choose the most suitable answers to the following questions.

1 The buildings in Dakar are A fairly new. B good to photograph. C boring. D a contrast. 2 The isle of Goree A imported slaves. B used to be important. C is a centre for slaves. D is cut off from the land. 3 The journey from Dakar to Bamako A moves from rainy to dry country. B takes three nights. C is not by bus. D passes through hills. 4 The town of Moptt is A just like Venice. B a market. C cosmopolitan. D west of Bamako. 5 Visitors are ..................... on the River Niger. A required to go B discouraged from going C recommended to go D obliged to go.



USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 2.4

Patrick wants to spend five days in Paris. He is at a travel agency trying to book a flight. Complete the conversation.

TA.: Good morning, sir. Can I help you? P.: Yes, I'd like to book a return flight to Paris. (1) What .............................................................? TA.: The cheapest flight? Let me look. (2) How .............................................................? P.: I'd like to stay for five days. TA.: 3) Will ...............................................................? P.: Yes. I'll be there for the weekend. I'd like to leave this Friday and come back on Tuesday. TA.: That's good. If you spend the weekend there, you can get a discount return flight. (4) It ............................ How ............................? P.: 70. That sounds very reasonable. 5) What .............................................................? TA.: Morning flights leave London Heathrow every hour from 6.30, Mondays to Fridays. P.: (6) Could ...........................................................? TA.: The 7.30 flight for this Friday. Certainly, sir. I'll just check availability on the computer. Exercise 2.5
Study this example to see the type of word that is often left out. Note that nouns are not usually omitted.

1. noun 2. adverb (modifying an adjective) 3. preposition 4. comparative adverb 5. determiner (possessive adjective) 6. present participle 7. verb in the simple past 8. adjective 9. adverb used with negative expressions 10. determiner 11. verb part of a phrasal verb (came across) 12. reflexive pronoun 13. conjunction used in comparatives 14. preposition 15. verb 16. definite article (determiner) 17. determiner used for countable nouns 18. auxiliary for past perfect 19. preposition 20. adverb of manner When we arrived at the island, a launch came to take the passengers off the ferry. Night had fallen by the (1) time we stepped ashore and everything was (2) completely black. Unknown to us, the village lay (3) at the end of a long, steep winding path. Other travellers, who were


(4) better informed than us, eagerly hired donkeys to carry themselves and (5) their luggage to the top. Having little money and (6) being unaware of the climb ahead of us, we (7) decided to walk. When we arrived at the village, all the (8) cheap hotels were full up. There was nowhere to camp (9) either. After (10) much walking, we finally (11) came across a little park so we took out our sleeping bags and made (12) ourselves as comfortable (13) as we could on a couple of benches we found. (14) During the night, bothered by mosquitoes, I got up to (15) stretch my legs and stood on a low wall admiring (16) the stars. I returned to my bench and had a (17) few hours sleep. We woke up to discover that we (18) had fallen asleep in a garden in a small cemetery. (19) Over the wall on which I had (20) casually stood a cliff dropped into the sea several hundred feet below. Exercise 2.6
The following three exercises concentrate on words which are often blanked out. Complete each exercise using the words in italics only once.

spite so because however nevertheless during while neither if either although as

A ..................... it was cold, they swam. B ..................... he locked the car door he remembered the keys were inside. C They left early ..................... they wanted to get to the airport on time. D We'll play tennis ..................... it doesn't rain. E It was foggy ..................... the ferry didn't sail. F ..................... Helen nor Peter can drive. G She married him in ..................... of his age. H ..................... you keep quiet or I'll have to ask you to leave. I She was exhausted; ..................... , she did her homework. J The food was awful; ............. , the wine was good. K I'll clean the house ..................... you're cooking dinner. L He was wounded ..................... the war.

hardly almost else entirely too really only quite even enough

A There isn't ..................... food for four. B That restaurant was ..................... rather expensive. C We were upset as ..................... anyone came to the party. D She is usually miserable but ..................... she enjoyed herself. E There were ..................... a few people at the boxing match. F We ..................... missed the train but managed to jump on it as it was leaving. G She was ..................... annoyed at their rudeness. H He asked if there was anything ..................... we needed. I He knows he smokes far ..................... much, but he won't stop. J I do apologize. It was ..................... my fault.



both those few what little all which this A Do you want ..................... one or that one? B She was hiding in the room ..................... the time. C There are just a ..................... tickets left. D We had very ..................... money left by the time we came back from holiday. E ..................... he and his father are extremely bad-tempered. F Can you tell me ..................... the matter is? G ..................... one would you like? The green one or the orange one? H It was one of ..................... moments I shall never forget. Exercise 2.7
Complete this passage using just one of the two words that you are given.

Marco Polo was born in Venice in (1) maybe/about 1254. Both his father and uncle were leading merchants who had (2) already /still met the Mogul emperor, Kublai Khan. When he was 17, Marco set off with them on an adventure (3) who/that would last over 20 years. His father had been given letters to give to the emperor. From Palestine they (4) passed/drove through Turkey into northern Iran. In Afghanistan they stopped for a year, probably (5) recovering/getting over malaria. They continued overland (6) through/ along the Great Silk Road and across the Gobi desert. (7) So/Eventually, in 1275 they reached the summer capital (8) when/ where they met the emperor (9) that/who was quite taken (10) over/by young Marco. The young man was sent on missions to report back on his master's vast empire. (11) Although/However the travellers wanted to return home, the (12) possibility/opportunity only came 17 years later. They were given permission to leave (13) whether/provided they accompanied a Mogul princess who was to be married in Persia. They took what, in those days, (14) should/must have been a dangerous sea voyage (15) by/down the east coast of China and modern Vietnam. They crossed open sea to Ceylon and passed up (16) a/the west coast of India. Finally, their party reached Persia. On the last (17) stage/trip of their journey home the family was robbed of most of what it had acquired. At last, they arrived back in Venice where (18) few/little people, if any, believed them to still be alive. Amazingly, this great story would have gone unrecorded if Marco had not been (19) arrested/captured in a sea battle. (20) In/During his captivity he dictated his story to a fellow prisoner. Exercise 2.8
Complete the passage using only one word for each gap.

For a fortnight each summer, we ..................... (1) to rent the same house by the sea. The house, ..................... (2) owner worked with my uncle, was on a cliff top overlooking ................. (3) Channel. .................... (4) it was only a couple of hours' drive away ..................... (5) our house, our preparations ..................... (6) have done justice to a polar expedition. Suitcases were ..................... (7) down from the attic and filled with clothes for ..................... (8) kinds of weather. ..................... (9), all these things would find ..................... (10) pushed into the boot. ..................... (11) extra was placed ..................... (12) the seats. ..................... (13) everyone had climbed into the car, there was just a ..................... (14) space for me between my mother and grandmother. On the way, three ..................... (15) always happened: we would stop at a pub to please my grandfather, we would eat an ..................... (16) picnic, and I would ..................... (17) car sick. ..................... (18) experiences probably help ..................... (19) explain why I always insist ..................... (20) travelling light, preferably by train.


LANGUAGE STUDY Past simple or present perfect? Exercise 2.9

You are going to read a short biography of Len Deighton, one of the most famous authors of spy fiction. Complete the text by changing the verbs in brackets into an appropriate form or tense. You may need to change the word order.

Len Deighton (1) ... has led . (lead) an interesting and varied life. He (2) ...:................. (write) for years but he (3) ..................... (be) also a photographer, waiter and even an advertising man. He (4) ..................... (be born) in London, in 1922, and (5) ..................... (take) his first job as a railway clerk. He (6) ..................... (do) his National Service as a photographer in the R.A.F., and (7) ..................... (be) stationed in Germany. It was during his time in Berlin that he first (8) ..................... (come) into contact with the shady world of espionage. Afterwards, he (9) ..................... (go) on to become an art student at St. Martin's School of Art in London. He (10) ..................... (work) part-time as a waiter in order to make money. While he (11) ..................... (be) a waiter, he (12) ..................... (become) deeply interested in cookery and (13) ..................... (produce) a regular comic strip on the subject for The Observer newspaper. (14) ..................... (follow) on from this, he worked in New York (15) ..................... (return) to England to take over as the art director of an advertising firm. At the beginning of the sixties he (16) ..................... (go) to settle in France where he (17) ..................... (live) ever since. In 1962, his first book, The Ipcress File, (18) ..................... (he) published. Since then, he (19) ..................... (write) over 25 books. Not only (20) ..................... (write) his famous spy novels but he (21) ..................... (write) also a history of the R.A.F. Adverbs and word order Exercise 2.10
Put the following sentences into the right order.

Example: they/arrived/already/have? Have they already arrived? 1. for/not/she/spoken/him/to/years/has/ten 2. had/house/decorated/have/just/their/they 3. never/meal/wonderful/a/I/before/have/such/had 4. that/you/have/seen/yet/movie? 5. never/she/musical/been/to/a/has 6. are/they/have/waiting/left/or/they/still/already? 7. food/this/kind/before/ever/she/eaten/of/has? 8. not/ever/the/he/seen/film/has?



USE OF ENGLISH Changing verbs to nouns Exercise 2.11

Change the verb in capital letters into an appropriate noun to complete the sentence.

Example: She is one of the greatest ...... performers ....... to appear in this theatre. 1 The ..................... she gave last night was marvellous. 2 She received a lot of ..................... from her mother. 3 Does this ..................... suit you?. 4 Conversation is one of the most enjoyable forms of ..................... . S ..................... is such a competitive profession. 6 Have you seen the latest ..................... for Pepsi? 7 There's a lot of ..................... in show business. 8 There were 50 ..................... in the talent contest. 9 ..................... is an extremely popular hobby. 10 She is a ..................... of theatre programmes. 11 She has one of the biggest ..................... in Britain.


VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs with take Exercise 2.12

A. Match the definition on the right with the phrasal verb on the left.

A take on B take after C take off D take over E take to F take up

1 gain control/responsibility 2 start a new activity/hobby 3 like 4 have the same looks or character as an older relative 5 copy/imitate somebody 6 to employ

B. Complete these sentences with one of the phrasal verbs using take.

1 He was punished for taking his teacher ..................... . 2 She has just been taken ..................... at the bank. 3 I am afraid that I don't take ..................... my new boss. He is an extremely unpleasant person. 4 Can you take ...............;..... while I go to lunch? 5 You really take ..................... your grandfather. You're both bad-tempered! 6 She's so tense, she should take ..... yoga.



FOCUS 1 MEASURE WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS Task Jim has been invited to a potluck dinner (a meal where each guest brings a dish). The hostess has asked him to bring a salad for six people and some cookies. Jim wants to make everything himself and has asked for your advice and assistance. He has got the following ingredients in his kitchen; can you help him decide which ones he can use in each dish? Write them in the appropriate boxes below. Ingredients: mustard chocolate chips vinegar Salad

sugar tomatoes garlic

salt flour

lettuce olive oil

hard-boiled eggs butter

cheese eggs

Salad Dressing

Chocolate Chips Cookies

Jim has no idea how much of each ingredients he should use. Can you help him? Write an appropriate amount beside each ingredient. Remember, there will be six people at the party. Are there any other ingredients you would include? Add them to the boxes above, with suggested amounts. There are some very specific ways of counting and measuring food items. Some measure expressions refer to the portions or containers or to the weights and measurements used to quantify food. Other measures words refer to the shapes or typical states in which some food items (especially certain fruits and vegetables) can be found.



examples a bottle of (beer, wine) a jar of (peanut butter, mustard) a box of (crackers, cereal) a bag of (potato chip, flour) a carton of (milk, eggs) a can of (tuna fish, beer) a slice of (bread) a scoop of ice cream a piece of (candy, cake) a pat of butter a cup of (rice, water, flour) a tablespoon (of salt, sugar, water) a teaspoon (of salt, sugar, water) a pinch (of pepper, salt)

explanations Containers Container words usually describe food items as we buy them in a store.

Portions Portion words usually describe items as we find them on a plate when we eat them. Measurements These measurement words are common in recipes. 1 teaspoon (tsp) = approx. 5 milliliters 1 tablespoon (tbs) = approx. 15 milliliters 1 cup = approx. liter a pinch = a very small amount Many food items (meat, vegetables, cheese) are measured in pounds (lbs) and ounces (oz). Some liquids (milk, whipping cream) are measured in pints, quarts, and gallons. Shapes and typical states These expressions refer to the appearance or shape of specific items. (For example, cabbage grows in a shape similar to a head; therefore, we often say, a head of cabbage)

1 ounce (oz) = approx. 30 grams 1 pound (lb) = approx. 454 grams 1 pint = 0.4732 liters 1 quart = 0.9463 liters 1 gallon = 3.785 liters a leaf of lettuce a head of lettuce a head or bulb of garlic a clove of garlic a bunch of grapes a loaf of bread a bar of chocolate

Exercise 2.1 Mrs. Griffin sent her husband shopping, but the shopping list got torn. Can you help Mr. Griffin by completing the list? The first one has been done for you. Grocery List bunch ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

of bananas of bread eggs of lettuce of mayonnaise of dog food of cereal of radishes of white wine of ice cream of margarine of ground beef



FOCUS 2 MEASURE EXPRESSIONS WITH COUNT AND NON-COUNT NOUNS examples three bottles of wine three cartons of milk two scoops of ice cream six pounds of coffee explanations

Measure expressions help us to be more specific about quantity. They also enable us to make non-count nouns countable. Most measure expressions follow this pattern: Noun A/An/One + of + (Non-Count/ Measure Word Two + Plural) (Singular/Plural) Three milk of cup a apples of pound a milk of cups two apples of pounds two Exception: Specific numbers (including dozen): a dozen eggs, ten strawberries, etc. NOT: *a dozen of eggs. Exercise 2.2 Two friends went shopping for a big party. They made a list of some of their favourite foods, and then they went to Food Giant, the big supermarket nearby. Heres their list. Add the measure words (and a plural if necessary). Different answers are possible, and some answers may not require measure words. 1 3 2 2 1 ground beef bread orange cheese milk 2 2 2 3 6 wine corn chip tomato ice cream coke

Exercise 2.3 Unscramble the measure expressions for this recipe. The first one has been done for you as an example. Avocado Freezer Ice Cream 2 cups of milk ____________ of granulated sugar ____________ of salt 2 well-beaten eggs 1 ____________ of heavy cream 1 ____________ lemon extract 1 ____________ of mashed avocado

(pusc) (ucp) (saoeonpt) (cpu) (tsoaeonp) (puc)

Combine milk, sugar, and salt; scald. Pour over eggs, stirring constantly. Add cream and lemon extract and cool.


Add avocado and mix thoroughly. Freeze in ice cream freezer. Makes about 1 quart. Cheese Enchiladas 1 ____________ corn tortillas (12) 1 ____________ enchilada sauce 1 ____________ onion, chopped 1 ____________ Cheddar cheese, shredded 8 ____________ sour cream

(zdnoe) (tinp) (bsnatpuoole) (nopud) (soenuc)

For each enchilada, dip a tortilla into heated enchilada sauce. Put some onion, cheese, and sour cream on the tortilla and roll the tortilla around it. Pour the remaining sauce and any leftover cheese on top. Bake at 325 for 30 minutes.

Exercise 2.4 These are Jims recipes. Complete the missing parts. A. Jims Super Salad 1 large _________________ of red leaf lettuce 1 medium-sized _________________ of romaine lettuce 1 large cucumber, cut into _________________ 6 tomatoes, cut into quarters _________________ of Swiss cheese, cut into small strips 1 _________________ cooked chicken, shredded into small pieces _________________ olives 1. Line a large salad bowl with red leaf lettuce leaves. 2. Tear the romaine lettuce leaves into medium-sized pieces. 3. Place in the bowl in layers, with the slices of cucumber and tomato, cheese, and chicken stock. 4. Garnish with olives and eggs. Cover and refrigerate for one hour. Toss with Jims Super Salad Dressing just before serving. B. Jims Super Salad Dressing 1 _________________ Dijon mustard 4 _________________ red wine vinegar 1 _________________ sugar _________________ salt _________________ pepper _________________ olive oil 1. Put the mustard into a bowl. Whisk in vinegar, sugar, salt, and pepper 2. Slowly add the oil while continuing to whisk the mixture. C. Jims Granny Old Time Chocolate Chip Cookies _________________ butter 1 _________________ brown sugar _________________ granulated sugar 2 eggs 2 _________________ flour


1 _________________ baking soda 1 _________________ vanilla extract 1 _________________ salt 1 _________________ chocolate chips 1. Preheat the oven to 350 F. Grease a cookie sheet. 2. Cream the butter and both sugars together until light and fluffy. Add the eggs and vanilla and mix well. 3. Sift the flour, baking soda, and salt. Mix thoroughly. 4. Add the chocolate chips. 5. Form into cookies. Place on a cookie tray and put on the middle rack of the oven for 8-10 minutes. 6. Cool for 5 minutes. 7. Enjoy! (This recipe makes about 40 cookies.) Exercise 2.5 Last week Matthew ate a delicious spaghetti sauce at his friend Nancys house. He enjoyed it so much that Nancy lent him the recipe so that he could make a copy of it. However, Nancy has obviously used this recipe many times and it is quite difficult to read. Can you help Matthew figure out the recipe? Fill in the missing parts below. Spaghetti Sauce (from Nancys Kitchen) First, cut 3 ____________ of bacon into small pieces and cook over a very low heat. Stir in ____________ of ground meat along with 4 ____________ garlic and 2 ____________ onion, chopped up very finely. Add 1 ____________ salt, a pinch of cayenne pepper and 2 ____________ of fresh herbs. Mix in two 8-ounce ____________ tomato sauce. Let it cook on low heat for about 30 minutes. Serve over fresh pasta.

FOCUS 3 DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS examples He wrote a letter. He wrote a letter to his mother. He cooked dinner for his wife. explanations Letter is the direct object. It tells us what he wrote. Sometimes we use two objects. His mother is the indirect object. It tells us whom he wrote to. His wife is the indirect object. It tells us whom he cooked for.

Exercise 2.6 Look at the following sentences. Underline the direct object and circle the indirect object in each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

She bought lunch for him. He carried her books for her. He cooked dinner for her. She threw the keys to him. He handed a wallet to her. She knitted a sweater for him.


Exercise 2.7 Unscramble the following sentences. Be careful with word order (i.e., put the direct object before the indirect object). The first one has been done for you as an example: 1. door / for/ He / her / opened / the He opened the door for her. 2. him / note / passed / She / the / to 3. cut / dad / for / grass / her / She / the .. 4. before / children / Christmas / letters / Many / Santa Claus / to / write . 5. a / bought / Dana / for / puppy / We .. 6. a /for / her / Her / made / sandwich / sister .. 7. hand / homework / in / usually / Students / teacher / the / their / to 8. children / often / Parents / read / stories / their / to 9. braided / for / hair / She / her / Jack . 10. Barbara / handed / mailman / package / The / the / to ..

FOCUS 4 FOR VERSUS TO examples explanations We use two objects, for and to add important information to the sentence: To tells us about the direction of the action: the books went from Jim to Jean. For tells us that the action helps and pleases the person who receives it. In this situation, John did something that helped and pleased Betty. cook carry make knit We often use the verbs on the left with for to show that the action helps and pleases someone else.

Jim gave the books to Jean. John cooked dinner for Betty.

build prepare clean keep save

do buy get fix



Using For to Highlight New Information (a) and (b) mean the same thing. However, a) The kids made me breakfast. when the thing is new information and the b) The kids made breakfast for me. person who receives it is not, you can make these changes: You emphasize the ring, not the person who He bought me a diamond ring. received it. When you think the person who received it is the more important or new information, you can use for. He bought a diamond ring for me. (not you) You emphasize the person who received the ring. NOTE: In both cases, the part of the message you want to emphasize comes last. Exercise 2.8 Match Column A with Column B to complete the sentences that begin in A. The first has been done for you. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Bruce cleaned the house for his neighbour Graham made a cheesecake for Lara They prepared a picnic for their children Dan bought those earrings for Jane Her friends prepared a surprise party for her Susan built a bookshelf for her parents Alan bought a blue scarf for his aunt Sean fixed his sisters car for her a b c d e f g h B because she already had a blue dress. because she didnt know anything about engines. because it was her birthday. because she was too tired to do it herself. because they had too many books and not enough space for them. because they wanted to eat at the beach. because she wanted them. because it was her favourite dessert.

1. d .. Exercise 2.9 Read this conversation: Happy birthday, Joan! Oh, Barbara! A necklace! Thank you! So, are you having a good birthday? Oh, yes. The kids cooked me breakfast, and then they gave me some great presents. Joey made me a vase. He made it at school. And Julie knitted me a scarf. Barbara: What about Jim? What did he give you? Joan: I couldnt believe it! Jim gave me a pair of diamond earrings! Barbara: Diamond earrings!!! Youre lucky. On my birthday, my husband bought me tickets to a Giants game. And I dont even like baseball!

Barbara: Joan: Barbara: Joan:


Now complete the chart below, showing who did what for Joan on her birthday. Joans Birthday Treats: Who Did What for Joan on Her Birthday? Her son Joey Her daughter Julie

Her friend Barbara

Her husband Jim

Exercise 2.10 Fill in the blanks with to or for. 1. When she finished translating the letter _____ him, she gave it _____ him. 2. The mechanic sold a tire _____ Mrs. Captain. Then she had a flat tire, and someone changed it _____ her. 3. Kelly threw the ball _____ Bobby, and he caught it. But later, Bobby fell, and Kelly had to catch the ball _____ him. 4. In art class, Andrew drew a picture _____ his mother. He gave it _____ her when he got home. 5. Lindsey pulled the wagon _____ Jonathan. Then she pulled the wagon _____ Jonathan because he wasnt strong enough. 6. Ann couldnt reach the shelf, so she asked Cheryl to get the jar _____ her. Cheryl got the jar and handed it _____ Ann. 7. Mike left a message _____ Corey. As soon as she got back to the office, Larry gave it _____ her. 8. Luke couldnt reach the potatoes, so Aunt Betty passed the plate _____ him. After Uncle John served the potatoes, he passed the plate back _____ Luke. 9. Karen asked Brian to bring the baby _____ her. She got tired, so Brian carried the baby _____ her. 10. Mark wrote a love letter _____ his sweetheart, and then he brought a present _____ her.

FOCUS 5 Deleting For examples Subject He Verb bought Direct Object a diamond ring Indirect object for me. explanations Omit for and put the indirect object in front of the direct object. Indirect Object me Direct Object a diamond ring.



a diamond ring

for me.

He bought



Exercise 2.11 Rewrite each of the following sentences. Omit for and put the indirect object in its proper place. Example: Mom always cooks my favourite foods for me. Mom always cooks me my favourite foods. 1. Gin sewed a silk tie for her husband. . 2. Justin built a dog house for the dog. . 3. Larry baked an apple pie for Paula. . 4. Edwin gets toys for his nephews. . 5. Steve bakes bread for his family. . 6. Nelly will save a place in line for you. . 7. Edith knit that beautiful green sweater for Lee. . 8. Canada saved millions of dollars for the taxpayers. . 9. Patrick made a new picture frame for Maria. . 10. Jeff brought a new computer game for Erick. .

FOCUS 6 VERBS THAT DO NOT OMIT FOR examples He cooked dinner for me. / He cooked me dinner. She solved the problem for me. NOT *She solved me the problem Some verbs that can omit for build buy save cook bake make get knit sew explanations It is not possible to omit for and move the indirect object in front of the direct object with all verbs. However, with some verbs, you cant usually omit for. Some verbs that usually cant omit for repair explain do open prepare carry solve fix (= repair) clean

Exercise 2.12 Read the following carefully. Where you think it is possible, rewrite the sentences without using for. 1. My suitcase was very heavy, but my friend carried it for me. ..


2. Gloria cooked a fabulous dinner for Harvey. .. 3. Gary was cold, so Karen knitted a scarf for him. 4. If I win the lottery, Ill buy a house by the sea for you. 5. Chuck left his wallet at home, so Ross bought dinner for him. . 6. The teacher was carrying a lot of books, so the student opened the door for her. 7. On your birthday, Ill bake a cake for you. . 8. George doesnt know anything about machines, so Erica always fixes his car for him. Exercise 2.13 Read the sets of sentences below. Decide which sentences, if any, are incorrect in each set. 1. Tomorrow is my fathers birthday, and a. Im going to get him a present b. Im going to get a present him c. Im going to get a present for him. 2. Because its his birthday a. Im also going to fix him his car b. Im also going to fix him for his car c. Im also going to fix his car for him. 3. He likes to eat and drink so a. my sister is going to bake a cake him b. my sister is going to bake a cake for him c. my sister is going to bake him a cake d. my sister is going to make him his favourite dessert e. my aunt is going to cook him a special meal f. my aunt is going cook him a special meal for him g. my brother is going to prepare him his favourite cocktail h. Im also going to buy some wine for him. Exercise 2.14 Rewrite the following story. Omit for if possible. The first sentence has been done for you as an example. On my husbands birthday I always prepare a special meal for him. First, I bake a homemade bread for him. Then I cook his favourite meal, lasagna, for him. I also buy the best wine for him. Last year, I had a problem, though. We were staying in a vacation cabin and I had a stove, but I didnt have an oven. My son and daughter solved the problem for me. They suggested that I make spaghetti for him instead of lasagna. They went to the little market near the cabin for me and bought noodles, tomato sauce, meat, and spices for me. Then they had to carry the groceries all the way back to the cabin for me. When I asked my daughter to open the noodles for me, they spilled all over. My son cleaned up the noodles for her. He repaired the damage for her.


On my husbands birthday, I always prepare him a special meal. .


Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 1 and 2. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. 1. Frank hasnt seen that new film about skiing and I havent neither. A B C D 2. After he finish washing the dishes, Fred wants to go for a bike ride. So do I. A B C D 3. I can understand why he loves working with computers, and his mother cant either. A B C D 4. Hilda enjoys to be outside in her yard gardening, and Florence does too. A B C D 5. She stays in good physical shape by jogging and to run. Her boyfriend does too. A B C D 6. When I was a little boy, every Christmas weekend my family and I were used to visit my A B C D grandparents on their farm.



7. We lived in the city, so it had been very special for us, especially me and my sister, to be in A B C the country and to help Grandpa with the animals and Grandma with the baking. D 8. By the time we got to the farm, Grandma had baked her world-famous homemade A B C cinnamon bread and Grandpa had chose a turkey for dinner. D 9. Saturday morning we always used to get up early, toast a few slices of cinnamon bread for A B C breakfast, and then go out to the garden to clean the best head of pumpkin for a pumpkin pie. D 10. We helped Grandpa with the cows and the chickens, but mostly we played with the cats A B and dog; we children used to do seldom very much real work. C D 11. After we had played and worked so much, we were tired; my sister and I took a long nap A B C while Mom and Dad had continued to help with the work in the kitchen. D 12. When it was finally time for dinner, it had always been a feast; there was a gigantic A B roasted turkey with stuffing, plates of vegetables from the garden, bowls of cranberries, slices C of homemade bread with pats of fresh butter, and pieces of pumpkin pie for dessert. D 13. Now Im married, I have my own family, and I live in the city still; my grandparents died A B many years ago, so we dont visit the farm anymore. C D 14. I didnt use to cook, but now that Grandmas not here, she doesnt bake anymore that A B C wonderful cinnamon bread, so Ive learned to make it myself. D Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence: 15. I dont like shopping, and Nancy ___________________. (a) doesnt either (c) isnt either (b) doesnt too (d) isnt neither 16. Bobby has a pair of skates, and ___________________. (a) Irene has too (c) so does Irene (b) Irene is too (d) so has Irene


17. Kelly ___________________ to go fishing, and so does Mike. (a) does like (c) is like (b) doesnt like (d) likes 18. Robin loved the movie, and ___________________. (a) I loved too (c) so did I (b) I didnt (d) so do I 19. Bart enjoys ___________________ antiques. (a) collect (c) collecting (b) collects (d) to collect 20. During class the teacher can have something to drink and the students ________ (a) will too (c) can too (b) are too (d) drink too 21. Roy had a text attack last year. Before then, he ___________________ about his health. His doctor told him to change his lifestyle, and gave him a diet and exercise plan. (a) had ever thought (c) never had been thinking (b) had thought ever (d) never had thought 22. 23. He started to eat more fruits and vegetables and less fat. Instead of eating a ___________________ of chocolate when he wanted something sweet, Roy learned to eat an apple or a ___________________ of grapes. 22. (a) box (c) clove (b) bar (d) tablet 23. (a) bunch (c) leaf (b) dozen (d) scoop 24. He used to eat a lot of fast food and he ___________________ any fresh vegetables. (a) ate seldom (c) seldom used to eat (b) had eaten seldom (d) used to seldom eat 25. Before his heart attack, Roy ___________________ a lot of salt and fried food. (a) did use to eat (c) used to eat (b) use to eat (d) was use to eat 26. 27. He ___________________, but now he buys ___________________ of frozen yogurt instead of ice cream. 26. (a) doesnt eat dessert anymore (c) eats dessert still (b) eats dessert anymore (d) still eats dessert 27. (a) bags (c) jars (b) cups (d) quarts 28. Roy quit smoking and drinking hard liquor. After he ___________________ for about three months, he started to feel a lot better. (a) had been quitting (c) had quit (b) has quit (d) used to quit



29. After his doctor advised Roy to start an exercise program, he ___________________ to walk every morning before work. (a) began (c) begun (b) begins (d) had begun 30. Its been one year since Roys heart attack, and he feels great. He ___________________ a cigarette anymore. (a) didnt want (c) still wants (b) doesnt want (d) wanted




Exercise 3.1
A. Read the description by Maeve Binchy, the Irish writer, of her childhood and answer these questions.

1 How does Maeve feel about her childhood? 2 What was her relationship with her parents like?

My Childhood
I have a very clear earliest memory. I, the first born, was three and a half and my mother was expecting another child. I was constantly asking God to send me a new brother or sister. The `me' was important because I loved receiving presents. I was furious when the baby arrived, because all the attention moved from me to this small red-faced thing in a cot. It was a great disappointment to me. I had been praying for this moment and now here was a `thing' which kept on crying with everybody saying how beautiful it was. `Honestly', I said, `I would have preferred a rabbit!' I got very used to walking as a child. I was the eldest of four so there was always somebody in a pram to be wheeled out for a walk. My mother had this view that if she made our home a centre for lots of our friends to come to then she would know where we all were and she would not have to worry about us. So our house became a meeting point for children of all ages. My mother didn't have much of a home life when she was young: her parents had died when she was a child and she had been brought up by relations. I think that she tried to make up for this by ensuring that her own family would be a very definite and important entity. I know that there is always the danger that you look back too sympathetically - rose coloured spectacles and all that - but my childhood was a great joy. My father always encouraged us to read. We had a lot of books at home and I was very lucky to grow up in such a house of books. Of course, as a teenager I always felt that when my father advised you to do something you should resist as much as possible, so, when my father used to tell me to read the English classics, I resisted. It was only when I reached my late teens that I started to read them and I began to think that they were good. My mother was terrific at explaining the facts of life to us. I had known from a very early age how children were born because we had rabbits so there was no great mystery in birth, but I wanted to know how babies were conceived. She told me and I flatly refused to believe it. I thanked her very much and decided that this was absolutely impossible. Wasn't it terribly sad that my mother was going mad? I discussed the subject with my father. `I'm very sorry to tell you, Daddy, that Mummy is going insane,' I said. Why?' he enquired. I could not tell you the things that she has said,' I replied tactfully, `but she has a very peculiar explanation of how children are conceived.' I gave him a broad outline of her description. `Don't you think that we should get her a doctor?' I asked with great concern. Ah, no,' he said, I think she had a point. I think a lot of that could be right.' I thought to myself, isn't he a wonderfully loyal man! I went to my first dance when I was 17. I thought that I looked so gorgeous that I could hardly keep my eyes off myself. I wore a blue dress that my cousin had lent me, with a big blue


velvet band set down the middle of the dress to let it out. I wore earrings which had made sores in my ears when I was `rehearsing' for the dance, so I had put sticking plaster on my ears and painted it blue to match the dress. I must have looked absolutely horrific. Nobody - not one single person - danced with me that night. That was a black time. There weren't many dark passages in my childhood but that most definitely was one.
B. Now read the text more carefully and choose the best answers to these questions.

1 When the baby arrived, Maeve was A excited at getting a new present. B was disappointed with her mother. C was jealous. D was fascinated by the new arrival. 2 Friends were always welcome at Maeve's house because her mother A liked having children around the house. B wanted to keep an eye on her children. C had been brought up by relations. D had been an orphan. 3 When her father told Maeve to read, she A eventually followed his advice. B felt lucky to be surrounded by books. C naturally obeyed him. D never listened. 4 When Maeve was told how babies were conceived, she A was not surprised as she had rabbits. B believed every word. C was deeply shocked. D checked with her father. 5 When Maeve went to the dance, she A had a good time. B dressed up. C wore fancy dress. D thought she looked awful.

VOCABULARY Exercise 3.2

Choose the right letter A-D to complete the sentences.

1 They took the baby to church to be ..................... . A named B christening C christened D baptism 2 Babies have to learn how to ..................... before they can walk. A creep B crawl C stride D stroll



3 She was unhappy ..................... her childhood. A during B for C while D as 4 The twins look so ..................... their father. A likely B likeness C alike D like 5 Katie really ..................... her mother. She has got the same character. A takes after B takes up C takes in D takes on 6 That child is really ..................... by its grandparents. A stained B polluted C spoilt D naughty 7 All the children have gone ..................... mumps. A along with B down with C out with D through with 8 His parents were so ..................... that he ran away from home. A struck B striped C severe D strict 9 It took him ages to ..................... living in the new town. A used to B accustomed C get used to D use to 12 He ..................... his best friend over a girl they both liked. A fell over B fell down C fell out with D fell off 13 It is time he ..................... a wife. A seeks B find C found 14 Are you married or .....................? A alone B solitary C single

D discovered

D bachelor

15 They are ..................... to be married next year. A promised B engaging C engaged D intended 16 When they got married, Peter was ..................... . A best man B witness C groom D stepfather 17 Robert and Anna have ..................... after only two years of marriage. A divorce B broken down C departed D split up 18 They ..................... the wedding because they no longer loved each other. A broke off B called up C called off D broke up 19 They ..................... on her new baby. A mentioned B congratulated C praised

D commented

20 Godparents ..................... them when their parents died. A took in B looked for C took after D looked after 21 People often put on weight in ..................... . A middle ages B middle aged C middle age D pension


22 She is so ..................... even though she is over 90. A alive B lively C living D vivid 10 Don't worry, it's just a difficult stage. She'll ..................... it. A get on with B get through to C get up to D grow out of 11 Her parents never ..................... her to go out after eight. A made B let C agreed D allowed 23 Her aunt's ..................... was a sad occasion. A cemetery B internment C coffin D funeral 24 They were left a lot of money in their aunt's A testament B inheritance C heritage D will 25 They were surprised to come..................... such a large sum. A up to B over C into D through

USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 3.3

A. Fill each of the numbered-gaps in the passage using one word in each space. Here are five of the words to help you.






I have always found it difficult to say ..................... (1) certain what my memories from my ..................... (2) childhood are. Are ..................... (3) memories learnt at a later age from overhearing our parents tell of our exploits? ..................... (4), there is a particular incident that I would love to claim as a genuine memory. When I was ..................... (5) three years old, I went to the post office with my mother ..................... (6) she was going to buy some stamps. While she was ' ..................... (7) served, I happened to notice a small stocking ..................... (8) was hanging from the counter. It was there ..................... (9) collect contributions for a charity for ..................... (10) blind. While ..................... (11) back was turned, I took the stocking and emptied ..................... (12) contents into my coat pocket. Of course, I was ..................... (13) young to know any better. When it was realized what I ......... :........... (14) done, everybody roared with laughter ..................... (15), that is, for my mother who was a little embarrassed. She ..................... (16) emptied the money back into the stocking ..................... (17), incidentally, a few pennies of my ..................... (18). One of the clerks was something of an amateur cartoonist and he ..................... (19) a drawing of me robbing an old lady. This cartoon ..................... (20) displayed in the post office for the next couple of years.
B. Change the words in capital letters to fit the context of the sentences.

1 He claimed that his ..................... had caused him to become a criminal. BRING UP 2 He was given a light sentence because of his ..................... . YOUNG 3 I am tired of your ..................... behaviour. When are you going to grow up? CHILD 4 ..................... is a time that is supposed to be free of worries. CHILD 5 It was a difficult ..................... and she almost lost the baby. PREGNANT



6 ....................., is traditionally a time when parents and children don't get on very well with each other. ADOLESCENT 7 She was shocked to find out she had been ..................... . ADOPT 8 They were sent to an ..................... run by nuns. ORPHAN 9 He is thinking of taking early ..................... next year. RETIRE 10 You would hardly think she has two ..................... girls. She just looks so young! TEEN LANGUAGE STUDY Causative have What is the difference? Harriet had her clothes made. Harriet made her own clothes. We use the have something done form when we want to say that instead of doing something ourselves someone else does it for us. We usually the form to talk about some kind of service we receive. In sentence 1 someone made her clothes for her. In sentence 2 she made them herself. Exercise 3.4
Transform these sentences using the causative have.

1 A local firm redecorated our kitchen. We .............................................................................. 2 It's time for me to have a haircut. It's time I ................................................................... 3 A doctor took out her tonsils when she was six. She ............................................................................. 4 A tailor altered his suit for the wedding. He .............................................................................. 5 She took her photographs to be developed. She ............................................................................. 6 A doctor is taking the woman's temperature. The woman ............................................................... 7 A plumber came to fix our central heating. We .............................................................................. 8 You look different. Has someone done your hair? Have you ...................................................................
make or do in fixed combinations

Exercise 3.5
Put the words in the box into columns according to whether they combine with make or do.

the bed one's duty someone

money a fuss good

nothing a noise the work

an appointment a fool of oneself the washing-up





a mess

ones best

READING Exercise 3.6

A. Read this biography of Charlie Chaplin and find out:

1 how old he was when he first performed in America. 2 when he invented The Tramp. 3 how many of his films are mentioned. 4 how many countries he lived in. 5 how many times he was married. Charlie was born in London in 1889. Both his parents were music hall performers. His father was a drunkard and his mother later went mad. Life was hard and Charlie and his half-brother, Sidney, were sent to an orphanage for a time. He first appeared on the stage when he was seven and by the time he was ten was a regular performer. When he was 17, he went on a tour of the USA where he was spotted and given a part in a Hollywood film. His early films were not particularly successful but in 1915 he made his masterpiece, "The Tramp"; in which he first appeared in the baggy trousers and with the hat and cane. Soon he had had his own studio built and was making his own films which included "The Gold Rush"; "Modern Times" and "The Great Dictator". In the 1940s his reputation in the USA started to decline. Silent films were no longer so popular. Chaplin went to Europe but was not allowed to return to the USA because he was suspected of being a communist. The authorities finally let him back in 1972 and he was awarded an Oscar, but by this time he had made Switzerland his home. Chaplin did not have a very happy personal life and was married four times. He only found happiness with his fourth marriage in 1943. When he died on Christmas Day 1977, the world had lost one of the greatest ever comedians.
B. Read the biography again and decide how happy and successful you think he was at different times of his life on a scale of 1 to 5. 5 =very happy/successful 1 =very unhappy/unsuccessful

childhood happy successful


middle age

old age



USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 3.7

A. Expand this into a letter by making the necessary changes.

Dear Sally, 1 I/ be/delighted/get/your letter this morning. 2 I/have/very clear/memory/Richard. He seem/such/nice/boy. 3 Congratulations. I hope/you/be/happy together. 4 Unfortunately/I/not be able/come/wedding. 5 At my age/I not think/I find/journey/easy. 6 All/same/I love give you/wedding present. 7 You/write/tell me/what/you/like/present? 8 My thoughts/be/with you both/the big day. 9 not forget/send me/photographs/piece/wedding cake. All my love and very best wishes for the future, Aunt Mary
B. Now do the same for the text below.

Dear Jerry, 1 I write/say/how sorry/I be/hear/death/your grandfather. 2 He be/such/wonderful man. I/miss him/lot. 3 His sudden death/must be/shock/you/your family. 4 I remember have/long conversation/him/only/few days ago. 5 He used/be/active/garden/interested/everything around him. 6 I/really like/attend/funeral/pay/last respects. 7 If it be/just/family affair/I/quite understand. 8 Please/not hesitate/contact me/if/be/anything/I can do/help you. Yours sincerely, Miranda



FOCUS 1 FORM AND MEANING OF ARTICLES Task Put the following sentences in order so that they make a logical story. a. Esinam found a real-estate agent to help them. b. They finally decided to buy the house, remodel the kitchen, and take out the old kitchen cabinets. c. Even though the house was little, it had a big, old-fashioned kitchen and two bathrooms. d. Next they viewed a pretty house, by the lake, but the house was too expensive. e. Finally they saw a little house at the end of a dead-end street. f. When I last talked to them, they were happy with their decision, and they liked the house a lot. g. Esinam and Stuart decided to buy a house. h. The real-estate agent then showed them a house near some apartment buildings, but the house was too big, and the apartment buildings were too ugly. i. The little house was just right not too expensive, not too far away from work, not too big. j. First they looked at a nice house in the suburbs, but the house was too far away from work. k. They told the real-estate agent that they wanted to live in a quiet neighborhood. They also said that they preferred small houses. There are four articles in English, one definite and three indefinite forms: examples Father to son: Where did you park the car? explanations DEFINITE The is used with specific nouns. Nouns are specific when the listener knows what specific thing or person the speaker is talking about. INDEFINITE A (or an before nouns that start with a vowel sound) is used with singular count nouns that are non-specific. Some is used for plural count and non-count nouns that are indefinite.

I need a new car.

I need some pencils. Would you like some rice? Pencils are made with lead. Rice is eaten in Africa.

is used for plural count and non-count nouns

that are indefinite and when the speaker wishes to talk about things in general.



Exercise 3.1. Read the following story. For all the underlined nouns, write D above nouns with definite articles and I above nouns with indefinite articles. Rigoberta Menchu is a young Guatemalan Indian woman. In 1993 she won the Nobel Peace Prize for her work for the Indians of Guatemala. In the book, I Rigoberta Menchu, she tells her life story and about some customs and ceremonies of the Quich Indians. She begins by telling about how as a young girl of eight, she helped her family by working on a coffee plantation. It was hard work to pick the coffee beans and weed the coffee plants. Most of her story tells about how the army and the government tried to control the Indians by taking property and killing many Indians. Rigobertas father, Mother, and one of her brothers were killed by soldiers. Rigoberta has tried to fight the violence with peace. She helped to start the PUC (a peasant unity committee), which has tried to oppose the government peacefully.

FOCUS 2 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE: SECOND MENTION examples explanations The is used when the listener knows what specific thing or person the speaker is talking about. The speaker is thinking, you know what I mean when he or she uses the. The speaker thinks that the listener knows what she or he means in different situations. When the noun has already been mentioned = second mention. When a related noun has already been mentioned, it is called related second mention.

She used to have a cat and a dog, but the cat got run over. He bought a suit yesterday, but the jacket had a button missing, so he had to return it. (Jacket is part of a suit: the listener knows which jacket since suit was already mentioned.) I had a lock but I lost the key for it.

Exercise 3.2 Each time the is underlined in the sentences below, decide why it is used. If it is used because it is the second mention of the noun following it, circle S (for Second mention). If it used because a related noun has been mentioned, circle R (for Related mention). 1. Jerry was late for his appointment, so he went into a telephone booth near the bus stop to make a phone call. It looked like someone was living in the S R telephone booth.


2. There was a small blanked covering the window of the telephone booth like a curtain. 3. The floor of the telephone booth was swept clean with a broom. 4. The broom was hung on a little hook in the corner of the telephone booth. 5. By the telephone, there was a pen a notepad with a short list of names and telephone numbers. 6. The names and telephone numbers were each written in a different color ink. 7. Jerry also noticed that there was a coffee mug and a toothbrush sitting neatly by the telephone directory. 8. The coffee mug looked like it had recently been rinsed. There were still drops of water in it. 9. Jerry had such a strong feeling that he was in someones living space that he decided to find another place to make the telephone call.



Exercise 3.3 Complete the following story with a, an, or the as appropriate. The first one has been done for you as an example. A Fractured Fairy Tale One morning Papa Bear, Mama Bear, and Baby Bear couldnt eat their porridge because it was too hot. So the three bears went for (1) ________ walk while their porridge cooled. While they were gone, Goldilocks came in. She saw (2) ________ porridge cooling. First, she tried Papas bowl, but (3) ________ porridge was too hot. Next, she tried Mamas bowl, but (4) ________ porridge was too cold. Then, she tried Baby Bears porridge, and it was just right, so she ate it all up. After that, Goldilocks was tired, so she looked for (5) ________ place to rest. She found (6) ________ bedrooms. She tried Papas room, but (7) ________ bed was too hard. Then, she tried Mamas bed, but it was too soft. Finally, she tried Babys bed, and it was just right. She felt so comfortable that she fell asleep. When (8) ________ bears came home, they found (9) ________ big surprise. Papa Bear looked at (10) ________ spoon in his bowl and said, Someone has been eating my porridge. Mama looked at (11) ________ spoon in her bowl and said, Someone has been eating (12) ________ porridge, all right. When he looked at his bowl, Baby Bear began to cry. (13) ________ bowl was empty. When Mama went to her bedroom, she found (14) ________ covers disturbed on her bed. Look, Papa, (15) ________ beds are a mess. Yes, Papa agreed. Someone has been sleeping in my bed too. Here she is! shouted Baby Bear. At the sound of (16) ________ Bears voice, Goldilocks jumped out and ran out. However, the police caught her. She was arrested and charged with unlawful entry, stealing porridge, and bad manners. The judge sentenced her to three months at Miss Manners School of Etiquette.



FOCUS 3 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE: UNIQUENESS examples explanations We also use the definite article the when the noun is unique. In other words, there is only one possible reference because the place where you are speaking makes it clear. Or theres only one of the thing mentioned. Or the adjectives used with the noun make only one reference possible (examples of these kinds of adjectives: same, only, right; numbers like first, second, last; and superlatives like best, happiest, hardest).

The flowers are beautiful. (said in a garden) Who painted the ceiling? (said in a room) The sun is shining today. (unique reference theres only one sun) Well have to wait for the next bus. (Theres only one possible next bus.) Thats the hardest test Ive ever taken. (Theres only one possible hardest test.) Shes the first person I met here and the only friend I have.

Exercise 3.4 Complete the following story with a, an, or the as appropriate. The first one has been done for you as an example. Now its time for our nightly weather report. This was the rainiest day ever for (1) _____ first day of spring. It wasnt (2) _____ best day for getting (3) _____ good look at (4) _____ sun, but (5) _____ rain was needed. This has been (6) _____ driest spring on record. The plants really needed (7) _____ rain. (8) _____ high temperature was 65 today, and (9) _____ low temperature was 40. (10) _____ three-day forecast calls for more rain. But dont worry, things will clear up for (11) _____ weekend.

FOCUS 4 THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE examples I read a great book yesterday. Martha just bought a new backpack. Id like to get a ticket to the concert on Friday. He is hoping to find a new wife. I would like to read some more books. We need some more chalk. explanations The indefinite article a (or an before nouns that start with a vowel sound) is used when the speaker first mentions a thing or person. It can also be used when the speaker is not talking about specific thing or person but is making a generalization. Some is used for the same purposes with plural or non-count nouns.



Exercise 3.5 Fill in the blanks in the story below with a/an, some, or the. 1. Esinam and Stuart had ________ friend, Mel, who was also looking for ________ house to buy. 2. Mel was especially interested in finding ________ house with ________ view. 3. Mel thought that ________ best views were from ________ hills east of town. 4. There were ________ houses for sale in that area, but they were all very expensive. 5. Mel decided to ask for ________ loan from his parents so that he could afford to buy ________ house with his favourite view. 6. First he looked at ________ big old house with four bedrooms. 7. He liked ________ house very much, but it was too big for just one person. 8. So he decided to ask ________ friends to live with him and pay rent. 9. He bought ________ house, even though it was ________ only house he had looked at!

Exercise 3.6 Fill in the blanks in the story below with a/an, some, or the. 1. Last autumn Anita worked in ________ apple orchard, picking apples. 2. ________ work was not easy. 3. She had sore muscles ________ first week of work, and every night she slept very soundly. 4. ________ first orchard she worked in was considered small, with only 50 trees. 5. It was owned by ________ old, retired woman, who worked in the orchard as ________ hobby. 6. ________ next orchard Anita worked in seemed huge, about 20 acres. 7. In this orchard, ________ of the trees had yellow apples, which were called Golden Delicious. 8. Every day Anita ate ________ apples for breakfast and for lunch. 9. Even though ________ weather was beautiful, and ________ hard work made her feel very healthy, Anita was relieved when ________ apple-picking season was over.

FOCUS 5 THE ARTICLE examples There are many uses for trees. Literature, art, and music are considered the fine arts. explanations When we talk about things in general (all tree, all literature), we can use a plural noun or noncount noun with zero article ().



Exercise 3.7 Circle the errors in article usage in the sentences below. Specifically, should you use the or the zero () article? 1. The love is a very important thing in our lives. 2. Without the love, we will be lonely and confused. 3. I believe that the money is not as important as love, although some people dont feel this way. 4. If the money is too important, then we become greedy. 5. When we get old, the health becomes almost as important as love. 6. My grandmother says, Just wait and see. Work you do and the money you earn are important now, but when youre old 7. love that you feel for your family and friends, health of your loved ones these are things that will be most important.

Exercise 3.8 Fill in the blanks in the story below with the, zero () article, a/an or some. 1. Berta likes ________ books. She has two rooms full of books in her house. 2. In general, she finds that ________ books are expensive, although ________ paperback books are still fairly inexpensive. 3. Usually ________ used books are about a third of the price of ________ new books. 4. ________ textbooks are pretty expensive. 5. ________ romance novels and ________ mysteries are usually pretty cheap. 6. ________ cheapest books of all are at Als Second-hand Bookstore in the University District. 7. At Als, ________ used books in the back room are all three dollars or less. 8. Once she bought ________ book that cost $75. This book was ________ atlas, with pages and pages of beautifully coloured maps. 9. Berta feels that ________ books are a good thing to spend money on these days even though they might seem kind of expensive when you buy them. 10. The nicest thing about ________ books, according to Berta, is that you can always keep them, to look at or read again and again. Exercise 3.9 Fill in the blanks in the story below with the or the zero () article. Newfoundland is one province of Canada which attracts (1)________ tourists of all ages. Much of (2)________ province is on Newfoundland Island and separated from Canadas mainland. (3)________ ferries and (4)________ airplanes bring (5)________ passengers from all over (6)________ world. (7)________ rugged coast of this island is full of (8)________ natural beauty. (9)________ tourists marvel at (10)________ fjords and (11)________ inlets in Gros Morne National Park. (12)________ nature is everywhere on Newfoundland Island. (13)________ people watch for (14)________ birds such as: (15)________ eagles, (16)________ seagulls, (17)________ cormorants, and (18)________ guillemots; or they look for (19)________ pilot whales. Yes, (20)________ life is beautiful on Newfoundland Island.



FOCUS 6 ARTICLES WITH GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES Task Complete the chart below with geographical names. Use a recent edition of an almanac to check your answers: What is? the largest continent in the world the longest river The largest country (in size, not population) the biggest island the highest mountain range the highest mountain the biggest desert the largest ocean the largest lake the largest planet examples He lives in China. Lake Superior is in North America. South America Mars (Exception: the earth, which ca also be simply Earth) Yosemite National Park First Avenue, Interstate 90, Main Street Jamaica Mt. Shasta (Exception: the Matterhorn) Lake Union France Australia explanations Geographical names are proper nouns, and usually you dont need an article with them. We do not use the: With the names of continents, planets, parks, streets and most highways and cities Before individual (rather than plural) islands, mountain peaks, lakes With the names of countries, except when they are viewed as unions or federations, as in the United Kingdom, or are plural, as in the Philippines. We use the: With chains or groups (plural rather than singular) of islands, mountains, lakes With the names of rivers, deserts, oceans and seas, regions; when the direction word acts as the proper noun

the Hawaiian Islands the Andes the Great Lakes the Yellow River the Gobi Desert the Arctic Ocean, the Black Sea the West, the Midwest the Republic of China, the Bay of Bengal With nouns with of in them NOTE: These are the regular patters for using articles with geographical names. Occasionally you will come across other exceptions.



Exercise 3.10 Look at the categories below. For each category (1-10), put the correct answers from the Task in either Column A or B. (Dont worry about Column C; you will complete this later.) For example, the highest mountain is Mt. Everest, which does not use the, so this would go in column B for #6. Category (A) Use the (B) Dont use the (C) Exceptions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. rivers continents countries islands mountain ranges mountain peaks deserts oceans lakes Mt. Everest

10. planets Can you now add more examples to each column, and can you also find some examples for Column C? Exercise 3.11 Read the following description of Canada. Underline all the geographical names. Then list the geographical names that dont take articles on the left and geographical names that do take articles on the right. The first one has been done for you as an example. Canada Canada is the northernmost country in North America. Canada is bordered by the United States on the south, the Arctic Ocean on the north, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the Pacific Ocean and Alaska on the west. Canada is divided into 10 provinces: Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and two territories: Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories. The two highest mountains in Canada are Mount Logan at 19,850 feet above sea level and Mount St. Elias at 18,008 feet above sea level. Canadas largest lakes are Lake Huron, Great Bear Lake, Lake Superior, and Great Slave Lake. No articles Articles 1. Canada 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 6. etc.



Exercise 3.12 Test your knowledge of world geography. Name a geographical location for each category which begins with the letter at the top of the column. Be sure to include articles for the places that require them. M Rivers Deserts Cities Lakes H Islands and island chains Mountain chains or peaks Streets in your city / town P States or provinces Planets Oceans or seas M N A R G S

Exercise 3.13 Fill in the blanks with the or (article not required): (1) _________ Myanmar is sandwiched between (2) _________ India and (3) _________ Bangladesh on the one side and (4) _________ China, (5) _________ Laos, and (6) _________ Thailand on the other, while to the south is (7) _________ Andaman Sea and (8) _________ Bay of Bengal. Myanmar has several important river systems including (9) _________ Irrawaddy, which runs almost the entire length of the country and enters the sea in a vast region southwest of (10) _________ Rangoon, the capital. (11) _________ Mekong River forms the border between Myanmar and Laos. (12) _________ Himalayas rise in the north of Myanmar, and (13) _________ Hkakabo Razi, on the border between Maynmar and Tibet, is the highest mountain in (14) _________ southeast Asia, at 5881 meters (19,297 feet)



FOCUS 7 ARTICLES WITH INSTITUTIONAL TERMS examples Boston College Louisiana State [University] Central Park Discovery Park the University of Northern Iowa the Space Needle the Golden Gate Bridge (Exception: Disneyland) the Museum of Natural History explanations We do not use the when the name of a university or college comes directly before the word university or college, or when university or college is implied. We do not usually use the with the names of parks. We use the: when the phrase University of comes before the rest of the name; with the names of tourist attractions, monuments, or famous buildings; with museums and libraries.

Exercise 3.14 Look at these conversations. Underline all the geographical names, names of institutions, and names of famous buildings or places. Dialogue 1 A: My brother is a freshman at the University of Washington. B: Really? I thought he was at Louisiana State. A: He was. He didnt like the climate in the South, so he decided to move to the Pacific Northwest. Dialogue 2 A: How long did you stay in Washington, D.C.? B: Not very long. We had just enough time to see the White House, the Capitol, and the Washington Monument. A: Did you get to any museums or art galleries? B: We wanted to go to the Smithsonian and the National Gallery, but we didnt have time. A: Too bad! Exercise 3.15 In 1992, Hurricane Andrew destroyed more property than any other natural disaster in the United States. Not only did it destroy homes and businesses, but many public institutions were damaged too. Use the information from the chart to write sentences about the places that Hurricane Andrew damaged. Be sure to use the article the as appropriate.



Slightly Damaged Colleges or Universities 1. Barry University 4. St. Thomas University

Damaged 2. Miami-Dade Community College (Wolfson Campus)

Heavily Damaged 3. University of Miami 5. Florida International 6. Miami-Dade Community College (Homestead Campus)

Parks 7. Oleta River State Park 10. Greynolds Park Buildings and Attractions 13. Freedom Tower 16. Port of Miami 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

8. Morningside Park

9. Biscayne National Park 11. Everglades National Park 12. Faichild Tropical Gardens 15. Deering Estate 17. Zoo

14. Micasooki Indian Reservation

Barry University was slightly damaged by Hurricane Andrew. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Exercise 3.16 The following conversation is between Sheryl Smith, a real-estate agent, and the Joneses, who are considering buying a house in the city of Golden Oaks. Fill in the blanks with the (when the definite article is required) or (when no article is required). Sheryl Smith: Im sure youd like the area. It borders (1) ________ Discovery Park, which has free outdoor concerts at (2) ________ Rutherford Concert Hall, and also theres (3) ________ Whitehawk Native American Art Museum, which youve probably heard of. It is quite well known. Mike Jones: Yes, yes. Donna Jones: What about schools? Sheryl Smith: Well, theres (4) ________ Smith College of Architecture, of course Donna Jones: I mean public schools. For our children. Sheryl Smith: Oh, well, (5) ________ Golden Oaks Elementary School is only a few blocks away, on (6) ________ First Avenue. And theres a high school about a mile north of the park.


Mike Jones: (pointing): Arent those (7) ________ White Mountains? Sheryl Smith: Yes. On clear days, you can even see (8) ________ Mt. Wildman, the tallest mountain in the range. Mike Jones: Oh, yes. I heard about a good fishing spot there, on (9) ________ Blue Lake. Sheryl Smith: Yes, my husband goes there and to (10) ________ Old Mans River to fish. He could tell you all about it. Mike Jones: Mrs. Smith, I think you might have made a sale today.

Exercise 3.17 Fill in the blanks with the or (article not required). San Francisco Must Sees for First-Timers Once considered impossible to build, (1) ________ Golden Gate Bridge, a 1.7-milelong single-span suspension bridge, was opened in 1937. A walk across offers a fantastic view of the city, (2) ________ Marin Headlands, and (3) ________ East Bay. Experience a taste of (4) ________ Orient in (5) ________ Chinatown, the largest Chinese settlement outside (6) ________ Asia. Originally only sand dunes, (7) ________ Golden Gate Park owes it s existence to Scottish landscape architect John McLaren. In addition to the beauty of its landscape, the park contains: a conservatory modelled after (8) ________ Kew Gardens; (9) ________ Asian Art Museum with its well-known Brundage collection; (10) ________ Strybring Arboretum with its worldwide plant collection; and (11) ________ California Academy of Sciences, which includes a planetarium and aquarium.




Exercise 4.1
A. You are going to read a British newspaper article which tries to explain why teenagers are attracted to certain teenage cults'. The writer puts forward seven explanations. Read the article and decide which explanations you think are the most and the least convincing.

Understanding Teenage Cults

Ever since the early 1950s there have been attempts to explain why youth cults happen. None of them has been entirely convincing. The reaction theory Teenagers want to show how different they are from their parents and, perhaps more importantly, their older brothers and sisters. If the last fashion had long hair and wide trousers, then the next one will have short hair and narrow trousers. There seems to be a lot of truth in this. The global village theory Because of films, records, television and radio, teenagers are aware of what their contemporaries are doing all around the English-speaking world. Almost as soon as there were hippies in San Francisco, we had them too. A problem with this theory is that the time has to be right for a style to be adopted. The main influence on teenagers remains their friends. The teenage idol theory Teenagers imitate the people they look up to, chiefly film stars and pop performers. When David Bowie used eye shadow, so did many of his male fans. However, this only succeeds if the pop star is in tune with the way youth culture is already going. The technology theory Many developments in teenage culture were possible only because of new technology. Electric guitars plus amplification meant you could have pop groups and pop festivals. The transistor radio made pop music inevitable. The drug culture theory This theory suggests that the nature of a youth cult is determined by the drugs that it takes. Speed (amphetamine) equals aggression and energy - think of punks and skinheads. Pot (cannabis) equals relaxation and mysticism - think of hippies. Even "ordinary" society has its drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. But maybe the style came before the drug. The capitalist domination theory Youth culture happened because commerce understood that teenagers had money to spend and worked out ways of making them buy more records, clothes and concert tickets. This does not account for cults that were anti-consumerist like the punks and hippies. The class theory This is a sophisticated left wing theory. Youth cults assert the solidarity of young people who are victimized by society. Skinheads take aspects of working class culture to an extreme. They almost enjoy people looking down on them.



There is no simple explanation. My own research points to these general observations. Firstly, cults don't arrive fully-formed, flourish and then die. They are constantly changing and their message evolving. Secondly, teenagers only join a cult if it feels right, but most kids want to be something and cults give them something to be.
B. Choose the best answers to the following questions.

1 In general, young people are most influenced by A their social class. B their friends. C pop stars. D their parents. 2 Which statement best sums up the global village theory? A Young people need to be independent. B People of the same age unite. C Efficient communication leads to copying. D Big business causes change. 3 The drug culture theory suggests A young people are alienated. C nicotine isn't a drug.

B skinheads are relaxed. D everybody takes drugs.

4 Which of the following theories does the writer seem to accept the most? A The reaction theory. B The teenage idol theory. C The class theory. D The capitalist domination theory. 5 The writer concludes that cults A make kids join them. C provide an identity.

B are evil. D stay the same.

LANGUAGE STUDY Conjunctions Exercise 4.2

Choose the most appropriate conjunction to complete the following sentences. Remember that the sentences must agree with the sense of the newspaper article you have just read.

1 Teenagers want to show they're different ..................... they react against their families. A because B but C so 2 ..................... do they react against their parents but against older brothers and sisters too. A Also B Not only C And 3 Young people know what's going on ..................... communications are so good. A yet B since C so 4 ..................... they are able to copy each other. A Even so B As well C That's why 5 ..................... teenagers copy pop idols, the stars have to understand what the young really want. A However B Although C In spite of 6 Pop music is popular ..................... modern technology. A owing to B because C due to


7 There are other drugs ..................... alcohol and nicotine. A as well B too C besides 8 Businessmen invented youth cults ..................... to exploit the young. A in order B therefore C also 9 .................... , this does not explain cults such as the punks. A In addition B Nevertheless C Therefore 10 Skinheads feel victimized by society . ..................... , they form a culture of their own. A Consequently B In order to C And

VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs Exercise 4.3

A. Match the phrasal verb with the definitions on the right.

1 go along with 2 talk over 3 live up to 4 sort out 5 put down 6 look down on 7 face up to 8 let down 9 look up to

A cause someone to be disappointed B put in order/put right C be brave enough to accept or deal with something D respect E agree with/support F speak about something thoroughly G have a low opinion of someone H keep to high standards I make someone feel unimportant

B. Fill the gaps with the missing phrasal verbs from A.

1 Stop running away from the situation. It's time you ..................... it. 2 He promised to pick me up from the station but he didn't. That's the second time he has ..................... me ..................... this week. 3 She was never able to ..................... her mother's high expectations of her. 4 I don't know why you ..................... that boy. You agree with everything he says and copy everything he does. 5 Why do you ..................... her ..................... every time she speaks? I'm not surprised she has no self-confidence. 6 Don't be such a snob, Marcia. Just because she doesn't have as much money as you that's no reason to ..................... her. 7 After he had spent all evening ..................... the problem... .................. with his best friend, he felt much better about things. 8 You can't expect me to ..................... the plan before I've had an opportunity to study it carefully. 9 Oh, no! It's going to take ages to ..................... these documents ..................... . Why doesn't he ever file anything?



READING Exercise 4.4

People often write to advice columns in magazines for help. Read this letter to Angela Strong and find out what the problem is.

Dear Angela, I was horrified when I found out that my 12-year-old daughter had been arrested for stealing some make-up from a high street chemist. This happened because she had been dared by some older children from her school. She was so frightened that she started crying - which is what attracted the attention of the shop assistant. The police were called and she was given a telling-off at the police station. Since this terrifying experience, she has been too afraid to go out on her own and cries all the time. My husband doesn't seem to care that much. He says that she shouldn't have stolen in the first place and was unlucky to be caught. Now it is over she must learn to live with it. But I feel a failure as a parent and am afraid that my child will turn to crime later on in life. Yours sincerely, Ashamed

USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 4.5

A. Make all the changes and additions necessary to produce, from the following sets of words and phrases, sentences which together make a complete letter of reply from Angela Strong.

Dear Ashamed, 1 I think/you should/follow your/husband/example/try/put/incident behind you/your family. 2 Your daughter/know/she/let you down/not/feel happy until/she feel/you/ forgive/her. 3 Your feelings/guilt/be unjustified/you should/put/energy into/make/your child/feel better. 4 If I/be/you/I/not/worry/much/about/her/turn/to crime. 5 She/be/terrified/whole thing/and/be/put off/ever take/anything ever again. 6 Most kids/do/something like this/some stage/she be/just/unlucky enough/be/ catch. 7 If she not/get over/experience soon/you can/always/take her away/short holiday/give her/change/scene. 8 Then she/can/face up to/relatives/neighbours. 9 I/be sure you/can/sort things out. Yours sincerely, Angela Strong
B. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the following passage. Use only one word in each space.

Dear Angela, Six years ago, when I was a student, I was short of money. So once a week I ..................... (1) to go home to see my parents and get a decent meal. Although I had a good relationship with my mother, I never got ..................... (2) well with my father. I could never live up to ..................... (3) high expectations of me.


One day I did a ..................... (4) terrible thing. I stole some money from him. I ..................... (S) started off by asking him if he ..................... (6) lend me ten pounds. He refused saying he had ..................... (7) given me enough and it was ..................... (8) I became more responsible with money. You know what it is like ..................... (9) a student. I'd run out of money and wanted to take a girl out. When he refused, I ..................... (10) him of being mean and we had a terrible row. He left the house and I was ..................... (11) angry that I stole ten pounds from his wallet. When he found out that the money was gone, he ..................... (12) who had ..................... (13) it and banned me from the house. ..................... (14) then I have returned but he has never really forgiven me and still looks down on me for..................... (1S) I did. My mother is very upset and I really ..................... (16) to work towards creating a happy relationship with my father for ..................... (17) our sakes. Half of me wants to say `sorry Dad' while ..................... (18) other half still thinks he is ridiculous ..................... (19) having kept this attitude up for so long. How can I bridge ..................... (20) endless misunderstanding? Yours sincerely, Richard A VOCABULARY Participle Adjectives Exercise 4.6
Choose the right participle adjective to fit the sentence.

1 She was horrified/horrifying when she heard the news. 2 You look depressed/depressing. What's wrong? 3 The results were disappointed/disappointing. 4 His strange behaviour is worried/worrying. 5 Her table manners are awful. She's a disgusted/disgusting eater. 6 You'll find flying less tired/tiring than driving. 7 Don't be bored/boring, Freddie. I want to dance! 8 Sorry darling, I don't mean to be bored/boring and spoil your evening but can we leave now?

READING Exercise 4.7

Read the two versions of the same story and note what the differences between them are. Think about vocabulary, grammar and style.

The Mysterious Hitchhiker

Version 1 ONE NIGHT a friend of mine was driving past one of the cemeteries outside Rome. By the side of the road, he saw a girl of about 18 who was hitchhiking. He stopped to pick her up and, as she looked cold, lent her his jacket. She told him where she wanted to go and he took her to a block of flats in a small street. As she got out, she held out the jacket but Carlo told her to keep it and that he would see her another time. She smiled and went into the building.


A few days later, Carlo went back to find her. When he told an old woman the girl's description, she told him that the girl used to live there but had died a couple of years before. Three months later Carlo went to the cemetery to put some flowers on his mother's grave. As he was leaving the cemetery, he noticed his jacket on another gravestone. When he picked it up, he saw the photograph of the girl he had given a lift to. Version 2 One cold winter's evening, Carlo, an old friend of mine, was driving past one of the huge cemeteries just outside Rome. It was freezing cold and he happened to notice a young girl hitchhiking by the side of the road. Even though it was winter, she was just wearing a thin dress. Carlo pulled up and opened the passenger door to let her in. Her lips were blue with cold so he gave her the jacket he was wearing to put over her shoulders. After a few moments' silence, he asked her where she wanted to go and she whispered her instructions. He glanced at her and noticed for the first time that she was extremely beautiful. She had a delicate pale face with long blonde hair and large green eyes. He wondered what she had been doing standing by the side of the road and guessed that she looked so sad because she must have had a row with her boyfriend who had left her there. They drove on in silence, the girl making little gestures to show him which route to take. They finally turned into a narrow street in an old part of town. As soon as the girl got out, she took off the jacket and held it out to Carlo. Carlo refused to take it because she still looked cold and he wanted an excuse to see her again. She smiled mysteriously and disappeared through a dark doorway, without saying a word ....

LANGUAGE STUDY The gerund and the infinitive Exercise 4.8

A. Complete these sentences putting the verb in brackets into either the infinitive or gerund.

1. Have you ever considered ..................... (emigrate)? 2. The customs officer refused ..................... (let) him into the country. 3. They denied ..................... (enter) the country illegally. 4. The government agreed ..................... (allow) the refugees over the border. 5. They threatened ..................... (deport) her on the next flight. 6. He avoided ..................... (cross) the bridge by swimming the river. 7. The tourist offered ..................... (hide) her in the boot of his car. 8. Would you mind ..................... (show) me your passport, sir? 9. Have you finished ..................... (fill in) that form? 10. He pretended ..................... not (understand) the regulations. 11. Immigration officials tend ..................... (be) suspicious.
B. Put the verbs in brackets into the gerund or infinitive. Sometimes, both may be possible. Look carefully at the context you are given.

1. Don't forget ..................... (go) to the travel agent's, will you? The plane tickets need ..................... (pick up). 2. I shall never forget ..................... (see) her for the first time.


3. Oh, no! It's starting ..................... (rain). 4. I like ..................... (play) tennis but I wouldn't like ..................... (play) with her. She's such a bad loser. 5. Lucia started ..................... (study) English six years ago. 6. He remembers ..................... (drive) up to the crossroads but nothing else after the accident. 7. Do try ..................... (make) less noise. I'm trying ..................... (concentrate). 8. Have you ever stopped ..................... (wonder) why she behaves like that? 9. We really need ..................... (do) some shopping; we're running out of everything. 10. I've tried ..................... (jog) and aerobics, but I still can't lose weight. 11. I'm terribly sorry but I forgot ..................... (post) your letters. 12. Did you remember ..................... (do) your homework? 13. I'll stop ..................... (lend) you money if you waste it on cigarettes. 14. I can't get this table through the door. Have you tried ..................... (take off) the legs?

USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 4.9

Judith is on holiday in New York. She is talking to Mr O'Rourke. Complete the dialogue by filling in the blanks numbered 1-6. But read the whole conversation first.

JUDITH: With a name like O'Rourke, you must be Irish. MR O'ROURKE: That's right, my dear. I sure am. JUDITH: (1) ...................................................... ? MR O'ROURKE: Well, my great great grandfather came here more than 130 years ago. JUDITH: (2) ...................................................... ? MR O'ROURKE: Life was so terrible in Ireland. There just wasn't enough to eat. JUDITH: 3) ...................................................... ? MR O'ROURKE: No, he came with two of his brothers but one died on the voyage. JUDITH: (4) ...................................................... ? MR O'ROURKE: Yes, I have. My wife and I went back to visit our old village ten years ago. JUDITH: (5) ...................................................... ? MR O'ROURKE: It was the most unforgettable experience I have ever had. I met lots of distant cousins. JUDITH: (6) ...................................................... ? MR O'ROURKE: Yes, we have kept in touch. In fact, some of them are coming over to spend the Easter vacation with us.

VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs Exercise 4.10

A. Match the phrasal verb on the left with its synonym on the right.

1 set up 2 take up 3 go up 4 carry out

A persuade B make a home C disappoint D establish



5 talk into 6 settle down 7 let down 8 catch on

E increase F adopt/start something new G become popular H perform

B. Complete the sentences using each phrasal verb once only. Make any necessary changes to the sentences.

1 This new game is really ..................... , everybody is playing it. 2 You shouldn't make threats if you're not going to ..................... them ..................... . 3 Why do prices keep ..................... ? 4 The shop assistant ..................... me ..................... buying this new suit and I really hate it already! 5 It's time you ..................... and started a family. 6 This business was ..................... 100 years ago. 7 When she retired, she ..................... gardening so she wouldn't get bored. 8 I'm sorry to ..................... you ..................... but I can't take you to the airport after all.

LANGUAGE STUDY Saying numbers Exercise 4.11

Look at the following sentences and, where necessary, correct them.

1 She lived for hundred years. 2 The population of the USA is over two hundred millions. 3 Five thousands of people visit the gallery every day. 4 My telephone number is twenty four, thirty three, eight hundred and ninety five. 5 I would like one dozen of eggs please. 6 The code for London is nought one. 7 Dozens of people walked out of the film. 8 The book is one hundred eighty pages long. 9 Altogether that's three pounds and sixty-five. 10 The average family has two comma four children. 11 The drawer is an eight of an inch too wide. 12 There were thousands of people at the party. 13 The Battle of Waterloo was in one thousand eight hundred and fifteen. 14 My car does thirty miles for one gallon of petrol.




FOCUS 1 PASSIVE VERSUS ACTIVE Explanations The active voice emphasizes the person who performs an action. When you want to emphasize the action or the result of the action and not the person Grapes are cultivated in the North. who performs it, you can use the passive. We often use the passive when we do not know exactly who performed an action or The house was built in the mid 60s. when it is not important to know who performed it. NOTE: The passive is more formal than the active and is therefore more common in writing, particularly scientific and technological writing, than in conversation. The passive is also very common in news reports. examples Farmers cultivate grapes in the North.

Exercise 4.1 Read the following report from a local newspaper describing a car accident. As the editor, you have to decide which is more appropriate, active or passive voice, and put a check () next to it. The first one has been done for you. 1. ___ A car accident injured a seven-year-old boy on Wednesday. __ A seven-year-old boy was injured in a car accident on Wednesday. 2. ___ A bus was hit by the boys father, Donald Derby, at the intersection of 1st Avenue and Spencer Street. ___ The boys father, Donald Derby, hit a bus at the intersection of 1st Avenue and Spencer Street. 3. ___ A stop sign had been run by Derby. ___ Derby had run a stop sign. 4. ___ The boy was thrown through the car window. ___ The force of the accident threw the boy through the car window. 5. ___ Derbys daughter, Debbie, age three, was also in the car, but the accident did not hurt her. ___ Derbys daughter, Debbie, age three, was also in the car but was not hurt. 6. ___ An ambulance took the father to St. Christopher Hospital. ___ The father was taken to St. Christopher Hospital 7. ___ The accident also injured the driver of the bus, Joe Barta. ___ The driver of the bus, Joe Barta, was also injured. 8. ___ An ambulance took him to Cedars Hospital, where doctors treated him. ___ He was taken to Cedars Hospital, where doctors treated him.



9. ___ Seat belts were not being worn by the Derbies. ___ The Derbies were not wearing seat belts. 10. __ Derby will be charged with running a stop sign and driving without a license. ___ The police will charge Derby with running a stop sign and driving without a license.

FOCUS 2 HOW TO FORM THE PASSIVE To form the passive, use the appropriate tense of be, followed by the past participle (pp): Simple Present Present progressive Simple Past Past Progressive Present Perfect Past Perfect am/is/are am/is/are being was/were was/were being have/has been had been + + + + + + pp pp pp pp pp pp Beer is produced here. Beer is being produced here right now. Beer was produced here. Beer was being produced here ten years ago. Beer has been produced here since 1900. Beer had been produced here when the island was discovered. Beer will be produced here next year. Beer is going to be produced here.

Future (will) + pp will be Future (be going am/is/are going to + pp to) be NOTE: Present perfect progressive and past perfect progressive are rarely used in the passive.

Exercise 4.2 Complete the following report about the products of Camporia, using the appropriate form of the passive. Camporia is well-known for a number of products that are popular with tourists. For example, traditional sweaters (1) .. (make) from the wool that (2) .. (produce) in the Northwest. This wool (3) .. also (send) to the Southwest region of the island, where it (4) .. (weave) into colourful rugs. These rugs (5) .. (sell) all over the world. Another popular product is jewellery. Rings and necklaces in traditional designs (6) .. (make) from the copper that (7) .. (mine) in the Southeast. The wine that (8) .. (serve) in restaurants in the capital (9) .. (make) from grapes that (10) .. (cultivate) in the North. Visitors also enjoy Camporian cheeses and bread, all of which (11) .. (produce) locally. Exercise 4.3 Complete the following, using appropriate tenses. Adventurous tourists are beginning to discover Camporia, and the island is hard at work getting ready to welcome more visitors. A new airport (1) .. (build) last year, and at the moment, hotels (2) .. (construct) along the southern beaches. A new road (3) .. (finish) next year so visitors will be able to reach the northern region. Five years ago, little (4) .. (know) about Camporia; but last year, three


books (5) .. (write) about the island, and several guide books (6) .. (publish). At the moment, these books (7) .. (translate) into different languages. English (8) .. (teach) in schools so many Camporians know a little English, but not many other foreign languages .. (speak). Tourism has brought many changes to this small island, and people are afraid that it will have a negative effect on the traditional customs and culture of the people. For example, last month in the capital, several young Camporians (10) .. (arrest) for being drunk in public, and some tourists (11) .. (rob) near the beach. However, if you leave the tourist area and go up to the mountains, you will find that life is till the same as it was hundreds of years ago. For example, since the sixteenth century, the same tribal dances (12) .. (perform) to celebrate the Camporian new year, and the same type of food (13) .. (serve). For centuries, visitors (14) .. (invite) to join Camporians in the celebration of festivals, and you will find traditional Camporian hospitality in these regions has not changed at all.

Exercise 4.4 Complete the following letter, using the appropriate form of the passive voice in the simple past, past perfect, present perfect, or future. Dear Julie The last time I wrote to you my life was very different. Do you remember that Charlie and I were thinking about leaving the city and moving far away? Well, we did it! The decision to build our house in the North Woods of Canada (1)____________ (make) three years ago. The lumber (2)____________ (buy) and (3)____________ (move) by truck over miles of bad road. The plans for the house (4)____________ (draw up) on our dining table. I was in charge of the work, but my contribution (5)____________ (limit) to giving orders. Most of the work was done by professionals, although a lot of the house (6)____________ (design) by Charlie. Its fabulous! The house (7)____________ (build) out of native Canadian pine in a large and beautiful field. The field (8)____________ (cover) with summer flowers when we arrived. Im sorry to say that the flowers (9)____________ (cut) to make room for the house. Our puppy, Caesar, was delighted with his small dog house which (10)____________ (build) in the back yard. While we were all working on the house, we (11)____________ (visit) every day by some of the wild animals of northern Canada. We gave them names of Walt Disney characters. The deer (12)____________ (name) Bambi, the rabbit (13)____________ (call) Thumper, and a small grey wolf (14)____________ (nickname) Goofy. The skunk in our front yard (15)____________ (name) Flower. A fence (16)____________ (build) to surround our two dozen acres of land. The house (17)____________ (finish) in four months, before the autumn frost, but the inside (18)____________ (not + paint) until the following spring. Our furniture (19)____________ (send) from the city, and we(20)____________ (move) in by Halloween. But the only trick-or-treaters that (21)____________ (see) that year were two raccoons, s woodchuck, and a fox. That was three years ago. Since then we have decided to stay. Our apartment in the city (22)____________ (sell), our employers (23)____________ (notify) that were not returning to work, even though Charlie and I (24)____________ (just + promote) when we decided to move. Soon Charlie and I (25)____________ (both + employ) by different companies, but we (26)____________ (allow) to stay here at home and work at the computer. I thought that it was going to be difficult for the children to adjust, but Jonathan, Lindsay, and Alex (27)____________ (not + bother) at all by the change. They have made


new friends, and they love playing outside every day. I love it because theres no traffic, polluted air, noise, or crime. Well, Julie, I have to go. Youre welcome to come up for a visit any time. Love, Nancy FOCUS 3 INCLUDING THE AGENT Examples explanations We can include the agent (the person who performs an a) Tribal dances are performed action) in the passive in the following situations: every night. During the week, they are performed by women, and on To add new information weekends they are performed by men. b) Hamlet was written by William With proper names or well-known people. Shakespeare. c) I cant believe it! This novel was When the identity of the agent is unexpected or written by a fourteen-year-old. surprising. NOTE: In most of the situations where the passive is used, the by + agent phrase does not occur. Exercise 4.5 Decide if the by + agent phrase is necessary in all of the following. Cross out the by phrases that you think are unnecessary. 1. Copper has been mined by miners for hundreds of years in Camporia. 2. Camporia was described by Jack Simms in one of his novels. 3. Cotton is grown by Camporians in the south of Camporia. 4. Hotels are being built by builders along the southern beaches. 5. Camporia was colonised by the Spanish for years. 6. English is taught by teachers in Camporian schools. 7. Wheat is grown by Camporians in eastern Camporia. It is planted by men, and it is harvested by women and children. 8. Next year several new hotels in Camporia will be built by Spanish developers. 9. Rugs have been produced by people in Camporia for centuries. They are woven by women from the mountain tribes and are then transported to the capital by mule and are sold in the markets by relatives of the weavers. 10. In restaurants in the city, fine Camporian wines are served by waiters. These wines are rarely drunk by Camporians, but they are much appreciated by foreign tourists. Exercise 4.6 Decide if the by + agent phrase is necessary in all of the following. Cross out the by phrases that you think are unnecessary. Its that time of year again. Every night, sea turtles are coming out of the water and up on the beach to lay their eggs. As soon as the turtles lay their eggs, the nests are covered with sand by the turtles, and then they go back into the sea. One of natures mysteries, they return to the same place every year.


Early every morning before sunrise, marine biologists and volunteers go up and down the beach, looking for the nests. The nests are moved by them to a safer, darker area. The reason for this is that baby sea turtles are attracted by bright light. If theres a building with bright lights on the beach, the babies will go toward the building, instead of going toward the ocean, where they should be going. After the nests are moved by the people, the chances that the turtles will survive are increased by the people. People can see a sea turtle by participating in a turtle watch between May and August. A turtle watch is held every night by The Department of Natural Resources. Reservations are required by them. The sea turtle is protected by state and federal laws. People are being warned by officials to stay away from sea-turtle nests. If a person is caught by someone taking or bothering a sea turtle, its eggs, or its nest, that person will be fined $20,000 by the government, and he or she could spend a year in prison. Theres a Sea Turtle Hot Line that people should call if a baby turtle is seen by them going away from the ocean.

FOCUS 4 USE OF GET-PASSIVE examples Her car was stolen last night. Her car got stolen last night. It suddenly started to rain and we all got soaked She got hit by a car while she was crossing the road. To a friend: Have you heard the news? Larrys car got stolen! explanations Like be-passive, get-passive emphasises an action or result over its agent. We usually use the get-passive to talk about unexpected actions or events things which happen suddenly and without warning. Get-passives are more informal than passives with be. Get-passives are very common in conversation but are usually not appropriate in writing or in more formal spoken situations. The agent + by phrase are not usually included in get-passive statements.

From a police report: A red Honda convertible was stolen last night.

Exercise 4.7 Read the following situations. What do you think probably happened before each one? Match the situation with one of the previous events in the box below. Situation 1. Oh, no! Not my clean white shirt! 2. Were finally able to pay our bills. 3. Its so exciting to see my name in print. 4. I told you not to leave it outside at night! 5. When I came back to the parking lot, I found these dents on the side. 6. They took him straight to the hospital by ambulance. 7. Thank you for all your support. Now that I am a mayor, I will work to improve our schools. Previous event .. .. .. ..



8. The packets empty, and there are only a few crumbs left! a. They got paid. c. Someone got injured. e. All the cookies got eaten. g. His book got published.

.. b. His car got hit. d. Some wine got spilled. f. She got elected to public office. h. Her bike got stolen.

FOCUS 5 HOW TO FORM THE GET-PASSIVE We can use the get-passive with a variety of tenses. Present Simple Present Progressive Past Simple Past Progressive Present Perfect Past Perfect Future (will) (going to) get + past participle (PP) am/is/are getting + PP got + PP was/were getting + PP has/have got + PP had got + PP will get + PP am/is/are going to get+ PP Her cookies always get eaten. Her cookies are getting eaten. Her cookies got eaten. Her cookies were getting eaten. Her cookies have got eaten. Her cookies had got eaten. Her cookies will get eaten. Her cookies are going to get eaten.

Questions: Simple present and past Do/does + subject + get+ PP Did + subject + get + PP Negative: Simple present and past subject + do/does + not + get + PP subject + did + not + get + PP

Do her cookies get eaten? Did her cookies get eaten?

Her cookies do not get eaten. Her cookies did not get eaten.

Exercise 4.8 Complete the following with get-passive and the appropriate tense. 1. A: I think Ive prepared too much food for tomorrows party. B: Dont worry. It . all . (eat). 2. A: Wheres your car? B: Its . (fix). 3. How was your vacation last month? B: Terrible. We . (rob) and all our travellers checks (take). 4. A: Have you heard? Chuck . (invite) to dinner with the President? B: I dont believe it. 5. A: Please drive more slowly. B: Why? A: If you dont, we . (stop) by the police patrol. 6. A: Are your assignments ready yet? B: Almost. We finished writing them last night, and now they (type).


7. A: Do you know if Sid has moved? B: No. Why? A: I sent him a letter last week, but it . (return) yesterday with no forwarding address. B: Thats strange. 8. A: Als writing a novel. B: Really? A: Yes. He hopes it . (publish) next year. 9. A: Rosa quit her job. B: Why? A: She . (not pay). 10. A: There was a terrible accident here last night. B: . anyone . (hurt)?

Exercise 4.9 Use the cues at the left to make sentences with the get-passive. The sentences at the top of each exercise will help you decide which tense to use. Linda is a very busy working mother, nut no matter how much work she does she always gets her housework done too. 1. clean / house . 2. cook / meals .. 3. do / dishes .. At this time many things are being done to improve our city. For example: 4. destroy / crack houses 5. renovate / historic buildings 6. build / low income housing Every year our college does general repairs. These are some things that were done last year. 7. paint / halls . 8. plant / trees 9. remodel / language lab My friends and I were invited to a wedding. However, my friends arrived late. Tell what was going on at the reception when each friend arrived. When ______ arrived, 10. Richard seat for dinner / people 11. Lisa serve / dinner 12. Angelica cut / cake ..

Exercise 4.10 Complete the following story with the be-passive or the get-passive and the past participle of the verb. The first has been done for you as an example. A Weird Wedding Bea and Larry got married last week. Some unexpected events happened during Bea and Larrys wedding and honeymoon. First, one week before the wedding the minister got transferred (transfer) to a new church, so they had to find a replacement at the last minute. After that Larry



(1)____________ (lay off) unexpectedly. Then on the night before the wedding Bea (2)____________ (poison) from the fish she (3)____________ (serve) for dinner. On the day of the wedding, the flowers (4)____________ (not deliver) because the florist (5)____________ (lost) on the way to the church. During the ceremony, the organist (6)____________ (confuse) and played the funeral march instead of the wedding march. Also, the brides dress (7)____________ (tear) when the groom accidentally stepped on it. Then, the ceremony (8)____________ (interrupt) when a mouse came running through the church. The scared bridesmaids began to scream. The reception was supposed to be held outdoors, but it started to rain and everyone (9)____________ (wet). Bea and Larry went to Venice for their honeymoon, but their luggage (10)____________ (leave) at the airport. Then Larrys wallet (11)____________ (steal). Not everything went badly though. In Venice they got lucky and won one thousand euros in the lottery. Finally, they (12)____________ (reward) for all their troubles.

FOCUS 6 USING GET-PASSIVE TO SHOW CHANGE examples We were soaked to the skin. We got soaked to the skin He was injured in a car crash. He got injured in a car crash. explanations Emphasis on the result of the rain. Emphasis on the process of becoming wet in the rain. Emphasis on the result of the car crash. Emphasis on the change: He wasnt injured before, but now he is.

The answer was known The get-passive is used with verbs that express actions They are married. and processes, not with existing states. They got married last year. NOTE: These verbs are not used with get-passive: own, see, understand, like, love, feel, hate, know, want, etc

Exercise 4.11 Where possible, rewrite the underlined verbs with get-passives. 1. Last week, Mervin had a dinner party. He prepared lots of food, and everything was eaten. . 2. This ring is very valuable because it was owned by Napoleon. .. 3. We are very sorry that Mr. Gordon is leaving our company he was liked and respected by us all. .. 4. What happened to your car? It was hit by a truck. 5. Someone broke into her house, but surprisingly, nothing was taken. . 6. At the time of his arrest, that man was armed and dangerous, and he was wanted by police. .


7. We really hope our book will be published some day. . 8. Im sorry Im late. I had to go to the veterinarians because my dog was attacked by a cat. 9. Many beautiful houses were badly damaged in last months earthquake. 10. Marilyn Monroe was loved by many famous men.

Exercise 4.12 Where possible, rewrite the underlined verbs with get-passives. Example: Was the work done? Did the work get done? 1. The work was finished by the time I arrived. 2. You can buy your cola now the machine has been refilled. .. 3. His true identity was unknown. .. 4. Was the house damaged in the storm? . 5. The house was damaged, but now it is being repaired. 6. The basis of the economic problem was understood, but the solution was difficult. . 7. Youll have to wait your uniform hasnt been washed yet. 8 She was seen at the party last night. . 9. The dessert will be frozen in time for dinner. .. 10. The flat tire will be fixed so we can get to the meeting on time.


Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 2, 3 and 4. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. 1. The Philippines are a group of islands in the South Pacific, north of the Indonesia. A B C D


2. I sewed my daughter a dress for her birthday. She loved it because a dress was silk. A B C D 3. Grand Canyon is one of the most popular of all the National Parks in North America A B C D 4. I carried for my teacher the books she needed for class. A B C D 5. On the Sundays, my mom always cooks a big dinner for the whole family. A B C D 6. The Great Lakes, which make up part of the border between Canada and the United States, A B C consist of the Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior. D 7. My job is to prepare the party a toss salad. The salad must be fresh. A B C D 8. A astronaut explained the problems of space exploration to us. A B C D 9. At the southern tip of Vancouver island is the city of the Victoria. A B C D 10. I had the problems with the homework. Did you understand the solution for number 5? A B C D 11. Ben tried to repair me my car, but the car was too old. We had to sell it to the junk yard A B C and buy a new one. D 12. Ive got an flat tire on my car. Could you fix it for me? A B C D 13. The Biology includes the study of plants and animals. A B C D 14. The place I would like to visit is the Andes Mountains in the South America. A B C D 15. I can make sushi for you if you want to taste some typical food from the Japan. A B C D Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.




My husband still buys __________. (a) flowers for me (c) for me flowers (b) me flowers (d) to me flowers

17. I like fruit. I had __________ banana and __________ apple for lunch. (a) the the (c) an a (b) a a (d) a an 18. One of the most famous mountains in North America is __________, a volcano which exploded in 1980. (a) Mt. St. Helens (c) a Mt. St. Helens (b) the Mt. St. Helens (d) an Mt. St. Helens 19. What did he buy you? He bought __________. (a) a necklace for me (c) a necklace to me (b) me a necklace (d) for me a necklace 20. The highest building in the world is __________, which is located in __________ (a) Sears Tower Chicago (b) the Sears Tower Chicago (c) the Sears Tower the Chicago (d) Sears Tower the Chicago 21. That is __________ silliest thing you have ever said. It never snows in Miami. (a) the (c) an (b) a (d) some 22. I like the theatre. I would like to see __________ more plays. (a) the (c) an (b) a (d) some 23. The Rio Grande makes up the border between __________. (a) the Mexico and the Texas (b) the Mexico and Texas (c) Mexico and the Texas (d) Mexico and Texas 24. The fiftieth state in __________ (a) the U.S. is the Hawaii (b) the U.S. is Hawaii (c) U.S. is the Hawaii (d) U.S. is Hawaii 25. __________ SUNY, is a large university system in New York. (a) The State University of New York, or the (b) The State University of New York, or (c) State University of New York, or the (d) State University of New York, or



26. Who did Angela prepare the income taxes for? (a) Angela prepared them for Joseph (b) Angela prepared Joseph the income taxes (c) Angela prepared the income taxes to Joseph (d) Angela prepared him the income taxes 27. __________ is the closest planet to __________. (a) The Mars the earth (c) Mars the earth (b) Mars an earth (d) A Mars earth 28. She saved __________ on the bus. (a) the place for me (c) for me the place (b) me a place (d) for me a place 29. Steve got __________ because she was thirsty. (a) a soda to mom (c) a soda for mom (b) for mom the soda (d) the mom for the soda




Exercise 5.1
A. Below are 15 animals that are often the object of our love and fear. Which do you think are the most beautiful?

eagle panda elephant mosquito dolphin

cockroach snake crocodile spider lion giraffe seal whale rat polar bear

B. Read the article about the work of Jane Goodall. Note down what human beings and chimpanzees have in common.

For 25 years now, Jane Goodall has been studying chimpanzees at Gombe in Tanzania. This has already become the longest project on animals living in the wild. However, she intends to carry on her research for the rest of her life as chimps can live for anything up to 50 years. In this way, she hopes to observe the progress of an entire generation of chimps from birth to death. The most surprising discovery of the early years of her research was that chimps used tools. For example, they poked small branches into holes in trees in order to extract insects to eat. Before this discovery, people had thought that chimps weren't intelligent enough to use tools. Another distinction between chimpanzees and human beings had been eliminated. There are, of course, many easily observed similarities. Chimps kiss and cuddle like humans. Furthermore, they are self-aware and can recognize themselves in mirrors which other animals are unable to do. Strong family relationships are seen to exist and even adolescent chimps run back to mother when they find themselves in trouble! What's more, chimps seem to have some kind of structured language in which they can express a certain number of abstract concepts. However, not everything about chimps is so cosy and comfortable. Starting in the early seventies, Jane Goodall was horrified to observe a prolonged war waged by one group of chimps on another tribe' which had broken away some years earlier. This observation altered her perception of chimps, making them seem, in her eyes, even closer to humans. It had always been thought that humans were the cruellest of animals and that what made us unique was our habit of making war on one another. The chimps' war showed that this was not the case. It appears that there was no reason for the conflict other than a perhaps natural hostility to aliens. Even though the younger males were the most aggressive of the group, they were sometimes joined by a single, aggressive female. Chimps in the enemy group were hunted individually and cruelly killed. The excitement and enjoyment Jane Goodall witnessed were very similar to, that shown by human beings taking part in war or criminal activity. Despite the fact that a lion may kill a zebra for food or a bull fight to assert its dominance over the herd, this law of the jungle' must be distinguished from the behaviour of the chimps. It has been claimed that war was a key factor in developing human social organization and the selection of the strongest and the most intelligent. Jane Goodall believes that she may have witnessed this in its earliest stage of development. During the war, some females left the losing side to join the aggressors. Although they were accepted, not one of their babies was allowed to live. This is a common pattern in other


animals, and the adoption of infants from an alien group is unknown in other species apart from man. Nevertheless, older chimps may adopt younger brothers or sisters if the mother dies. This may help us understand why step-fatherhood can be unsuccessful for humans and how difficult it may be to create artificial families. Child-beating is at its most common where step-parents are concerned. It may be just too difficult for most people to truly accept children that are not their own. Goodall is currently studying how the early experiences of baby chimps affect them in later life - particularly how a badly-mothered chimp will become a bad mother herself Such research may give us clues about human behaviour and motivation. She writes, Because chimps are less complex, it is easier to study these effects. The scars of childhood are less apparent where humans learn how to hide their feelings.'
C. Choose the best answers to these questions.

1 Jane Goodall wants to stay in the wild because A she wants to study a whole life cycle of chimps. B she feels she hasn't made much progress. C she wants to die with the animals she loves. D she wants to stay a record 50 years. 2 Which statement is not true about humans and chimps. A Both show affection. B Both enjoy war. C Both adopt freely. D Both use tools. 3 It seems that the chimps fought A to extend their territory. B because they didn't like strangers. C to win extra females. D because there was a food shortage. 4 Adoption A is unknown among chimps. B never occurs in nature. C occurs within chimp families. D often leads to child-beating. 5 It is useful to study chimp behaviour because A we can learn how to be better parents. B it is just like human behaviour. C it may help us understand ourselves better. D it is not as complex as our behaviour.



LANGUAGE STUDY The comparison of adjectives and adverbs Exercise 5.2

A. Decide if these sentences are correct. Where necessary, correct them.

1 She speaks good French. 2 James is more big than Mark. 3 She is the most good at English in our class. 4 She runs fast. 5 He plays tennis good. 6 His car isn't so good as mine. 7 Jane is very lazy. She works hardly. 8 You look coldly. Shall I shut the window? 9 They play chess much more badly than us.
B. Complete the sentences using the adjectives in brackets.

1 Angela is ..................... person in the class. (young) 2 Corinne speaks good French but Lucia speaks it ..................... . (good) 3 The bill isn't ..................... as I thought it would be. (expensive) 4 He bought ..................... petrol he could find. (cheap) 5 Don't kick the ball so ..................... . You'll break a window. (hard) 6 Her teacher speaks ..................... than ours. (slow) 7 They live ..................... from school than I do. (far) 8 Your son's behaviour is ..................... in the whole school. (bad) 9 It was ..................... film I had ever seen. (boring) 10 You don't look very ..................... . Cheer up! (happy) 11 She sings ..................... than anyone else in the choir. (beautiful) 12 He sounded ..................... than he did yesterday. By tomorrow he will have forgotten! (angry) 13 What's for supper? Something smells ..................... . (good) 14 There isn't a room ..................... than this one. (comfortable) 15 She works .....................(quick) than Julian but not ..................... than Alison. (fast)

Contrasting ideas Exercise 5.3

A. Look at these sentences and, where necessary, correct them.

1 Although she is three years old, she can't walk. 2 Despite the restaurant was empty, the stranger came and sat opposite me. 3 However, the wine was bad the food was delicious. 4 Although it was a beautiful day, we had a marvellous day on the beach. 5 Even though he was unhappy, he was rich.


ANCA CEHAN, TEFAN COLIBABA B. Now join these sentences.

1 It really enjoys going for walks. Their dog is very old. 2 They have a small flat. They have got a large dog. 3 They tried to housetrain the puppy. It didn't work. 4 Pigs are supposed to be dirty. Actually, they're quite clean. 5 The squirrels look tame. They may bite you. Sentences with too and enough
Exercise 5.4 Use too or enough to make sentences based on the following situations.

1 Annie was really tired last night. She didn't take the dog for a walk. 2 The birdcage was high up on the wall. The cat couldn't reach it. 3 The zebra was very slow. The lion caught it. 4 What a stupid dog! It will never learn that trick! 5 The children want to have rabbits as pets. They're only three and four.

VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs Exercise 5.5

Replace each of the words in bold with one of phrasal verbs below.

come across back up

come up with put forward carry on break out

come about turn on

count on put down

1 They had the dog killed because it was old and sick. 2 The farmer found some new born kittens as he was working in a barn. 3 Jenny has thought of a wonderful name for her new goldfish! 4 We had to call in the vet because a new disease suddenly started among our herd of cattle. 5 When you've finished supper, can you continue feeding the pigs? 6 No, you can't have a cat! It's no use complaining. Your father will agree with me. 7 Can I depend on you to feed the rabbit? You forgot yesterday. 8 Are you going to suggest a design for the stable? 9 The rat attacked the cat and bit it on the tail. 10 The puppy is covered in green paint! How did this happen, children? Expressions with take + noun + preposition Exercise 5.6
Complete each sentence with an expression using take.

Example: He . took offence at .. what his uncle said. 1 They took p........... ......... a demonstration against cruelty to animals. 2 Could you take c........... ......... my cat while I'm away on holiday? 3 She took p.......... ........... the poor little kitten, whose mother had left it, and gave it a home. 4 He takes a great deal of p......... ............ the way his horse looks so he brushes its coat and combs its tail every day. 5 Julia is going to Kenya on business. I think she should take a.......... ........... being there and go on a safari.


Preposition + noun + preposition combination Exercise 5.7

Complete the following sentences by adding the correct prepositions.

Example: Susie went to the pet shop .... order .... to .... buy some food for her gold fish. 1 They didn't go to the zoo ..................... account ..................... the bad weather. 2 He was given a puppy ..................... place ..................... the dog that died. 3 The ambassador presented the zoo with the panda ..................... behalf ..................... the Chinese government. 4 The firemen rescued the kitten from the tree ..................... means ..................... a ladder. 5 ..................... addition ..................... her nine cats, she has three dogs. 6 He wrote a long reply ..................... answer ..................... the complaint about his dog.

READING Exercise 5.8

Complete the following questionnaire.

Animal Rights
1 Do you approve of using animals for cosmetic and non-medical tests? YES NO 2 Do you approve of using animals to test the effectiveness of drugs for serious illnesses? YES NO 3 Would you be happy to use a cosmetic or drug which has not been tested on an animal? YES NO 4 Would you volunteer yourself rather than let an animal be tested on? YES NO 5 Do you support the use of violence to liberate animals? YES NO 6 Would you be prepared to pay more for tests to be carried out on human volunteers and by computers instead of on animals? YES NO

USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 5.9

A. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the following passage. Use only one word. Remember to read the whole story through first before you try to fill anything in and to study carefully what comes after the gap! Here are five of the words to help you: according, top, up, on, back.

Sam is a puppy belonging to pub landlord, Steve Lock. A short time ..................... (1) Steve's friend John ..................... (2) helping to lay a carpet when he slipped and chopped ..................... (3) the top of his finger..................... (4) a knife. The horrified landlord picked ..................... (5) the piece of finger and put it on the table ..................... (6) he bandaged his friend's bleeding wound. They had ..................... (7) that they could have the finger stitched


..................... (8) on when they got to hospital. ..................... (9), Sam the puppy had other ideas. The dog waited until the two men were ..................... (10) of the room and then jumped ..................... (11) the table and ate the finger. Fortunately, ..................... (12) to pub landlord Steve, his friend John ..................... (13) the funny side ..................... (14) the story. John says that the finger ..................... (15) hurts a little but that it should be all right ..................... (16) the end even if it is a little flat on ......:.............. (17). He is keeping his eye ..................... (18) Sam to make ..................... (19) that he doesn't come back for a .................... (20) helping.
B. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.

1 The dog barked all night but we still managed to sleep. Despite .................................................................................................................................... 2 The cat can't catch the mice. They run too fast. The mice .................................................................................................................................. 3 Cats aren't as expensive to keep as dogs. Dogs ......................................................................................................................................... 4 Man is the cruellest of all animals. There isn't ............................................................................................................................... 5 His canary sings better than mine. My canary doesn't ............................................................................................................... 6 Is this the cheapest pet food you've got? Have you ................................................................................................................................, 7 Most of the animals survived the hard winter. Even though .......................................................................................................................... 8 I have never seen a dirtier-looking dog. This is ....................................................................................................................................... 9 She couldn't afford the Persian cat. The Persian cat ..................................................................................................................... 10 The cheetah is the fastest animal in the world. No animal runs ....................................................................................................................,



FOCUS 1 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY AND PROBABILITY There are several ways of expressing possibility or probability. The form you choose depends on how certain you feel about the topic: POSSIBLE (less than 50% certain) More certain He may smoke. He might smoke. He could smoke. Less certain More certain He may be a doctor. He might be a doctor. He could be a doctor. Less certain PROBABLE (about 90% certain) CERTAIN (100% certain) He smokes. He must smoke.

She must be a doctor.

She is a doctor

Exercise 5.1 You have found a purse containing the following items. Write the best answer in each space to complete the statements about the owner of the purse. 1. some makeup and nail polish The owner of the purse ___________ a woman. could be is may be 2. a comb with grey hairs She ___________ an older woman. could be might be must be 3. a government employee ID card. She ___________ for the government. could work may work must work 4 5. a lot of keys and computer disks She ___________ a secretary. could be is must be She ___________ a computer. doesnt use must use 6. pictures of children The children ___________ her grandchildren, or they ___________ her nieces and nephews. are could be might be


7. a glass case She ___________ wear glasses, but the case ___________ be for sunglasses. could is may 8. a bank statement showing a balance of 0.00 . She ___________ any money in the bank, but she ___________ another account. could have doesnt have must have 9. an Irish passport full of stamps She ___________ be American. She ___________ travel a lot. might must must not 10. a small handgun She ___________ work for the police. She ___________ be a spy. could might must

FOCUS 2 COULD, MAY, MIGHT, MUST examples That woman looks familiar; she could be a movie star. Lila always gets excellent grades; she must study a lot. You must know a lot of interesting people. They might be janitors, but I doubt it. I may have the information you need. She must not like cats. There are a few clouds in the sky: it could / might / may rain later. explanations Could, might , may and must are modal auxiliaries, and like most other modal auxiliaries, they are followed by the infinitive without to: They do not change or agree with the subject. Negatives are formed without do. Could, might and may all express possibility in the future. May shows that the speaker is a little more certain. Must is not used to express probability in the future. Instead, will and be going to + probably usually express this idea. Will and be going to are used to express certainty about the future.

a) A: Wheres Anna? B: Shell probably get here soon. b) A: Whats Jim going to do after he graduates? B: Hes probably going to travel round the world on a motorcycle.

Exercise 5.2 Complete the following dialogues, using the correct form of could, may, might, or must with the verb in parentheses. Be careful some of them are negative. Example: A: Lee hasnt smiled all day. He must be in a bad mood. (be) 1. A: Every time I see Gigi, shes eating a candy bar. B: She ___________ chocolate. (like) 2. A: Julia has just finished working a 16-hour shift at the hospital. B: She ___________ tired. (be)


3. A: Are Jim and Marcia going to the party on Saturday? B: Im not sure. They ___________ about the party. (know). Did you tell them about it? 4. A: Our neighbour wears a dark blue uniform to work. B: He ___________ a mailman, or he ___________ a police officer. (be) 5. A: When planning a party, remember to think of all your guests. Make sure to serve dishes that dont include meat, especially pork. B: Why? Because of guests who are vegetarians? A: Yes. Some of them ___________ meat. (eat) 6. A: Dont ignore chest pain. B: Why? A: You ___________ a heart disease. (have) 7. A: Whats that game youre playing? B: I dont know. It ___________ rugby, or it ___________ lacrosse. (be) 8. A: Is Nancy single? B: I dont know, but she wears a ring, and shes always talking about a man named Tim. A: She ___________ married. (be) 9. A: Look at that man! Hes pushing all the peas to the side of his plate. B: He ___________ peas. (like) 10. A: The customs official is screaming at that lady, and she looks totally confused. B: She ___________ English. (understand)

FOCUS 3 PROBABILITY AND POSSIBILITY IN THE PAST examples Im not sure how Liz went home; she could have taken a taxi. Theres nobody here; they must have gone out. explanations To express possibility and probability in the past, we use a modal auxiliary + have + past participle

Exercise 5.3 In trying to solve crimes, detectives generally examine evidence carefully and then draw conclusions based on what they observe. Sometimes their conclusions are stronger (or more certain) than others, depending on the evidence they have examined. Creative detectives (like Sherlock Holmes) are famous for examining all possibilities in a case. What might Sherlock Holmes conclude about the following people? Example: 1. A woman with a yellow forefinger. She must be a heavy smoker. She might be a painter, and she might have lost her paintbrush.

2. A very short man with bow legs. 3. A man with a very red nose.



4. A woman with rough, hard hands. . 5. A woman with a fur coat, diamonds, and chauffeur-driven limousine. . 6. A man with soft, white hands. .. 7. A man with a lot of tattoos. . Exercise 5.4 Complete the following dialogue, using could, may, might, or must, and the verb in parentheses. Be careful some are in the present and others are in the past. Gladys and her husband, Norman, are talking about their neighbours. Gladys is convinced that they are terrible people, but Norman isnt so sure. He thinks that Gladys is being a nosy neighbour and jumping to conclusions. Gladys: Have you seen the car that the Roberts are driving? Its a Mercedes Benz! They dont make enough money to afford that car. They (1)___________ (be) drug dealers. Norman: Oh, Gladys. Mind your own business. They (2)___________ (inherit) the money, or they (3)___________ (win) the car in a contest. We dont know! Gladys: And did you see their recycling last week? There (4)___________ (be) a dozen wine bottles. They (5)___________ (be) alcoholics. Norman: Oh, Gladys. Mind your own business. Kathy and Tim (6)___________ (have) a party, or they (7)___________ (invite) friends over for dinner. Gladys: Oh, yeah? Well, two weeks ago I saw their car parked in front of St. Judes. Kathy (8)___________ (go) to one of those AA (Alcoholics Anonymous) meetings that they hold there. Norman: Gladys, you dont know that for sure. She (9)___________ (be) at a store near the church. Mind your own business. Gladys: Norman Have you seen their little boy lately? He has cuts and bruises all over his body. Tim (10)___________ (get) drunk and hit him. Thats child abuse. Norman: Gladys, the boy (11)___________ (fall) off his bike. You know how kids are. Mind your own business. Gladys: Norman Norman: Gladys, you (12)___________ (be) crazy. You havent even met those people! Gladys: Norman, you (13)___________ (be) right. Exercise 5.5 Choose the best answer and write it in the space. 1. A: What are you going to do this weekend? B: My brother has tickets to the baseball game so, I ___________ with him. My favourite team is playing. could go ll probably go must go 2. A: What are you going to do on your vacation? B: Im not sure. We ___________ a trip to Kenya and go on a safari. ll probably take may take must take


3. A: Do you have plans for tonight? B: Not really. I ___________ just stay home and watch TV, as usual. could ll probably must 4. A: I wonder why Mike is wearing that bandage around his wrist. B: I dont know. He ___________ it. might hurt must have hurt must hurt 5. A: Where are my keys? B: You ___________ them in the kitchen. may left might have left must leave 6. A: I havent been feeling well lately, especially in the morning. B: Really? You ___________ pregnant. Maybe youve got morning sickness. could be ll probably must be 7. A: Have you seen Lourdes? B: Yes, and judging from the size of her stomach, she ___________ at least seven months pregnant. could have been ll probably be must be 8. A: Are you going to visit your family this year? B: I dont know. It depends on the airfares. I ___________ . could be may be might 9. A: What grade do you think youll get in this class? B: So far I have a pretty good average, and Ive been studying a lot this semester. I _________ a B. could get ll probably get must get 10. A: Her hair always looks so stiff and thick. B: I know. It looks so unnatural. A: She ___________ a wig. ll probably wear might wear must wear Exercise 5.6 Choose the best form from the choices given below. 1. A: Wheres Rose? B: Im not sure. She .. in the library. is might be must be 2. A: My daughter just got a scholarship to Oxford! B: You .. be very proud of her. could must might 3. A: How does Sheila get to school? B: I dont really know. She .. the bus. might take takes must take 4. A: Its really cold in here today. B: Yes. Somebody .. the window open. must leave might leave must have left 5. A: I wonder why Zoe always wears gloves. B: I dont know. She .. some kind of allergy. may have had has may have 6. A: Have you heard the weather forecast? B: No, but look at all those dark clouds in the sky. I think it .. rain. could must is probably going to



7. A: Did my mother call while I was out? B: Im not sure. She .. . might have might did 8. A: Ellen gave a violin recital in front of 500 people yesterday. It was her first public performance. B: Really? She .. very nervous. could have been must be must have been 9. A: Are you coming to Deans party? B: Im not sure. I .. go to the coast instead. must will might 10. A: Can I speak to Professor Carroll? B: Shes not in her office, and she doesnt have any more classes today, so she .. home. might go must have gone will probably go

FOCUS 4 NOUN COMPLEMENTS. THAT CLAUSES Task React to each of the following statements, using the following scale: 1. strongly agree 4. disagree 2. agree 5. strongly disagree 3. Neutral/no opinion

In the next ten years 1. we will find a cure for AIDS 2. the rain forests will disappear 3. marijuana will be legalised in western countries 4. people will become less dependent on automobiles 5. crime will decrease 6. we will stop killing animals for their fur 7. homelessness will decrease 8. communism as a political system will disappear entirely 9. women will have the same economic rights as men 10. there will be another world war 11. there will be another world war 12. drinking, like smoking, will become socially less acceptable Using That Clauses in Sentences examples I know that I believe that I think that I doubt that The police (Subject) think (Verb) that they know who robbed the bank (Direct Object).

1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.

2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.

3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3.

4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

explanations We often use that clauses (the word that + a sentence) with verbs that express beliefs, ideas, opinions, or facts. A that clause is a noun phrase. It can be used as an object to complete a sentence.



Exercise 5.7 Now report your opinions about the statements in the Task. Complete the following to make statements that are true for you. 1. I know that ... 2. I am not certain that . 3. I am convinced that .. 4. I doubt that .... 5. It is my opinion that .. 6. It is unlikely that 7. It is possible that 8. It is doubtful that Exercise 5.8 Using the expressions form the list and your own ideas, complete the following sentences with that-clauses. Example: I think that education and health care should be free. I believe that My teacher thinks that It is possible that I think that It is a fact that It is my opinion that It is true that My parents think that

1. ____________________ should be banned. 2. ____________________ the sun rises ____________________ . 3. ____________________ people should be required to have a license to _____________ . 4. ____________________ it ought to be a crime to ____________________ . 5. ____________________ people are basically ____________________ . 6. ____________________ take advantage of ____________________ . 7. ____________________ North Americans are ____________________ . 8. ____________________ people from my native country are ____________________ . 9. ____________________ life in North America is ____________________ . 10. ____________________ life in my native country is ____________________ . 11. ____________________ the world is round. FOCUS 5 MAKING THAT CLAUSES NEGATIVE examples main clause I dont think explanations To make a sentence with a that clause negative, the word not usually comes in the first part of the sentences in the main clause, not in the that clause. You can also make a that clause negative by using words which already include a negative meaning, such as doubt, unlikely, uncertain.

that clause that we will stop killing animals for fur.

I doubt that we will stop killing animals for fur. It is unlikely that we will stop killing animals for fur.



Exercise 5.9 Look at your answers to Exercise 5.8. Without changing the meaning, rewrite only the sentences that you wrote with think and believe, using the negative form. Example: I dont think that people should have to pay for education and health care. FOCUS 6 WHEN TO OMIT THAT examples Informal: I know the Taj Mahals in India. More formal: I know that the Taj Mahal is in India. explanations With verbs like know, believe and think, we can omit the word that especially in speech, when its not necessary to be formal.

Exercise 5.10 Rewrite the following statements into one sentence, using a that clause. You do not need to use every word in the original statements as long as your statement makes sense and has all the important information. Example: 1. Learning another language is important for everyone. That is what our English instructor thinks. Our English instructor thinks (that) learning another language is important for everyone.

2. An open-minded attitude is helpful in learning a language. This is what our English instructor believes. 3. Many Americans have never studied a foreign language. It is shocking. 4. Since English is an important world language used in business, it is not necessary to learn another language. This is what many Americans feel. 5. Learning another language is one way of showing respect to people from other countries. I believe this. 6. Some of us speak three or four languages. This amazes our English instructor. Exercise 5.11 Using the words below, write sentences for the politician. The conversation on the left is between the politician and her husband at the breakfast table. The sentences on the right are part of a speech that shes giving. Remember that that is often omitted in informal speech. Husband: Politician: Breakfast table Whats your speech about today? Our governments immigration policy. a) I / not think / it / be / fair What do you mean? Political speech

b) I / not believe / our immigration policy / be / fair




We welcome some people with open arms, and others we send back to their countries. c) I / know / this / happen

e) I / think / it / be / wrong g) I / think / it / be / a racist policy Husband: But honey, immigration is a big problem. There are just too many people entering this country illegally. They take jobs away from our own taxpaying citizens. i) I / doubt / this / happen

d) I / realise / our government / send / some people back to their countries f) It / be / my opinion / this / be / wrong h) I / be / certain / it / be / a racist policy


j) It / be / unlikely / immigrants / take jobs away from our citizens k) I / believe / immigrants / do work that our l) I / be / convinced / immigrants / citizens refuse to do do work that our citizens refuse to do


Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 4 and 5. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. 1. Tortillas, the bread of Mexico, ___________ with ground corn, water, and lime. (a) are being made (c) get made (b) are made (d) make 2. Many Mexicans buy tortillas at their local tortilleria, where they are produced ___________ machine. (a) a (c) in (b) by (d) with 3. Others, who ___________ buy them, prefer to make their own. (a) are (c) ll probably (b) could (d) must 4. Many women ___________ the dough, or masa, between their hands and flatten it into a thin, round, pancake-like shape. (a) are taken (c) have been taken (b) are taking (d) take 5. The tortilla ___________ in Mexico for centuries, since the days of the Aztecs. (a) are eaten (c) has been eaten (b) has been eating (d) is eating


6. A 28-year-old woman ___________ to become the next princess. The prince made his decision after consulting his list of more than 100 candidates. (a) chooses (c) is being chosen (b) has been chosen (d) is choosing 7. At first, she didnt want to be on the princess list. People said that she ___________ a boyfriend. (a) might have (c) must have had (b) must have (d) was having 8. But the prince started calling her on the telephone every day. He ___________ very convincing, because she changed her mind. (a) may be (c) must have been (b) might have been (d) was being 9. The future princess, a very independent and well-educated woman, ___________ the very conservative role of princess. (a) can changed (c) has been changed (b) change (d) may change 10. A former diplomat, she speaks five languages and ___________ in four countries. (a) educated (c) has educated (b) is educated (d) was educated Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. 11. Two tourists were being robbed while they were checking into the Sandy Shores Hotel. A B C D 12. Police say that the couple had been left their bags unattended, and when they looked, the A B C bags had disappeared. D 13. Police also say the bags will have been stolen by the same criminals who have been A B C D attacking foreign tourists in the area. 14. They think that it can be an employee of one of the hotels, or it might be someone who is A B C D dressed like a tourist. 15. Every year tourists around the world get robbed like this, because they become careless; A B they shouldnt take their eyes off their luggage, or something like this must occur. C D 16. South Dakota is knowing for Mount Rushmore, where the enormous heads of four U.S. A B presidents are carved in the side of a mountain. C D


17. Kirczak Ziolkowski, who was died in 1982, helped carve Mt. Rushmore, and then he A B C bought a nearby mountain and began to carve a gigantic replica of the Sioux Chief Crazy D Horse. 18. Ziolkowskis widow, Ruth, said that the sculpture was her husbands dream and that a strange relationship had existed between him and Crazy Horse: he was borned on the same A B C day that Crazy Horse died, but 31 years later. D 19. Ruth says that now that her husband is dead, his spirit can be with Crazy Horses, and A B C theyre probably watching the construction from heaven. D 20. The Ziolkowski family has continued to work on the huge project, and they say that it will A could be many years before the sculpture is finished their great grandchildren might see a B C D completed Crazy Horse.




Exercise 6.1
Complete this questionnaire. If you wouldn't make any of the choices suggested, then add one of your own.

You and your scruples

1 You can hear a terrible noise coming from your neighbour's house. It sounds as though he's murdering someone. Would you a do nothing? b call the police? c go round yourself and see what was happening? d ............................................................ 2 You discover a way of making free telephone calls anywhere in the world. Would you a tell all your friends? b keep the secret to yourself? c inform the telephone company? d .. 3. Imagine that you're a shop assistant and you notice one of your colleagues stealing from the till. Would you a say nothing? b tell the person to stop or else? c inform the boss? d ............................................................. 4. While you are parking your car, you accidentally scratch the paintwork of a new car next to you. Would you a leave a note for the owner of the other car? b hurry off? c park as though nothing had happened? d ............................................................. 5. You are staying in an elderly person's home when you notice a painting on the wall. The old person doesn't know that it's a Rembrandt. Would you a buy the painting for as little as possible? b tell him what the painting was worth? c offer him a fair price but not tell him everything? d . 6 A tramp smelling of alcohol asks you for money. Would you a give him some, knowing he will spend it on alcohol? b buy him a meal or a sandwich? c refuse to give him any? d ............................................................. 7. Your best friend's boyfriend/girlfriend invites you out for a date. Would you a refuse the invitation and tell your friend? b accept the invitation and keep it a secret? c refuse it and say nothing? d .......................................................



8. Somebody pays you in cash for doing a job. Would you a declare it to the taxman? b keep the money without declaring it? c not declare it but give the customer a discount for cash? d . Exercise 6.2
A. Read the article about Rose Jones and answer the two questions.

1 What reasons does she give for her life of crime? 2 Do you think her reasons are, in fact, reasonable?

A Life of Crime
Looking at this little old lady, it is hard to believe that she has spent 20 of her 76 years in jail. Her crime has been pickpocketing. Just a short while ago she was caught practising her trade in Harrods - a favourite hunting ground for the pickpocket as it is frequented by the well-off. Her fingers aren't as quick as they once were and she was spotted by a sharp-eyed store detective more used to catching shoplifters. Luckily for her, the judge let her off. All the same, crime certainly hasn't paid for Rose Jones. She lives in a damp, uncomfortable basement bedsit with no heating and no company except for her dogs and cats and the TV. Nevertheless, she believes that it is better there than in prison. During her many spells in prison, she met Ruth Ellis, the last woman to be hanged in Britain. and the notorious murderess, Myra Hindley, who would have certainly followed Ellis to the scaffold if hanging had not been abolished. Instead, she was given life imprisonment. Rose blames her life of crime on her childhood and harsh upbringing. She feels that if her mother hadn't died when she was small, her life would have turned out differently. As it was, her father remarried and her stepmother was cruel to her. Hunger drove young Rose to steal food and she quickly graduated to picking pockets. She was only six at the time. When she was 11, she started doing menial jobs in big houses. She perhaps wishes she had taken that opportunity to go `straight' but she didn't. She remembers taking a lipstick and a five pound note from some guests' luggage. When her mistress accused her of stealing, she denied everything and, for once, got away with it. Her life inside' started when she was 17. Following a conviction, she was sent to a prison for young people. It was to be the first of many such visits. Yet, in all her long criminal career, Rose has never made any real money. Either she gave it away or she spent it on trivial things. Her husband stole the little money she had managed to save while she was in prison. Nowadays, she has just about decided that her life of crime is over. After all, she finds it difficult to move around now without any support which makes her line of work rather difficult. In addition, the popularity of credit cards means that people tend to carry less cash around with them than they were once accustomed to. Rose thinks it is time she turned over a new leaf. But is it possible to break the habits of a lifetime?
B. Choose the best answer to these questions.

1 Rose was caught in Harrods A by someone well-off. B because she was clumsy. C while she was shoplifting. D by someone alert.



2 She started stealing A because she was told to. B for money. C for excitement. D from necessity. 3 Myra Hindley A wasn't as bad as Ruth Ellis. B deserved to be hanged. C benefited from a change in the law. D was hanged for murder. 4 When Rose was a servant, A she could have led an honest life. B she resisted temptation. C she stole some clothes. D she was punished for stealing. 5 Picking pockets nowadays A is less profitable. B is more difficult. C has new rewards. D is a job for a young person.
C. Answer these questions:

1 Is Rose a victim of society or just another criminal? 2 Crime among young children is on the increase all over the world. Whose fault is this? The parents? The teachers? The politicians? 3 What do you think should be done with small children who commit crimes?

USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 6.3

Change the verbs in brackets into the most appropriate form of the conditional.

1 What you (do) if you (be) in my situation? 2 Behave yourself, Lucy. If you (do) that again, you (have) go to bed. 3 Their marriage only lasted three months. If he (be) less mean, she (not leave) him. 4 Good, everybody's ready. If we (leave) now, we (miss) the rush hour traffic. 5 If you (smoke) less, you (have) much more money. But I don't think you ever will. 6 If we (lock) the car window, we (not give) them the opportunity to break in. 7 When Alice (get) here, you (show) her to her room? 8 I know it's a delicate situation, Inspector, but what you do (say) if I (give) you a little present? 9 If you (press) that button, a receptionist (come) to help you. 10 The film was marvellous. If you (come) with us, you (enjoy) it too. 11 Imagine, darling. What we (do) if your husband (have) an accident? 12 If I (be) the prime minister, I (bring back) capital punishment.


LANGUAGE STUDY Verbs followed by prepositions Exercise 6.4

A. Complete these sentences of verb + preposition combinations.

1 You accuse someone ....... of .......... 2 You forgive someone ....................... 3 You arrest someone ......................... 4 You discourage someone ................. 5 You blame someone ........................ 6 You punish someone ....................... 7 You prevent someone ...................... 8 You convict someone ....................... 9 You congratulate someone .............. 10 You warn someone ..........................

doing something.

B. Make all the changes and additions necessary to produce sentences from the following sets of words and phrases. Make sure that you choose the correct prepositions to go with each verb.

1 Her employer/accuse/her/steal/money. 2 Rose/blame/parents/not/bring her up/properly. 3 His mother/punish him/be rude/to their neighbour. 4 The lock/prevent/burglar/break into/house. 5 The jury/convict him/murder/his wife. 6 The shopkeeper/forgive/child/steal/sweets. 7 His son/be/arrest/sell drugs/to teenagers. 8 Her nephew/be/discouraged/talk/the police. 9 The judge/congratulate/police/catch/gang. 10 She/warn/children/play/park/after dark.

VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs Exercise 6.5

A. Replace the words in brackets with a phrasal verb from below. Make any other changes which are necessary.

find out get away break into

look into break down make for

run over hold up let off

go off be up to make up

give away take in

The police are 1 (investigating) an incident which took place this afternoon. Two masked men 2 (robbed) a security van outside the national bank and 3 (escaped) with half a million pounds. Their getaway car 4 (knocked down) one of the guards as they 5 (went towards) the motorway. She had 6 (invented) a wonderful alibi and managed to 7 (make everyone believe her lies). The police only 8 (discovered) the truth because a jealous lover 9 (betrayed her) to the police.



The children are suspiciously quiet. I wonder what they are 10 (doing). I think I'll go and have a look. He 11 (lost control of his emotions) and cried. He confessed everything to his father. His father 12 (didn't punish him) because he believed the boy was genuinely sorry. The alarm bell 13 (started to ring) when the gang tried to 14 (enter) the bank.
B. Different types of crime What are the crimes described in these situations? The words are given in the box.

burglary, arson, vandalism, terrorism, forgery, blackmail, smuggling, fraud, mugging, rape, kidnapping, drug pushing, shoplifting 1 He threatened to send the love letters to her husband unless she gave him 500. 2 The telephone box had been smashed and there was graffiti all over the walls. 3 An old man has been attacked and robbed in a city street. He is recovering in hospital. 4 Department stores lose millions of pounds each year through goods being stolen off the shelves. 5 Thieves broke into the house while the family was away on holiday. 6 The young woman was sexually attacked as she walked across the dark park late at night. 7 He watched with satisfaction as the fire he lit burnt down the factory. That'll make them wish they'd never given me the sack,' he thought. 8 It was a perfect copy. It was so good, in fact, that it could even fool an expert. 9 The bank believed her to be trustworthy. They had no reason to suspect that she had transferred thousands of pounds to false accounts. 10 If you want to see your child again, put $50,000 in an old suitcase and wait for further instructions.' 11 George gave the man 50 in return for a small packet of heroin. 12 It was a beautiful day. The sun was shining and people were sitting outside the cafe enjoying the sunshine. Then the bomb went off. 13 If only I hadn't brought these watches through customs,' she thought as she sat crying in the police station.

Exercise 6.6
Choose the word or phrase which best completes the following sentences.

1 When they got back from holiday, they found their house had been ..................... by burglars. A broken into B broken up C broken down D broken off 2 The criminal thought he had ..................... the perfect crime. A made B done C completed D committed 3 Some friends at school ..................... him to steal the sweets. A dared B threatened C let D made 4 He'll always be the same - a leopard never changes its ..................... . A pattern B stripes C coat D spots 5 The crime ..................... seems to be going up and up. A percentage B wave C figures D rate



6 You must always ..................... us the truth. A confess B tell C speak D say 7 Wilson had ..................... an alibi for the time of the robbery. A made over B made do C made into D made up 8 Oh, no! My wallet has been ..................... . A robbed B picked C stolen D theft 9 The police are said to be looking ..................... the matter. A for B into C up D over 10 The defence asked the court to take the prisoner's age ..................... consideration. A up to B into C in D over 11 She was sent to jail for ..................... for the murder. A life B live C living D lifetime 12 It is said that ..................... makes a thief. A possibility B choice C chance D opportunity 13 He ..................... to drive in the bus lane even though he knew it was illegal. A decided B risked C avoided D kept 14 What are the children getting ..................... ? They're very quiet. A on with B up with C off with D up to 15 Bank managers should be completely ..................... people. A trusting B trustworthy C trustful D trusty 16 If you park there, you'll have to pay a A fee B fine C ticket D fare 17 The blackmailer ..................... to send the photographs to the police. A enjoyed B threatened C suggested D denied 18 The police hate it when judges ..................... criminals. A let down B let up C let in D let off 19 You can't smoke in here. It's ..................... the law. A according B anti C against D opposite 20 The spy was shot for ..................... . A treachery B betrayal C traitor D treason 21 He ..................... the crime because the witness died. A gone away with B got over C got away with D got off with 22 The forgery was so clever you could not ..................... it apart from the real thing. A tell B say C check D choose 23 The judge ..................... him not to do it again. A said B explained C threatened D warned 24 They caught the entire gang ..................... for the boss. A apart B but C aside D except 25 Drunkenness is ..................... for many road accidents. A guilty B responsible C faulty D cause USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 6.7
Fill each of the numbered blanks. Use only one word in each space.

A blind bank robber who was desperate for money was given a 12-month suspended sentence. David Worrell had .................... (1) put his white stick on the counter before ..................... (2) a note to the cashier saying he ..................... (3) shoot her if she did not hand over the cash. The court heard ..................... (4) Worrell had lost his previous job because of his condition and had been ..................... (5) down for many more.


Worrell, ..................... (6) pleaded guilty to attempted robbery, queued up and passed a note ..................... (7) 2,000. He wanted to use the money to start his ..................... (8) disco business. The cashier ..................... (9) the alarm and refused to ..................... (10) over any money. ..................... (11) if he had got away a young blind person would have been ..................... (12) to identify. When he tried to ..................... (13), he walked straight into the bank's glass doors ....... (14) than through them. He was later arrested. Between the incident and his trial, Worrell had succeeded ..................... (15) starting his own successful discotheque. ..................... (16) judge said, This sort of offence would ..................... (17) result in a substantial term of imprisonment. You are a man of good character, with an ..................... (18) severe physical disability but ..................... (19) this you have been able to generate ..................... (20) prosperous business.'

Exercise 6.8
Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.

1 You're going to end up in prison if you don't change your ways. Unless ...................................................................... 2 My advice to you is to call the police. If I ............................................................................ 3 The policeman told us to fit new locks on the door. He suggested .......................................................... 4 He did not wear gloves so the police caught him. If .......................................................................... 5 It is a pity she didn't insure the stereo. She wishes ............................................................... 6 Thieves broke into our house while we were on holiday. Our house ............................................................... 7 Would you like me to call the police? I'll call ...................................................................... 8 If I had known all the facts, I would not have rung the police. As I .......................................................................... 9 Jerry didn't steal the jewels. He didn't know where the key to the safe was. Jerry can't ................................................................ 10 You can borrow the car, but you've got to fill it up with petrol. Provided ..................................................................




FOCUS 1 -ING AND ED ADJECTIVES examples Source: boring emotion: bored exciting excited disgusting disgusted explanations Adjectives that end with ing usually describe the source the thing or person that makes us feel a certain way. Adjectives that end with ed usually describe the emotion how we feel about something.

Exercise 6.1 Choose the correct adjective for each of the following sentences. 1. Melanie likes the family in the flat above her, but sometimes she feels that their teenage boy is annoying / annoyed, especially when he plays his stereo too loudly. 2. However, she usually finds their presence upstairs very comforting / comforted. 3. Once she heard a frightening / frightened nose outside. She thought it was a prowler, so she called up her neighbours. 4. They invited her to their flat for a relaxing / relaxed cup of tea and a soothing / soothed conversation. 5. This helped her to calm down, until she was no longer frightening / frightened. 6. Melanie especially likes Jane, the mother. Jane tells Melanie amusing / amused stories about her and her family members daily life. 7. Janes husband Bob is a salesman. Even though this may sound like a boring / bored job, its not. 8. Lots of surprising / surprised things happen to salesmen. Just last week, for example, a real prince came into the store with his bodyguards and bought 20 pairs of Italian leather shoes. 9. The prince thought Bb was such a polite and amusing / amused young man that he gave him a big tip. 10. Of course, Bob thought that this was very exciting / excited, and he took Jane and the family out to dinner that night. 11. Jane works part-time in a pet store as a dog groomer. She says that some of the customers never give their dogs baths. These dogs are sometimes so dirty and uncomfortable that it is shocking / shocked. 12. Janes stories are so entertaining / entertained that Melanie usually doesnt mind the noise that Janes teenage son makes. 13. In fact, Melanie was very disappointing / disappointed when she heard that Jane and her family might move.



Exercise 6.2 Circle the correct adjective. Sandy and Victor, both English teachers, lived abroad for many years, first in Saudi Arabia, and then in the Far East, where, like most travellers, they experienced culture shock. Recently they returned to the U.S. and experienced something that I called reverse culture shock. They had lived abroad for a very long time, and everything back home was new for them. The cars seemed so big, and the people did too. They had forgotten how many overweight Americans there were. But everyone was obsessed / obsessing with dieting; they thought about it all the time. Every magazine seemed to have an article about dieting, but not many people seemed disciplined / disciplining enough to follow a diet. Most were disappointed / disappointing dieters. When Sandy and Victor had first arrived in Saudi Arabia, it was surprised / surprising to see Arab women covered / covering from head to toe. Sandy was equally shocked / shocking when she returned to the U.S. and saw women wearing rollers in public. And both Sandy and Victor were frustrated / frustrating because they didnt have a car. When they lived abroad, transportation had never been a problem, but the North American city that they lived in had very poor public transportation; sometimes they had to wait an hour for the bus. It was very annoyed / annoying. And the bus stop was almost a mile from their apartment, so they had to walk a lot, too. At the end of the day, they were exhausted / exhausting. Its difficult to return home after being in another country for a while. At first, Sandy and Victor were worried/ worrying that they had a negative attitude about everything, but they felt relieved / relieving to hear about reverse culture shock. It will take time to feel comfortable living in the U.S. again.

Exercise 6.3 Have you experienced culture shock? How about reverse culture shock? Write about your own experiences by completing the following sentences. Use the ed or ing form of the word in parentheses. If any of these adjectives dont reflect your feelings or experiences, feel free to replace them with ed or ing forms that do. 1. I was (surprise) when I first saw 2. It was (frustrate) to . 3. I was (confuse) when .. 4. It was (excite) to .. 5. I was (worry) that 6. It was (frighten) when .. 7. It was (fascinate) to see 8. I was (embarrass) when 9. I was (annoy) when .. 10. I felt (relieve) when



FOCUS 2 FUTURE CONDITIONALS Task Read the following dialogue and then answer the questions: A: My marriage has been very iffy lately. B: What do you mean by that? A: My wife said if I dont stop drinking, if I dont stop smoking, and if I dont stop gambling, shell leave me! What will happen if he doesnt stop drinking, smoking, and gambling? What do you think will happen if he stops drinking, smoking, and gambling? . Future Conditional examples If clause (present tense) If he doesnt stop drinking If I study hard, If it rains tomorrow, explanations Main clause (will/be going to + base form of the verb) his wife will leave him. Ill get a good grade. Im going to bring my umbrella. We use future conditionals to make predictions about what will happen in the future.

Exercise 6.4 Three men have proposed to Eva. She doesnt know if she should marry Mack, Sato or Travis. The following are predictions about her life. Make future conditional sentences using if and the verbs below. Example: marry Sato move to Tokyo If she marries Sato, shell move to Tokyo.

Sato Japan 1. move to Tokyo have to learn Japanese .. 2. learn Japanese be the first one in her family to learn another language Mack hometown 3. marry Mack stay in her hometown . 4. live in her hometown not have to learn another language .. 5. not leave her hometown her life not change very much ..



Travis $$ 6. marry Travis be rich . 7. live in a mansion feel like a princess .. 8. not feel like herself lose control over her life 9. marry Sato or Travis her life be more exciting .. 10. not get married not have to worry about this ..

FOCUS 3 WORD ORDER IN CONDITIONALS examples His wife will leave him if he doesnt stop drinking. If he doesnt stop drinking, his wife will leave him. Ill get a good grade if I study hard. If I study hard, Ill get a good grade. Im going to bring my umbrella if it rains tomorrow. If it rains tomorrow, Im going to bring my umbrella. explanations In conditionals, the main clause can come first and the if clause can come second, with no difference in meaning. When the main clause comes first, a comma is not needed.

Exercise 6.5 Make future conditional sentences by completing the following, Be careful with punctuation. 1. If the rain stops soon 2. My teacher will become angry if . 3. If people stop fighting wars . 4. I will say Youre welcome if 5. If you go barefoot . 6. I will leave the tip if . 7. If you dont stop that 8. Oh, darling. If you leave me . 9. If I never see you again . 10. Ill be very happy if . Exercise 6.6 Make future conditional sentences that are true for you, using the following if clauses. If you prefer, you can switch the order of the clauses so that your main clause comes first. 1. If I get an A in this class, .. 2. If you dont give me ten pounds right now, . 3. If my pants rip, . 4. If I lose this book, . 5. If you shout at me, . 6. If there is a fire alarm, 7. If I dont see you tomorrow, ...


FOCUS 4 HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONALS examples If clause (past tense) If Sherry came to class late, (Sherry never comes to class late) If I were on a desert island, If she were a man, I would she would explanations We can use conditionals to talk in the present tense about hypothetical situations situations that will probably hot happen. These are also called imaginary present conditionals. For hypothetical conditionals, when be is the main verb in the if clause, we use were, the subjunctive form of the verb be. Were is used for all subjects (I, we, you, He, she, it, they)

Main clause (would + base verb) she would be embarrassed.

Exercise 6.7 The following passage tells a story about Sams fantasies. In each sentence, there is a situation that is not real or not likely. In other words, they are sentences that use hypothetical conditionals. First, say what is not true about each sentence and the reason it is not true. Then, fill in the blanks in each sentence, and be sure to use the appropriate verb tense. Example: 1. Sam .. go to the cinema every week if he ... (have) enough money. First step: What is not true about this sentence? Sam does not go the cinema every week because he doesnt have enough money. Second step: Fill in the blanks: Sam would go to the cinema every week if he (have) enough money.


2. If he .. (be) rich, he .. never cook at home, and he .. always go out to eat. 3. He .. buy anything he wanted if he .. (be) rich. 4. If he .. (have) a girlfriend, he .. also buy her whatever she wanted. 5. If he .. (buy) his girlfriend whatever he wanted, she .. want to buy more and more. 6. If she .. (buy) more and more, she .. eventually run out of things to buy. 7. She .. fall out of love with Sam if she .. (run out) of things to buy. 8. If she .. (fall) out of love with him, he .. be miserable. 9. If he .. (be) miserable, he .. go to the cinema every week to forget about his troubles.



Exercise 6.8 The following passage is about Constantine, a Moldavian immigrant who lives in California and drives a taxi. Fill in the blanks with hypothetical conditionals. Be careful some are negative. 1. If politics (be) different, Constantine (have) to live in another country. 2. He (live) in his apartment in Chisinau if he (have) to live abroad. 3. He (have) a decent life if he (live) in Chisinau. 4. If he (know) more English, Constantine (work) as an engineer; he (work) as a taxi driver. 5. His English is OK, but if he (go) to school, he (learn) more English, especially how to read and write. 6. Constantine (live) in a nice apartment if he (have) a decent job. 7. His life (be) easier if he (have) to wait for political asylum its been three years. 8. If he (be) a resident, he (bring) his family to the U.S. 9. He (be) happier if he (bring) his family to live here. 10. If Constantines wife (be) here, she (have) to take care of the family alone.

FOCUS 5 LIKELIHOOD IN CONDITIONALS examples Hypothetical conditional: If Harry became President, he would (The hypothetical conditional is used because Harry will probably never become President). Future conditional: If Alex becomes President, he will (The future conditional is used because Al might actually become President). explanations The difference between future and hypothetical conditionals is not a difference of time. Both can talk about the future, even though hypothetical conditionals use verbs that look like the past tense form. The difference between real and hypothetical conditionals is a difference of likelihood: future conditionals talk about what really might happen; hypothetical conditionals talk about situations that will probably not happen.

Exercise 6.9 Put a check () next to the sentences that are Hypothetical (i.e., the situation probably wont happen). 1. ___ I would move to France if I won the lottery. 2. ___ If I dont find a job here, Im going to move to Italy. 3. ___ If Peggy were tall, she wouldnt have to look up at people. 4. ___ Toms going to marry Barb if he gets a promotion. 5. ___ Tom would marry Barb if he made more money.


6. ___ We wouldnt have these problems if we spoke German. 7. ___ If you go to Germany, youll be able to practise your German. 8. ___ I wont go with you if you wear that outfit. 9. ___ If they dont pay him more, hell quit his job. 10. ___ Bob would quit his job if the company transferred him. Exercise 6.10 Tell whether the situations in the if clauses below are future (likely) or hypothetical (unlikely). What do the verb forms tell you about whether or not the situation is likely to happen? Respond to each if clause with: It really might happen (likely), or It probably wont happen (unlikely). 1. If it rains, I will not have to water the garden. 2. If it rained, I would be very happy. 3. Marcy would quit her job if she got pregnant. 4. If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world. 5. Aunt Shirley will give us a wedding gift if we decide on a wedding date. 6. If Laurel gets hurt again, her father will make her quit the soccer team. 7. If the baby slept through the night without waking up, his parents would finally get a good nights sleep. 8. Jasmine would buy a big house if she were rich.

FOCUS 6 HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONALS IN THE PAST examples If clause (past perfect) explanations + main clause (would / might + have + past participle) he wouldnt have gone to jail.

If he had not robbed a bank, (hypothetical: cant be true because he did rob a bank) If Bill had proposed, (hypothetical: cant be true because Bill did not propose)

she might have married him.

Another kind of hypothetical conditional talks about situations in the present or past in which the if clause could not be true.

Exercise 6.11 Complete the following, using the given verb in your answers. Think about whether the sentence talks about: a) what really might happen (these sentences use future conditionals); or b) situations in the past in which the if clause could not be true (these sentences will use hypothetical conditionals). Example: 1. Geoff became a doctor, but if he .. (be) a truck driver, he .. (learn) very different skills. The if clause cannot be true, because Geoff is not a truck driver; hes a doctor. The hypothetical conditional must be used.



Answer: Geoff is a doctor, but if he had been (be) a truck driver, he would have learned (learn) very different skills. 2. Geoffs wife is a doctor, too, but she is thinking of changing careers. If she .. (change) careers, she .. (be) .. . 3. Toni has lived in New Zealand, so she speaks English, but if she .. (live) only in Brazil, she .. (speak) .. . 4. But Toni .. (speak) .. if she .. (move) to France next year. 5. Marys car is old. If it .. (break down), she .. (need) .. . 6. Because Mary has a car, she has driven to school every day this term. But if she .. (not have) the car, she .. (have to) .. . 7. Marcia has applied to graduate school. She .. (start) school in autumn if she .. (get) accepted to graduate school. 8. When Marcia was 21 years old, she quit school for several years to get married and raise a family. If she .. (continue) her studies instead of raising a family, she .. (begin) graduate school a long time ago. Exercise 6.12 The following people are thinking about their past and how different individuals and events changed their lives. The pairs of sentences express what really happened in the past. Write hypothetical conditionals based on these sentences. The first sentence in the pair should be used in the if clause. Example: Mary went to the Bahamas on her vacation. Thats where she met Gordon. If Mary hadnt gone to the Bahamas, she wouldnt have met Gordon. 1. Mary met Gordon. Thats why she didnt marry her high-school sweetheart. . 2. Gordon went to medical school. Because of that, he didnt go to law school. .. 3. Gordon became a doctor. As a result, he didnt become a lawyer. . 4. Claudia had Mr. Stack for algebra. Because of him, she passed math and she graduated from high school. .. 5. Mr. Stack was Claudias teacher. As a result, she didnt quit school. .. 6. Barb married Tom. Because of him, she moved to Norfolk. 7. Barb knew how to speak French and Spanish. That why she got a job with an airline. .. 8. Jan got pneumonia. Thats why she moved to Italy. . 9. Jan moved to Italy. Thats where she learned to sing. . 10. There wasnt birth control years ago. My grandmother had twelve children. ..



Exercise 6.13 Complete the following hypothetical conditionals, using the verb in your answers. To complete the sentences, think about whether the sentence talks about a) a hypothetical situation that will probably not happen or b) situations in the present or past in which in which the if clause could not be true. Example: 1. Eloises husband has always been a thin man in good physical condition. If he suddenly .. (become) fat, Eloise .. (be) shocked. This is a hypothetical situation which will probably not happen because Eloises husband has always been a thin man. Answer: Eloises husband has always been a thin man in good physical condition. If suddenly became (become) fat, Eloise would be (be) shocked.


2. Eloise started seeing a doctor about her cholesterol problem three years ago. If she .. (know) about her problem earlier, she .. (change) her diet years earlier. 3. Georges doctor says that one of the reasons George has high blood pressure is that he never expresses his anger. His doctor says that it is not healthy to bottle it up. He says that if George .. (get) angry once in a while, his blood pressure .. (not be) so high. 4. George never gets angry with his family. His children .. (run away) from him if he ever .. (yell) at them. 5. Dan, who doesnt earn very high wages, has owned Mazda trucks for years. If he .. (have) a lot of money to buy a new truck, he .. (buy) another Mazda. 6. When Dan graduated from college, his father gave him a used Mazda truck. Together they worked on the truck until it was in excellent condition. If Dan .. (not learn) how to repair Mazdas, he .. (be) more enthusiastic about other models. 7. People who live in this area have forgotten how to conserve water. If it .. (not rain) so much last year, people .. (remember) water conservation practices. 8. People .. (be able) to water their lawns every day if it .. (rain) more this summer. However, the forecast is that this area is going to experience a drought this summer. Exercise 6.14 Write hypothetical conditionals based on the following sentences. Be careful some are in the present and some are in the past. Example: I didnt know that you needed me, so I went home. If I had known that you needed me, I wouldnt have gone home.

1. I didnt give her the message because I didnt see her. . 2. I wont be able to go with you this weekend because I dont have a bicycle. 3. I didnt know you were in the hospital, so I didnt visit you. 4. We got into trouble because we broke the law. . 5. I didnt know we were going to be so late, so I didnt call you.


6. I ate the cookies because they were there. .. 7. You make mistakes because youre not careful. . 8. Alex isnt here, so we wont be able to solve the problem. .. 9. I dont have a car, so I take the bus. . 10. You told me the news, so I knew. .

Exercise 6.15 Complete the following conditional sentences. 1. Id be a millionaire if .. 2. If I had more free time 3. If I had been born a century ago .. 4. I wont go if . 5. If I were you . 6. He wouldnt have gone there if 7. She would buy that if 8. Their car wouldnt have been stolen if . 9. If he had really loved her, . 10. If my house were on fire, 11. If I could change one thing about my life, .. 12. If he hadnt lost the contest, 13. If you had done what I told you to do, 14. Ill go there with you if 15. Id travel around the world if ..




Exercise 7.1
A. Doris Stokes was a famous medium. She claimed she was able to contact the spirits of the dead. Read her story quickly and find out:

1 what she thought about her imaginary friends. 2 how imaginary friends helped her. 3 when she had her first psychic experience.

Imaginary friends
by Doris Stokes My mum warned me that I'd end up in a mental hospital.' We have all heard of children who have imaginary playmates. I get lots of letters from parents about them and I always say the same thing: don't say there is no one there. What you are putting down to imagination could be a spirit child. One dad wrote to me to say he was getting very worried about his child. He told me his son had an imaginary friend called Robbie, and was forever saying things like, 'Don't set off yet. Robbie's not in the car.' I told him, Your child can actually see that boy, love. Don't say anything. He'll either grow out of it and go on to more worldly things or he'll develop into a very good medium.' I was about six or seven when I first saw the spirit children. I'd had rheumatic fever and had to be in a pushchair. I don't know how, but I knew that other people could not see Christopher and Pansy. I saw them a lot. And you know, I never could do maths - it was a mystery to me but Christopher and Pansy helped me pass my exams! So there's nothing frightening about children having imaginary friends, especially if they've been very close. I remember one little lad telling his mum, You don't have to come up and turn the light off tonight. Grandma will do it.' His mum watched him go upstairs on his own that night and the lights went off. It scares the life out of some parents. But you just have to accept that his grandma loved him very much. She'd always tucked him in. It was a routine. Most children are psychic up to the age of 11 or 12. My first psychic experience happened when I was four. I woke up to a commotion outside in the street. There was a fire in the house nearby, and all the neighbours were crying. They kept saying, Poor Tom, what a terrible way to die.' As I peered from between their legs, I saw they were bringing out a stretcher with little Tom on it, and Tom was also walking beside it. I told my dad I'd seen Tom and he said, 'If you did, love, then you did.' You see, I'd seen Tom's spirit walking beside him. My mum warned me that I'd end up in a mental hospital. I did. Nearly 40 years later I was a nurse in one!


ANCA CEHAN, TEFAN COLIBABA B. Choose the best answers to these questions.

1 Imaginary playmates A can worry parents. B are imaginary. C make parents write to Doris. D are usually spirit children. 2 Children who have psychic experiences A are generally frightened by them. B always see friends. C either see friends or grandparents. D can see someone who's been close. 3 Doris's spirit friends A were invisible to everyone. B were older than Doris. C taught her to do maths. D got her through her exams. 4 Dons claims that A children over 12 aren't psychic. B children tend to lose their powers after 12. C children are only psychic until 12. D a few children are psychic at some point. 5 When Doris said that she'd seen her friend Tom, her mother A thought Doris was going mad. B became psychic herself. C thought Doris was psychic. D knew Doris was going to become a nurse.
C. Answer these questions:

1 What do you think about Doris's stories and powers? 2 Do you know of any mediums in your own country? 3 What is the place of such powers in conventional religion? VOCABULARY Ways of looking Exercise 7.2 Doris Stokes says she peered through someone's legs. Peer is a way of looking.
Using these dictionary definitions, complete the sentences which follow with a way of looking.

gaze /geiz/ to look steadily for a long or short period of time peer to look very carefully or hard, especially if it is hard to see look /luk/ to turn the eyes so as to see, examine or find something see /si:/ to use the eyes, have the power of sight stare to look fixedly, with wide open eyes, as in wonder, fear, anger or deep in thought glance /gla:ns/ to give a rapid look watch to look at some activity/event


1 They sat on the bench and ..................... the tennis match. 2 He quickly ..................... over his shoulder to see if anyone was following him. 3 She wound down the car window and ..................... at the sign through the fog. 4 Do you think you could ...... :.............. at the engine for me? It doesn't seem to be working properly. 5 Have you ever ..................... a ghost? 6 The child ..................... at the woman's strange hat for a good five minutes. 7 They stood on the top of the hill and ..................... at the beautiful river. LANGUAGE STUDY Abbreviating clauses Exercise 7.3 Examples: 1 We saw them. They were opening the door. 2 She felt a hand. It touched her face.

* We saw them opening the door. * She felt a hand touch her face.

Join these pairs of sentences in the same way. 1 We felt the ground. It started to shake. 2 Anna noticed a strange smell. It was coming from a cupboard. 3 Did you hear their dog? It was barking all night? 4 We listened to their footsteps. They were coming closer. 5 The policeman caught the thief He was climbing through the window. 6 The children watched the farmer. He was milking the cows. VOCABULARY Extreme adjectives Exercise 7.4
A. Look at these sentences and decide which ones are right and which are wrong.

1 It's very cold. 2 It's very freezing. 3 It's absolutely freezing. 4 It's absolutely cold. 5 It's really cold. 6 It's really freezing.
B. Complete these sentences using an appropriate adjective.

1 After the walk, we were ................ as we had not eaten all day. 2 The room was really .. . He had to stand on the bed to close the door. 3 Can you close the window? It's ....... in here! 4 Don't eat in that restaurant! The food is . 5 You look great after your holiday!' Yes, I feel . . 6 He was so .... when he saw the spider that he fainted. 7 What a . dress! It's the most beautiful one I've ever seen! 8 The book was so .. that she read it in one go. 9 They live in a ...... house. It's got ten bedrooms and six bathrooms. 10 I didn't sleep at all last night. I feel totally . . 11 I'm absolutely ..... he used to be a policeman. 12 I'm not really very . . I had a big breakfast.


READING Exercise 7.5

Apply the procedure in the box to this text and then answer the multiple choice questions that follow.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Read the text through quickly for a general understanding. Read each question and its four alternative answers. Read the text again, slowly and carefully. Identify the parts of the text for which there are questions. Eliminate the obviously wrong alternatives. Make your choice. Don't rush and watch out for traps'. If in real doubt, guess the answer from the most likely of the alternatives.

Understanding the mysteries of intuition

by Graham Greene I can well believe in telepathy, for it has been part of my life since childhood. My mother had the gift of picking up thoughts from my elder sister. The two used to play it as a game at parties, and I can still see no way in which they could have cheated. My mother would leave the room and the guests would decide between them, with no intervention from my sister, some action for my mother to perform when she was summoned back into the room. My mother would gaze closely for a moment at my sister and then would make the action we had chosen, moving a cushion or a chair, perhaps taking the lid off a box. I never saw her fail. My own first experience of what might be a kind of telepathy I have already described in A Sort of Life. I would have put it down to mere coincidence if it had not been repeated twice under roughly the same circumstances, each involving a tragedy at sea and a loss of life. The first occasion was during an Easter seaside holiday at Littlehampton when I was seven years old. I dreamt of a shipwreck and I can still see clearly one image of the dream. A man is scrambling up the staircase of a ship and a great wave is coming down to swamp him. Next morning we heard the news of the Titanic sunk that night. Of the second dream of a wreck about ten years later, I have also written. I can recall no details and have lost the dream diary which I was keeping during a course of psychoanalysis in London. Perhaps writing down the dream cancelled the memory of it. Again, my dream coincided with a real wreck, this time of the Rowan in the Irish Sea when, I seem to remember, that a whole orchestra lost their lives. Always the sea, always lives lost. But the third occasion was not a dream. I was in my flat in Antibes one morning, some six or seven years ago, with nothing to worry me when around breakfast time I was overcome by a deep depression and an anxiety agonizing in its acuteness. I have a witness, for a friend came to lunch with me and I told her what I feared, that something terrible had happened to one of my family. To distract me, she turned on the radio for the one o'clock news. A plane coming from Corsica had crashed that morning into the sea off Cap dAntibes a few miles away and there were no survivors. On board was General Cogny whom I had known and liked in Vietnam.



1 In the party game Greene describes A he played no part. B his sister would have to guess. C his sister would have to mime. D his mother often guessed wrongly. 2 Greene describes A one accident. B two dreams. C three dreams. D four incidents. 3 Greene claims the first dream A involved lots of people. B was after the sinking of the Titanic. C was just a coincidence. D can't have been a coincidence. 4 The second dream he describes A was never recorded. B is still completely clear. C had no connection with real life. D happened in his teens. 5 On the third occasion A he was eating breakfast. B he was alone. C his prediction was not accurate. D a relative was involved. USE OF ENGLISH Exercise 7.6
Fill each of the numbered blanks in the following passage. Use only one word in each space.

Most ghost stories are set in mysterious, old houses ..........:......... (1) castles. The ghosts themselves, .... (2) spirits wander the earth at night, are usually the .. (3) of some horrible crime. This is not always the case as the (4) story shows. When my friend, Paul, was a schoolboy, he often . (5) to chat to Mr Scott, an elderly gentleman .... (6) on his own. Mr Scott was a keen gardener. He ............. (7) always be looking after his lawn or his flowers and Paul was ..........:.......... (8) the habit of saying a few words to him over .................... (9) fence. ............ (10) summer's evening, as Paul was .. (11) his way home from school, he saw, as usual, Mr Scott in his garden. The old man was busily weeding his ..................... (12) beds. When he saw Paul, he invited him into the garden with a wave of his hand. Slowly, they strolled ............. (13) round, admiring the various flowers. Then, to Paul's surprise, Mr Scott bent ..... (14) and picked a bunch of his finest dahlias. Here boy,' he said. Give these to your mother.' No ......... (15) had he arrived home than he presented the flowers to his mother. He then told her that they were with Mr Scott's compliments. His mother's face went red ....... (16) anger. .. (17) wicked boy!' she shouted. How ............ (18) you say such a thing! I bumped .................. (19) his daughter in the supermarket this morning. She told me that the poor old chap had passed . (20) in his sleep last Friday.'



VOCABULARY Exercise 7.7

Choose the word or phrase which best completes the sentence - A, B, C or D.

1 His bad behaviour was put ..................... his upbringing. A up with B off C by D down to 2 You shouldn't ..................... at people. It's rude! A watch B glance C stare D peer 3 Can you ..................... me to your parents when you next see them? A excuse B remind C forget D remember 4 Tomorrow morning we are going to ..................... mushrooms. A pluck B select C choose D pick 5 I am ..................... the habit of reading in bed. A in B on C of D from 6 She ..................... the answer in his ear so nobody else could hear. A told B shouted C whispered D confessed 7 Take the wine downstairs and put it in the ..................... . A attic B cellar C loft D cave 8 We watched the cat ..................... the tree. A climbed B climb C had climbed D was climbing 9 When his grandmother died, he came ..................... a fortune. A into B up with C by D across 10 Sometimes she sleepwalks and you can find her ..................... through the house. A strolling B wandering C walk D stepping 11 There wasn't enough ..................... to convict the suspect. A evidence B suspicion C proof D prove 12 It was ..................... hot that we took off our jackets. A very B so C really D absolutely 13 We weren't taken ..................... by his story. A in B up C on D out 14 He ..................... her into buying a new car. A convinced B talked C persuaded D made 15 Their parents ..................... to let them go to the party. A did not B denied C refused D prevented




FOCUS 1 YES/NO QUESTIONS examples explanations Yes/no questions are called that because they usually a) Are you going to bed early tonight? require a yes or no answer, and they are used to seek general agreement / acceptance (yes) or lack of b) Did you remember to lock the agreement / refusal (no). They usually start with some door? form of be or do, or any first auxiliary verb (such as c) Have you been sleeping long? have), or with a modal such as could or would. Yes/no d) Could you close that window? questions end with rising intonation. NOTE: Question (d) requires an action rather than a yes or no verbal response. Statement form questions are also a type of yes/no questions. They appear to be the same as normal statements in form except that they use rising instead Hes a student? of falling intonation. Their function is to ask for Theyve already seen this video? information that requires a yes or no answer. You can take the bus to work today? These kinds of questions are fairly common in She cant find her keys? conversation, but they shouldnt be used too often. They are very informal and sometimes misunderstood because they sound like statements except for the rising intonation. Exercise 7.1 Formulate yes/no questions using the following: 1. Can you ..? 2. Dont you ever ...? 3. Youre going to ..? 4. Could you ..? 5. Would you .? 6. You know how to ..? 7. Wont you .?



FOCUS 2 NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONS examples Arent you going to study tonight? (Speaker assumes the answer is no The listener is not going to study tonight.) Wont he teach her how to drive? (Speaker assumes the answer is no He wont teach her how to drive.) Wasnt that a lovely play? (Speaker expects the listener to agree Yes, it was a lovely play) Doesnt the bride look beautiful? (Speaker expects the listener to agree Yes, the bride looks beautiful. explanations We can state yes/no questions in the negative. Sometimes if a speaker uses not in the question, s/he assumes that the answer is also negative.

Sometimes we use negative questions with be and do for emphasis, especially with descriptions. These kinds of questions are exclamatory questions. With these, the speaker expects agreement instead of a negative answer.

Exercise 7.2 Complete the negative questions below. 1. Isnt .? 2. Dont ? 3. Doesnt .? 4. Wont ? 5. Couldnt ? 6. Werent .?

FOCUS 3 WH-QUESTIONS examples Where is your car? Who would like to borrow my book? What happened at the party after I left? Why are you smiling? When did they eat dinner? How old are you? How many times have you travelled abroad? How much doe a new computer cost? explanations Wh-questions are another common kind of question. They are also called information questions because the answer to the question requires more than just a yes/no answer. Most wh-questions begin with words that start with the letters wh-, and they usually end with falling intonation.

Exercise 7.3 Fill in the blanks below with an appropriate wh-question word. 1. ............... do you live? 2. ............... is your address? 3. ............... time do you go to work every day? 4. ............... do you get here so early/late?


5. ............... often do you ride the bus every week? 6. ............... way do you come? 7. ............... do you come with? 8. ............... many times have you skipped class this term? Exercise 7.4 For each sentence below, ask a question that goes with the answer. 1. Q: . A: The closet door is closed because the paints dry, and so I put everything back in there. 2. Q: . A: The broom is in the closet, along with the mop, and some cleaning supplies. 3. Q: . A: The vacuum cleaner is probably still in the basement where you left it. 4. Q: . A: We need to clean the house because were having some people over for dinner tonight. 5. Q: . A: Martha, Sam, and their children are coming, and of course our neighbours, the Smiths. 6. Q: . A: They met them in the Smiths garden. 7. Q: . A: They met there yesterday morning when we were gone. 8. Q: . A: The Smiths were planting flowers. 9. Q: . A: Martha and Sam are getting here by car. 10. Q: ... A: Its going to cost at least 100.

Exercise 7.5 Luca is being interviewed for a job as the director of the computer lab. Write the questions the interviewer is asking Lucas. The first one has been done for you as an example. Interviewer: Which job are you applying for? Luca: Im applying for the Lab Directors position. Interviewer: Luca: I think my strong points are that I know a lot about computers, that I get along well with other people, and that I enjoy helping people use computers. Heres a copy of my resume. Interviewer: Luca: Im looking for a full-time position. However, Im willing to accept a parttime-position to begin with. Interviewer: . Luca: My native country is Romania. Interviewer: Luca: I left my last job one month ago. Interviewer: Luca: I left that position because my family just moved here. Interviewer:


Luca: I know how to use both Apple and IBM computers, but Ive had more experience with IBM. Interviewer: Luca: I will be available to work just about any time; however, I prefer to work during the day. Interviewer: Luca: I have missed only two days in the last two years because of illness. Interviewer: Luca: I have my own car, so getting to and from work isnt a problem. Interviewer: Luca: My references are my last supervisor and two of my instructors from when I was at the university. Interviewer: Luca: I can start working right away. Interviewer: Luca: I expect a fair salary for the work I do.

FOCUS 4 TAG QUESTIONS examples Youre going to bed early tonight, arent you? (The verb in the statement is affirmative, so the speaker expects the answer to probably be yes.) You cant go shopping with me today, can you? (The verb in the statement is negative, so the speaker expects the answer to probably be No I cant go shopping with you today.) Negative statement, affirmative tag Q: Youre not cold are you? A: No, Im not. NOT: *Yes, Im not. Affirmative statement, negative tag Q: Youre cold, arent you? A: Yes, I am. (if you agree with the statement, You are cold.) NOT: *No, I am. His name is Tom, isnt it? (When falling intonation is used, the speaker expects the listener to agree with the statement Yes, his name is Tom.) Its not going to rain, is it? (When falling intonation is used along with a negative statement, the speaker expects the

explanations Tag questions are commonly used in conversation. They are used when the speaker predicts either a yes/no answer or when the speaker seeks agreement or confirmation. Tag questions start with a statement and end with a tag, or shortened question. If the verb in the statement is affirmative (positive), the tag is negative. If the verb in the statement is negative, the tag is affirmative. The speaker expects the answer to agree with the statement, not with the tag. If the verb in the statement is affirmative, the speaker expects the answer to be affirmative. If the verb in the statement is negative, the speaker expects the answer to be negative. To agree with a speaker who asks a tag question and to confirm the speakers opinion, use the same as the statement, not the same as the tag. The intonation we use in a tag question is very important. If falling intonation is used, the speaker expects the listener to agree with the statement or verify that the statement is true.


listener to agree with the statement No, its not going to rain today.) His name is Tom, isnt it? Its not going to rain today, is it? (When rising intonation is used, the speaker really wants an answer to the question. The speaker doesnt know whether the answer will be yes or no.

Exercise 7.6 Complete the following dialogues by adding the tag questions and completing the response. The first has been done for you. Kate: Jim: Kate: Jim: Kate: Jim: Kate: Jim: Kate: Jim: Kate: Jim: Youre taking a math class now, arent you? Yes, I am. Diana is in your class, ..? Yes, .. You both have to study a lot in calculus, ..? Yes, .. Youll finish the class soon, ..? Yes, .. . .. Only three more weeks! Great. Youre going to take a vacation after that, ..? Yes, .. . . France, thats great. You havent been there before, ..? No, .. . .

Jack: Youve been working here for a long time, ..? Mary: Yes, .. Jack: Twelve years! That is a long time. You were working here when Ms. OHara was the boss, ..? Mary: Yes, ..? Jack: You worked part-time at first, ..? Mary: Yes, .. Jack: You dont get tired of all the typing and answering the phone, ..? Mary: No, ..? Jack: Jills been here for a long time too, ..? Mary: Yes, .. . Jack: Longer than you! You both really like working here, ..? Mary: Yes .

FOCUS 5 OVERVIEW OF SOME EMPHATIC STRUCTURES There are many ways of emphasising information in English. The following structures are common:



examples a) Nonemphatic form: The world needs peace and justice. (neutral) b) Emphatic form: What the world needs is peace and justice. c) Nonemphatic form: I understand. (neutral) d) Emphatic form: I do understand.

e) Nonemphatic form: She doesnt have any money. f) Emphatic form: She has no money.

explanations Wh-cleft Both (a) and (b) have the same meaning. In (b), the main focus of the sentence is peace and justice. Emphatic do (c) and (d) have the same meaning, but (d) places much more emphasis on the statement. Both wh-clefts and emphatic do are more common in spoken English than in written English. No We often use no to make a negative idea more emphatic.

Exercise 7.7 Read the following passage. Underline all the emphatic structures you can find. The first one has been done for you as an example. Can you imagine a time when women had no legal rights? There was a time when women were considered part of their husbands property. Married women had no legal existence and they could own no property. What was even worse was they could not keep any money they earned. It all went to their husbands. This really did seem unfair to many women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony tried to change the unfair system in the U.S. What they did was to write speeches and letters and hold conventions to organise women and men who supported legal rights for women. It was frustrating at first but they did finally win some small battles. In 1860, they worked to pass a law which did allow women to own property and control their wages in the state of New York. Other states soon followed. But what many women really wanted was for women to be allowed to vote in elections. These women were called suffragettes. The suffragettes did win the right for women to vote in elections in some states. However, they werent satisfied. What they fought for was a law that would allow women to vote in national elections. This change finally did happen in 1920. What happened was that the Nineteenth Amendment was passed. It finally gave women the right to vote in national elections. FOCUS 6 WH-CLEFTS examples Assumption What the world needs What we want Where he goes at night What she is What Barbara brings Where he went Focus peace and justice. a woman for President. a mystery to me. an interfering busybody. compassion. none of your business. explanations Wh-cleft sentences are divided into two parts. The assumption (what we already know or understand) is introduced by a wh-word and comes at the beginning of the sentence. The focus adds new knowledge or information to the sentence. An appropriate for of the verb be links the two parts of the sentence.

is is is is is was


NOTE: When there are two forms of be in a sentence, the second verb is the verb that links the two parts. The wh-phrase refers to a A: How much money does the director earn? previously expressed (or B: What she earns is none of your business. understood) statement or idea. We often use wh-clefts to emphasise the difference between A: Mozart wrote plays. B: No. What Mozart wrote was music (not plays). two ideas or opinions. NOTE: Wh-clefts are more common in spoken English than in written English.

Exercise 7.8 Match the phrases in part A with an appropriate word or phrase from part B. Connect them with an appropriate form of be and write the complete sentence in the space below. The first one has been done for you as an example. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. A What the problem was What women were treated like What married women couldnt do What Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Candy Stanton did What those women were called What suffragettes wanted What some states did What finally happened When it happened What is happening today a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. B women got the right to vote. suffragettes. equal rights and the right to vote. property. women had no legal rights. own property or vote. in 1920. to write speeches and letters about womens rights. women are also becoming more equal in their wages. pass state laws allowing women to vote.

1. What the problem was was women had no legal rights. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. .. Exercise 7.9 Rewrite the underlined words using a wh-cleft. The first one has been done for you. 1. Matt: David: Henry drives a Porsche. Dont be ridiculous. He drives a Ford. What he drives is a Ford.


2. Frank: Duane: Frank: Duane: 3. Nick: Lisa:` 4. Teacher: Frank: Rick: Sonya: Ben: 5. Oscar: Ian: Oscar: 6. Howard: Tessa: Howard: 7. Lee: Stella:

8. Greg: Mom:

Greg: Mom: Greg: Mom: Greg:

Margo tells me youre a painter. Thats right. Do you sell many of your paintings? Well, actually, I paint houses. Im tired. Im going to take a nap. No. You need some exercise. Do you have any suggestions about how we can improve this class? Wed like less homework. And wed prefer a test every week. I need more grammar to pass the TOEFL. And Id like a different textbook. This one is too boring. The city council is going to build a new shopping mall. Not another shopping mall! This town needs a good cinema hall. I agree. Theres nothing to do here. Do you know Barry? He writes novels. No he doesnt. He writes instruction manuals. Well, at least hes a writer. What are you getting Kim and Harry for their wedding? Theyd really like a microwave, but I cant afford that much, so Im getting them a toaster. Mom, can you give me some money? I need a new skateboard. You should get a job. Ten you can buy as many skateboards as you like. But all the other kids in my class have new skateboards! Im sorry, but Im not giving you any more money. Jimmys mother always gives him money. Well, Im not Jimmys mother. Then maybe I need a new mother!



FOCUS 7 EMPHATIC DO examples I will do it. He is French. We have finished it. I like her work. I do like her work. They saw us. They did see us. explanations We can add emphasis to a sentence by stressing the auxiliary or the be verb. In sentences where there is no auxiliary or be verb, we can use do to add emphasis.

We often add extra emphasis with an emphatic I really do like her work. adverb like really or certainly. They certainly did see us. NOTE: In spoken English, emphatic do is strongly stressed. Emphatic do can add emphasis to a whole A: I love you. sentence. This shows how strongly you feel about B: Really? something or someone. Use it only when you need A: Yes, I really do love you. to add extra emphasis. Emphatic do can add emphasis to an imperative. Do come in! Do give him my best regards! Emphatic do can contradict a negative statement. A: You didnt lock the back door. This use is very common in arguments. In such B: Youre wrong. I did lock it. situations, the do verb generally refers back to a A: Bob doesnt like this kind of music. previous statement. B: Thats not true. He does like it.

Exercise 7.10 Answer the following questions using the appropriate emphatic verb form. Example: Do you like my new hat? I certainly do like your new hat.

1. Did he win the lottery? . 2. Have you tried Chinese food? 3. Will she make it to graduate school? 4. Does she exercise every day? 5. Are they happy living by themselves? .. 6. Can you find your way home? .. 7. Did you eat the whole meal? . 8. Do you like my new car? .. 9. Is he coming home today? . 10. Would you like some more spaghetti? . 11. Is the food spicy enough? 12. Does it really taste like chocolate? .. 13. Have you been to Disney World? 14. Have you finished your finals? . 15. Will you be here by 5:00? .



Exercise 7.11 Bruce and Gary are brothers, but they often have arguments. Read the following argument and underline all the places where you think it is possible to use emphatic do. Rewrite those sentences with an appropriate form of the do verb. The first one has been done for you. Bruce: Did you take my flashlight? I cant find it anywhere. Gary: Well, I havent got it. I always return the stuff I borrow. Bruce: No, you dont. Gary: Thats not true! I return the things I borrow! Its probably on your desk. I bet you didnt look for it there. I do return the things I borrow! Bruce: No, I looked on my desk, and its not there. Gary: Well, dont blame me. You cant find it because you never clean your room. Bruce: I clean my room! Gary: Oh, no you dont! Bruce: I certainly clean it up! I cleaned it up last night as a matter of fact. Gary: You didnt. Bruce: I really cleaned it up last night. Hey, theres my flashlight under your bed. Gary: Well, I didnt put it there. Bruce: I bet you put it there. Anyhow, that proves it. You take my stuff and you dont return it. Gary: I told you before; I return everything I borrow. You just dont look after your things properly. Bruce: I look after my things. Anyway, from now on, Im going to lock my door and keep you out. Gary: You cant. That door doesnt have a key. Bruce: Thats where youre wrong. It has a key and Im going to lock you out! Gary: Oh, shut up! Bruce: Do you know something? You make me sick. You really make me sick. Gary: Good!

FOCUS 8 NOT VERSUS NO examples They do not have any friends They have no friends. Tourists did not come to the coast this year. No tourists came to the coast this year. I have no money. I have no time. Theres no coffee in the pot. He has no pets. He is taking the bus because he has no car today. He has no father or mother. explanations To emphasise a negative statement, we can use no + noun in place of not + verb.

We use no with non-count nouns.

We use no with plural count nouns. We use no with singular count nouns.



No is a determiner and we cannot use it with no + one = no one I saw no one. other determiners, but we can combine no with no + body = nobody other words to make compounds. no + thing = nothing no + where = nowhere NOTE: In standard English, there is only one negative word in each sentence: She doesnt have any money OR She has no money. I didnt have any friends when I was a child. Statements using no as the negative word instead of not emphasise what is missing or I had no friends when I was a child. lacking. In speaking, no is often stressed for extra emphasis. No + compound also emphasises what is I didnt meet anybody interesting at the missing or lacking. party. I met nobody interesting at the The first sentence sounds neutral, a statement of party. fact. The second sentence sounds more emotional, emphasising the lack of interesting people. Exercise 7.12 Read the following story. Then rewrite the story, replacing the underlined phrases using no. The first one has been done for you as an example. Fractured Fairy Tale Poor Cinderella was in a bad position. She has to work all day for her stepmother and ugly stepsisters without a break. She didnt have time to take care of herself, and she didnt have any comforts. She didnt have a warm room, or a soft bed to sleep in. She could have run away for her mean stepmother and stepsisters, but then she could really have been in trouble because she would have been without food, a home, money, or a job. It seemed as though she didnt have any way out. On the night of the royal ball, Cinderella was left by herself without friends. She didnt have a dress or a ride to the ball. Suddenly, her fairy godmother appeared and told her not to worry because she could give her a dress. Cinderella said, No, thank you. What? said her fairy godmother. If you dont go to the ball, you wont meet your handsome prince and get married; you wont have a husband. If its OK with you, Fairy Godmother, said Cinderella, I dont want a husband. Id rather have a good education so I can get a better job. The fairy godmother agreed with Cinderella and gave her the money to go to school instead of a dress. Cinderella isnt a princess now; shes a lawyer fighting child abuse. Poor Cinderella was in a bad position. She had to work all day for her stepmother and ugly stepsisters with no break.




Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 6 and 7. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence: 1. __________ that an aluminium can? Yes, it is. (a) Wasnt (c) Arent (b) Isnt (d) Werent 2. Havent you heard that can is recyclable? No, I __________ . (a) dont (c) didnt (b) havent (d) hadnt 3. __________ is some education about recycling. (a) What you need (c) You need (b) What you need (d) What you needed 4. __________ do I need to know about recycling? Because it can make a difference. (a) Where (c) Who (b) When (d) Why 5. __________ that the resources of this planet are limited? (a) Havent you hear (c) Havent you heard (b) Didnt you heard (d) Did you heard 6. __________ mean? I mean that recycling aluminium saves energy because it takes less energy to recycle aluminium than to refine and produce new aluminium. (a) What do you (c) Do you (b) What you (d) Does he 7. Also, when people recycle, they reduce the amount of trash in landfills. If everyone recycled, we __________ have such a big problem with waste. (a) will (c) wont (b) would (d) wouldnt 8. There are other things besides aluminum that we can recycle, __________? (a) are there (c) is there (b) arent there (d) isnt there 9. Sure, if you look in the phone book under recycling, you __________ a list of things that different companies recycle. (a) will find (c) are finding (b) would found (d) have found 10. __________ some of the things that can be recycled? (a) Arent (c) What are (b) How many (d) Who are 11. You __________ newspapers, plastic bottles, cardboard, and glass, if you __________ each o them into different containers. (a) can recycle separate (c) could recycle will separate (b) can recycle would separate (d) recycle separate 12. All you have to do is separate your recyclables? Thats easy, __________? (a) hasnt it (c) isnt it (b) doesnt it (d) didnt it


13. __________ recycling make sense? (a) Arent (c) Wasnt (b) Isnt (d) Doesnt 14. I guess youre right. Recycling makes sense. I certainly __________ start recycling. (a) am (c) was (b) will (d) do 15. Ill get started right away. __________ put this can? (a) Where should (c) Where I should (b) Where should I (d) Should I Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. 16. Have you ever heard the story of the Cannibal Giant? No, I didnt. A B C D 17. If you had lived many years ago, you might had met him. Who was the Cannibal Giant? A B C What did he do? D 18. The Cannibal Giant was a monster. If he saw a child too far from his mother, the Cannibal A B Giant would catch the child and eat him. C D 19. He was terrible, didnt he? Didnt anyone do anything about the Cannibal Giant? A B C D 20. Yes, what they did is to make a trap. What kind of trap did they make? The men of the A B C D village dug a deep hole and covered it with branches. 21. Then they asked, How we can catch the Cannibal Giant in the trap? A B C D 22. One brave little boy said, If I could get the Cannibal Giant to chase me, I would led him A B C D to the trap. 23. The boy really did got the Cannibal Giant to chase him, and the Cannibal Giant was A B C D caught in the trap. 24. However, the Cannibal Giant was terrible. He shouted at the people from the hole, I will A B no die. I will come to drink your blood. C D



25. The people of the village wanted to make sure he will no longer be a problem; they A B C wanted no more trouble from the Cannibal Giant, so they threw burning logs into the hole. D 26. The Cannibal Giant shouted, You think this will finish me? If you dont let me go, A B C I would come to drink your blood. D 27. The villagers let the fire burn for three days, until the Cannibal Giant was nothing but A ashes. When the ashes cooled, they stir the ashes to see if the Cannibal Giant was still there. B C D 28. What happen then? Millions of mosquitoes came out of the ashes. The mosquitoes buzzed A around the villagers and said Did you think you could destroy me? I will come to drink your B C D blood. 29. If a mosquito were to talk to you today, you would had heard it saying the same thing. A B C D

READING DIGEST 1 Exercise 1.2.B 1 asked; 5 lived; 9 had forgotten; 13 pretended; Exercise 1.3.A 1 Sleeping; 4 sleeping pills/tablets; Exercise 1.3.B 1 terrible/sad/tragic; 5 hardly; 9 popular; 13 actually; 17 on; 2 was going; 6 was; 10 made; 14 opened 2 sleepy; 5 sleeper; 2 few; 6 bright; 10 what; 14 Accordingly; 18 from; 3 had never seen; 7 heard; 11 rushed; 4 told; 8 hurried; 12 was;

3 asleep; 6 sleeping bag, 3 so; 7 had/ once; 11 been; 15 his; 19 the; 4 up; 8 surprising; 12 would; 16 it; 20 Needless

7 sleepless

Exercise 1.4.A A7; 136; C4; 138; E11; F9; G3; H10; 11; J5 (This generally suggests a good relationship with someone); K12; L2


Exercise 1.4.B 1 find out; 4 took ... in; 7 fell for; 10 looked after; Exercise 1.5 1 while; 5 previously; 9 until; Exercise 1.6.A 1 once upon a time; 5 on; 9 One day; 13 Nevertheless; 17 following

2 came across; 5 get on with; 8 put up with; 11 turned up; 2 during; 6 eventually; 10 Afterwards; 2 once; 6 so; 10 eventually; 14 meanwhile;

3 told ... off; 6 putting... off; 9 turned down; 12 set off 3 at the end; 7 whenever; 11 in the end; 3 each time; 7 However; 11 Afterwards; 15 when; 4 for; 8 In the meantime; 12 before 4 As; 8 whenever; 12 Unfortunately; 16 finally;

Exercise 1.6.B 1 True 2 True 3 False - he calls himself Scorpio. 4 False 5 False - he kills three people. 6 False - three times 7 False - Scorpio is freed because of Dirty Harry's methods GRAMMAR DIGEST 1 Exercise 1.1 1. d 2. j 3. l 4. g 5. f 6. a 7. b 8. c 9. k 10. h 11. e Exercise 1.2 1. does too. 2. dont either 3. doesnt either 4. do too 5. do too 6. doesnt either 7. do too 8. dont either 9. do too 10. doesnt either Exercise 1.3 2. g 3.c 4. e 5. d 6. j/b 7. k 8. a 9. f 10. h 11. i Exercise 1.4 1. Ramon studies Spanish, and so does 2. I dont understand Hungarian, and neither do my friends. 3. Ann doesnt like liver, and neither does 4. Cheryl loves animals, and so do 5. Ella loves the English language, and so do 6. Maria doesnt like to write in English, and neither does Doris 7. Kathy listens to classical music, and so do I. 8. She doesnt listen to rock and roll, and neither do I. 9. I like the teachers new haircut, and so do 10. Roberto doesnt like it, and neither dies David. Exercise 1.5 Errors are indicated in parentheses, corrections follow the word in italics. 1. and so (is) does Debbie. 2. and my brother doesnt (neither) either. 3. and neither (Fleur can) can Fleur. 4. and Al (didnt) did too. 5. and (either) neither did Irene. 6. and Sue (isnt) hasnt either. 7. and you (was) were too. 8. and (neither) so was Sheila 9. and (either) neither will Ed. 10. and so (has) does Pat. Exercise 1.6 1. d 2. e 3. b 4. h 5. f 6. i 7. g 8. a 9. c Exercise 1.7 1. T 2.F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. F Exercise 1.8 Answers will vary. 2. Sort of / Kind of 3. Neither do I / I dont either 4. I dont either / neither do I 5. Kind of / Sort of 6. So do I / I do too 7. Sort of / Kind of 8. I do too / So do I 9. So have I / I have too 10. kind of / sort of



Exercise 1.9 1. sort of / kind of 2. Brian: I did too. / So did I. 3. Dan: I dont either. / Neither do I. 4. Brian: I am too. / So am I. 5. Dan: Sort of / Kind of 6. Brian: I dont either. / Neither do I. 7. Brian: So am I. / I am too. 8. Brian: So am I! / I am too! 9. Brian: Sort of / Kind of 10. Dan: Kind of. / Sort of. Exercise 1.10 Answers will vary. 1. Gerund 2. Gerund and Gerund 3. Gerund or Infinitive 4. Gerund or Infinitive 5. Gerund 6. Gerund 7. Gerund or Infinitive 8. Gerund 9. Gerund 10. Gerund and Gerund Exercise 1.11 2. k 3. e 4. a 5. d 6. j 7. a 8. f 9. g 10. h 11. i Exercise 1.12 Answers will vary. Exercise 1.13 Answers will vary. Exercise 1.14 Answers may vary. 2. k. needs some new clothes 3. i. need to go to the dentist 4. a. needs a pot holder 5. d. want some sugar 6. h. want to change classes 7. j. needs new eyeglasses 8. e. wants something to drink 9. b. need a safety pin 10. m. need some water Exercise 1.15 1. I want to go to Australia. 2. He needs some help. 3. She needs some professional help. 4. I want some ice cream. 5. Susie really wants to go to Disneyland. 6. I needed an A. 7. Victor needs to get a visa. 8. She needs some change. 9. I wanted to have a girl! 10. Florence needs a ladder. Exercise 1.16 2. need 3. dont want 4. want 5. dont need 6. dont need 7. want 8. want 9. want 10. dont want READING DIGEST 2 Exercise 2.1 1 brochure; 5 charter; 6 resort; 2 package tour; 7 half board; 3 safari; 4 souvenirs; 8 self-catering

Exercise 2.2.A Four: train, boat, canoe (pirogues) and taxi Exercise 2.2.B Dakar - tie-dyed cloth and jewellery; .Abidjan - wood-carving Exercise 2.3 1A 2D 3C 4C 5C

Exercise 2.4 Possible answers 1 What's the cheapest flight you have? 2 How long do you want/ would you like to stay? 3 Will you be spending the weekend there? 4 It costs 70. How does that sound? 5 What times are the flights? 6 Could I have a seat on/Could you book me/on the 7.30 flight? Exercise 2.6.A A Although; F Neither; K while; B As; G spite; L during C because; H Either; D if; I nevertheless; E so; J however;


Exercise 2.6.B A enough; F almost; Exercise 2.6.C A this; E both; Exercise 2.7 1 about; 5 getting; 9 who; 13 provided; 17 stage;

B really; G quite; B all; F which; 2 already; 6 along; 10 by; 14 must; 18 few;

C hardly; H else; C little; G what; 3 that; 7 Eventually; 11 Although; 15 down; 19 captured; 2 whose; 7 taken/brought; 10 themselves; 13 when/after/once; 16 enormous; 19 to;

D even; I too; D few; H those 4 passed; 8 where; 12 opportunity; 16 the; 20 During

E only; J entirely

Exercise 2.8 1 used; 6 would/could; 9 Finally/Eventually; 12 under/behind/between; 15 things; 18 These;

3 the; 8 all; 11 Anything; 14 small/little; 17 feel; 20 on

4 Although;

5 from;

Exercise 2.9 1 has led; 2 has been writing; 3 has also been (note position of also); 4 was born; 5 took; 6 did; 7 was; 8 came; 9 went; 10 worked; 11 was; 12 became; 13 produced; 14 Following; 15 returning; 16 went; 17 has lived/been living; 18 was; 19 has written; 20 has he written (note inversion after not only); 21 has also written Exercise 2.10 1 She has not spoken to him for ten years. 2 They have just had their house decorated. 3 I have never had such a wonderful meal before. 4 Have you seen that movie yet? 5 She has never been to a musical. 6 Are they still waiting or have they already left? 7 Has she ever eaten this kind of food before? 8 Has he not ever seen the film? (Hasn't he ... ) Exercise 2.11 1 performance; 3 arrangement; 5 advertising; 7 competition; 9 photography; 11 collections. Exercise 2.12.A A6; 134; C5; D1; E3; F2 Exercise 2.12.B 1 off; 2 on; 3 to; GRAMMAR DIGEST 2 Exercise 2.1 A bunch of bananas, a loaf of bread, a carton/dozen of eggs, 2 heads of lettuce, a jar of mayonnaise, a can/bag of dog food, a box of cereal, a bunch of radishes, a bottle of white wine, 1 pound (lbs) of ice cream, 1 pound (lbs) of margarine, l pound (lbs) of ground beef 2 encouragement; 4 entertainment; 6 advertisement; 8 competitors 10 collector;

4 over;

5 after;

6 up



Exercise 2.2 1 pounds of ground beef, 2 bottles of wine, 3 loaves of bread, 2 bags of corn chip, 2 pounds (lbs) of oranges, 2 pounds (lbs) of tomatoes, 2 ounces (oz) of cheese, 3 scoops of icecream, 1 carton of milk, 6 cans of coke Exercise 2.3 Avocado Ice Cream: 2 cups of milk, cup of granulated sugar, teaspoon of salt, 2 eggs, 1 cup of heavy cream, 2 teaspoons of lemon extract, 1 cup mashed avocado Cheese Enchiladas: 1 dozen corn tortillas 1 pint of enchilada sauce, 1 tablespoon of chopped onion, 1 pound of shredded cheddar cheese, 8 ounces of sour cream Exercise 2.4 Jims Super Salad: head, head, slices, pound, 1pound pound Jims Super Salad Dressing: tablespoon of, tablespoon of, tablespoon of, teaspoon of, cup of, cup of Jims Grannys Old Time Chocolate Chips Cookies: pound of, cup of, cup of, cups of, teaspoon of, teaspoon of, teaspoon of, cups of Exercise 2.5 slices (of bacon) pound (of ground meat) cloves of (garlic) cups of (onion) teaspoon of (salt) tablespoons (of fresh herbs) cans of (tomato sauce) Exercise 2.6 1. She bought lunch (for him). 2. He carried her books (for her). 3. He cooked dinner (for her). 4. She threw the keys (to him). 5. He handed a wallet (to her). 6. She knitted a sweater (for him). Exercise 2.7 2. She passed the note to him 3. She cut the grass for her dad. 4. Many children write letters to Santa Claus before Christmas. 5. We bought a puppy for Dana. 6. Her sister made a sandwich for her. 7. Students usually hand in their homework to the teacher. 8. Parents often read stories to their children 9. She braided her hair for Jack. 10. The mailman handed the package to Barbara. Exercise 2.8 2. h 3. f 4. g 5. c 6. e 7. a 8. b Exercise 2.9 Her son Joey cooked breakfast for her, and made a vase for her at school. Her daughter Julie cooked breakfast for her, together with Joey, and knitted a scarf for her. Her friend Barbara wished her Happy birthday, and gave her a necklace. Her husband Jim gave her a pair of diamond earrings. Exercise 2.10 1. for, to2. to, for 3. to, for 4. for, to 5. to, for 6. for, to 7. for, to 8. to, to 9. to, for 10. to, for Exercise 2.11 1. Gin sewed her husband a tie. 2. Justin built the dog a dog house. 3. Larry baked Paula an apple pie. 4. Edwin gets his nephews toys. 5. Steve bakes his family bread. 6. Nelly will save you a place in line. 7. Edith knit Lee that beautiful green sweater. 8. Canada saved the taxpayers millions of dollars. 9. Patrick made Maria a new picture frame. 10. Jeff brought Erick a new computer game. Exercise 2.12 2. Gloria cooked Harvey a fabulous dinner. 3. Gary was cold, so Karen knitted him a scarf. 4. If I win the lottery, Ill buy you a house by the sea. 5. Chuck left his wallet at home, so Ross bought him dinner. 7. On your birthday, Ill bake you a cake. Exercise 2.13 1. b 2. a, b 3. a, f, g Exercise 2.14 First, I bake him a homemade bread. Then I cook him his favourite meal, lasagna. I also buy him the best wine. They suggested that I make him spaghetti instead of lasagna. They went to the little market near the cabin for me and bought me noodles, tomato sauce, meat, and spices.


READING DIGEST 3 Exercise 3.1.A 1 She feels positive about it. It seems to have been happy. 2 She had a good relationship with her parents. Exercise 3.1.B 1C ... all the attention moved from me ... 2B if ... she would know where we all were ... 3A it was only when I reached my late teens that I started to read them ... 4D I discussed the subject with my father. 5B ... blue dress ... a big blue velvet band ... earrings ... Exercise 3.2 1 C; 2B; 9 C; 10 D; 16 A; 17 D; 3A; 11 D; 18 C; 4D; 12C; 19 D; 5A; 13C; 20 D; 6 C; 14C; 21 C; 7B; 15C; 22 B; 3 these; 7 being; 10 the; 14 had; 18 own; 8D; 23 D; 24 D; 25 C

Exercise 3.3.A 1 for; 5 about/just/nearly/only; 8 which/that; 12 its/the; 16 quickly/ immediately; 19 did/made; Exercise 3.3.B 1 upbringing; 5 pregnancy; 8 orphanage; 2 youth; 6 adolescence; 9 retirement;

2 early; 6 where; 9 to; 13 too; 17 including; 20 was 3 childish; 7 adopted; 10 teenage

4 However; 11 her; 15 except;

4 childhood;

Exercise 3.4 1 We had our kitchen redecorated (by a local firm). 2 It's time I had my hair cut. 3 She had her tonsils taken out when she was six. 4 He had his suit altered for the wedding. 5 She had her photographs developed. 6 The woman is having her temperature taken. 7 We had our central heating fixed (by a plumber). 8 Have you had your hair done? You look different. Exercise 3.5 make: a mess, the bed, money, an appointment, a fuss, a noise, a fool of oneself do: nothing, one's duty, someone good, the work, the washing-up Exercise 3.6.A 1. 17 years old 4. three: England, USA and Switzerland Exercise 3.6.B childhood Happy 1/2 Successful 2/3 2. 1915 3. four films are named 5. He was married four times Youth ? 3 middle age 3 3 old age 4 2

Exercise 3.7.A Dear Sally, 1 I was delighted to get your letter this morning. 2 I have a very clear memory of Richard. He seems/ ed such a nice boy. 3 Congratulations. I hope that you'll be very happy together. 4 Unfortunately I won't be able to come to the wedding. 5 At my age I don't think I would find the journey easy. 6 All the same I would love to give you a wedding present.



7 Will you write and tell me what you would like as a present? 8 My thoughts will be with you both on the big day. 9 Don't forget to send me some photographs and a piece of wedding cake. Exercise 3.7.B Dear Jerry, 1. I am writing to say how sorry I am/was to hear of the death of your grandfather/ your grandfather's death. 2. He was such a wonderful man. I will/shall miss him lot. 3. His sudden death must be/have been a shock to you and your family. 4. I remember having a long conversation with him only a few days ago. 5. He used to be so active in the garden and interested in everything around him. 6. I would really like to attend the funeral and pay my last respects. 7. If it is just a family affair, I will quite understand. 8. Please do not hesitate to contact me if there is anything I can do to help you. GRAMMAR DIGEST 3 Task g, a, k, j, d, h, e, c, i, b, f Exercise 3.1. I/Indian; Prize; D/Indians D/book; D/customs; D/ceremonies; D/Indians; I/girl; I/plantation; D/beans; D/plants D/story; D/army; D/Indians; I/property; I/soldiers D/violence; I/committee; D/government Exercise 3.2 1. S (telephone booth was mentioned before) 2. R (telephone booth is a related noun; window is part of the telephone booth) 3. R (a related noun, telephone booth, has been mentioned before) 4. S (broom has been mentioned before) 5. R (a related noun, telephone booth, has been mentioned before; all telephone booths have telephones) 6. and 7. R (related nouns, telephone booth and telephone have been mentioned) 8. S (coffee mug has been mentioned before) 9. S (phone call has been mentioned before) 10. S (phone call has been mentioned before) Exercise 3.3 1. a 2. the 3. the 4. the 5. a 6. the 7. the 8. the 9. a 10. the 11. the 12. the 13. The 14. the 15. the 16. the Exercise 3.4 1. the 2. the 3. a 4. the 5. the 6. the 7. the 8. The 9. the 10. The 11. the Exercise 3.5 1. a, a 2. a, a 3. the, the 4. some 5. a, the 6. a 7. the 8. some 9. the, the Exercise 3.6 1. an 2. The 3. the 4. The 5. an, a 6. The 7. some 8. some 9. the, the, the Exercise 3.7 1. There should be no article before love. 2. No article before love. 3. No article before money. 4. No article before money. 5. No article before health. 6. There should b an article before Work. 7. There should be an article (the) before both love and health. Exercise 3.8 1. 2. , 3. , the 4. 5. , 6. The 7. the 8. a, an 9. 10. Exercise 3.9 1. 2. the 3. 4. 5. 6. the 7. The 8. 9. The 10. the 11. the 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Exercise 3.10 (A) 1. the Amazon 5. the Himalayas 7. the Sahara 8. the Pacific Ocean (B) 2. Asia 3. Russia 4. Australia (name of a country); Greenland 6. Mt. Everest 9. Lake Superior 10. Jupiter


Exercise 3.11 No articles: Canada, North America, Alaska, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories, Mount Logan, Mount St. Elias, Lake Huron, Great Bear Lake, Lake Superior, and Great Slave Lake Articles: the United States, the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean Exercise 3.12 Answers will vary. Exercise 3.13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. the 8. the 9. the 10. 11. The 12. The 13. 14. Exercise 3.14 the University of Washington, Louisiana State (University), the South, the Pacific Northwest, Washington, D.C, the White House, the Capitol, the Washington Monument, the Smithsonian, the National Gallery Exercise 3.15 Answers will vary. Exercise 3.16 1. 2. 3. the 4. the 5. 6. 7. the 8. 9. 10. the Exercise 3.17 1. the Golden Gate Bridge 2. the Marin Headlands 3. the East Bay 4. the Orient 5. Chinatown 6. Asia 7. Golden Gate Park 8. Kew Gardens 9. the Asian Art Museum 10. the/ Strybring Arboretum 11 the California Academy of Sciences READING DIGEST 4 Exercise 4.1.B 1B The main influence on teenagers remains their friends. 2C implication of the whole paragraph 3D Even ordinary society has its drugs. 4A There seems to be a lot of truth in this. 5C ... most kids want to be something and cults give them something to be. Exercise 4.2 1 C; 2 B; Exercise 4.3.A 1 E; 2 F; Exercise 4.3.B 1 faced up to; 4 look up to; 7 talking ... over; 3 B; 3 H; 4 C; 4 B; 5 B; 5 I; 6 C; 6 G; 7 C; 7 C; 8 A; 8A; 9B; 9D 10A

2 let ... down; 5 put ... down; 8 go along with;

3 live up to; 6 look down; 9 sort ... out

Exercise 4.5.A 1 I think you should follow your husband's example and try to put this incident behind you and your family. 2 Your daughter knows she has let you down and will not feel happy until she feels you have forgiven her. 3 Your feelings of guilt are unjustified and you should put your energy into making your child feel better. 4 If I were you, I wouldn't worry too much about her turning to crime. 5 She has been terrified by the whole thing and has been put off ever taking anything again. 6 Most kids do something like this at some stage and she was just unlucky enough to be caught. 7 If she doesnt get over the experience soon, you can always take her away on a short holiday and give her a change of scene. 8 Then she can face up to her relatives and neighbours. 9 I am sure that you can sort things out.



Exercise 4.5.B 1 used/had 8 time 14 Since

2 on/along 9 as 15 what

3 his 4 really 5 had 6 would/could 10 accused 11 so 12 knew/realized/understood 16 wan 17 all/both 18 the 19 for

7 already 13 taken/stolen 20 this

Exercise 4.6 1 horrified; 2 depressed; 3 disappointing; 4 worrying; 5 disgusting; 6 tiring; 7 boring; 8 boring Exercise 4.7 The second version is incomplete and it uses a greater variety of tenses, sentence length and construction. Extra details are given to make the story more interesting and the vocabulary is much richer. Exercise 4.8.A 1 emigrating; 2 to let; 3 entering; 4 to allow; 5 to deport; 6 crossing; 7 to hide; 8 showing; 9 filling in; 10 not to understand; 11 to be Exercise 4.8.B 1 to go/ picking up; 2 seeing; 3 to rain* 4 playing/to play; 5 to study/ studying, 7 to make/to concentrate; 8 to wonder; 9 to do; 10 jogging; 11 to post; 12 to do; *(We don't use the gerund after a continuous tense) Exercise 4.9 1 When did your family come over? 2 Why did he decide to emigrate? 3 Did he come on his own? 4 Have you ever been back to Ireland? 5 What was it like? 6 Do you still keep in touch with them? Exercise 4.10.A 1D; 2F; 3E; 4H; 5A; 613; 7C; 8G Exercise 4.10.B 1 catching on; 2 carry them out; 3 going up; 4 talked me into; 5 settled down; 6 set up; 7 took up; 8 let you down Exercise 4.11 1 She lived for a hundred years. 2 The population of the USA is over 200 million. 3 Five thousand people visit the gallery every day. 4 My telephone number is two- four- double three - eight - nine - five. 5 I would like a dozen eggs, please. 6 The code for London is o (oh) one. 7 Dozens of people walked out of the film. (correct) 8 The book is one hundred and eighty pages long. The book is one hundred eighty pages long in American English (AE) 9 Altogether that's three pounds sixty-five. 10 The average family has two point four children. 11 The drawer is an eighth of an inch too wide. 12 There were thousands of people at the party. (correct) 13 The Battle of Waterloo was in eighteen fifteen. 14 My car does thirty miles to the gallon. GRAMMAR DIGEST 4 Exercise 4.1 Active voice: 2, 3, 9 Passive voice: 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10

6 driving; 13 lending; 14 taking off


Exercise 4.2 1. are made 2. is produced 3. is also sent 4. is woven 5. are sold 6. are made 7. is mined 8. is served 9. is made 10. are cultivated 11. are produced Exercise 4.3 1. was built 2. are being 3. will be finished 4. was known 5. were written 6. were published 7. are being translated 8. is taught 9. are spoken 10. were arrested 11. were robbed 12. have been performed 13. has been served 14. have been invited Exercise 4.4 1. was made 2. was bought 3. was moved 4. were drawn up 5. was limited 6. was designed 7. was built 8. was covered 9. were cut 10. was built 11. were visited 12. was named 13. was called 14. was nicknamed 15. was named 16. was built 17. was finished 18. wasnt painted 19. was/had been sent 20. were moved 21. were seen 22. has been sold 23. have been notified 24. had just been promoted 25. are both going to be employed/will both be employed 26. will be allowed /are going to be allowed 27. havent been bothered/werent bothered Exercise 4.5 Unnecessary by-phrases to be crossed out: 1: by miners Camporians 9. by people 10. by waiters 3. by Camporians 4. by builders 6. by teachers 7. by

Exercise 4.6 These are the phrases that should be crossed out. Paragraph 1: by the turtles Paragraph 2: by them; by the people; by the people Paragraph 3: by them Paragraph 4: by officials, by someone, by the government, by them Exercise 4.7 1. d 2. a 3. g 4. h 5. b 6. c 7. f 8. e Exercise 4.8 1. It will get eaten 2. getting fixed 3. got robbed; got taken 4. got invited 5. ll get stopped 6. are getting typed 7. got returned 8. will get published 9. didnt get paid 10. Did get hurt Exercise 4.9 1. The house gets cleaned. 2. The meals get cooked. 3. The dishes get done. 4. Crack houses are getting destroyed. 5. Historic buildings are getting renovated. 6. Low income housing is getting built. 7. Halls got painted. 8. Trees got planted. 9. The language lab got remodelled. 10. When Richard arrived, people had got seated for dinner. 11. When Lisa arrived, dinner had got served. 12. When Angelica arrived, the cake had got cut. Exercise 4.10 1. got laid off 2. got poisoned/was poisoned 3. was served 4. did not get delivered/were not delivered 5. got lost/had got lost 6. got confused 7. got torn/was torn 8. was interrupted/got interrupted 9. got wet 10. was left 11. got stolen/was stolen 12. got rewarded/were rewarded Exercise 4.11 1. got eaten 4. got hit 5. got taken 7. will get published 8. got attacked 9. got damaged Exercise 4.12 1. The work got finished by the time I arrived. 2. You can buy your cola now the machine has got refilled. 4. Did the house get damaged in the storm? 5. The house got damaged, but now it is getting repaired. 7. Youll have to wait your uniform hasnt got washed yet. 9. The dessert will get frozen in time for dinner. 10. The flat tire will get fixed so we can get to the meeting on time. READING DIGEST 5 Exercise 5.1.B Both chimps and humans live in families, use tools, fight wars, are self-aware, have a kind of language, and under certain circumstances adopt.



Exercise 5.1.C 1A In this way she hopes to observe the progress of an entire generation of chimps from birth to death. 2C Nevertheless, older chimps may adopt younger brothers or sisters if the mother dies, i.e. this is an exceptional circumstance. 3B ... there was no reason for the conflict other than a perhaps natural hostility to aliens 4C see 2 C above 5C Such research may give us clues about human behaviour and motivation. Exercise 5.2.A 1 correct 2 wrong - James is bigger than Mark. 3 wrong - She is the best at English in our class. 4 correct 5 wrong - He plays tennis well. 6 wrong - His car isn't as good as mine. 7 wrong - She hardly works. Hardly means just a little. Compare: He's breathing hard. (because he has just run up the stairs) and He's hardly breathing. (Call a doctor!) 8 wrong -You look cold. 9 wrong - They play chess much worse than us. Exercise 5.2.B 1 the youngest; 4 the cheapest; 7 farther/ further; 10 happy; 13 good; 2 better; 3 as expensive; 5 hard; 6 more slowly; 8 the worst; 9 the most/boring; 11 more beautifully; 12 less angry; 14 more comfortable; 15 more quickly, faster

Exercise 5.3.A 1 correct 2 wrong - Despite the fact that the restaurant ... Although the restaurant was ... 3 wrong - The wine was bad. However, the food was delicious. 4 wrong - We can't use although here because there is no contrast of ideas. 5 wrong - Even though he was rich, he was unhappy. Exercise 5.3.B Possible answers 1 Despite its age /Even though it is very old, the dog really enjoys going for walks. 2 They have got a large dog although they have a small flat. 3 They tried to housetrain the puppy but it didn't work. 4 Pigs are supposed to be dirty. Nevertheless, they're quite clean. 5 The squirrels look tame. However, they may bite you. Exercise 5.4 1 Annie was too tired to take the dog for a walk. 2 The birdcage was too high up on the wall for the cat to reach. 3 The zebra was too slow/wasn't fast enough to escape the lion. 4 The dog is too stupid /isn't clever enough to learn that trick. 5 The children are too young/aren't old enough to have rabbits as pets. Exercise 5.5 1 put down; 4 broke out, 7 count on; 2 came across; 5 carry on; 8 put forward; 3 come up with; 6 back me up; 9 turned on; 5 advantage of

10 come about

Exercise 5.6 1 part in; 2 care of; 3 pity on; 4 pride in; Exercise 5.7 1 on account of; 2 in place of, 3 on behalf of, 4 by means of; 5 in addition to; 6 in answer to


Exercise 5.9.A 1 ago; 7 hoped; 12 according; 17 top;

2 was; 8 back; 13 saw; 18 on;

3 off; 9 however; 14 of; 19 sure;

4 with; 10 out; 5 still; 20 second

5 up; 11 on; 16 in;

6 while;

Exercise 5.9.B 1 Despite the fact that the dog barked all night, we still managed to sleep. 2 The mice run too fast for the cat to catch. 3 Dogs are more expensive to keep than cats. 4 There isn't an animal as cruel as man. 5 My canary doesn't sing as well as his. 6 Have you got any cheaper pet food? 7 Even though the winter was hard, most of the animals survived. 8 This is the dirtiest-looking dog I have ever seen! 9 The Persian cat was too expensive for her. 10 No animal runs as fast as the cheetah. GRAMMAR DIGEST 5 Exercise 5.1 1. is 2. must be 3. must work 4. could be 5. must use 6. could be; might be (or vice-versa) 7. may; could (or viceversa) 8. doesnt have; could have 9. must not/must 10. could; might (or vice-versa) Exercise 5.2 1. must 2. must 3. might 4. may/could, may/could 5. may not 6. could 7. could, could 8. must 9. may not 10. may not Exercise 5.3 Answers will vary. The choice of modal auxiliary depends on the speakers certainty. 2. He might be a jockey / a clown / a circus performer. He might have been born that way. 3. He might have a cold / have drunk too much alcohol / be a clown. 4. She could be a construction worker / mechanic / farmer / gardener / housekeeper. She might was dishes in a busy restaurant. She might have just got out of jail. 5. She might be a movie star / fashion model / rock star / politician. She may have won the lottery. 6. He might be a surgeon / pianist / model. 7. He might be a gangster / heavy metal rock star / sailor / member of Hells Angels. Exercise 5.4 1. They must be drug dealers. 2, 3. They could/might/may have inherited the money, or they could/might/may have won the car in a contest. 4, 5. There must have been a dozen wine bottles. They must be alcoholics. 6, 7. Kathy and Tim could/might/may have had a party, or they could/might/may have invited friends over for dinner. 8. Kathy must have gone to one of those AA meetings. 9. She could/might/may have been at a store near the church. 10. Tim must have got drunk and hit him. 11. the boy could/might/may have fallen off his bike. 12. you must be crazy. 13. You could/may/might be right. Exercise 5.5 1. ll probably go 2. may take 3. ll probably 4. must have hurt 5. might have left 6. could be 7. must be 8. might 9. ll probably get 10. must wear Exercise 5.6 1. might be 2. must 3. might take 4. must have left 5. may have 6. is probably going to rain (preferable to could here because dark clouds suggests a greater probability of rain) 7. might have 8. must have been 9. might 10. must have gone Exercise 5.7 Answers will vary. Exercise 5.8 Answers will vary.



Exercise 5.9 Answers will vary. Exercise 5.10 2. Our English instructor believes (that) an open-minded attitude is helpful in learning a language. 3. It is shocking that many Americans have never studied a foreign language. 4. Many Americans feel that since English is an important world language used in business, it is not necessary to learn another language. 5. I believe (that) learning another language is one way of showing respect to people from other countries. 6. Our English instructor is amazed that some of us speak three or four languages. Exercise 5.11 a) I dont think that our governments policy is fair. b) I do not believe that our immigration policy is fair. c) I dont know this happens. d) I realise that our government sends some people back to their countries. e) I think its wrong. f) It is my opinion that this is wrong. g) I think its a racist policy. h) I am certain that it is a racist policy. i) I doubt that this happens. j) It is unlikely that immigrants take jobs away form our citizens. k) I believe immigrants do work that our citizens refuse to do. l) I am convinced that immigrants do work that our citizens refuse to do. READING DIGEST 6 Exercise 6.2.A 1 her upbringing, the death of her mother, her cruel stepmother, hunger Exercise 6.2.B 1D a sharp-eyed store detective 2D Hunger drove young Rose to steal food. 3C Myra Hindley ... would have certainly followed Ellis to the scaffold if hanging had not been abolished. 4A opportunity to go straight 5B popularity of credit cards ... people tend to carry less cash around Exercise 6.3 1 What would you do if you were in my situation? 2 If you do that again, you'll have to go to bed. 3 If he'd been less mean, she wouldn't have left him. 4 If we leave now, we'll miss the rush hour traffic. 5 If you smoked less, you'd have much more money. 6 If we'd locked the car window, we wouldn't have given them the opportunity to break in. 7 When Alice gets here, will you show her to her room? 8 ... what would you say if I gave you a little present? 9 If you press that button, a receptionist will come to help you. 10 If you'd come with us, you would have enjoyed it too. 11 Imagine, darling. What would we do if your husband had an accident? 12 If I were the Prime Minister, I'd bring back capital punishment. Exercise 6.4.A 1 of; 2 for; 6 for; 7 from; 3 for; 8 of; 4 from; 9 on; 5 for; 10 about

Exercise 6.4.B 1. Her employer accused her of stealing money. 2. Rose blames her parents for not bringing her up properly. 3. His mother punished him for being rude to their neighbour. 4. The lock prevented the burglar from breaking into the house. 5. The jury convicted him of murdering his wife. 6. The shopkeeper forgave the child for stealing the sweets. 7. His son was/has been arrested for selling drugs to teenagers. 8. Her nephew was discouraged from talking to the police. 9. The judge congratulated the police on catching the gang. 10. She warned the children about playing in the park after dark.


Exercise 6.5.A 1 looking into; 2 held up; 4 ran over; 5 made for; 7 take everyone in; 8 found out; 10 up to; 11 broke down; 13 went off; 14 break into Exercise 6.5.B CRIME 1 blackmail 2 vandalism 3 mugging 4 shoplifting 5 burglary 6 rape 7 arson 8 forgery 9 fraud 10 kidnapping 11 drug pushing 12 terrorism 13 smuggling CRIMINAL a blackmailer a vandal a mugger a shoplifter a burglar a rapist an arsonist a forger a kidnapper a drug pusher a terrorist a smuggler ACT to blackmail to vandalize to mug to shoplift to burgle to rape to commit arson to forge to defraud to kidnap to push drugs to commit an act of terrorism to smuggle

3 got away with; 6 made up, 9 gave her away; 12 let him off;

Exercise 6.6 1A; 21D; 3A; 4D; 5D; 6B; 7D; 8C; 9B; 10B; 11A; 12D; 13A; 14D; 15B; 16B; 17B; 18D; 19C; 20D; 21C; 22A; 23D; 24D; 25B Exercise 6.7 1 just; 5 turned; 9 raised/ sounded; 13 leave/escape; 17 usually; 2 handing/giving; 6 who; 10 hand; 14 rather; 18 extremely; 3 would; 7 demanding; 11 Even; 15 in; 19 despite; 4 that; 8 own; 12 easy; 16 The; 20 a

Exercise 6.8 1 Unless you change your ways, you are going to end up in prison. 2 If I were you, I'd call the police. 3 He suggested that we should fit new locks on the door. 4 If he had worn gloves, the police wouldn't have caught him. 5 She wishes she had insured the stereo. 6 Our house was broken into while we were on holiday. 7 I'll call the police if you like/if you want me to. 8 As I didn't know all the facts, I rang the police. 9 Jerry can't have stolen the jewels because he didn't know where the key to the safe was. 10 Provided you fill the car up with petrol, you can borrow it. GRAMMAR DIGEST 6 Exercise 6.1 1. annoying 2. comforting 3. frightening 4. relaxing / soothing 5. frightened 6. amusing 7. boring 8. surprising 9. amusing 10. exciting 11. shocking 12. entertaining 13. disappointed



Exercise 6.2 obsessed disciplined disappointed surprising covered shocked frustrated annoying exhausted worried relieved Exercise 6.3 Answers will vary, with the following ed/-ing forms for each verb: 1. surprised 2. frustrating 3. confused 4. exciting 5. worried 6. frightening 7. fascinating 8. embarrassed 9. annoyed 10. relieved Exercise 6.4 In all of these answers, the main clause (Eva) can come first, followed by the if clause (comma deleted) 1. If Eva moves to Tokyo, shell 2. If Eva learns Japanese, shell 3. If Eva marries Mack, shell 4. If she lives in her hometown, she wont 5. If she doesnt leave her hometown, her life wont 6. If Eva marries Travis, shell 7. If she lives in a mansion, shell 8. If she doesnt feel like herself, shell 9. If she marries Sato or Travis, her life will 10. If she doesnt get married, she wont Exercise 6.5 Answers will vary. The possible verb forms/tenses are indicated. 1. will/be going to/can/might/may + verb 2. simple present tense 3. will/be going to/can/might/ may + verb 4. simple present tense 5. will/be going to/can/might/may + verb 6. simple present tense 7. will/be going to/can/might/may + verb 8. will/be going to/can/might/may + verb 9. will/be going to/can/might/may + verb 10. simple present tense Exercise 6.6 Answers will vary. Exercise 6.7 2. He is not rich, so he cant afford to go out to eat all the time or never have to cook at home. were, would, would 3. He cant buy anything he wants because hes not rich. would, were 4. He doesnt have a girlfriend, so he cant buy her anything she wants. had, would 5 8. It is difficult to state what is not true about each sentence, since these are based on Sams fantasy about having a girlfriend. But if we suppose he does have a girlfriend: 5. His girlfriend doesnt want to buy more and more, since he doesnt buy her whatever she wants. bought 6. She hasnt run out of things to buy, since she doesnt/isnt able to buy more and more. bought, would 7. Since she hasnt run out of things to buy, she has not fallen out of love with Sam. would, ran 8. He isnt miserable because she hasnt fallen out of love with him. fell, would 9. He doesnt go to the movies every week because he isnt miserable. were, would Exercise 6.8 1. were, wouldnt have 2. would live/would be living, didnt have 3. would have, lived/were living 4. knew, would work/would be working, wouldnt work/wouldnt be working 5. went, would learn (Its understood that he doesnt go to school.) 6. would live/would be living, had 7. would be, didnt have 8. were, would bring/could bring 10. were, would have Exercise 6.9 Hypothetical sentences: 1, 3, 5, 6, 10 Exercise 6.10 1. future (probable) 2. hypothetical (improbable) 3. hypothetical (improbable) 4. hypothetical (improbable) (probable) 6. future (probable) 7. hypothetical (improbable) 8. hypothetical (improbable) 5. future

Exercise 6.11 2. Geoffs wife really might change careers, so the if clause might be true. The future conditional can be used: changes, will study to be a 3. The if clause cannot be true because Toni lives in New Zealand. The counterfactual conditional must be used: had stayed, would not be 4. Toni may move to France next year, so the if clause might be true. The future conditional can be used: will speak French, moves 5. Marys car really might break down since it is old. The future conditional can be used: breaks down, will need (to fix it/to buy a new car) 6. The if clause cannot be true because Mary has a car. The counterfactual conditional must be used: didnt have, would have to (ride the bus/buy one) 7. The future conditional can be used since the if clause may be true Marcia might actually be accepted into graduate school: will start, gets 8. Since Mary raised a family instead of going to school, the if clause cannot be true. The counterfactual conditional must be used: had continued, would have begun


Exercise 6.12 In all of these answers, the main clause can come first, followed by the if clause (comma deleted). The following contractions are used: wouldve (would have), hadnt (had not), and wouldnt (would not). 1. If Mary hadnt met Gordon, she wouldve married 2. If Gordon hadnt gone to medical school, he wouldve gone 3. If Gordon hadnt become a doctor, he wouldve 4. If Claudia hadnt had Mr. Stack for algebra, she wouldnt have 5. If Mr. Stack hadnt been Claudias teacher, she wouldve 6. If Barb hadnt married Tom, she wouldnt have 7. If Barb hadnt known how to speak French and Spanish, she shouldnt have got 8. If Jan hadnt got pneumonia, she wouldnt have 9. If Jan hadnt moved to Arizona, she wouldnt have 10. If there had been birth control years ago, my grandmother wouldnt have had Exercise 6.13 2. knew/had known, would have changed 3. got, would not be 4. would run away, yelled 5. had, would buy 6. had not learned, would have been 7. had not rained, would have remembered 8. would be able, rained Exercise 6.14 In all of these answers, the main clause can come first, followed by the if clause (no comma). 1. If I had seen her, I wouldve given 2. If Id had some money, I wouldve gone 3. If I had known you were in the hospital, I wouldve visited 4. If we hadnt broken the law, we wouldnt have got 5. If I had known we were going to be late, I wouldve called 6. If the cookies hadnt been there, I wouldnt have eaten 7. If you had been careful, you wouldnt have made 8. If Alex had been at the meeting, we wouldve been 9. If I had a car, I wouldnt have taken 10. If you hadnt told me the news, I wouldnt have known. Exercise 6.15 Answers will vary. READING DIGEST 7 Exercise 7.1.A 1 Imaginary friends come from the spirit world. 2 They helped her with her maths exams. 3 Her earliest experience was when she was four. Exercise 7.1.B 1A One dad wrote to me to say he was getting very worried ... 2D ... there's nothing frightening about children having imaginary friends, especially if they've been very close. 3D ... but Christopher and Pansy helped me to pass my exams. 4B Most children are psychic up to the age of 11 or 12. 5A My mum warned me that I'd end up in a mental hospital. Exercise 7.2 1 watched; 5 seen; 2 glanced; 6 stared; 3 peered; 7 gazed 4 look;

Exercise 7.3. 1. We felt the ground start to shake. 2. Anna noticed a strange smell coming from a cupboard. 3. Did you hear their dog barking all night? 4. We listened to their footsteps coming closer. 5. The policeman caught the thief climbing through the window. 6. The children watched the farmer milking the cows. Exercise 7.4.A 1 correct; 2 wrong; 3 correct; 4 wrong; 5 correct; 6 correct * We modify ordinary adjectives like cold with modifiers like fairly, quite, very and extremely. We modify extreme adjectives like freezing with modifiers like absolutely, completely, utterly and totally. Note that quite and really can be used with both types of adjective. Exercise 7.4.B 1 starving; 2 tiny; 3 freezing; 4 awful; 5 wonderful; 6 terrified; 7 gorgeous; 8 fascinating; 9 huge; 10 exhausted; 11 positive; 12 hungry



Exercise 7.5 1A The two ... (i.e. mother and elder sister) 2B Of the second dream ... the third occasion was not a dream. 3D I would have put it down to mere coincidence if it had not been repeated twice. 4D The first occasion ... when I was seven years old ... the second dream about ten years, later 5B The friend arrived later for lunch. Exercise 7.6 1 or; 6 living; 11 on; 16 with; Exercise 7.7 1D; 2 C; 9 A; 10 B; 2 whose; 7 would; 12 flower; 17 You; 3D; 11 A; 4D; 12 B; 3 victims; 8 in; 13 all; 18 dare/can/could; 5A; 13 A; 6 C; 14 B; 4 following; 9 the; 14 down; 19 into; 7B; 15 C 8B; 5 used; 10 one; 15 sooner; 20 away

GRAMMAR DIGEST 7 Exercise 7.1 Questions will vary. Exercise 7.2 Questions will vary. Exercise 7.3 1. Where do you live? 2. What is your address? 3. What time do you go to work every day? 4. Why do you get here so early/late? 5. How often do you ride the bus every week? 6. Which way do you come? 7. What do you come with? 8. How many times have you skipped class this term? Exercise 7.4 Answers may vary. 1. Why is the closet door closed? 2. Whats in the closet? / Wheres the broom? 3. Wheres the vacuum cleaner? 4. Why do we have to clean the house? 5. Whos coming over for dinner? 6. Where did Pat and Sam meet the Smiths? / How do Pat and Sam know the Smiths? 7. When did they meet them there? / When did that happen? 8. What were the Smiths doing in the garden? / What were the Smiths doing when they met Pat and Sam? 9. How are Pat and Sam getting there? 10. What time is everyone coming over? Exercise 7.5 Questions may vary. What do you think your strong points are? Are you looking for a full-time or part-time position? What is your native country? / Where are you from? When did you leave your last job? Why did you leave it? What kind of computers do you know how to use? When will you be available to work? How do you get to work? When can you start working? How much do you expect to earn? Exercise 7.6 Diana is in your class, isnt she? Yes, she is. You both have to study a lot in calculus, dont you? Yes, we do. Youll finish the class soon, wont you? Yes, we will. Youre going to take a vacation after that, arent you? Yes, we are. Were going to France. You havent been there before, have you? No, we havent. Youve been working here for a long time, havent you? Yes, I have. You were working here when Ms. OHara was the boss, werent you? Yes, I was. You worked part-time at first, didnt you? Yes, I did. You dont get tired of all the typing and answering the phone, do you? No, I dont. Jills been here for a long time too, hasnt she? Yes, she has. Shes been here for 15 years. You both really like working here, dont you? Yes, we do. Exercise 7.7 women had no legal existence no property What was even worse was really did seem unfair What they did was they did finally win which did allow women what many women really wanted was did win What they fought for was did happen What happened was


Exercise 7.8 2. What women were treated like was property. 3. What married women couldnt do was own property or vote. 4. What Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Candy Stanton did was to write speeches and letters about womens rights. 5. What those women were called was suffragettes. 6. What suffragettes wanted was equal rights and the right to vote. 7. What some states did was to pass state laws allowing women to vote. 8. What finally happened was women got the right to vote. 9. When it happened was in 1920. 10 What is happening today is that women are also becoming more equal in their wages. Exercise 7.9 2. What I paint is houses. 3. What you need is some exercise. 4. What wed like is less homework. What wed prefer is a test every week. What I need is more grammar to pass the TOEFL. What Id like is a different textbook. 5. What this town needs is a good cinema hall. 6. What he writes is instruction manuals. 7. What theyd really like is a microwave. 9. What you should get is a job. What I need is a new mother. Exercise 7.10 1. He certainly did win the lottery. 2. I certainly did try Chinese food. 3. She will certainly make it to graduate school. 4. She certainly does exercise every day. 5. They are certainly happy living by themselves. 6. I certainly can you find my way home. 7. I certainly did eat the whole meal. 8. I certainly do like your new car. 9. She is certainly coming home today. 10. I would certainly like some more spaghetti. 11. The food is certainly spicy enough. 12. It really does taste like chocolate. 13. I have certainly been to Disney World. 14. I have certainly finished my finals? 15. I will certainly be here by 5:00. Exercise 7.11 I did look on my desk, and its not there. I certainly did clean it up! I really did clean it up last night. You certainly put it there. I do return everything I borrow. I do look after my things. It does have a key. Exercise 7.12 She had no time she had no comforts She had no warm room. she would have been with no food, no home, no money or jobshe had no way out with no friends she had no dress or ride you will have no husband I want no husband is no princess




Eastwood, J., 1992, Oxford Practice Grammar, OUP Kenny, N., 1996, First Certificate Passkey, Macmillan Heinemann Murphy, R., 1995, English Grammar in Use, CUP Naunton, J., 1994, Think First Certificate, Longman ONeill, R., Duckworth M., Gude K., 1987, Success at First Certificate, OUP Riggenbach Heidi, Samuda, Virginia, 1993, Grammar Dimensions, Book 2, Heinle and Heinle Veres, G., Cehan Anca, Andriescu I., 1998, A Dictionary of English Grammar, ed. II, Polirom, Iasi


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