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EMERGENCYWATERSUPPLY UNIT5:SURFACEWATERINTAKES

Edition1.1GJM WEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK 5.1


UNIT5
SURFACEWATERINTAKES
Whatthisunitisabout
Thisunitisaboutthedevelopmentandrehabilitationofsurfacewaterintakesin
emergencysituations.
Whatyouwilllearn
Oncompletionofthisunityoushould:
befamiliarwiththecriteriaforsitingandprotectionofsurfacewaterintakes
understandhowdifferenttypesoftemporarybulksurfacewaterintakescanbe
designedandconstructedtoprovideoptimalrawwaterqualitiesandquantities,
andhowtheycanbeprotectedfromphysicaldamage
knowhowpumpscanbeusedinsurfacewaterabstraction
understandhowsubmergedweirscanbeusedtoraisewaterlevelsatintake
points
befamiliarwiththepotentialimpactsofemergenciesonexistingsurfacewater
intakestructures,andthetasksinvolvedintherepairandrehabilitationofsuch
facilitiesand
befamiliarwiththearrangementsthatcanbemadeforuserstosafelycollect
waterdirectlyforsurfacewatersourcesintheearlystagesofanemergency
response.
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5.2 Edition1.1GJMWEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK
Contents
5.1 Introduction....................................................................................... 5.3
5.2 Sitingandprotectingintakes........................................................... 5.3
5.3 Bulkintakes....................................................................................... 5.3
5.3.1 Singlepointintakes ............................................................................................... 5.4
5.3.2 Subsurfaceinfiltrationwellsandgalleries.......................................................... 5.10
5.3.3 Weirs ................................................................................................................... 5.17
5.3.4 Rehabilitationofexistingintakestructures.......................................................... 5.18
5.4 Individualcollection........................................................................ 5.19
Figuresinthisunit
Figure5.1. Theproblemscausedifthepipeinletistoonearthesurfaceor
tooclosetothesourcebed................................................................................... 5.4
Figure5.2. Simplearrangementsofpumpsuctioninlets........................................................ 5.6
Figure5.3. Intakeusingasidechannelandscreen................................................................ 5.7
Figure5.4. Aprefabricatedinletstrainerforasuctionpipe .................................................... 5.7
Figure5.5. Asquareofmeshheatedonametalplatecanbepressed
againsttheendofthepipe.................................................................................... 5.8
Figure5.6. Submersiblepumpunit.......................................................................................... 5.9
Figure5.7. Apumpingunitmountedonafloatingplatform.................................................. 5.10
Figure5.8. Aninfiltrationwell ................................................................................................ 5.11
Figure5.9. Handdugwellclosetoriverbankdrawingwaterfromtheaquifer
connectedtotheriver.......................................................................................... 5.12
Figure5.10. Infiltrationtrenchfilledwithsandandgravel ....................................................... 5.13
Figure5.11. Infiltrationwellmadeofconcreteringssunkintheriverbed.............................. 5.14
Figure5.12. Infiltrationwellusingapipewithscreenedintake............................................... 5.15
Figure5.13. Banksideinfiltrationgallery ................................................................................ 5.15
Figure5.14. Temporaryweirmadeofsandbags ................................................................... 5.17
Figure5.15. Watersupplyintakeonasmallstreamdestroyedbyfloods .............................. 5.18
Figure5.16. Examplesofwatercollectionplatforms............................................................... 5.19
Figure5.17. Supportrailaroundwatercollectionplatform..................................................... 5.20
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EMERGENCYWATERSUPPLY UNIT5:SURFACEWATERINTAKES
Edition1.1GJM WEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK 5.3
5.1 Introduction
AswehaveseeninUnit4,surfacewatersourcessuchasrivers,streams,lakesand
ponds,canbegoodsourcesofwaterinemergencysituations.Inthisunitwewilllook
athowintakestructurescanbeusedtoabstractwaterfromthesesources.
5.2 Sitingandprotectingintakes
Intakesitesshouldbeselectedwheresufficientquantitiesofwatercanbeabstracted
withoutadverselyaffectingdownstreamusers:thetechniqueswehavestudiesinUnit
4shouldbeusedforassessingsurfacewaterquantitiesthosedescribedinUnit2
canbeusedtoinvestigatedownstreamuse.
Sitingshouldalsoconsiderwaterquality:intakesshouldbelocatedupstreamof
potentialsourcesofmicrobiologicalandchemicalpollution(Unit3).Whenponds,
lakes,orreservoirsareusedattentionshouldbegiventoassessingtheriskofalgal
blooms,andwherepossibleavoidingsourceswheresuchariskispresent(Unit3).
Thecatchmentareaaboveintakeworksshouldbeprotectedfromcontamination,by
controllingupstreamactivities:
bathing,clotheswashing,andanimalwateringshouldtakeplacedownstreamof
intakeworks
defecationareasshouldbelocateddownstreamandatsomedistancefrom
surfacewater,andotherwaterintakes.
Abstractionsitesshould,asmuchaspossible,beselectedinlocationswherewater
hasalowsedimentload.Siteswherethereisahighriskoffloodingerosion,or
landslides(suchasgullies)should,whereverpossible,beavoided.Thelocationof
intakesonunstableswampyorsandygroundshouldalsobeavoided.
5.3 Bulkintakes
Bulksurfacewaterintakesshouldbedesignedtoreliablysupplysufficientquantities
ofgoodqualityrawwater.Thiscanbeachievedbydesigningintakeworksthatallow
theabstractionofwaterwithlowsedimentloads,atperiodsoflowandhighflow,and
thatareprotectedfromphysicaldamage.Inpracticethisinvolves:
positioninginletsatdepthsthatallowwatertobeabstractedthroughouttheyear
usingchannelsorsubsurfacestructurestodirectflows,allowinglowerintake
velocities(andconsequentlysedimentloads)andinletstobephysicallyprotected
and
usingscreenstoreducetheintakeoflargesediments.
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5.4 Edition1.1GJMWEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK
Wewillnowtolookathowthesetechniquesareincorporatedintotwokindsof
surfacewaterintakestructureandathowpumpscanbeusedinsurfacewater
intakes.
5.3.1 Singlepointintakes
Design
Depthofinlet
Inletpipesshouldbepositioned:
atleast0.3mbelowthesurfaceofthewater,inordertoprotecttheinletfrom
floatingdebrisand,whenpumping,toavoidthecreationofvorticesthatresultin
airbeingentrainedintotheintakepipeand
atleast0.3mabovethesourcesbedtoreducetheintakeofsediments(Figure
5.1).
Figure5.1. Theproblemscausedifthepipeinletistoonearthesurfaceor
tooclosetothesourcebed
Wherewaterlevelsarenotsufficienttomeetthesecriteria,theycanberaisedby
constructingatempsubsurfaceweirordamdiscussedlater.
Inletscanbecorrectlypositionedusinganumberoftechniquesincluding:suspending
theinletfromafloatsecuringtheinletinarigidstructuresuchasabucketorcrib
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EMERGENCYWATERSUPPLY UNIT5:SURFACEWATERINTAKES
Edition1.1GJM WEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK 5.5
usingrigidpipeworkorinfreezingconditions,suspendingtheinletthroughtheice
(Figure5.2).
Suspendingtheinletfromafloathastheadvantageofallowingtheinletheighttobe
automaticallyadjustedwithchangesinwaterlevel.Indeepwater,suchaslakesit
alsoallowstheupperlevelofwater(whichwilloftenhavelowerlevelsofsediments)
tobeaccessed.Floatinginletsshouldbesecurelyanchoredtothebedandbankof
thewatersource.Avariationofthistechniqueisusedwhenafloatingpontoonis
usedtosupportapump(seelaterinthissection).
Securingtheinletinaperforatedbucket,drum,crib,orconcreteringfilledwithcoarse
stonesallowstheinlettobeprotectedagainstphysicaldamageandcanprovide
coarsescreeningaroundtheinletreducingtheintakeofdebrisanddetritus.
Inletscanalsobepositionedusingrigidpipeworksecuredtothebankorbeda
techniquewhichislikelytobemoreapplicableforlongerterminstallations.
Useofsidechannels
Inletscanbepositionedinasidechanneloffsetfromthemainbodyofwater,orina
pondortankfedbythechannel.Sidechannelscanbeusedtoreducethevelocityof
thewateraroundtheinlet,andindoingsoallowwaterwithlowersedimentloadsto
beabstracted:sedimentloadscanbefurtherreducedwhenasidechannelis
combinedwithcoarsescreening.Asidechannelalsoprovidesprotectiontotheinlet
byremovingitfromthemainwatercourse(Figure5.3).
Channelscanbeexcavatedbyhandand,donothavetobelinedunlesstheground
isextremelysandyorporous.Wherecoarsescreeningusingstonesiscombinedwith
thesidechannelthestoneswillprovidestructuralsupporttothechannel.
Screening
Screeningshouldbeusedtoprotecttheintakefromfloatingandsuspendeddebris.
Theynormallyconsistof:
acoarse/primaryscreenpositionedbefore/aroundtheinlet
afinescreen/strainerovertheendoftheinletpipe.
Acoarseorprimaryscreenisusedtoremovelargerfloatingandsuspendeddebris.
Inconventionalintakeworksbarscreens(grates,oftensetatanangle)areoften
usedforprimaryscreening.Inandemergencyacoarsescreencanbeimprovised
usingstonespositionedaroundtheinlet(Figure5.2).
Alternativelytheopenendoftheinletpipecanbefittedwithaprefabricatedstrainer
toactasacoarsescreen(Figure5.4).
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Figure5.2.Simplearrangementsofpumpsuctioninlets
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EMERGENCYWATERSUPPLY UNIT5:SURFACEWATERINTAKES
Edition1.1GJM WEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK 5.7
Figure5.3.Intakeusingasidechannelandscreen
Figure5.4. Aprefabricatedinletstrainerforasuctionpipe
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Afinescreencanbemadebysecuringfinewiremeshovertheendoftheinletpipe.
Whenplasticpipeisused,thewiremeshcanbeheatweldedacrosstheendofpipe
byplacingasquareofmeshontoahotheatingplate,andthenpressingtheendof
thepipeagainstthescreenandheatingplate(Figure5.5).Alternativelytheinsideofa
prefabricatedinletstrainercanbelinedwithfinemesh.
Figure5.5. Asquareofmeshheatedonametalplatecan
bepressedagainsttheendofthepipe
Ifthewaterhasahighsiltloadthefinescreenmayquicklyblockandreducethe
pumpingefficiency.Makesuretheinletpointiseasytoaccessforcleaning.
Pumpingfromsinglepointintakes
Iftopographicalconditionsallow,watercanbefedbygravityfrominletstostorage
andtreatmentfacilities.Morecommonly,especially,intheinitialstagesofan
emergency,pumpswillbeused.Thisallowsrelativelylargevolumesofwatertobe
quicklydeliveredtostorageandtreatmentfacilities,whichwilloftenbesituatedon
higherground.
Differentkindsofpumpscanbeusedtodrawwaterfrominletsbutmostcommonly
centrifugalpumpswillbeused(Units11).Theseareabletodrawwaterfromupto7m
belowthepump(althoughpumpperformancewillbecomeinefficientatheight
differencesgreaterthan3m).Wherethepumpcanbesecurelypositionedwithinthis
heightrangethepumpcanbemountedonthesurface,withthesuctionpipe
connectedtotheinlet:(Figure5.1).
Wheretheheightdifferencebetweenthewatersurfacelevelandthepumpinletis
greaterthan0.7m,submersiblecentrifugal(orother)pumps,positionedinthewater,
canbeused(Figure5.6).
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EMERGENCYWATERSUPPLY UNIT5:SURFACEWATERINTAKES
Edition1.1GJM WEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK 5.9
Positioningsurfacemountedpumps
Surfacemountedpumpingunitscanbepositionedbythesideofthewatersource,or
onaplatform/pontoonfloatingontopofthewater.
Figure5.6. Submersiblepumpunit
Whenpositionedbythesideofthewatersource,onabankforexample,afirm
sectionoflandshouldbechosen,andonethatisnotliabletobeflooded.The
pumpingunitcanbemountedonawoodenpallet,oramorepermanentconcrete
foundationcanbeinstalled(Unit11).
Pumpsandpumpingunitscanalsobemountedonafloatingplatform/pontoon
(Figure5.7),anarrangementthatwillreducetheheightbetweenthepumpandthe
inlet,andindoingsoincreasepumpefficiency.Wheresuchanarrangementisused
thefloatingplatformshouldbesecurelyanchored,andthemooringropes,and
pumpsdeliverypipemustbelongandwellsecuredtoallowforchangesinwater
leveland,whenusedonastreamorriver,increasedflowrates.
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5.10 Edition1.1GJMWEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK
Infreezingconditionsthepumpingunitcanbepositionedonthebank,andtheinlet
placedthroughtheice.Alternativelyiftheiceisstrongenough,thepumpcanbe
mountedontheice,andthepowerunitonthebankFigure5.2
Figure5.7. Apumpingunitmountedonafloatingplatform
Additionalmeasuresshouldbetakeninfreezingconditionstoprotectequipmentfrom
thecoldincluding:
constructingprotectivehousingaroundthepumpingunit,andraisingtheunit
abovetheground
removingtheunitwhenitsnotinuse
raisingpipeworkabovetheground/ice(onwoodenblocksforexample)ata
gradientthatwillallowpipeworktobedrainedwhennotinuse.
5.3.2 Subsurfaceinfiltrationwellsandgalleries
Infiltrationwellandgalleryintakestructures(Figure5.8)typicallyhavetwo
components:
acollectorwellinthebankofthewatersourceand
aninletawellorgalleryofperforatedpipeworkburiedinthesourcesbankor
bed.
Althoughofteninvolvinglongerconstructiontimesthantherapidinstallationintake
designsdescribedabove,suchstructureshavetheadvantageofbeingabletoaccess
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Edition1.1GJM WEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK 5.11
subsurfaceflows,whichcanallowwatertobeabstractedfromapparentlydry
ephemeralwatercourses,and,infreezingconditions,fromwatersourceswherethe
sourceisfrozenaboveground.
Wewillnowlookinmoredetailatthecollectorwellandinletcomponentsofinfiltration
wellsandgalleries.
Figure5.8.Aninfiltrationwell
Collectorwell
Collectorwellsshouldbepositionedinthebankofthewatersource,inlocationsnot
liabletoflooding.Theyshouldbesunktoadepthbelowthatofthelowestpointofthe
inlet:additionaldepthshouldbegiventoallowthebottomofthewelltoactasasump
forsiltation.Collectorwellscanbeconstructedusingthetechniquesforhanddugwell
construction:temporarywellliningmaterials,suchascorrugatedsteelrings,arewell
suitedtotherapidliningofcollectorwells(Unit6).
Insomecaseswatercanbepumpeddirectlyfromtheinletwithouttheneedfora
collectorwell forexamplescreenedinfiltrationinlets(seelaterinthisunit)
Althoughsimilartoashallowwellpositionedinthebankofasurfacewatersource
(sometimecalledariversidewell),acollectorwelldiffersinthatitisconnectedtothe
sourcebyamanmadeinlet/conduit.Howeverwherebanksoilshavehighlevelsof
hydraulicconductivity(i.e.aremadeupofcoarsesandorgravel),simplewells
withoutmanmadeinlet/conduitstructures,canbesunk(Figure5.9).
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Figure5.9. Handdugwellclosetoriverbankdrawingwaterfromtheaquifer
connectedtotheriver
Infiltrationinlets
Sandandgravelfilledtrenchinlet
Whenasandandgravelfilledtrench(Figure5.10)isused:
atrenchisdugbetweenthesourceandthecollectorwell
thetrenchisthenbackfilledwithcoarsesandtoallowbasicfiltrationtotakeplace
thesandcanbegradedintocoarsergravelclosertothecollectionwell,inorder
tominimisesiltationinsidethewell.
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EMERGENCYWATERSUPPLY UNIT5:SURFACEWATERINTAKES
Edition1.1GJM WEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK 5.13
Figure5.10. Infiltrationtrenchfilledwithsandandgravel
Careshouldbetakentoensurethatexcavationsareconductedinasafeway,and
that,wherenecessary,temporarytrenchsupportsareusedAppendix21ofDavis
andLambert(2002)givesfurtherinformationonthetemporarysupportof
excavations.
Concreteringinlet
Precastconcreteringscanbesunkintothebedofawatersource(Figure5.11)
techniquesforthefabricationandsinkingofringsarecoveredinUnit6.Rings
positionedbelowthebedshouldideallybeporous,andgradedlayersofsandand
gravelplacedinthebaseofthebottomringtoreducetheintakeofsediments(to
preventdamageandencouragetheintakeofwaterthathasbeenfilteredbytheriver
bed).Thetopoftheringsshouldbesealedwithaconcretecover.Alternativelythe
columncanbeextendedabovethetopofthefloodwaterlevel.
Aconnectorpipeorsand/gravelfilledtrenchcanbeusedtotransmitflowstoa
collectorwell,alternativelywatercanbepumpeddirectlyfrominsidetheconcrete
rings.
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Figure5.11. Infiltrationwellmadeofconcreteringssunkintheriverbed
Boreholescreeninlet
Prefabricatedorimprovisedboreholescreens(Unit6)canbesunkintothebedsof
surfacewatersources,andhavebeenusedparticularlysuccessfullytoaccesssub
surfaceflowsinephemeralwatercoursesduringthedryseason.Screenscanbe
insertedbymanualexcavationordrillingtechniquessuchashandauguring.The
proceduresdescribedforboreholedesignfor:selectingscreenslotsizeidentifying
theneedfor,and,ifnecessarydesigninganartificialgravelpackanddevelopingthe
gravelpackaroundthescreenbypumping,canallbeappliedtothedesignand
developmentofwellscreenssunkinthebedofsurfacewatersources(Unit6).
Watercanbeabstractedfromtheinletbyconnectingthesuctionsideofasurface
mountedcentrifugalpump.
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Figure5.12.Infiltrationwellusingapipewithscreenedintake
Figure5.13. Banksideinfiltrationgallery
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Infiltrationgalleries
Theinletsurfacearea,andthereforeyield,canbeincreasedbydevelopinginfiltration
galleriessectionsofperforatedorlooselyjointedpipelaidinthesourcesbank
(Figure5.13)orbed(Figure5.8).
Galleriesinthebankcanbeconstructedthroughouttheyear,andshouldbeused
wherethehydraulicconductivityofriverbanksoilishighi.e.inclayandsiltfree
sandandgravel.Testexcavationsanddrillingcanbeusedtoassessbanksoiltype,
andselectoptimumsites.
Wherethehydraulicconductivityofthebanksoilislow,infiltrationgalleriescanbe
constructedinthebedsofephemeralsourceswhenwaterlevelsarelow.
Constructionisunlikelytobefeasibleatothertimesofyear,orinperennial
watercourses.
Boreholescreen,slotted,drilledoropenjointedpipecanbeusedfortheinfiltration
galleryspipework.TheprinciplesdescribedinUnit6forboreholeintakedesigncan
beusedfordesigninganinfiltrationgallery,theseinclude:
analysisofthesoiltoseeifanartificialgravelpackisrequired(itmaybepossible
tousethesedimentsoftheriverbank/bedifthesesedimentsaretoosmalland
toouniforminsizeitwillbeadvantageoustodevelopandartificialgravelpackto
improvehydraulicconductivityaroundthepipe,andreducetheintakeof
sediments)
selectionofscreenslotsizeand
establishingadiameterandlengthofintakepipewhere,inordertoreducehead
lossesinthepipe,entrancevelocitiesdonotexceed0.3l/sandflowvelocities1.5
m/sfortheknownslotsizeanddesignabstractionrate.
Thereferencecitedbelowprovidesfurtherinformationandanexampleofhow
desiredabstractionratescanbeusedtosizeinfiltrationgalleries.Thedataquotedfor
a100mmdiameterinfiltrationpipegivesayieldof1litre/minute/meterofinfiltration
pipe.Thisisequivalentto6m/10hours/10meters.
Itisrecommendedthatpipesare:
positionedbetween0.5mand1mbelowthesourcesbedand
buriedon0.3mofgravelmedia
Trenchwidthisrecommendedtobeabouttwicethedepthofthepipe(givingwidths
ofaround1.6m).Whenmorethanonepipeislaidinparallelinthesourcesbed,the
pipesshouldbelaidatleast3maparttoreduceinterference(DavisandLambert,
2002).
AnexampleofaninfiltrationgallerydesignisgivenintheSelfAsessmentQuestions
forthisUnit.
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Furtherreading:DavisandLambert(2002),Infiltrationgalleries,p.216218.
5.3.3 Weirs
Submergedweirspositionedbelowastreamorsmallriverintake,canbeusedto
increasethedepthofwaterattheintakesite,andreducetheflowvelocityabovethe
weir,allowingheaviersolidstosettleoutofthewater(Figure5.14).
Temporaryweirscanbeconstructedfromdenseimpermeablemediasuchasrocks,
boulders,sandbags,orgabionbaskets.Wovenfabricsacks,madefrommaterials
suchashemporjute,filledwithadryconcretemix(1:6:8,cement:sand:gravel)and
sewnshutcanalsobeused:thesackscanbeplaceddirectlyinthewaterthe
sackingwillholdtheconcretemixinplaceuntilitsetstheweightofthebagswill
allowthemtomouldthemselvestogethersothattheyinterlocksolidly(Jordon,2000).
Caremustbetakenwhenraisingthewatertolevelthatlandupstreamoftheweirwill
notbefloodedevenduringperiodsofhighflow.Considerationshouldalsobegivento
thedownstreamimpactsofstructuralfailure.
Figure5.14. Temporaryweirmadeofsandbags
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5.3.4 Rehabilitationofexistingintakestructures
Existingsurfacewaterintakestructurescanbedamagedordestroyedin
emergencies,reducingthecapacity,orrenderinginoperable,thesupplysystemsthat
aredependentonthem(Figure5.15).Structurallydamagingdisasterssuchasfloods,
landslides,earthquakesandvolcanicactivityareparticularlylikelytocausedamage
tointakeworks.Intakescreensandinlets maybebroken,blockedorburiedby
debrisfoundationsmaybeerodedordestroyed,causingstructuraldamagesuchas
cracking,subsidenceorcollapsetointakestructures.
Temporaryrapidinstallationintakes,suchastheonesthatwehavestudiedabove,
canbesetupinparallelwithdamagedones,inordertosupplement,orsubstitute
supplies,whilecleaning,repairandreconstructiontakesplace.
Blockagesshouldbecleared,andwherepossiblestructuraldamagemadegood.
Foundationsandprotectivestructuresmayhavetobestrengthened.Longerterm
rehabilitationshouldconsiderthecausesofdamage,andevaluatethepossibilityof
relocatingand/orredesigningintakestructurestotakeaccountofthedamagethat
hasbeencaused,andthevulnerabilitythathasbeenexposed.
Figure5.15. Watersupplyintakeonasmallstreamdestroyedbyfloods
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5.4 Individualcollection
Directcontactbetweenusersandsurfacewatersourcesshouldbeminimisedinorder
toreducetheriskofsourcecontamination.Ideallythis shouldbeachievedby
developingwatersupplyarrangementssuchasthosepreviouslydescribed.However
intheinitialstagesofanemergencyresponse,andinsituationswithalowdensityof
affectedusers,peoplemaycollectwaterdirectlyfromsurfacewatersources.When
thisisthecase,collectionareasshouldbedesignatedassoonaspossibleand
structuressuchasplatforms,stepsandrampsconstructedsothatuserscancollect
waterwithoutcomingindirectcontactwiththewatersourceFigure5.16
Aswehaveseen,watercollectionpointsshouldbecarefullylocatedwith
considerationgiventowaterquantities,quality,theriskofphysicaldamage,andthe
impactofcollectionfromthesepointsondownstreamusers.
Collectionplatformscanbeconstructedusinganumberofmaterialssuchassandor
concretefilledbags,wood,orstone.Considerationshouldbegiventothepossibility
offluctuatingwaterlevelsfloatingplatformscanbeusedinthesesituations.The
needsofphysicallyvulnerableusers(children,elderly,disabled,pregnantwomen
etc.)shouldalsobeconsideredthroughsuchmeasuresasprovidingahandrailfor
safetyandsupport(Figure5.17).
Figure5.16.Examplesofwatercollectionplatforms
Incrowdedsituationswaterpointsupervisorsmaybeneededtomanageaccess.
Supervisorscanalsobeusedtoconductbucketchlorinationinordertodisinfect
collectedwater(Unit8).
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UNIT5:SURFACEWATERINTAKES EMERGENCYWATERSUPPLY
5.20 Edition1.1GJMWEDCLoughboroughUniversityUK
Figure5.17. Supportrailaroundwatercollectionplatform
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