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OBJECTIVES: 1. Students learn how to answer a summary question. 2. Students practise to obtain the points for summary. 3. Students practise writing a summary. INTRODUCTION 1. Summary writing skills are tested in Section C of the PMR English Language Paper (Paper 2). 2. The word limit for the summary is not more than 60 words. GUIDELINES 1. Read and understand the summary question. 2. Read the passage carefully. 3. If you do not understand the passage, read it again until you do. 4. Jot down the points needed. The point is usually the first sentence (the topic sentence) of the paragraph. 5. DO NOT use the examples given in the passage. 6. Rewrite the sentences (the points) that you have selected. DO NOT add your own facts or opinion. 7. Use suitable words to link the various points together so that the flow is smooth. 8. DO NOT exceed the number of words you are allowed to use. 9. Write the summary in ONE paragraph only. 10. Check you summary for grammar, spelling and punctuation errors. 11. Remember to INCLUDE the words which are given to begin your summary. 12. Remember that this is only a rewriting exercise. NOTE (for the teacher): Discuss with the pupils on the points of summary and the writing of the summary.

EXERCISE 1 Stress does not only appear in adults but in teenagers too. If we do not handle it well, we will find ourselves in more serious medical conditions such as depression and having migraines. Therefore, it may be helpful to know some tips on handling stress. Firstly, remember to have enough rest and do not miss any of your meals. Each of the meals you eat should be balanced. This means that you will have to eat the right amount of vegetables, meat, fish and grains. Regular exercise will also help you to stay healthy. Next, list down the things that are causing you stress. Writing down your worries helps you to see that you cannot control everything in your life. It also helps you to see which items on the list are more important so that you can prioritize and do them first. Give yourself a break too. There is a saying too much work makes Jack a dull boy. Reward yourself by doing something you like or buying something you enjoy. You can even go for a movie with your family or some friends. Finally, do not be afraid to approach others for help. Talking with someone else about your worries can help you feel better. Besides, you may receive some valuable pieces of advice.

Write a summary on how to avoid stress. Begin your summary as follows: A teenager faces many problems which can lead to stress

EXERCISE 2 Cycling is fun if you do it properly and think of safety. Otherwise, it can lead to very unpleasant consequences. These are some guidelines to follow when cycling. It is important to wear the right clothes when cycling. Loose fitting shirts are best to wear while going out for a bike ride on hot days. You might also want to make sure you wear shoes that have a flexible non-slippery sole, which allows you to pedal easier. Long pants protect your legs but make sure they are not loose enough to get caught in the gears of the bicycle. It is advisable to wear a helmet. There is no point exercising to improve your body but putting your head at risk at the same time. Make it more fun if you can. Find a scenic route. Use a route that keeps you off congested roads. Pedal your way to a local park. It is also essential to choose the right bicycle. Consider a visit to a retailer specializing in bicycles. A good choice is a comfortable bike. You can sit more upright on a seat that is more ample and with decent shock absorption. These bikes, as the name implies, are designed to make your ride comfortable even if you sacrifice a bit in speed.

Rewrite on the guidelines on cycling Begin with: Cycling is fun but it can be dangerous. There are

EXERCISE 3 If you go hiking, hike in groups as much as possible. It is best to leave your itinerary with friends or family member and check in with them upon your return. Learn basic repair skills for fixing a backpack or a camp stove. Remember to take repair kits on your trip. They are useful. Do develop an emergency plan before you start your trip. During the hike, take frequent rests or vary your pace to recover from strenuous activity spurts. Thirst on the trail on a hazard. So, before a hike, drink some water so that you are well hydrated and energized. Make sure you bring a lot of water with you. Backcountry water supplies are unpredictable. Treat or filter all your water. It is very important to take every step to prevent getting lost. Take a map and compass class at a local community centre or outdoor store. Before you hike, study a map of the area to become familiar with the trails, nearby roads, streams, mountains, and other features. Leave a trip plan with your family or friends. And always hike with a map and compass.

Write a summary about the guidelines in hiking Begin your summary as follows: Take heed of this advice when you go hiking. Let

EXERCISE 4 The first thing you will realize about dancing is how much fun it is to learn to dance. The rhythms, partnership, atmosphere, movements and music all come together to make one of the most satisfying experiences you will ever have. The beauty of social dancing lies in the personal contact between two people. This makes every partnership special. Dancing is a skill that the two of you will share for the rest of your lives. Studies have shown that dancing exerts just as much energy as swimming or running. It is great to become healthier and fitter just by having the time of your life. Raise your bodys metabolism while burning off calories. You will not even realize your are working out because you are having so much fun. Dancing provides a great way to shake out the muscle kinks and the tension you acquire from your stressful day. Dancing is a social activity that creates opportunities for you to meet people from a wide variety of backgrounds and of all ages. Meeting new and exciting people is only half the fun. Doing things together is the rest of it.

Write a summary about the benefits of dancing. Begin your summary as follows: Dancing involves rhythm, partnership, atmosphere, movements and music to make

EXERCISE 5 The effects of oil spills in the sea can be very serious. The main threat to living resources by the residue of oil spills can be one of physical smothering. The animals and plants most at risk are those that come into contact with a contaminated sea surface. Many die of suffocation. Such animals and birds are those that live or search for food in areas around the sea. The most poisonous components in oil tend to be those lost rapidly through evaporation when oil is spilt. Because of this, poisonous concentrations of toxic components that could lead to a large scale death of marine life only occur on a small scale. The ability of plants and animals to survive contamination by oil differs. In coastal areas, some marine mammals and reptiles such as turtles may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of oil contamination. This is because of their need to go up to the surface to breathe and to leave the water to breed. Adult fish living near the shore and in shallow-water nursery grounds may be at greater risk to exposure from dispersed or dissolved oil. Many have died in large numbers due to this.

Write a summary about the effects of oil spills. Begin your summary as follows: The seriousness of the oil spills problem can be very