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1. understand the legislation and policies that support the human rights and inclusion of individuals with learning disabilities 1.1 identify legislation and policies that are designed to promote the human rights inclusion ,equal life chances and citizenship of individuals with learning disabilities The human rights act became law in Britain on 2nd October 2000 and its articles and protocols gave all people constitutional rights that were intended to prevent discrimination and unfair treatment, again echoing the ideals of advocacy:

being able to say what I like as long as I respect others (article 10) making choices about my life (article 8) expecting people to listen to me (article 10) having information about my rights (article 10) having my rights respected (article 6) being safe at home and having time to myself (article 8) speaking out and complaining if something is wrong (article 10) choosing the people I want to see and who my friends are (article 11) getting married and having children (article 12) living with people I get on with (article 11) deciding what I spend my money on and getting paid for the work I do (article 4) 1.2 Explain how this legislation and policies influence the day to day experiences of individuals with learning disabilities and their families. The legislations and policies influence individuals a lot in caring with learning disabilities and their family, they need to be given quality of care, best interest decisions should be taken with families to provide care 2 Understand the nature and characteristics of learning disability 2.1 Explain what is meant by learning disability A learning disability affects the way a person learns new things in any area of life, not just at school. Find out how a learning disability can affect someone, and who can offer support.

2.2 Give examples of causes of learning disabilities. A learning disability happens when a persons brain development is affected, either before they are born, during their birth or in early childhood. Several factors can affect brain development, including:

the mother becoming ill in pregnancy problems during the birth that stop enough oxygen getting to the brain the unborn baby developing certain genes the parents passing certain genes to the unborn baby that make having a learning disability more likely (known as inherited learning disability) illness, such as meningitis, or injury in early childhood

Sometimes there is no known cause for a learning disability. Some conditions are associated with having a learning disability, such as cerebral palsy. This is because people with these conditions are more likely to have one. Everyone with Downs syndrome, for example, has some kind of learning disability, and so do most people with cerebral palsy. People with autism may also have learning disabilities, and around 30% of people with epilepsy have a learning disability. 2.3 Describe the medical and social nodels of learning disabily A learning disability can be mild, moderate or severe. Some people with a mild learning disability can talk easily and look after themselves, but take a bit longer than usual to learn new skills. Others may not be able to communicate at all and have more than one disability (see Profound and multiple learning disability, below). A learning disability is not the same as learning difficulty or mental illness. People get confused if they start using the term learning difficulty. In education this means things like dyslexia, which is not a learning disability, says Campbell. Our definition of learning disabilities focuses on people who have difficulty learning across more than one area of their life. Its not just to do with reading or writing. Consultant paediatrician Dr Martin Ward Platt agrees. It can be very confusing, he says, pointing out that the term learning difficulties is used by some people to cover the whole range of learning disabilities, from children with a slightly lower IQ to those who will never be able to live on their own. It is easy to give the impression, by using a term like learning difficulties, that a child has less of a disability than they really do, says Dr Ward Platt. Some children grow up to be quite independent, while others need help with everyday tasks, such as washing or getting dressed, for their whole lives. It depends on their abilities. 2.4 state the approximate proportion of individuals with in disability for whom the cause is not known. Among people who have a learning disability, in about 50% of causes has been identified. In people with a severe or profound learning disability, the rate of unknown cases is 'approximately' 25%

2.5 describe the possible impact on a family having a member with a learning disability The main impact on the individual is when they try to isolate themselves from society as they may feel ashamed of themselves for their difficulties with poor literacy skills, attention or memory difficulties. They may fear failure, criticism, ridicule or/and rejection. Another main reason they try to be isolated is fear of discrimination and that others may think they are stupid or incapable. Being ashamed of their readingand writing skills and being left out of every day discussions due to lack of understanding makes them feel isolated. The individuals with learning disabilities are impacted by feelings of depression, loneliness, and helplessness. Parents are largely affected by their children having learning difficulties. Parents go through a large number of emotions before and after acknowledging that their children are having learning disabilities. Usually they will first deny it when they get to know of it from teachers or community. This period of initial impact will take a long time to get over for some parents. Sometimes they may be overwhelmed with feelings of anger with everyone including the teachers and neighbourhood. When they get over this stage, they will start blaming each other and there may be disagreement between spouses. They will develop feelings of fear as to whether the child will ever get over it, pass exams, marry, get employed and lead a normal life. Parents will start feeling jealous of their friends and relations with normal children envying why their child cant be like their friends and relations children. They will be taken over by mourning and sorrow and thinking negatively. They could start bargaining as to maybe the child will do better if they move, or will improve next year. The parents could go through phases of guilt as to maybe its my fault, maybe I worked too long during pregnancy, or maybe I didnt give him enough love, maybe my diet was wrong, maybe this is a punishment for my wrong doings. The parents also will isolate themselves with their children feeling like no one knows or cares about the child and no one understands them.. Also they will try going from clinic to clinic without sticking to one place with the hope of hearing something positive from somewhere. These patterns of reactions are totally unpredictable, the situation is worsened within the family because each family member may be involved in different and conflicting stages of emotions at the same time, making communication difficult within the family. These feelings and impacts could affect the parents and families social life.. 3.understand the historical context of leaning disability 3.1 explain the types of services that has been provided for individuals with learning disabilities over time Services such as

Day opportunities to meet people, take part in leisure activities and learn new skills Housing options such as residential care and supported living where you live in your own flat or house with support Direct Payments where you get money to arrange and manage your own support instead of receiving direct services from us Individual budgets where you are given a pot of money based on your support needs to spend on services that suit you Kingston Workstart to help you find paid or voluntary work Victoria Park Cafe where you can meet people, make new friends and have a cup of tea or coffee Nursery Project where you can learn about gardening and woodwork in a supportive environment Support to disabled parents to help you to look after your child Travel options such as Freedom Travel Passes, Taxi cards, and Blue Badge parking permits Support to carers such as short (respite) breaks and mobile phones Asperger's Syndrome service offering a social skills group, a work opportunities group and a carer's support group 3.2 describe how past ways of working may affect present services This is about how people with learning disabilities used to be cared for ie in institutions, hidden away, not as individuals and with little input for their needs. This is now recognised as being totally inadequate and wrong. Services had to change and they are now guided by legislation, regulations and codes of practice that provide equality and individualised, person centred care. However, there may be some workers who still do not understand learning disability and may have outdated ideas. 3.3 identify some of the key changes in the following areas of the lives of individuals who have learning disabilities: A where people live They lives in care homes or their own homes with someone to come and look after them B daytime activities

Arts and Crafts Community Based Activities Health and Leisure Access to Further Education C employment When it comes to setting expectations for a child with learning disabilities, things can start to go wrong the moment they are born. The roundtable heard how health staff use their "breaking bad news" training to counsel parents, leaving them with the impression that there's not much incentive to look forward to the future. D sexual relationships and parenthood

All people with learning disabilities have the right to experience a full range of relationships, including friendships and community links, as well as personal relationships. To achieve these rights means also having the freedom to take informed risks. Support should be provided with social activities which are planned according to individual needs, interests and personal circumstances rather than the needs of the service. Activities should be appropriate to an adult lifestyle and support personal growth and development. People should have access to accurate information and responsible guidance to enable informed choices about any activities that may involve risk. Assessments of peoples needs and any support required should be part of the individual care planning process and recorded and monitored as in other areas of support. Close personal relationships, with or without sexual activity, are for the majority of people the most important factor in their lives. This applies equally to people with a learning disability.. Services that treat service users with dignity and respect are most likely to create and sustain environments that also recognise the importance of relationships. In the midst of providing stimulating and interesting lives we sometimes forget the most basic needs .to be listened to, to be valued, to be respected, and, above all, to have someone to talk to who will truly listen and help make sense of our lives in other words a friend or partner. (Gardner, A. 1997) Services need to place appropriate emphasis on simple activities such as sharing a pot of tea, or watching a film together. It is these everyday events that sustain and develop our friendships and relationships. People who have few social opportunities are unlikely to develop good social skills, meet new friends or potential sexual partners. Many service users need a great deal of support from 3 services in order to have the opportunity to make friends and to develop and sustain relationships (whether sexual or not). Service users with profound/complex needs and a high level of dependency may often be severely restricted in the extent to which they are able to express their feelings or form close relationships. It is essential that staff make every effort to improve communication skills (for the service user as well as support staff) and provide a wide variety of sensory experiences to enable the service user to more directly experience the world around them. E the provision of healthcare Comprehensive health care services respond effectively to the needs of their patients not just in terms of treatment of health problems but also by addressing overall well-being by understanding, informing, involving, counselling and respecting the individual. By contrast, the history of health care for people with learning disabilities has been characterised by a lack of communication and poor understanding of their ordinary and special needs. There have been many barriers to access to health services that most members of the population take for granted. In addition, people with learning disabilities have many special health care needs that also have to be addressed. Therefore, person-centred services must be aware of the wide

range of needs to which they must be able to respond while treating each person as an individual 4 understand the basic principles and practice of advocacy ,empowerment and active participation in relation to supporting individuals with learning disabilities and their families. 4.1 explain the meaning of social inclusion the provision of certain rights to all individuals and groups in society, such as employment, adequate housing, health care, education and training, etc 4.2 Explain the meaning of the term advocacy For most people, making their own decisions and choices, is a matter of some considerable importance. Being part of decision making processes is not only a route where self identity is expressed but it is also an important aspect of personal freedom. However, a number of barriers can prevent people from actively taking part in decisions which affect their lives and can affect an individuals ability to speak up for themselves. Advocacy reaches out to some of the most marginalised and disadvantaged sections of the community, people that formal services and systems can overlook: People who may be isolated in their own home, care homes or hospitals; or who lack confidence to speak up because they have been ignored or abused in the past; or lost faith in services; or are unaware that services and support exist. 4.3 Describe different types of advocacy Independent (Issue-based) Advocacy: Can also be called crisis or case advocacy. A one to one partnership between two people, often provided by paid advocates. Independent advocacy shares the same principles as Citizen Advocacy, but is usually a short-term, one-off involvement, dealing with a specific issue in a persons life. The relationship is normally time limited, but may last for several months. When this has been done the advocacy partnership is terminated until it is required again.

Self Advocacy: Seen by many in the advocacy movement to be the most ideal form of advocacy, and one which all other types of advocacy should be aiming to work towards. People speaking out for themselves to express their own needs and representing their own interests. Often people with some form of disability may have received some support in achieving self-advocacy this is a model employed by People First a group run by people with learning disabilities for people with learning disabilities.

Group Advocacy: Where people come together to represent shared interests or goals and works by offering mutual support, skill development and a common call for change with the intention of developing or changing services.

Peer Advocacy: Support from advocates who themselves have experience of using particular services such as mental health or learning disabilities services. Can involve people speaking up for those who cannot do so themselves and may link with group advocacy.

Legal advocacy: Representation by legally qualified advocates, usually barristers or solicitors.

Professional Advocacy: Representation by members of services involved in a persons life, for example social workers or health workers. Whilst this is an important form of advocacy, most independent advocacy agencies would stress the limitations of this type of advocacy and recognise the potential conflict of interest that may arise out of professionals advocating on their service users behalf.

Statutory Advocacy: Where there is a statutory duty to provide advocacy following government legislation such as Independent Mental Health Advocacy (IMHA) and Independent Mental Capacity Advocacy (IMCA).

Family and Friend advocacy: Where a persons family member or members or friend(s) play a part in advocating on their behalf. Most of us will have used or provided this support at some time in our lives whether we realised it or not. 4.4 Describe ways to build empowerment and active participation into everyday support with individuals with learning disabilities Educate them on the significance of their diagnosis. Emphasize that "learning disability" does not mean "inability to learn", but rather that the individual learns in a way different from the mainstream. Focus on their strengths. If they are great at logical reasoning, or spatial awareness, or auditory memory, or whatever, focus on that, and develop strategies to play to those strengths. This will help boost confidence, pride, self-esteem, and empower them to excel. 6 Be able to handle hazardous substances and materials 6.1 Describe types of hazardous substances that may be found in the work Exposure to chemicals commonly used in workplaces can lead to a variety of short and long term health effects such as poisoning, skin rashes and disorders of the lung, kidney and liver. A quarter of all Victorian employees regularly use hazardous substances such as chemicals, flammable liquids and gases in their work. A hazardous substance can take many forms gas, powder, liquid, solid or dust. The product may be pure or diluted. Manufacturers and importers of hazardous substances are legally obliged to include warning labels and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) with their products. This information offers advice on safe handling practices. Common hazardous substances

Many industrial, agricultural and medical organisations use hazardous substances. The degree of hazard depends on the concentration of the chemical. Common hazardous substances in the workplace include: Acids Caustic substances Disinfectants Glues

Heavy metals, including mercury, lead, cadmium and aluminium Paint Pesticides Petroleum products Solvents

6.2 Demonstrate safe practice for: . Storing hazardous substances You should also assess the risks of storing and handling substances hazardous to the environment as well as human health. For instance, consider the effects of a leak to the air, water and surrounding land. This can help you to avoid being prosecuted for causing pollution. Simple steps to control the risks of hazardous substances include:

storing chemicals according to the manufacturer's instructions on the safety data sheet keeping the minimum quantity of hazardous substances necessary storing incompatible substances separately preventing release or leaks training employees to store and handle hazardous substances properly labelling storage containers properly storing flammable substances in suitable containers away from sources of ignition, such as boilers and heaters placing stores of liquid above ground where they're unlikely to be damaged, for example away from driveways maintaining gauges, valves and pipework having procedures for dealing with emergency leaks using a secondary containment system such as a drip tray or bund (a storage area designed to prevent liquids escaping) monitoring oil use - unexpectedly high use may indicate a leak o using hazardous substance Using chemicals or other hazardous substances at work can put peoples health at risk. The law requires employers to control exposure to hazardous substances to prevent ill health. It is your responsibility to assess the risk created to your employees by working with hazardous substances, and then to eliminate or minimise that risk as much as possible. Their responsibility arises under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations known as COSHH.

Examples of hazardous substances that you may come across include petrol, pesticides, insecticides, fertilisers, weed killers, liquid petroleum gas, but there may also be others. For example, be aware that pigeon droppings can cause disease, and therefore need to be treated as a hazardous substance if work is to be done to remove a large quantity of them from a building. Store all hazardous substances in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and make sure you get a Material Hazard Data Sheet from the supplier or manufacturer for all substances you use at your premises. Disposing of hazardous substances and materials Hazardous waste including electrical items like TVs, computers and fridges shouldn't be put into the normal rubbish collection. Instead, contact your council, who will be able to advise you on where to take all types of hazardous waste in your area. The link 'Find out about hazardous waste collection' takes you to your local council's website, where you can find out more. Most hazardous waste can be taken to your local waste and recycling centre. This is sometimes referred to as the 'tip' or the 'dump', and is run by your local council. In some cases, your local council may be able to collect the waste from you there may be a charge for this. If you know that your council collects hazardous waste, you can use the link 'Request collection of hazardous waste'. able to promote fire safety in the work setting 7.1 Describe practices that prevent fires from: Starting Exactly where are the fires going to start, camp ground, put out camp fires, at home, keep children from playing with matches and cigarette lighters. This is not much of a problem these days as most smokers have gone to the Happy Hunting Grounds. Some alcoholic smokers lay on the couch, fall sleep and burn up, including the whole home sometimes. Other fires start from grain dust at elevators, possibly from poor ventilation practices. Lightening strikes are hardly preventable during dry conditions in our National Forests. Electrical fires sometimes start from having old wiring, overheated wiring from to much power being used without the right size breaker mounted in the panel. Extension cords carrying more power over long distances which they were not designed to carry, can over heat and start a fire. There are numerous fires involving gasoline, diesel fuel, propane, and kerosene, normally due to careless type activities