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(FCE- Grammar)

Linking Words

Linking words show the logical relationship between sentences or parts of a sentence. 1. Positive Addition and (, ) And is used to connect words or phrases. And may be used to connect two independent clauses. Steve and his friends are coming to dinner. He is waving his arms and shouting at us. It was raining hard, and there was a strong wind. Both my mother and my sister are here. Both restaurants are very good. Neither restaurant is e,pensive. We can go to either restaurant. he research pro!ect will take both time and money. Either -ohn or his friends are going to the beach today. Either -ohn or .ill is going to the beach today. Both of these restaurants are very good. Neither of the restaurants we went to was /were-0m.1.2 e,pensive. Neither of them came to the meeting. We can go to either of those restaurants. Neither of the books is e,actly what I want. If either of you takes a vocation now , we will not be able to finish the work. We accepted neither offer. here were chairs on either side of the table. .ill likes golf and om likes golf too. .ill would en!oy a game and om would too. I haven*t seen him either. He didn*t like the book+ I didn*t either. She doesn*t smoke. She doesn*t drink either. 4rank speaks 4rench. He also speaks 5erman. I can also play the piano. We have also decided to get a new car. & I*m going to get bread, cheese,

2. both... and (... ) either.....or (....) both/either/neither +of ( , , ) Affirmative A reeme!t either ( ) too ("#, "#$ %# &#"#') (e ative A reeme!t neither ( ) either ("#, "# $ %# &#"#') both -# &#'#)' %#* +,#

We use both , neither, either when we are talking about two things. wo sub!ects connected by both.....and take a plural verb. Both " noun " and " noun. #o not use both /both...and... in negative sentences. $se neither % neither...nor... Either/neither of are singular if they are not used with or or nor. either + !-.! + or + /0.ra0 !-.! + /0.ra0 ver1 either + !-.! + or + 2i! .0ar !-.! + 2i! .0ar ver1 both either neither

+ of

the%these% m343-.r...5!-.! When we use both/ either /neither with of you always need &the, these, those, my, our, his...'.(ou cannot say )both of restaurants*+ you have to say )both of the restaurants % both of these restaurants. Also, as well, too are used with a similar meaning. sub!ect " negative /instead of too / also2 verb " either

3. too ("#, "#) also("#) as well ( "#) as well as ( "# , # *..... "#.......) either (6 7"#8 ) %#*9, ,

As well and too come at the end of the clause when you are adding something to a list of things that you gave in the previous sentence. .ut also comes in the middle of a clause3 before the verb , after an au,iliary, modal or to be. Also /Too / As well are not used with two negative statements / use either2

. besides(89:;< =:>:2 anyway ( )', ):#) moreover(## ) what is more ( : ##) in addition (to) ( &# , , "#) furthermore( ,# , , "#) hese e,pressions are used to add information to what has already been said. Anyway / Besides are used at the beginning of a sentence when you have given one reason for doing smth and you want to add another. Besides ? in addition to Moreover / furthermore / in addition ? also. hey are used at the beginning of a sentence to add a more important fact than the one that you gave in the previous sentence. n addition to / besides are used as prepositions. hey are followed by an ob!ect, not a clause. Nether...nor / not only...but also... " singular noun " singular verb Nether...nor / not only...but also... " plural noun " plural verb Neither takes an affirmative verb.

tea, and sugar'. &6an you get some milk as well7' She*s got a car as well as a motorbike. I hate asking for a pay rise. Anyway, there*s no point. I don*t really need a new car. Besides, I can*t afford one. he city provides many cultural opportunities. It has an e,cellent art museum. Moreover / !urthermore/ n addition , it has a fine symphony orchestra. he city provides many cultural opportunities. n addition to / Besides an e,cellent art museum, it has a fine symphony orchestra. Besides doing the cooking I look after the garden.

!. "egative Addition neither... nor...(.....) nor ("# #) not only...but also.... ( # *.... "# ...) neither ("# #, ) #. Contrast while ( #,' ) whereas ( )

Neither -ohn nor his friends are going to the beach today. Neither -ohn nor .ill is going to the beach today. Not only my mother but also my sister is here. Not only my sister but also my parents are here. @ary is rich, while -ohn is poor. @ary is rich, whereas -ohn is poor. "hereas @ary is rich, -ohn is poor -ohn loves playing outdoors all day, while / whereas Harry likes playing computer games. It was cold, but I went swimming anyway. It was cold , but I still went swimming . It was cold, yet I still went swimming. @ary is rich, but -ohn is poor.

"hile and whereas are used to show clear contrast between two sub!ects within one sentence. hey are followed by a clause. But is used to !oin two words or phrases when the second one has the opposite meaning. hey show contrast /une,pected result2

$. but () yet ( #, # ,###, )# "#, ) still (#, # ,###, )# "#) but...anyway but... still yet... still %. Althou#h (') even thou#h ("# ') thou#h be$ause

be$ause is used to e,press e,pected results+ even thou#h is used to e,press une,pected results. Althou#h is followed by a clause and a comma. 0fter Althou#h we use a 2.1;e<t 5 ver1. Even thou#h is stronger than although. Althou#h can*t be at the end of a sentence+ thou#h- can. We use thou#h to mean )ho&ever' at the end of a sentence. hink of althou#h as &before the fact' and however as &after the fact'.

Even thou#h / Althou#h / Thou#h it was cold, I went swimming. Be$ause I wasn*t tired, I didn*t go to bed. We went out althou#h it was raining. Even thou#h I wasn*t tired, I went to bed. Althou#h he studied very hard, he didn*t pass the e,am. He didn*t finish the !ob, even thou#h he worked all night. he room is very small. It*s Auite

comfortable thou#h. (. in s%ite of (#),' ) des%ite (#),' ) des%ite the fa$t that.... in s%ite of the fa$t that.... in spite of % despite " =i! in spite of % despite " !-.! in spite of % despite " /r-!-.! in s%ite of & des%ite I went swimming des%ite / in s%ite of the cold weather. I went swimming des%ite the fa$t that / in s%ite of the fa$t that the weather was cold. 'es%ite / n s%ite of her e,cellent Aualifications , 6arol didn*t get the !ob. 'es%ite / n s%ite of having e,cellent Aualifications , 6arol didn*t get the !ob. @ary is rich. -ohn, on the other hand, is poor. Buclear power is relatively cheap. (n the other hand, you could argue that it*s not safe. It was cold. Nevertheless , I went swimming. I like him very much. )owever / Nevertheless, we are very different.

1). on the other hand () )9) 11. however (, 9 ) nevertheless (#, # ,###) nonetheless ( #, # ,###) 12. Giving E*am+les for e*am%le (&,#) for instan$e (&,#)

$se this at the beginning of a sentence when you have !ust mentioned one side of an argument 0nd you are going to mention the opposite side.

)owever and nevertheless link contrasting ideas in t&o different sentences.

for e,ample ? for instance hese e,pressions introduce particular e,amples to illustrate what has been said. e.g. ? for e,ample e.g. ? e,empli gratia /Latin2 e.g. -0m1 eg - .r1

su$h as ( ) li+e (&, ) es%e$ially()#) in %arti$ular( )#)) 13. Ca,se- .eason as ( ) sin$e (&)*, )

such as ? for e,ample

here are many interesting places to visit in the city. !or e*am%le, the botanical garden has numerous displays of plants from all over the world. here are many interesting places to visit in the city. he art museum, for instan$e, has an e,cellent collection of modern paintings. I prefer to wear casual clothes, su$h as !eans and a sweatshirt. Some countries, su$h as .raCil and 6anada, are big. ,in$e @onday is a holiday, we don*t have to go to work. ,in$e you are a good cook and I*m not, you should cook the dinner. As it was a public holiday, all the shops were shut. As they live near us, we see them Auite often. Be$ause the weather was cold, we stayed home. Be$ause of the cold weather, we stayed home. 'ue to the cold weather, we stayed home. 'ue to the fact that the weather was cold, we stayed home.

As / sin$e ? because, and they can begin a sentence+ they are followed by a clause.

1 . be$ause (of) (&, :, , $) due to ($, ')

Be$ause introduces an adverb clause+ it is followed by a sub!ect and verb. Be$ause of / due to are phrasal prepositions + they are followed by a noun ob!ect.

now that ( #&#* , &)*)

now that ? because now Now that is used for present causes of present or future situations.

1!. for this reason (& > &:#) as a result (of) ( #*#)

as a result of smth. & 1e<a.2e -f 2mt? $se as a result of to say what made something happen. $se the sim%le/#ood/obvious reason (that) to e,plain why something happened

We stayed home be$ause of % due to the cold weather. Now that the semester is over / ?because the semester is now over2 , I*m going to rest a few days and then take a trip. -ack lost his !ob. Now that he*s unemployed, he can*t pay his bills. Hundreds of people lost their homes as a result of the war. 6on died as the result of a heart attack. We can*t take you all, for the simple reason that there isn*t enough room in the car.

1#.

Condition

if /whether(#)) whether or not even if 6 even thou#h

"hether or not e,presses the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters+ the result will be the same. Even if gives the idea that a particular condition does not matter. he result will not change.

1$. in $ase ( ):#) in $ase of ( ):# #) in the event that

n $ase / in the event that e,press the idea that something probably won*t happen , but it might. It means &if by chance this should happen'. n $ase is followed by a present %past tense or should. /do not use @i00 after in $ase2 n $ase of... & if there is...

1%. only if (#) *) unless (#) * ...#, # *)

unless & if...not & e*$e%t if unless + affirmative verb ? if + negative We often use unless in warnings3 /AeB00 1e 0ate .!0e22 @e ?.rr3.2

1(.

(therwise e,presses the idea &if the opposite is true, then there will be a certain result'.

I*m going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold. /or 3 whether it is cold or not2 I*ve decided to go swimming tomorrow. Even if the weather is cold. I*m going to go swimming. (ou must go tomorrow if you are ready. (ou must go tomorrow even if you aren't ready. I*ll be at my uncle*s house in $ase you /should2 need to reach me. n the event that you /should2 need to reach me, I*ll be at my uncle*s house. I always slept by the phone in $ase he rang during the night. ? I always slept by the phone because /I knew2 he might ring during the night. We bought some food in $ase om came. n $ase of fire, please leave the building as Auickly as possible. ?if there is a fire. I*ll go swimming tomorrow unless it*s cold. #on*t tell Sue what I said unless she asks you. /? e,cept if she asks you2 I*ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn-t cold. (ou*ll get wet unless you take your umbrella. .nless you start at once you*ll be late ? f you don*t start at once you*ll be late. I always eat breakfast. (therwise , I get hungry during class. (ou*d better hurry. (therwise,

otherwise (:#, &, ):#) or (else) (:#, &, ):#, )

(r else and (therwise have the same meaning.

2). %rovided (that) / %rovidin# (that) (& ) #)) as /so lon# as (#) *, & ) :) on $ondition (that) (& ) #))

/rovided that can replace if when there is a strong idea of limitation or restriction /mainly used with permission2 /rovided / /rovidin# - only if a particular thing happens or is done. As / so lon# as is used before saying the conditions that will make something else happen or be true.

21. as if / as thou#h ( , #) 9)

0i+e is followed by a noun ob!ect or a clause. As if /as thou#h are followed by a clause. $sually the idea following as if% as though is &untrue'. In this case, verb usage is similar to that in conditional sentence.

22.

P,r+ose

in order to (:9, ' :9) in order that( :9, ' :9) so that ( :, ' :9) in $ase ( ):# #), , 9 #)

n order to is used to e,press purpose, it answers the Auestion &Why7'. It is followed by a verb. ,o that also e,presses purpose. It has the same meaning as in order to. ,o that is often used instead of in order to when the idea of ability is being e,pressed. 6an is used in the adverb clause for a present%future meaning. ,o that I can buy ? in order to be able to buy. 6ould is used after so that in past sentences. n order that & so that in $ase " present tense ? because this may happen% because this will happen in $ase " past tense ? because this might happen %because this would happen

you*ll be late. ake your umbrella. (therwise, you*ll get wet. I always eat breakfast, or (else) I get hungry during class. ake your umbrella, or (else) you*ll get wet. (ou can camp here %rovided you leave no mess. /rovided you pay me back by 4riday, I*ll lend you the money. It*s a lot easier to get good marks on a short -answer Auestion, %rovidin# you do it well. @y parents don*t care what !ob I do as lon# as I*m happy. hey spoke on $ondition that their names would not be used in the article. It looks li+e rain. It looks as if it is going to rain. It looks as thou#h it is going to rain. It looks li+e it is going to rain /informal2 She talked to him as if he &ere a child. He acted as thou#h he had never met her. He came here in order to study 1nglish. I turned off the D in order to enable my roommate to study in peace and Auiet. I turned off the D so (that) my roommate could study in peace and Auiet. I*m going to cash a check so that I can buy my te,tbooks. I cashed a check so that I could buy my te,tbooks. I turned off the D in order that my roommate could study in peace and Auiet. I don*t let him climb trees in $ase he tears his trousers. I carry a spare wheel in $ase I have a puncture. I always kept candles in the house in $ase there was a power cut.

23. E//e0t - .es,lt

su$h/so... that( :)

su$h ....that & so.... that su$h " ad!ective " noun " that so " ad!ective%adverb " that so...that is used with ma!3, fe@, m.<?, a!C 0itt0e.

It was su$h nice weather that we went to the Coo. he weather was so nice that we went to the Coo. It was su$h good coffee that I had another cup. It was su$h a foggy day that we couldn*t see the road.

2 . $onse1uently ()##*, &>,) therefore (&>,) so (&>,, , ,) Therefore and $onse1uently mean & as a result' . hey connect the ideas between two sentences. hey have several positions and are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. ,o / meaning therefore, as a result 2 connects two sentences. ,o has only one possible position3 between the two sentences.

he coffee was so hot that I can*t drink it. I*m so hungry that I could eat a horse. She speaks so fast that I can*t understand her. She made so many mistakes that she failed the e,am. 0l didn*t study. Therefore, he failed the test. 0l didn*t study. 2onse1uently, he failed the test. ?..... He, therefore, failed the test. ?....He failed the test, therefore. 0l didn*t study, so he failed the test.

"hen ? at that time 2!. 1ime. when ()

2#. while ( #,' , &) as ( #,' , , & ,## ) 2$. after (&)# ) before (&#"# :#,)

"hile / as ? during that time We use as when two things happen at the same time.

"hen I arrived, he was talking on the phone. "hen was in 6hicago, I visited the museums. "hen I see him tomorrow, I will ask him. "hile I was studying, the phone rang. "hile I was walking home, it began to rain. As I was walking home, it began to rain. 5eorge arrived as Sue left. After she graduates, she will get a !ob. After she /had2 graduated, she got a !ob. I will leave before he comes. I /had2 left before he came.

0 present tense, not a future tense is used in time-clause. After and before are commonly used in the following e,pressions3 2?-rt03 after4 1ef-reD a 2?-rt time after4 1ef-reD a 0itt0e @?i0e after 4 1ef-reD !-t 0-! after 4 1ef-reD 2--! after as soon as / on$e ? when one event happens, another event happens soon afterward.

2%. as soon as ( *) on$e ($, "9, *) by the time ( , #,#)

As soon as it stops raining, we will leave. (n$e it stops raining, we will leave.

by the time ? one event is completed before another event / usually East Eerfect or 4uture Eerfect2 sin$e ? from that time to the present. Ever sin$e adds emphasis. he Eresent Eerfect is used in the main clause.

sin$e ( ) # & )

By the time he arrived, we had already left. By the time he comes, we will have already left. I haven*t seen him sin$e he left this morning. I*ve known her ever sin$e I was a child.

until/till ( # & &)

until / till ? to that time and then no longer. ill is used more in speaking than in writing+ it is generally not used in formal 1nglish. as lon# as / so lon# as & during all that time , from beginning to end whenever ? every time that something happens. Whenever is used3 as a con!unction /connecting two clauses2+ as an adverb every time ? whenever something happens + when one thing happens, something else always happens. The first time / the last time % the ne*t time refer to a particular occasion.

As lon# as / so lon# as ( &, # & &)

2(. whenever( 9 , )' ) every time ( "9 )

the first time ( &#9 ) the last time ( &)# ) the ne*t time ( )#E )

3).

Pla0e

where (#, ) wherever ( # 9 , 9 ),

"here can be used3 as a relative adverb /introducing a relative clause2+ as a con!unction /connecting two clauses2 "herever can be used as a con!unction /connecting two clauses2 E*$e%t is used for introducing the only thing , person, or fact that is not included in your main sentence+ it is like saying @it?-.t, or mi!.2. A%art from is used3 e,cept for someone or something. in addition to someone%something

We stayed there until we finished our work. We stayed there till we finished our work. I will never speak to him again as lon# as I live. I will never speak to him again so lon# as I live. "henever I see her, I say hello. Every time I see her, I say hello. "henever I smiled, he smiled back. "henever have I been cruel to you7 "henever I hear that song , I think of you. We can*t keep calling the doctor every time you get a headache. @y neck hurts every time I move. The first time I went to Bew (ork, I went to an opera. I saw two plays the last time I went to Bew (ork. The last time we met you promised to !oin me on a trip to .ei!ing. The ne*t time I go to Bew (ork, I*m going to see a ballet. I know a place where you can hide. I*ve hidden the money where no one will find it. She was followed by press photographers wherever she went.

31. E*0e+tion e*$e%t (f-r) ( ):##,, #) 9 #, #) # ):*) a%art from (&,,, ,#, # ):')

We haven*t told anyone e*$e%t Leslie*s dad. I like all musical instruments e*$e%t the violin. I don*t know much about the man, e*$e%t that he*s a fool. 1verything was perfect e*$e%t for the weather. I hardly know anyone in the village a%art from William and you. A%art from the violin, he plays the piano and the flute. /?besides the violin......2 I like all musical instruments a%art from the violin. /?.........e,cept the violin2 She*s the woman /who/ whom /that2 I saw on D last night. hat*s the dog whose owner was arrested. hat*s the shop whose windows were smashed. his is the house /whi$h/that2 we

32.

.elatives

who (, 9) whom (, , ) whose( :#, )

who/whom/whose/whi$h/ that are used to introduce relative clauses. hey are called relative pronouns or relatives. for people3 who/that/whom/whose

whi$h (9, , :) that (:, 9)

for animals%things3 whi$h/that/whose

live in. His wife, who is 4rench, speaks three languages.

33. Listing +oints-Events to be#in with / to start with ( &#9, &#"# )#, :* ) :....) first / firstly / first of all (&#"# )#) to $ontinue (&"'...) then (#,, ) 3 . 3,mmarising in $on$lusion ( :#) to $on$lude ( :#) finally/ lastly( %# %, #:, ):##) in summary (&' , #) to sum u% (&' ) on the whole ( E#,, %#,) all in all ( E#,, &)*, %#,) alto#ether ( E#,, &#) in short (, %#)

to be#in with - is used for introducing the first thing in a list of things you are going to say. first / firstly / first of all introduce the first item in a list or seAuence. he ne,t item is normally introduced by then or se0ondl2.

&Why were you annoyed7' &Well, to be#in with, I hadn*t even invited her'. !irst, open all the windows. Then turn off the gas and, if necessary , call an ambulance. !irst(ly) , we need somewhere to live. ,e$ond(ly2, we need to find work. 0nd third(ly2........

o introduce a concluding statement, use in $on$lusion, by way of $on$lusion, or to $on$lude. !inally/lastly are used at the beginning of a sentence to introduce the last point in a speech, reply, essay, etc. n summary is used at the end of a talk or piece of writing for introducing a short statement that gives only basic information. ,um u% ? to give a summary of something (n the whole is used for talking about the general situation. All in all is used for showing that you are considering every aspect of something. Alto#ether % in short are used for introducing a summary of what you have !ust said.

n $on$lusion, I*d like to say that everybody should be able to work if they want to. To $on$lude, I*d like to say that everybody should read the book. !inally, I*d like to consider the economic arguments. 0astly, I*d like to thank you all for coming and wish you a safe !ourney home. n summary, nobody knows where the disease originated. I*ll sum u% briefly and then we*ll take Auestions. It was a pretty good conference on the whole. All in all, I think it has been a very successful conference. he weather was great and the people were friendly- alto#ether a perfect trip. Inflation is down, spending is up. n short, the economy is in good shape.