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Primary Sources


Annotated Bibliography

Duxiu, Chen. “Our Final Awakening.” New Youth Magazine. 1916. Article.

In this article, written and published by dean of Peking University in 1916, Chen’s perspective of the revolt in China is given through a speech like form. In turn, this gave us a deep insight into the scope of the oppressive society China’s people were fighting.

"President Urges Congress Repeal Chinese Exclusion Act as War Aid." The New York Times: Special to New York Times. The New York Times Company, 2000. Web. 14 Jan.


This article, published by the New York Times Newspaper company, reviews and critiques President Roosevelt's urge to congress to repeal the Chinese Exclusion Act to establish and help build positive foreign relations between China and the United States. The article gave our group quotes and important dates.

Roosevelt, Franklin D. “Message to Congress on Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Laws.,” October 11, 1943. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. <>

This was FDR’s letter to congress negotiating and supporting his request to remove the Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Acts. This source was rich in quotes that we were able to use on our site to make the page more dynamic.

Government Archives (audio, transcripts or documents)

Franklin D. Roosevelt: "Message to Congress on Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion

Laws.," October 11, 1943. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, T. Web. 7 Feb.


A critical quote, from this message to congress, was a fundamental base for our project. Roosevelt stated that China was an ally and although there was no official document, this was a huge statement.

Lend Lease (brief excerpts). Video. Youtube via Beanbag1982.

This video provided audio enabling us to create a self made audio recording of what we believed to have been the most important part of Roosevelt’s Speech addressing the Lend-Lease Act on January 29, 1940.

Staff Conferences. Proceedings of the American - British Joint Cheifs of Staff Conferences. December 24, 1941 and January 14, 1942. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

This was the literal document, accessed online, of the proceedings of the Arcadia Conference held in 1941-42. This was helpful because it enabled us to pin point certain events that took place.

The Secretary of State. Abrogation by the United States of the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation Between the United States and Japan Signed February 21, 1911. July 26, 1939 - January 25, 1940. Web. 5 Jan. 2014.

In 1939, the US abrogated the 1911 treaty, with Japan, essentially cutting off Japan. The telegrams sent, between the two countries, were helpful to our group in that the words used gave more body to the situation. We were able to pick up more of why the US had decided to make this motion.


Captured Japanese Battle flag. N.d. n.p. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. <


A photograph of “Captured Japanese Battle” flag visually portrays tarnished style yet lasting essence. All flags were chosen in rough form to stimulate the viewer’s mind of how old the flag is yet how much it is still present today in it’s, not only physical state, but phycological state as well.

Chinese. 1942. Graphics Division, Washington D.C. World War II Posters. Web. 16 January 2014.

This was a propaganda poster published in 1942 to promote the Chinese and US foreign relations.

“Chinese /.” Photograph. N.p. 1942. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.

We found this photo through a database but we felt it was important to add because it not only showed evidence alliance but it symbolized a lot of propaganda that went on in order to get the public to adhere to the idea of relying on China and having China rely on the United States.

“Defeat Japanese imperialism”. Photograph. Crestock. N.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.

This poster was printed by the Kuomintang forces in 1937 in retaliation of the Japanese invasion of Northern China.

Dr. Suess. Political Cartoon. Photograph. Daily Cos. N.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2014.

This photo is important because it simplistically gives what was going on to a broad audience. It also shows how the US, prior to Pearl Harbor, acted towards Japan. Although the US sent foreign aid, it wasn’t until Pearl Harbor that the US officially were 100% against Japan.

Franklin D. Roosevelt, Chiang Kai Shek, and Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, 11/25/1943. Photographic Print. National Archives. Web. 26 January 2014.

This photo captures Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Chiang Kai Shek at an allied conference in Cairo.

“French colonial forces move out of Haiphong, in the Tonkin region of French Indochina.” Photograph. Wodu Media. N.d. Web. 8 Feb. 2014.

This picture captures the French colonial forces approaching the region of French Indochina.

Flying Tigers Personnel. Photograph. Wikipedia, 2009. [taken in 1940]. Web. 10 Feb.


A photo of the Flying Tigers pilots near their craft.

“Heavy damage is seen on the battleships U.S.S. Casin and the U.S.S. Downes, stationed at Pearl Harbor after the Japanese attack on the Hawaiian island, Dec. 7, 1941.” Photograph. US Navy. 7 Dec. 1941. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

A gruesome visual of the ultimate destruction post the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Although this photo, along with really any photo, doesn’t capture the full atrocity,

it is graphic and makes a statement. We hesitated, at first, to put this photo in but

later found that sugar coating such a vicious event would undermine the

significance of its history.

“Japanese Foreign Minister I. Matsuoka signs the Neutrality Pact between the USSR

and Japan. Present: Joseph Stalin, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Molotov, Deputy. Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR Lozovsky, Vyshinsky”. Photograph. Росархив . 13 Apr. 1941. Web. 8 Feb. 2014.

This image shows Foreign minister I. Matsuoka signing the Neutrality Pact with USSR Lozovsky Vyshinsky.

“Japanese troops entering Haigon in 1941.” Photograph. Webshots. Chronique de la Seconde Guess Mondiale. 1941. Web. 8 Feb. 2014.

Japanese troops entering Haigon in 1941. This photo gave us a look into the time and fashion. It gave body to the words.

“Naval photograph documenting the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii which initiated US participation in World”. Photograph. National Archives and Records Administration. 7 Dec. 1941. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

This photo was taken by a naval photographer as soon as the attack took place. Their time was impeccable as they captured the real sense of fear. Even without people, it’d be powerful in that everything looks torn and defeated. This, to us, respresented the ultimate tear between Japan and the United States as they officially declared war on Japan one day after the planned attack.

“Pearl Harbor Attack.” Photograph. Webshots. U.S Naval Historical Center Photo. 7 Dec. 1941. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

A photo taken from a Japanese plane before the attack provided by the

Department of Navy.

“Quarantine Speech outdoors in Chicago 10/05/12”. Photograph. FDRL. 5 Oct. 1937. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.

A photo of President Roosevelt giving his Quarantine speech.

Reginald Mount. “Untitled.” Political Cartoon. Central Office of Information. 1939-1946 (date uncertain). Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

A political cartoon completed by Reginald Mount somewhere from 1939 to 1946

showed our group more of the social perspective of what was going on which was essential during this time. The comics, to our group, were really important because, again, it gave us yet another perspective; that is the perspective of the ultimate power, the public.

Reynolds, Lisa. Cold War Taipei. Web. 6 Feb 2014. <


A photograph of “Republic of China” flag visually portrays tarnished style yet lasting essence. All flags were chosen in rough form to stimulate the viewer’s mind of how old the flag is yet how much it is still present today in it’s, not only physical state, but phycological state as well.

Sentiniel, Fitchburg. Jap Attack - Who Was Aleep. Photograph. 8 Dec. 1941. Wordpress:

YesterYear Once More. Dec. 2007. Web. 17 Feb. 18.

As one of the many photos of headlines from newspapers released on December 8, 1941, we looked for one that had numbers to give the reader statistics from a primary source. We believed that there was something much more powerful about the image rather than a written paragraph.

“Tripartite Pact

Newspapers. 27 Sept. 1940

Axis powers unite

Photograph. Timothy Hughes: Rare & Early

This photo was great because it showed what was happening globally but from an american perspective; we kept in mind how the different headlines may have looked had they been on the cover of Germany’s newspapers, Japan’s newspapers, etc. The headline was spread around the US changing the minds of millions of Americans daily.

“Untitled.” Photograph. The Apricity: A Euopean Cultural Community. N.d. Web. 8 Feb.


This photograph pictured Sabur ō Kurusu, Galeazzo Ciano, and Adolf Hitler dining after the signing of the Tripartite Pact.

“Uss Panay”. Photograph. Wikipedia: Panay incident. N.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.

A photo of the Uss Panay before the Japanese attack of December 12, 1937

World War Photos. N.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014

1. P 40 Warhawks 11th FS 343rd FG 11th AF Aleutian Tigers 1942

2. B-17 8th Air Force 388 Bomb Group Nose Art Tiger Girl

3. Flying Tiger AVG pilots and P 40B Tomahawk shark mouth nose art

These photos were found on a great website providing a plethora of photos from previous world wars. Provided were some great shots of the Flying Tigers both before and after they were inducted into the U.S 14th Air Force in 1942.

台儿庄大捷,中国士兵进入台北庄的小巷,搜捕日军残余 ”. Photograph. 星期日 甲

( ) 年 正月初十 . N.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.

A photo of soldiers searching for the remains of any Japanese after the Taierzhuang victory. We found that this was a fitting photo in contrast to the page concerning the Rape of Nanking. Because the Chinese army was historically weaker, the Taierzhuang victory served as a turning point and we felt that this photo greatly demonstrated this as the Chinese were now looking for the Japanese rather than the other way around.


Cairo Communiqué. National Diet Library, 2003-04. Web. 27 January. 2014. <http://>

Provided by the National Diet Library, our group was given access to the full quotations of general statements issued at the Cairo Conference held by the US, China and Great Britain in Egypt, December of 1943.

Secondary Sources


Xu, Beina. The Chinese Communist Party. Council on Foreign Relations. August 29, 2013. Web. 13 Dec. 2013

In his article, we were not only able to gather a definition of communism (which was a political party key to this time period) on broader terms but we were also able to collect further information by contacting Xu with direct questions applying to our project.


Chang, Iris. Interviewed by Lori Crever. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Authors Writers Interviews, N.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2014.

This interview, conducted by Lori Crever, with Iris Chang, was insightful and we were able to cut and edit part of the recorded interview enabling us to put selected scenes in our site to further define the atrocities of the Rape of Nanking. It was essential that we highlighted the effect of the Rape of Nanking because this was one of the most underrated holocausts of modern history. This clearly defined Japan as an enemy.

Demoral, Paul. Personal Interview. 26 January 2014.

Conducted at Bruggers, on the 26th of January, I talked to an older couple who provided both a more personalized experience of war, in general, as well as their recollection of Pearl Harbor and how Americans responded. This interview was vital because I was able to grasp an important perspective from those who lived through it; that being spoken words that came purely rather than those that were edited, and possibly mutated, in a book or online database. Although some of the sentences were fragments, they were wholesome.

Spark, Nick T. Interview with Fon Huffman. Last living survivor aboard USS Panay. N.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2014

This interview was critical to our understanding of the Panay Incident of 1937 because it gave us a face to match statistics which, in our opinion, was helpful in choosing words to describe the incident. We also retrieved a quote from the interview. While the Rape of Nanking opened the US’ eyes to see Japan as an enemy, when Panay was struck, directly effecting them, this hit the US in a different way altering their mindsets towards the Japanese.


Communist Party Flag. Photograph. N.d. n.p. Web. 6 Feb 2014. <http://>

A photograph of “Communist Party Flag” visually portrays tarnished style yet lasting essence. All flags were chosen in rough form to stimulate the viewer’s mind of how old the flag is yet how much it is still present today in it’s, not only physical state, but phycological state as well.

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Photograph. MFA Productions LL.C. N.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

A propaganda poster that vividly and directly depicts what Japan, under Konoe’s rule, had envisioned for their plan to attempt to conquer all of East Asia.

Hasket, Daniel. The U.S. -China Reset. Photograph. The New York Times: The Opinion Pages. N.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.

We used this photo to be a back drop in a collage, for our homepage, we made using Keynote. Upon finding this photo, we were ecstatic because it essentially captured our project, in its complexity, in incredibly simple terms. Two boats, different locations, fishing for the same thing and scoping each other out. We knew we wanted this in our collage. While all other photos were blurred to 10%, we left this one more viewable at 24%.

Japan tribute - Japan will blossom again! Photograph. Dryicons. 2007. Web. 16 Feb.


We used this photo to be a back drop in a collage, for our homepage, we made using Keynote. This was simply a photo of the Japanese Flag with flowers across it. While the size of the file was really useful, we found that having the Japanese flag, somewhere in the collage, was essential because it is what tied the US and China together.

Qing Dynasty: Grunge Flag (1889 - 1912). Photograph. N.d. n.p. Web. 6 Feb. 2014.

A photograph of “Qing Dynasty Grunge Flag” visually portrays tarnished style yet lasting essence. All flags were chosen in rough form to stimulate the viewer’s mind of how old the flag is yet how much it is still present today in it’s, not only physical state, but phycological state as well

Rights and Responsibilities; National History Day 2014. Photograph. National Archives, N.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2014.

History day theme logo for 2014; Rights and Responsibilities.

Turmoil. Photograph. N.p. N.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.

We used this photo to be a back drop in a collage, for our homepage, we made using Keynote. This photo was a smeared paint brush across a board to Christina, it symbolized the complexity of the relations. She felt that, in adding it to the collage, it’d add another layer and bring all the pictures together.

Weng, Jean. Lugou Bridge. Webshot. 7 Aug. 2008. Web. 4 Feb. 2014.

A more modern picture of where the Marco Polo Incident occurred in 1937 sparking the Second Sino Japanese War. This photo captures the Lugou Bridge in 2008. While we came across many war time photos taken at Lugou Bridge, we came into conclusion that a more recent photo would be much more powerful. We hoped that the reader would be able to envision what went on during that time of war and see how it was still effecting China today.

World War 2 Battle Wallpaper 12250 Hd Wallpapers. Photograph. N.d. Ballard via Imagesci. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.

We used this photo to be a back drop in a collage, for our homepage, we made using Keynote. When looking at the photo, there is no clear way to distinguish what race he is or what he is feeling but his body language is powerful. This is why we felt the need to add this to our collage.

Yundong, Wusi ( 五四运动). May Fourth Movement. Painting. Webshots. Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe ( 上海人民出版社 ). July 1976. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

A painting, released by publish Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe, portrays the up roar in China over an oppressed people. We felt that the painting not only captured the mass of the problem but also the violence and anger behind the matter as a whole.


“A Critique of Mao’s Communist Government.” The History of Nations: China. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven, 2003. 109-119 and 120-123. Print.

As a book comprised of both primary and secondary sources and split into different sections covered by different authors, it enabled us to get a better

understanding of two very important pieces to our project: Chiang Kai Shek and the Rape of Nanjing. The first excerpt, written by Justus D. Doenecke, discussed how Chiang Kai Shek dealt with political and social issues that occurred as they came his way. By reading through his decisions and their effects, we were given a better idea of what type of leader he was as well as what grave effects he had on China and it's people during such a fragile time. The second, written by Iris Chang, accurately describes the horror of the Rape of Nanjing. Divided into two sections, torture and rape, Chang paints a picture of the true atrocities that the Japanese inflicted upon their victims. This was important for us to read because the event was the ultimate divider between Japan and China. By reading this excerpt, we understood why China was so willing to join forces with the United States to both protect and gain revenge against Japan.

Beevor, Antony. The Second World War. 1st ed. New York: Little, Brown and Company Hatchette Book Group, 2012. Print.

This book summarized WWII as a whole. While most sources we used focused in on certain points, this work explains the positions of all who participated in WWII. This was helpful to us because it enabled us to understand where the world stood allowing us to get why China, Japan and the US were in the positions they were in.

Chun, Clayton K. S. The Doolittle Raid 1942: America's fist strike back at Japan. New York: Osprey Publishing Limited, 2006. Print.

This easy read not only allowed us to capture the what's and when's of the Doolittle Raid but it also briefly covered Japan's vulnerability allowing certain US military positions to take place. Additionally, we were able to gain a little more insight concerning the Pacific Theatre as a whole.

Conroy, Hilary, and Harry Wray, eds. Pearl Harbor: Reexamined. United States:

University of Hawaii Press, 1990. Print.

Claiming that “the issue of the failure of diplomatic efforts by the United States and Japan between that two world wars has been insufficiently studied and discussed”, this book looks at exactly that. Perhaps they didn’t give us a deeper insight but rather a different even, through one lens, making the US the antagonist. In reading this, we were able to gather more background concerning what lead to the explosive tension between the US and Japan.

Crowley, Leo T. "Lend Lease" in Walter Yust, ed. 10 Eventful Years, 1937 – 1946 Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1947, pp. 858–860. Print.

This gave us precise numbers concerning a grand estimated total of war funds dispensed, through out WWII, to the American Allies

Dower, John W. Cultures of War: Pearl Harbor: Hiroshima: 9-11: Iraq. 1st ed. New York:

W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2010. Print.

This book was an accumulation of both fact and opinion. We gained statistics as well as different views, politically and socially, about the Pearl Harbor attack. It put the attack, and the over all relationships between China, Japan and the US under different light; it almost antagonizes the US. This book also lead us to more resources.

Gay, Kathlyn. The Aftermath of the Chinese Nationalist Revolution. Minneapolis: Twenty- First Century Books, 2009. Print.

This book gave us a brief over view of what government China was under during the time period that encompassed both the Second Sino-Japanese War and a majority of WWII. Giving us great insight into the history of political turmoil in China, the book also digs deeply into the struggle that Chiang Kai Shek faced when challenged to temporarily create peace between the Communists and Nationalists in order to wage a war against Japan. It hinted at the word “temporary” when discussing the relations between the Communists and Nationalists almost serving as a foreshadow to the devastation that China would face post WWII when they were left to meet with their internal war once more.

Grodzins, Morton. Americans Betrayed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949. Print.

Discussing Japanese internment, in response to WWII and the attack of Pearl Harbor, this book covers the brutality and captures the anger of hatred, if you will, to one's enemy.

Issacs, Harold R. The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution (2d rev. ed. 1966); C. M. Wilbur, The Nationalist Revolution in China 1923–28 (1985). Print.

This article saved the “China” page. The Civil War was awfully complicated because both parties, Nationalists and Communists alike, wanted to rid their country of Imperialistic and Oppressive ways but they had a different way of going about doing this. It was incredibly hard for out group to pin point exactly what set the Nationalists and Communists apart until we read about the Northern

Expedition established to rid China of the War Lords that took over providences, in the absence of Sun Yatsen and death of Yuan. Conclusively, too say the least, Chiang saw the Communists as blockades to a successful expedition and that is where the riots began. Its important to note that the people of China, Nationalists and Communists alike, were tired of an un easy and non stable government which made the instigation of revolt prone to happen.

Mackerras, Colin. China In Transformation 1900-1949. 2nd ed. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson/ Longman, 2008. Print.

Chapter 9, addressing the war between China and Japan from 1937-45, divides itself into two parts: "The Earlier Stages" and "The Later Stages". Both cover specific names and critical battles that lead to the a concluding 8 years of hostile and damaging war. It also covers post war helping us understand the transition period that uncovered the silenced tension between the Chinese Nationalists and Communists. Additionally, this book vitally helped us understand the after math of WWII and where China was placed in terms of being thrown back into its country’s civil war.

“The Militarists Take Power.” The History of Nations: Japan. Farmington Hills:

Greenhaven, 2004. 119 and 120-123. Print.

In June of 1940, under the Prime Minister, Konoe Fumimaro, the cabinet called for the creation of the “Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere” that would establish Japanese leadership over Japan, Manchuko, China and Southeast Asia from the western domination. This was seen, to both the US and China, as a threat because the establishment, if successful, would take China’s land while also crushing the Open Door Policy that was crucial to global trade. This was just one more thing that the US and China were, later on, persuaded to come together to fight against. From this page, we took a quote to define what the “Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere” was.

Sun, Youli. China and the Origins of the Pacific War 1931-1941. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc., 1993. Print.

After many years at war with Japan, China, as well as other countries, both recognized their need to join hands against their common enemy. This book dives into why China needed foreign aid as well as how it benefited them. We captured numerous specific dates and important agreements that the initial foreign relations were built on. This book was one of the main sources we used to build from when learning about our topic.

Taylor, William. Rescued by Mao: World War II, Wake Island, and My Remarkable Escape to Freedom Across Mainland China. Chicago: Silverleaf Press, 2007. Print.

This biography personified the war. The numbers, statistics and documents became real to us as we browsed through a personal story. While not so focused on Mao himself, but rather the story of a man in battle, it gave us a realistic feel of the social thoughts towards war as well as a vivid description of China's battle field conditions.

Webster, Donovan. Burma Road: The Epic Story of the China-Burma-India Theatre in World War II. New York: Farrar, Stratus and Giroux, 2003. Print.

The Burma Road was essentially the lifeline to China. It was that little tube you always see connected to a hospital patient’s arm when they’re sick attached to vital needs. This is what Burma Road was. Ultimately, when taken over in 1942, by Japan’s occupancy of Burma, the US was forced to find other ways to send lend lease to China. In 1944, through the work of Stalin, Burma wasn’t fully recovered but they were able to create an alternative pass way, through parts of India, connecting back to a piece of the original Burma Road still owned by China.

Westad, Odd Arne. Restless Empire: China and the World Since 1750. New York: Basic Books, 2012. Print.

Vividly covering China's history since 1750, Westad briefly discusses the foreign relationships with China during WWII and how it relates to the rest of China's complex past. This book was cornerstone for our project as it brought together most of our sources under one bind. It helped us to have another book to define the same thing in simpler terms and in a broader tone in connection to everything else that was going on during these times.

Yundong, Wusi ( 五四运动 ). May Fourth Movement. Painting. Webshots. Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe ( 上海人民出版社 ). July 1976. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

A painting, released by publish Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe, portrays the up roar in China over an oppressed people. We felt that the picture not only captures the mass of the problem but also the violence and anger behind the matter as a whole.

Zarrow, Peter G. China in War and Revolution, 1895-1949. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2005. Print.

We were lead to this book through another when looking at the May Fourth Movement in search of the simple origins of the Communist Party. A quote in this book defined what we were looking for spot on.


Black, Jeremy. "How the Allies won World War II: productive factories provided abundant materiel, but the ability of individual soldiers to adapt made the real difference." MHQ:

The Quarterly Journal of Military History Summer 2008: 76+. Student Resources in Context. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. <



Weaving together what and who he believes won the war, Black articulates his argument that "productive factories provided abundant materiel, but the ability of "

individual soldiers to adapt

with elaborate evidence. Although he gives evidence on broader terms, he does, at certain points, focus in on the significance of China's role as an ally. In reading through his argument, we were able to gather key dates and a bigger idea of what we were studying.

allowed the allies to win WWII by supporting it

"Burma, 1942." Burma, 1942. US Army Center of Military History, 3 Oct. 2003. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <>.

This source was a very detailed summary of the book Burma, 1942. After reading over the whole thing, we didn’t know what to add to our project because it was so broadly covered. And we discussed, as a group, whether or not the actual events in Burma needed to be added and we came to the conclusion that they didn’t. But reading through the context of what happened allowed us to break down, expand and contrast our understanding of what Burma was. It also helped us decide what to add, how to describe Burma and what choice of words to use when describing it’s significance in our own words.

Dobbs, Charles M., and Tucker, Spencer C. "Sino-Japanese War: Chinese Civil War and Communist Revolution." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 22 Dec. 2013. <


This article vividly defines the Sino-Japanese War giving us access to specifics dates as well as a deeper understanding of the causes and grave effects that the war placed on both China and Japan. Taking the acquired information into mind,

we were able to understand how it both weakened and strengthened Japan's political and militarily position.

"FDR Asks War Against Japan." UPI's 20th Century Top Stories. Dec. 8 1941: n.p. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. <




Told in almost a story like fashion, we were able to get precise times and reasoning to President Roosevelt's decision to declare war on Japan. It addresses other countries' reactions to his choice as well.

Japan, China and United States and the Road to Pearl Harbor, 1937-41. U.S Department of State. Office of the Historian. N.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2014. <


This article, chosen as a selected milestone from 1937 - 45, names specific treaties signed by Japan that lead us to new ideas and sources. It pin pointed the pressure that the US was feeling prior to the attack of Pearl Harbor.

Katznelson, IRA. "Where Democracy Meets Fear". Chronicle of Higher Education (2013): B14. Advanced Placement Source. Web 23. Dec. 2013 <




This article addresses the relationship between democracy and the fear of uncertainty that was first truly seen in WWII when President Roosevelt enacted the New Deal in the 1930s. It gave us a more social perspective of the matter rather than statistical view.

Llc, Proquest. Chapter 21: Asia and the Pacific. N.p.: What Citizens Need to Know About World Affairs, 2009. N.p. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. <>.

An excerpt from Chapter 21, found through the SIRS database, simply explained the origins of difference and controversy between the Nationalists and Communists. While many other resources defined the controversy, this excerpt essentially put all the information into a big picture allowing us to understand the complexity behind their relationship.

Mishra, Pankaj. "Land And Blood." The New Yorker 25 Nov. 2013: 121. Gale Power Search. Web. 22 Dec. 2013. <



This article, taken from the New Yorker, gave us a deeper look into the Second Sino-Japanese War which allowed America to more easily create allies with China during a critical period in WWII.

O'Brien, Steven G. "Franklin D. Roosevelt." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 22 Dec. 2013. <


O'Brain's extensive research of President Roosevelt's life, summarized in this article, gave us an idea of where the United States stood politically in response to WWII before and after the Attack of Pearl Harbor. It gave us important dates concerning laws passed that enabled the United States to join the allied forces. This was one of our first sources looked at.

ProQuest LLC. "Chapter 21: Asia and the Pacific." What Citizens Need to Know About World Affairs. 2009: n.p. SIRS Interactive Citizenship. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. <http://




This chapter, taken from "What Citizens Need to Know About World Affairs" gives a broad overview of the history of Asia as a whole. Divided by events in history, certain parts highlight China and Japan individually while other parts describe their relationship. This helped us because it gave us a time line and put things in a more chronologically and statistically focused perspective.

Romanus, Charles F. CMH Pub 9-1 Stilwell’s Mission: China - Burma - India Theatre. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987. Internet Archive: WWII Archive. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.

This document was crucial to our understanding of the inner workings of the Lend Lease Program. In the April of 1941, when the US and China established further relations through the program, T.V. Soong, a leading official in the Chinese Nationalist government, requested an abundant amount of supplies in disparity.

"SACO Operations." SACO Operations. N.p., 5 May 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://>.

This explained to our group, in detail, about what the Sino American Cooperative Organization was. That being a U.S. Naval group that was based in Chungking and, aided by the Chinese government, supplied the Fleet with weather updates. Kept in secrecy for a while, this Chinese American lead group saved many lives on their side while taking over 71,00 Japanese lives.

Sasso, Claude R., and Tucker, Spencer C. “French Indochina: World War II.” World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC- CLIO, 2014. Web. 8 Feb. 2014

In July of 1940, after the French had been defeated in Europe, there were pressures, from Japan’s military, to aid them in destroying and virtually creating a barrier between China and their access to supplies being sent in by allies. Under pressure, the French agreed and the Nationalists supply route through Indochina was cut off.

Spark, Nick T. “Nippon Planes Bomb and Sink U.S. Gunboat Panay.” The USS Panay Memorial Website. N.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.

On December 12, 1937, the USS Gunboat, Paynay, was bombed and attacked deliberately by the Japanese military. Under rated, and over lapped by the attack of Pearl Harbor, we found it essential to our project because it gave us evidence of the US’ negatively growing perception of Japan.

Stolberg, Eva-Maria. “Japanese-Soviet Pact: World War II.” World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

This simply defines the Neutrality Act of 1941 between the Soviet and Japanese governments. This was important for our group to understand because this act made it clear that Japan’s military would be moving into the Southeast regions of China where the US had greater interests.

"The start of history; The Sino-Japanese war." The Economist 22 June 2013: 83(US). Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. < id=GALE



In this book review, critiquing Rana Mitter's China's War With Japan, 1937-1945:

The Struggle for Survival, we were given a summary of the war as well as the different reasons why China so easily became allies with the United States.

Wedemeyer, Albert C. "World War II Strategy." Vital Speeches Of The Day 23.5 (1956):

150. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. <



This was a text that read the speech given by US General Albert C. Wedemeyer discussing the military tactics that he planed to initiate post speech.

Willmott, Hedley P. and Michael Barrett. "World War II (Overview)." World at War:

Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 22 Dec. 2013. <http://>

This summary of WWII, accessed through ABC-CLIO, gives an extensive overview of WWII as a whole picture including what instigated it, highlighting US' participation and concluding its end.

“Flying Tigers (American Volunteer Group, AVG)”. World War II: A Student Encyclopedia. California: ABC-Clio, 2005. 446-448. Print.

In 1941, while China was fighting both Japan and Mao Zedong’s communism, retired Captain Claire Chennault fought to establish a Chinese air force. While many had no faith in them, they proved themselves worthy of change. They were essential to protecting China during 1941-45 and were named 14th Air Force, becoming inducted into the army air forces, in 1942. This reading, from the encyclopedia, was helpful to our understanding of the topic at hand as well as how it all fit into the bigger picture.

World War II: Behind Closed Doors. PBS, n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. < behindcloseddoors/in-depth/the-conferences.html>

This website gave us a great time line of conferences, and their outcomes, as well as an idea of what the Lend Lease act allowed and signified. Pictures were also provided here. These were crucial to our research because what happened at these events included turning points and supporting evidence that the US, from 1937-45, really was for China and conclusively against Japan.


Pennington, Caroline. Copy of The Effects of Communism in China in terms of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and Tiananmen Square. Presentation. Prezi, 24 May. 2011. Web. 17 Feb. 2014.

Our group, conscious of our word count, found that while we could’ve written out in plain text the summarized effects of Mao’s continued Communist reign, it’d be more effective to have something that popped out and caught an eye. We felt that

this would be more interactive and a strong way to begin the conclusion of our project.