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# Math 1431 Supplement, Understanding a Sampling Distribution versus a Population Distribution

2013

Objective: Distinguish between probabilities associated with randomly selecting a single value from a population versus a mean value of a sample of size n taken from the population. Points to Remember Case A is based on the population distribution, which has: Mean Standard Deviation Case B is based on the sampling distribution of Case A: #inding the probability that a randomly selected individual value, , from a population is \$less than%greater than& a given number, or between ' numbers. ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( Illustration: assume the random variable ) is normally distributed with a population mean *+ ,'- and population standard deviation + ,.. #ind the probability that a randomly selected value for / is greater than ,'0. !hat is, find 1\$ ) 2 ,'0&: !hat is, find 1\$ Step 1: #irst convert the !"value to a 3(score using Case B: #inding the probability that a random sample of size n has a mean value, , that is \$less than%greater than& a given number, or between ' numbers. ---------------------------------------------------------Illustration: assume the random variable ) is normally distributed with a population mean * + ,'- and population standard deviation + ,.. #ind the probability that a random sample of size n + '- has a mean value greater than ,'0.

which has:

Mean

Standard Deviation

2 ,'0&:

In Step 1, make sure to notice that Case A and Case B re uire you to find different things. In particular, make sure to notice: !he means that you use are the same. "owever, the standard deviations are different.

\$=

! #
as follows:

\$=

! # . n
as follows:

P% & 1'() *

## 1'( 1', P\$ > 1+

* P%\$ & -.1',) P% Step 2: Either use the !ables or the !I(45%46 to find the probability. 7sing the !I(45%46, you would proceed:

X
& 1'() *

## 1'( 1', P \$ > 1+. ',

* P%\$ & -.+',) Step ': 8ither use the !ables or the !I(45%46 to find the probability. 1

## Math 1431 Supplement, Understanding a Sampling Distribution versus a Population Distribution

2013

'nd 3ars *& ':normalcd1%-.1',4 15664 -4 1) /otice t0e signi1icant di11erence bet2een t0e t2o probabilities. * -.7,-8 Step 8: State the answer%conclusion: 90ere1ore4 P % & 1'() * -.7,-8

7sing the !I(45%46, you would proceed: 'nd 3ars *& ':normalcd1%-.+',4 15664 -4 1) * -.'++Step 8: State the answer%conclusion: 90ere1ore4 P %

## & 1'() * -.'++-

Problem :escription
Exercise 1: he heights o! adult U"S" !emales are appro#imatel\$ normall\$ distributed %ith mean &' in(hes and standard deviation 3"' in(hes" ) random sample o! 1& U"S" adult !emales is obtained"

Case A
,a- .ou %ould li/e to !ind the probabilit\$ that a randoml\$ sele(ted U"S" adult !emale has a height o! &0 in(hes or more"

Case B
,b- .ou %ould li/e to !ind the probabilit\$ that the random sample o! 1& U"S" adult !emales has a mean height o! &0 in(hes or more"

1ould \$ou need to ad2ust the population standard deviation b\$ dividing it b\$ the s3uare root o! 1&4

1ould \$ou need to ad2ust the population standard deviation b\$ dividing it b\$ the s3uare root o! 1&4

## )ns%er this e#er(ise %ith *\$es+ or *no"+

Exercise 2: he length o! human pregnan(ies is appro#imatel\$ normall\$ distributed %ith mean 5 6 2&& da\$s and standard deviation 6 1& da\$s" ,Source7 Sullivan, Mi(hael, 888" 9undamentals o! Statisti(s, 3rd :dition" 200;, Pearson Prenti(e<=all,

,a-1hat is the probabilit\$ a randoml\$ sele(ted pregnan(\$ lasts less than 2&0 da\$s4

,b- 1hat is the probabilit\$ that a random sample o! si>e 20 pregnan(ies has a mean gestation period less than 2&0 da\$s4

## Math 1431 Supplement, Understanding a Sampling Distribution versus a Population Distribution

2013

p" 3?;, problem 21Exercise 3: Suppose the %eight o! a (ertain breed o! dog /no%n as an )meri(an 1ater Spaniel is normall\$ distributed %ith mean %eight 3? pounds and standard deviation 2"; pounds" Exercise 4: Suppose a manu!a(turer o! ma(hine parts is re3uired to produ(e metal rods !or its bu\$er a((ording to stri(t spe(i!i(ations" he length o! these rods must be ? in(hes" Suppose the lengths o! these rods are normall\$ distributed %ith a mean length o! ?"2' in(hes %ith standard deviation 0"1 in(h" ,a- 1hat is the probabilit\$ that the %eight o! a randoml\$ sele(ted )meri(an 1ater Spaniel is greater than 41 pounds4 ,b- 8! a random sample o! 32 )meri(an 1ater Spaniels is obtained, %hat is the probabilit\$ that the mean %eight %ill be greater than 41 pounds4

,a- 1hat is the probabilit\$ that a randoml\$ sele(ted rod %ill be bet%een ?"20 and ?"2? in(hes4

,b- 8! a random sample o! 3' rods is obtained, %hat is the probabilit\$ that the mean diameter %ill be bet%een ?"20 and ?"2? in(hes4

Practice Problem Set 1" he reading speed o! se(ond grade students is appro#imatel\$ normal, %ith a mean o! ;0 %ords per minute ,%pmand a standard deviation o! 10 %pm"
a- 1hat is the probabilit\$ a randoml\$ sele(ted student %ill read more than ;' %pm4

b- 1hat is the probabilit\$ that a random sample o! 12 se(ond grade students results in a mean reading rate o!

3

## Math 1431 Supplement, Understanding a Sampling Distribution versus a Population Distribution

2013

,Source7 Sullivan, Mi(hael, 888" Fundamentals of Statistics, 3rd :dition" 200;, Pearson Prenti(e<=all, p" 3?;, problem 23-

2"

Suppose the est 1 s(ore !or the Statisti(s students at @eorgia Perimeter Aollege are normall\$ distributed %ith mean 03 and standard deviation ?"
,a,b,(,d-

1hat is the probabilit\$ that a randoml\$ sele(ted student has s(ore o! at least 0' on est 14 1hat is the probabilit\$ that a random sample o! 4 students results in a mean s(ore o! at least 0' on est 14 1hat is the probabilit\$ that a random sample o! ' students results in a mean s(ore o! at least 0' on est 14 1hat is the probabilit\$ that a random sample o! ? students results in a mean s(ore o! at least 0' on est 14

3"

Suppose the %eights o! Math 1113 students at @eorgia Perimeter Aollege are normall\$ distributed %ith mean 140 pounds and standard deviation 1' pounds"
,a- 1hat is the probabilit\$ that a randoml\$ sele(ted student %eighs at most 1'0 pounds4 ,b- 1hat is the probabilit\$ that a random sample o! 3 students results in a mean %eight o! at most 1'0 pounds4 ,(- 1hat is the probabilit\$ that a random sample o! ' students results in a mean %eight o! at most 1'0 pounds4

ANSWERS Exercises 1" ,a- Bo, ,b- .es 2 ,a- 0"3'3?, ,b- 0"04&' 3" ,a- 0"1'1', ,b- 2"4&& : <; 4" ,a- 0"30;4, ,b- 0";&01
4

2013

## Practice Problem Set

1" ,a- 0"30?' , ,b- 0"041? 2" ,a- 0"4013C ,b- 0"30?'C ,(- 0"2??1C ,d- 0"23;0 3" ,a- 0"040'C ,b- 0"?0';C ,(- 0";320

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