Sunteți pe pagina 1din 6

Capacity Leveling

Use
The capacity leveling function is an extension of heuristic-based planning in Supply Network Planning (SNP). The SNP heuristic run is an infinite form of planning that does not take into account capacities and can thus cause resource overloads. You can use SNP capacity leveling to clear resource overloads by moving orders or partial order quantities into previous or subsequent buckets (periods) using forward or backward scheduling. SNP capacity leveling is used to level specific bottleneck resources. It is run locally on a resource in a specified horizon, which means that dependencies with other resources are ignored. Leveling capacity for the entire supply chain would, in effect, be the same as performing a new planning run and is not within the scope of this function. You can run capacity leveling in both interactive Supply Network Planning and in the background. Interactive planning has the advantage that you can display the resource load directly before and after leveling. If you run capacity leveling in the background, you can select several resources for leveling (which can then be processed in sequence). You can also use a selection profile. Running capacity leveling in the background is especially suited to large data volumes and complex models. A detailed log is displayed whether you run capacity leveling in interactive planning or in the background. To run capacity leveling interactively, choose this APO Easy Access menu path: Supply Network Planning Planning Interactive Supply Network Planning and go to the capacity view (the Capacity Check data view). To run capacity leveling in the background, follow this menu path: Supply Network Planning Planning Supply Network Planning in the Background Capacity Leveling.

Prerequisites
Capacity leveling has the same general prerequisites as heuristic-based planning. For more information, see Running the Heuristic in the Background. However, the following details and restrictions apply:
Capacity leveling supports the following resource categories: Production resources Transportation resources It does not support storage or handling resources. Capacity leveling supports all the resource types supported by SNP in general. It supports the following resource types in particular: Bucket resource

Single-mixed resource Multimixed resource Transportation resource It does not support any other resource types.

Capacity leveling only takes into account SNP planned orders and SNP stock transfers. Deployment stock transfers, TLB shipments, and PP/DS orders are not leveled; however, the system does take into account the resource load caused by these orders. Capacity leveling takes into account lot size data that is defined in master data; that is, it takes into account fixed lot sizes, maximum lot sizes, and minimum lot sizes. Period lot sizes and PPM lot sizes are not taken into account. The capacity leveling method that you choose governs the way in which the system takes into account lot sizes (see below). If you choose heuristic-based capacity leveling, the system uses the same rules as for the SNP heuristic when taking lot sizes into account; if you choose optimizationbased capacity leveling, the system uses the same rules as for the SNP optimizer. Capacity leveling takes into account the rounding value defined in the location product master. The SNP rounding profile is not considered. Capacity leveling does not take into account the target days supply defined in the location product master. Capacity leveling (like SNP in general) does not support local time zones for transportation resources (which means, you can only use the UTC time zone). Capacity leveling ignores the minimum available capacity of a resource. Capacity leveling does not generate alerts directly. However, you can run a background job for a macro to generate alerts (for example, the SNP standard macro for database (DB) alerts). You can then view these alerts in the alert monitor. For more information about this, see the following Demand Planning documentation: Demand Planning Process Creation of the Demand Forecast Macro Execution with Mass Processing (see also the subordinate topics).

Capacity leveling does not take dependent demands into account. Since leveling is only performed locally on a resource, it can lead to other resources being overloaded, additional on-hand stocks being created, or shortfall quantities being generated. You can check whether there is a surplus or shortage of output products in the log. However, you can only find out about input products by using alerts (see above). You then have to process these manually. The following details are specific to optimization-based capacity leveling: The optimizer does not support transportation lanes that have different source locations but the same destination location. The optimizer does not support cyclic transportation lanes. PPM sequences, where the output products of one PPM are also used as the input products of another and only the last PPM of this sequence is run (with procurement indicator P), are not valid if the resource that is to be leveled is being used in at least two of the PPMs involved. PPMs, in which the output product is completed in an activity other than the last activity, are not valid (this also applies to SNP optimization in general).

You have to run the SNP heuristic before capacity leveling. Running capacity leveling after an SNP optimization run or Capable-to-Match (CTM) run is possible but it would not usually make sense to do this.

Features
Capacity Leveling Profile You can use different parameters to control capacity leveling. You define these parameters in a profile that you specify when running capacity leveling in interactive planning or in the background. However, you can also specify the parameters manually or overwrite individual profile parameters before each capacity leveling run. You define the capacity leveling profile in Customizing for SNP (Profiles Define SNP Capacity Leveling Profiles) or in the SAP APO Easy Access menu: Supply Network Planning Environment Current Settings Profiles Define SNP Capacity Leveling Profiles. You use the profile to define the following specific parameters:
The capacity leveling method (heuristic, optimizer, or BAdI) The scheduling direction (forward, backward, or combined) Order prioritization (that is, which orders you want capacity leveling to process first) Handling of fixed orders and order fixing during capacity leveling The maximum load for the resource The maximum runtime for capacity leveling

Capacity Leveling Method

You can choose one of the following three leveling methods:


Heuristic: The heuristic processes the individual orders on a bucket basis; that is, when a resource is overloaded, the system moves order quantities into subsequent or previous buckets depending on the direction of scheduling (forward or backward) until the desired maximum load for the resource is reached. The total order quantities in the planning horizon are not changed. In contrast to the optimizer, the heuristic does not always find optimal resource utilization results. Optimizer: The optimizer considers the quantities in each bucket rather than the individual orders. At the start of processing, it deletes all existing orders that are not fixed (based on the setting) and then creates new orders. As with the heuristic, the total order quantities in the planning horizon are not changed. The optimizer usually levels the capacity utilization of resources more evenly than the heuristic. Optimization-based capacity leveling uses the SNP optimizer to level resources. However, in contrast to the SNP optimizer, the constraints and costs taken into account are defined automatically and cannot be influenced by the user. The costs are only used to control capacity leveling. They have no business significance. BAdI: The Business Add-In /SAPAPO/SNP_CAP provides an interface that you can use to connect your own method to capacity leveling. You can choose it here once you have activated the BAdI.

For more information, see Comparison of the Capacity Leveling Methods and Heuristic-Based Capacity Leveling: Examples.

Scheduling Direction

You can define the direction in which capacity leveling is to be executed; that is, the direction in which the system moves order quantities from the order availability date when a resource is overloaded. The quantities are moved within the planning horizon. For the planning horizon, the system uses either the planning buckets profile defined in the planning book or the planning buckets profile you specified in the capacity leveling profile. You can also define the planning horizon in interactive Supply Network Planning by selecting the start and end time period or by entering a from and to date in the function for running capacity leveling in the background. The options available are:
Forward scheduling: The order quantities are moved from the availability date into the future. Backward scheduling: The order quantities are moved from the availability date into the past (until today's date at the latest, minus the defined horizons). Combined forward and backward scheduling: The order quantities are moved both into the future and the past.

Prioritizing Orders

You can specify which orders are to be considered first during heuristic-based capacity leveling for a resource, meaning which orders will be the first to be moved to a different bucket. For instance, during forward scheduling, the orders are moved to a later bucket first and during backward scheduling, they are moved to an earlier bucket. The options available are:
No priority: With this option, capacity leveling does not take into account any product or order priorities. We recommend that you use this setting if it is most important for you to have optimal resource utilization. Specifying a priority can have a negative effect on the capacity leveling results for optimal resource utilization. Order size: With this option, capacity leveling takes into account orders according to their size. For example, you can specify that during backward scheduling, large orders are moved to the earlier buckets first. Product priority: With this option, capacity leveling takes into account the orders according to the priority specified for products in the location product master. For example, you can specify that, during forward scheduling, unimportant products are first moved to later buckets.

You can also choose whether you want the priorities defined to be sorted in ascending or descending order.
Ascending: When you choose the Product Priority option, the capacity leveling function moves orders for highest priority products first (priority 1), then orders for second highest priority products (priority 2), and so on. When you choose the Order Size option, capacity leveling moves the small orders first. Descending: When you choose the Product Priority option, the capacity leveling function moves orders for lowest priority products first (priority 255 or 0), then orders for second highest priority

products (priority 254), and so on. When you choose the Order Size option, capacity leveling moves the large orders first.

You define the product priority on the SNP 2 tab page of the location product master. Optimization-based capacity leveling does not consider priorities.
Handling of Fixed Orders and Order Fixing During Capacity Leveling

You can set it so that the system also levels fixed orders; that it also moves, changes, and deletes orders that were fixed in earlier planning runs. Note that this can cause orders that were fixed for subsequent planning runs to be lost since optimization-based capacity leveling first deletes all existing orders and then creates new ones, for example. You can also specify that all orders for subsequent planning runs are to be fixed during capacity leveling; that is, they can no longer be edited after leveling.
Maximum Load and Maximum Runtime

You can specify the maximum load for a resource (as a percentage) that you want the system to take into account during capacity leveling. This value does not represent an absolute upper bound. Since the total quantity of all the orders that exist in the planning horizon has to remain the same, resource overloads might occur if the required capacity is not available. You can also define the maximum runtime (in minutes) for capacity leveling. Once this runtime has been exceeded, the system terminates planning. The following details apply to the heuristic and optimizer capacity leveling methods:
Heuristic: The heuristic processes the orders on a bucket basis. Once the runtime has been exceeded, the system completely terminates processing for the current bucket. Solutions exist for the buckets that had already been processed. Optimizer: Since the optimizer attempts to determine an optimal solution, it might already have found a solution for the entire planning horizon; however, this solution might not represent the best possible solution.

For the planning results found before termination, refer to the log. Log The system generates a detailed log for capacity leveling that is displayed automatically after the planning run both in interactive planning and when executed in the background. It includes the following information:
Quantities in each bucket before and after capacity leveling Resource capacity load before and after capacity leveling Surplus or shortage in the supply of output products Error and warning messages (that excessively large lot sizes will cause leveling problems, for instance)

Parameters selected by the user

If you run capacity leveling in the background, you can hide the quantities in each bucket and the resource capacity load from being displayed in the log. This helps you improve performance and reduce data volume. You can also specify for how long you want the log to be stored and display logs from previous capacity leveling runs.

Activities
Capacity Leveling in Interactive Supply Network Planning
...

1. 2. 3.

You select a resource in the capacity view of interactive Supply Network Planning.

If the resource is overloaded, choose Capacity Leveling. You can choose the planning horizon in the planning table by selecting one or more periods. To select several periods, select the first and last period of the horizon (by choosing the left-hand mouse button and the control key). You can also choose individual products for capacity leveling by drilling down for products and selecting the products you require. Capacities are then only leveled for the selected products within the chosen horizon. 4. A dialog box is displayed where you can choose a capacity leveling profile or manually specify the parameters. 5. You run capacity leveling and, if required, view the log. 6. You display the new load situation in the capacity view.

Capacity Leveling in the Background


...

1.

For capacity leveling in the background, you choose one or more resources that you want to be leveled. To do this, you can also specify a selection profile that you previously saved in interactive planning. 2. You select a capacity leveling profile or manually specify the parameters. 3. You run capacity leveling in the background and, if required, view the log. 4. You display the new load situation in the capacity view of interactive Supply Network Planning.

See also:
Heuristic-Based Planning Running the Heuristic in the Background Interactive Planning Desktop