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A literature review is an evaluative report of information found in the literature related to your selected area of study. The review should describe, summarise, evaluate and clarify this literature. It should give a theoretical base for the research and help to determine the nature of your research. A literature review is an account of understanding particular topic or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary research. Generally a literature review is done to identify the general topic, issue or area of concerns. For proceeding any project, proper and adequate knowledge is a must. Almost theoretical knowledge for proper understanding of the project is gained through study of literature such as books, journals, reports, articles and so on. Objective of the study To collect required data on various aspect Analysis of requirements Theoretical standards for general requirement

Following studies were done to understand and review basic design space and consideration for specific purposes. 1. 2. 3. 4. General Considerations Design of market space Commercial space Cultural - Leisure zone

1. General Considerations
Flexibility of space There should be connection between indoor and outdoor space. Transition areas such as courtyard, or open to sky spaces are well appreciated in the design. Inter-relation of work and recreational spaces Spaces should be inter-related shops, factory space, market space, leisure zone, caf should be interesting and inter-related. Needs provision of quality communication and transition of space

Visual environments Design must have good amount of natural daylight. All openings should have some sort of daylight control. Artificial light needs in case of factories. Buffer zones Buffers can be created by design elements or vegetations. Locating space with respective to activities Spaces should be provided according to Functional requirement. Access for private and public. Work which requires huge machinery or supply of materials should be placed on the ground floor. Fire hazardous activities should be separated and isolated from other spaces. Thermal comfort A workspace should be thermally, mentally and physically comfortable. Thermal comforts can be gained by application of passive techniques. It is quite difficult to maintain the thermal environment in a workspace. As there is frequent opening for supply of raw materials, heat produced by machine and vibration, heat gain and loss are frequent. Use of proper ventilation, growing vegetation as shading devices, using double glazing can be the solutions

2. Design of market space

Permanent market stalls are sited in town centres and fringe areas. Planning: Halls are usually designed to give a large-span open space having natural roof lighting, good ventilation and service connections. One floor trading is preferred. Key considerations: Access and linkage to goods delivery and parking bays. Mix of traders, risk of fire(incombustible materials, fire-resistant construction smoke evacuation) and means of escape.

The purpose of wholesaling. Food reaches the consumer by a complex network, involving production, assembly, sorting, reassembly, distribution and retail stages. A simplified diagram showing this process is illustrated in Figure 1. The social institution or mechanism that forms the linkage between the producer (farmer) and the retailer is the assembly and wholesale trading system, which enables farmers to sell in small quantities and purchasing by traders and wholesalers to be made in bulk.

The kinds of markets considered can be broadly classified into two types: Secondary and Terminal Wholesale Markets.

These markets are exclusively, or at least predominantly, involved with wholesale produce and transactions for the sale of incoming produce are generally between farmers or traders and wholesalers. Secondary wholesale markets. These markets are located in district or regional cities and take the bulk of their produce from rural assembly markets located in production areas, where the transactions are small scale and usually take place between farmers and traders. The distinction between rural assembly markets and secondary wholesale markets is often not clear. The difference is that secondary wholesale markets are in permanent operation (rather than being seasonal in nature or dealing in specialized produce), larger volumes of produce are traded than at the rural assembly markets and specialized functions may be present, such as commission agents and brokers. Terminal wholesale markets. These markets are located in major metropolitan areas, where produce is finally channelled to consumers through trade between wholesalers and retailers. Produce may also be assembled for export. The merchants tend to be well organized and a commodity exchange may exist for forward trading. A variant on terminal markets are markets located at major ports (or a border railroad or sometimes an airport) dealing exclusively with import and export of produce. Nature of market design problems. Markets may share a number of characteristics. They may act as the terminal market for a regional city but also provide facilities for the assembly of produce destined for other locations, both within the same province or district, or other parts of the country or for export. Although the scale of secondary and terminal wholesale markets, in terms of the volumes of produce traded, may be different there are many resemblances. They both perform similar wholesale functions, the distinction between them being their location and the scale of their catchment areas. Secondary wholesale markets are essentially rural or located in a small city, with local catchment areas, while terminal wholesale markets are urban, with regional or national catchment areas. Design problems that are unique to secondary wholesale markets may be related to seasonal peaks in production and the provision of farmers' markets, aimed at a specific group of users (and often introduced to change the operation of existing marketing channels). To tackle the problems of secondary wholesale markets requires a full understanding of their local context, including the regional road system, the location of production areas, the seasonal variation in production volumes and their relationship to primary assembly markets in rural areas. The problems of terminal wholesale markets are usually ones of congestion caused by an unsuitable location or by an inappropriate mixture of wholesale and retail functions. Traditionally, wholesale markets were built adjacent to city centres, located at a focal point of the inter-city transport facilities and close to the main retailing areas. Population growth, changes in urban land-use patterns and the development of modern transport systems have all had an influence on the suitability of existing and proposed wholesale market sites. A recognition of urban planning problems is therefore essential to understand the growth of terminal wholesale markets. The distinction is largely that neither the inputs into nor outputs from the market, in terms of the types of produce, how it is transported and its quality and quantity can be standardized in the manner that is possible in a developed country. This has a significant impact on both the planning of the market site and on the design of its buildings. "Ideal markets" There are a number of general principles by which "ideal" markets should be conceptualized. Textbooks on marketing economics often refer to them as the "golden rules". The reality of wholesale markets in less-developed countries is that most of these principles have not been fulfilled. It is necessary to invert the principles in order to understand what occurs in such markets: produce is not cleaned before it is brought to the market; different qualities of produce are not sold separately; produce is not graded before being sold; produce is not sold by standard weights or in standard packages; . produce is sold with a lack of price information, creating an atmosphere of uncertainty; storage facilities are not used or arc not available and immediate sales have to be made.

Within existing markets this is usually seen in the inability of existing marketing systems to cope with the increased demand, causing congestion and delays. Space for efficient handling of produce is inadequate and the market area is overcrowded, frequently leading to activities spilling over into the adjacent streets. Parking facilities are usually limited and provision for waste disposal is often lacking national marketing and agricultural policies and strategies, contained in government sectoral plans (typically from a ministry of agriculture) and district reports; records of previous and current development activities and existing commitments, compiled by planning and public works departments; . local and regional demographic and planning studies, including those undertaken by consultants and universities; official maps and air photos; and legislation and regulations on the institutional and legal framework for markets, including public health and safety regulations. Problem definition Typical problems. The typical problems that might be identified at this stage include economic and institutional problems, such as the existence of monopolies and unfair trading practices, financial constraints, inadequate market management and lack of staff training. Other problems might include seasonality of demand and lack of storage space, high produce losses and other costs associated with physical constraints, such as, poor infrastructure, inadequate space in relation to through-put, traffic congestion and lack of modern equipment. Space requirements. In estimating space requirements for markets very simple techniques should be used. Two estimating methods can be adopted, an approach based on overall annual through-put. A range of 10 - 20 tons per square metre (m) of covered sales space is desirable; an approach based on the "ideal" space standards that need to be allocated to accommodate the various activities required to handle the average (or in some cases maximum) daily throughout of commodities. There is usually a reasonable degree of agreement between these two methods. The estimates provide a basis on which to allocate floor space for the primary, commercial or sales activities that will be undertaken in the main market buildings. These activities would include the unloading of produce, its display by producers or traders, its sale to wholesalers (by private treaty or auction) and its short-term storage and display by the wholesalers before being sold and dispatched to retailers. Simple assumptions also need to be made about the space requirements for ancillary uses, such as offices, additional storage, and other facilities. A crude rule-of-thumb basis for estimating this would be to allow 50 - 100 percent in addition to that already estimated for the main commercial floor space. For a recent FAO study in Thailand long-term wholesalers' stores (including cool storage) were assumed to require an additional space equivalent to 40 percent of the commercial sales space. However, this figure may vary quite radically. One extreme might be a secondary wholesale market in a rural area where the market's essential function is to assemble produce for immediate dispatch (in which case virtually no long-term storage is required). At the other extreme might be an urban terminal market, without auction facilities, which provides a large amount of medium to long-term storage (possibly including cold stores) for produce such as onions, potatoes and fruits. Washing, packing and grading might require additional space of around 1m per ton of throughput. Offices for market management staff (whether private or public enterprise) and for basic support facilities (such as security and toilets) will each need an area equivalent to at least 5 percent of the commercial sales space. Other facilities, such as banking, post offices, extension services and farm input sales will need a further area of around 10 percent of the commercial sales space. The key issue will be to evolve an arrangement with a satisfactory relationship between the site access, the internal circulation system, unloading and loading areas, general parking and the main market buildings.

As a rough rule-of-thumb the portion of the site covered by buildings should be around 20 - 30 percent, road space and parking between 50 - 60 percent and other uses, including drain reserves, some 10 20 percent of the total area. Access and circulation Markets obviously need to be located adjacent to main highways, but a direct approach off a heavily used route or close to an intersection could cause problems. Within the market, incoming produce should also be strictly segregated from outgoing. The usual technique is to adopt a one-way circulation system using a continuous peripheral road, with the main buildings located within the centre of the block. An advantage of this approach is that it enables drivers to search for parking spaces and to correct mistakes. As a basic principle it is also desirable to avoid cross roads within the lay-out. To reduce the number of conflict points as many of the junctions as possible should be T-junctions (3-way). If cross roads are essential they should be created by using roundabouts (rotaries) Parking. The turnover of vehicles in a market, particularly those of retailers is rapid and it is desirable that parking spaces are generous. A minimum of around 32 m per truck parking space should be used, excluding the main circulation. As a general rule an overall standard for the provision of parking places (trucks, pick-ups and private cars) of 3 spaces per 100 m Of sales area is reasonable. This should also allow unloading and loading facilities to be directly adjacent to the main market building. For peak periods, however, this needs to be increased to around 5 spaces per ]00 m, which may require the provision of an overspill parking area a little remote from the market facilities.

Site facilities Types of market buildings. There are four basic types of market buildings which can accommodate the main commercial floor space. The choice of an appropriate type will depend on the operating system and method of sales to be adopted at the market i) garage type With this type of market premises the wholesalers' stalls run the full depth of the building, with access platforms on both sides. One side (3 metres width) is sometimes used for unloading from rail wagons, while the other may be wider (say 7 metres) and used for both unloading and loading into trucks ii) Back-to-back type This is a variant on the garage type, the essential difference being that it has a central wall dividing the wholesalers' premises. By varying the position of the dividing wall, different sizes of premises can be obtained. Only one access point is provided for the purchase, display and sale of produce as these activities normally take place at different times of the day. It is usually better if the platform is at the same level as the road if the majority of the market users have small pickups, cars or animal carts, or if larger trucks with side-loading are going to be used. This type of premises is an ideal form for medium and small-scale wholesalers iii) Central spine, with buyers' walk This is similar to the back-to-back arrangement but also incorporates a central buyers' walk which facilitates the appraisal of produce by buyers. The buyers' walk is typically 4 metres wide, In some cases the buyers' walk is made much wider more than 16 metres wide to allow a wider display of produce and the easy movement of produce to retailers vehicles. iv) Central spine/ball-type market building Levies on produce sold would be collected at one or more sales counters, where security facilities might also be accommodated.

Multi-storey market buildings. Market buildings with the sales space on more than one floor should, unless absolutely necessary, be avoided. Only offices for wholesalers, commission agents or brokers and other uses not involving the transfer of produce should be accommodated at a mezzanine level if there is insufficient space on the ground floor. Market authority building. The site should be administered by the market authority from a central service building, which might be of more permanent multi-storey construction, sometimes physically linked to the main market buildings. The scale of facilities will vary depending on the size of the market, but typically this building might contain an agricultural inputs unit, one or more banks, a post office and public telephones. The market authority offices should ideally be located at first floor level, overlooking the whole market. Depending on the scale of the market, their accommodation would comprise an account's section, a general office, a director/manager's offices and a board room.

Even where the market is to be operated by private enterprise it will be essential to provide facilities for the public bodies concerned with marketing and public health Such facilities might include a hall for public meeting and exhibitions, accommodation for market information and extension services, an emergency clinic or first-aid post, an environmental health laboratory and a weights and measures office.

Ancillary site facilities. Provision should also be made on the site for public toilets, building maintenance facilities, centralized solid waste collection and crate storage. An entrance control gate will be required, including in most cases, a weigh-bridge. This will normally be combined with the site security facilities. Simple produce cleaning, grading and packaging may also be needed if this has not been undertaken at the farm level or at collection centres located in the production areas. a petrol filling station, a staff canteen or tea shop (although these could be limited if adjacent commercial areas contain adequate services), a creche for mothers working at the market and small-scale religious facilities (shrine, chapel or mosque). Hostel accommodation might also be needed for farmers and hauliers who are obliged to remain in the city overnight or for out-station market staff who might come to the city for on-the-job training. Facilities for retailing. Retail units for the sale of packaging materials are normally required at a market but the provision of other types of retailing facilities is a difficult issue to resolve as it will tend to interfere with the operation of the market. One possibility is to provide a limited number of semi-retail shop units for the sale of specialist food stuffs and fruits. Traditional marketing practices and land-use restrictions may dictate that a wholesale market has to operate alongside a retail market, in which case they should ideally be managed as one unit, but should always be physically segregated.

Another common error is to assume that facilities will operate on a high technology basis, such as using pallet storage and fork lift truck loading and unloading. This may not be valid or appropriate where maintenance is poor and labour costs are low. Building form In preparing the detailed building designs the following factors will need to be considered space standards and design modules external climatic controls and internal servicing requirements, including ventilation andnatural/artificial lighting overall building form and siting expansion needs choice of materials for foundations/sub-structure; superstructure; enclosure and cladding methods; and appropriate internal finishes and choice of structural techniques, including economy and ease of construction

Socio-economic surveys of existing facilities Scope of surveys. The types of socio-economic surveys that are needed in the design of wholesale markets are: quantities and types of goods traded, by season; types and roles of market users/functionaries; marketing channels, by season; employment characteristics of the market, by gender; management system and operational methods; rents, tolls and revenues; and annual turnover and profits. In addition to the detailed engineering surveys described at the end of this chapter, broad physical surveys are also required of: the existing market layout and facilities; space utilization and availability, including stall sizes; degree of overcrowding/congestion; - utilization of facilities such as cold storage and silos; and traffic surveys of: - frequency of trips and departure/arrival times; - volume of goods transported and modes of transport used; and - origin and destination of produce.

The traditional warehouse was a relatively straightforward storage facility, designed to contain as many goods as possible in a structure offering protection from the weather and a certain degree of security. The structure was required to have as large a span as possible to allow flexibility of storage Key design criteria should include: Goods handled - dimensions, sizes; packaging and unit loads; stock levels and throughput; growth trends. Order characteristics - e.g. distribution and frequency of stock. Goods arrival and dispatch patterns - e.g. size and frequency of vehicles. Warehouse operatio.ns - e.g. product flows, quality assurance

Engineering surveys
Apart from the socio-economic studies and traffic surveys described above, engineering surveys will be needed for both existing or proposed market sites . These surveys will typically include: basic mapping; - detailed topographic and geodetic surveys; preliminary and detailed site investigations of engineering soils; an analysis of a site's drainage problems; structural condition of existing buildings; surveys and testing of existing services water supply; electrical supply; sewerage disposal; a review of available construction materials and technologies; and typical construction costs.

Architectural elements. Other factors that will influence the form of buildings will be the positioning of internal and external fixed elements, some of which have already been commented upon in Chapter 4, whilst others are discussed in Chapter 14. The following is a brief check-list of these elements, which may need to be incorporated into the design:

3. Commercial space

Case study research excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue or object and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research. Case studies emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. Researchers have used the case study research method for many years across a variety of disciplines. It is almost impossible to design or propose any project without studying similar cases. The study will help to analyze the existing case and design a better space to solve the issues existing there. To gain appropriate knowledge about the subject matter, cases studies will be performed on: Different markets [Fruit and Vegetable market, Nasik , Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Market Yard, Kalmna Market, Nagpur] Processing units and distribution of products[Sula wineyards, Nasik] location of spaces

Research on Spaces in markets Understanding social and economic conditions [ wholesale oriented/ public oriented] Integration of serene environment Land use pattern Design application Services Energy efficiency Climatology in Architecture

Introduction to Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Market Yard, Kalamna,Nagpur [Kalamna Market]

Nagpur APMC was notified on dated 16th Nov 1974 under section 39A of Maharashtra Agricultural Produce Marketing (Regulation) Act 1963, and started working on dated 21st January 1975. Before & even some years after the formation of Nagpur A.P.M.C., different markets like Grain market, Orange & Fruit market, Potato-Onion market, Chilli & Cattle market were existing at different places in Nagpur city.

The founder members were of opinion that all the markets should be at one place near to the city. Having this objective in mind, the founder members requested the Nagpur Improvement Trust for allotment of a bigger land near Nagpur. Considering the aspect seriously, allotment of around 110 acres land was done in the year 1981.

Location of Nagpur in Maharashtra map Location : Nagpur, Maharashtra State.

Location of Market in Nagpur district

Location map: source: Wikimapia


: 144.29acres

Character of the project : Project for Architect : Nagpur APMC : M/s Shivdanmal Mokha

The market committee approached the famous Architect of India M/s Shivdanmal Mokha, Nagpur for preparing the plan for construction of market. The need of the project is to combine all the markets at one place near the city.

Economical and social conditions It is a wholesale oriented market, mixed with wholesalers, workers and vendors. Social nature: Middle class and lower middle class

Population analysis No. of people using the market Designed for how many people Future expansions : : : Area is given in South-east part of the market place for further expansion.

Site analysis Geographically Topography Dimensions of the site : Latitude 2109and longitude 7908 : Altitude of 292m above sea level :

Site surroundings : site situates in the gorge of a dense residential zone at the eastern side. Kalamna station lies at the northern side of the site which is 500m away. Commercial, residential and entertainment zones are located at the East and West side of the site.

Wind data : In the month of February and at the May-end, the Nagpur climate experiences a low pressure resulting in the wind blowing at a speed of 20 km per hour or more. But, for the rest part of the year, the speed remains 5 to 6 km per hour. Climatic condition : Nagpur has tropical wet and dry climate (Kppen climate classification) with dry conditions prevailing for most of the year. It receives an annual rainfall of 1,205 mm (47.44 inches) from monsoon rains during June to September. The highest recorded temperature in the city was 47.9C on May 22, 2013, while the lowest was 3.9 C

Socio- cultural Regulations and bylaws Source: Government of Maharashtra- Urban Development Department Commercial zone 22.3.1 In commercial zones, buildings or premises shall be used only for the uses and purposes given in 22.3.2 subject to the following conditions: (a) All goods offered for sale shall be displayed within the building excluding passages;

(b) when the commercial zone boundary falls short of a street, the frontage along such street shall not be permitted to be developed for uses which would not be permissible along such streets and; (c) When user other than those permissible in a residential zone without a shop line (R1) have an access from the side or rear open spaces, the width of the such open spaces shall not be less than 7 m. 22.3.2 Uses permissible in Commercial Zone : (i) Any use permitted in residential zone without area and floor restrictions. (ii) Club, business houses, veterinary- dispensaries, testing labs, paper and plastic packing bags and boxes manufacturing, mattress making. (iii) Business Offices and exchanges. (iv) Whole -sale establishments with storage area not exceeding 200 sq. m. subject to fire protection requirements. (v) Public utility buildings. (vi) Headquarters organisations.

Limitations Environmental conditions Market space is integrated with green space. It can act as breathing space for the market as well. It act as transition space between buildings and also for the aesthetical purposes.

Trees act as buffer space between road and the space on the other side ,say, can be building, parking lots, etc.. Integration of serene environment. Zoning Amenities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Auction Halls Godowns Shops for retailer Farmers amenity center Sheds for cattle Water troughs for cattle Main office building Police station

- 160 no.s - 3 no.s - 4 no.s

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Post office Telegraph office Weighbridges - 3 no.s Storage Toilet Blocks Cold storage - 4 no.s Banks Agro Industries Soil Testing Laboratory Water Treatment plant Veterinary dispensary Bore-wells Elevated reservoirs Commercial buildings Commission agents block Maintenance works office M.S.E.B/ Sub-station Yard Canteens Shetkari niwas Street pattern

Grid iron street pattern is followed throughout the market spaces. The geometry helps with orientation and way finding and its frequent intersections with the choice and directness of route to desired destinations. Street networks be confusing for visitors but rarely for the original inhabitants. Frequency of intersections, however, becomes also a disadvantage for pedestrians and trucks. It disrupts the relaxed walking and forces pedestrians repeatedly onto the road. Intersections are not only unpleasant but also dangerous. Most traffic collisions and injuries occur at intersections and the majority of the injuries to pedestrians crossing with the right of way. The grid pattern results in higher densities of crossroads. So that it helps to access the desired space easily. The connectivity factor thus made efficient. Connectivity

There are four Main gates to the market place. Two gates are at the North-west side of the market and other two at the East west part. Design application

Services 1. M.S.E.B/ Sub-station Yard

Electric supply sub-station 750 KVA Electric supply sub-station 500 KVA Disel Generator Capacity 200 KVA Disel Generator Capacity 320 KVA

Water Treatment plant 1 MLD Bore well Overhead water tank 5.0 Lac Lit Sump 13.00 Lacs Ltrs

1 22 2 2

Climatology in Architecture

Reference Market details Location details Climatic condition