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Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Netwoks

by Holger Karl and Andreas Willig

Grade
Midterm E am! "#$ E ercises %#$ &# ' ( times) *erm Pro+ect %,$ -lass Attitude .,$

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Ad hoc and Sensor Networks -ha/ter .0 Moti1ation 2 A//lications

Goals of this cha/ter


Gi1e an understanding what ad hoc 2 sensor networks are good for3 what their intended a//lication areas are -ommonalities and differences
4ifferences to related network ty/es

5imitations of these conce/ts

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6utline
Infrastructure for wireless? &Mobile) ad hoc networks Wireless sensor networks -om/arison

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7nfrastructure8based wireless networks


*y/ical wireless network0 9ased on infrastructure
E!g!3 GSM &Global System for Mobile -ommunications)3 :M*S &:ni1ersal Mobile *errestrial *elecommunication Systems)3 ; 9ase stations connected to a wired backbone network
er s Gateways h rt rk u F wo t ne

IP backbone

Server
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Router
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7nfrastructure8based wireless networks


Mobile entities communicate wirelessly to these base stations *raffic between different mobile entities is relayed by base stations and wired backbone Mobility is su//orted by switching from one base station to another 9ackbone infrastructure re<uired for administrati1e tasks
er s Gateways h rt rk u F wo t ne

IP backbone

Server
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Router
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7nfrastructure8based wireless networks = 5imits>


What if ;
No infrastructure is a1ailable> = E!g!3 in disaster areas 7t is too e /ensi1e?incon1enient to set u/> = E!g!3 in remote3 large construction sites *here is no time to set it u/> = E!g!3 in military o/erations

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Possible a//lications for infrastructure8free networks


@actory floor automation 4isaster reco1ery -ar8to8car communication

c ho ad

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Possible a//lications for infrastructure8free networks


M ! "a#$ %e"&o#' %() Ta%'*, *o!d e#*, + , %d %( ou" e-."$ .a#' %( !o"* % a c "$, & "hou" a*' %( a *e#/e# Sea#ch0a%d0#e*cue % a% a/a!a%che Pe#*o%a! a#ea %e"&o#' %( 1&a"ch, (!a**e*, P23, -ed ca! a..! a%ce, +4

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6utline
7nfrastructure for wireless> (Mobile) ad hoc networks Wireless sensor networks -om/arison

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Solution0 &Wireless) ad hoc networks


*ry to construct a network without infrastructure3 using networking abilities of the /artici/ants *his is an ad hoc network = a network constructed Afor a s/ecial /ur/oseB Sim/lest e am/le0 5a/to/s in a conference room = a single-hop ad hoc network

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Problems?challenges for ad hoc networks


Without a central infrastructure3 things become much more difficult Problems are due to
5ack of central entity for organiCation a1ailable 5imited range of wireless communication Mobility of /artici/ants 9attery8o/erated entities

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No central entity D self8organiCation


Without a central entity &like a base station)3
Partici/ants must organiCe themsel1es into a network &self-organization)

Pertains to &among others)0


No base station can assign transmission resources3 must be decided in a distributed fashion @inding a route from one /artici/ant to another
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5imited range ! multi8ho//ing


-ommunication outside immediate communication range
4irect communication limited because of distance3 obstacles3 ; Solution0 multi-hop network
?

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Mobility ! Suitable3 ada/ti1e /rotocols


7n many &not allD) ad hoc network a//lications3 /artici/ants mo1e around
7n cellular network0 sim/ly hand o1er to another base station 5% mobile ad hoc networks 1M3N6T4)
Mo7 ! "$ cha%(e* %e (h7o#hood #e!a" o%*h . Mu*" 7e co-.e%*a"ed 8o# 6.(., #ou"e* % "he %e"&o#' ha/e "o 7e cha%(ed

9o-.! ca"ed 7$ *ca!e


:a#(e %u-7e# o8 *uch %ode* d 88 cu!" "o *u..o#"
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9attery8o/erated de1ices ! energy8 efficient o/eration


6ften &not alwaysD)3 /artici/ants in an ad hoc network draw energy from batteries 4esirable0 long run time for
7ndi1idual de1ices Network as a whole

! Energy8efficient networking /rotocols


E!g!3 use multi8ho/ routes with low energy consum/tion &energy?bit) E!g!3 take a1ailable battery ca/acity of de1ices into account How to resol1e conflicts between different o/timiCations> 98/3/2 J. P. Sheu, NTHU 17

6utline
7nfrastructure for wireless> &Mobile) ad hoc networks Wireless sensor networks
Applications Ee<uirements 2 mechanisms

-om/arison

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Wireless sensor networks


Partici/ants in the /re1ious e am/les were de1ices close to a human user3 interacting with humans Alternati1e conce/t0 7nstead of focusing interaction on humans3 focus on interacting with environment

Network is embedded in en1ironment Nodes in the network are e<ui//ed with sensing and actuation to measure?influence en1ironment Nodes /rocess information and communicate it wirelessly

! Wireless sensor networks &WSN)


6r0 Wireless sensor
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actuator networks &WSAN)


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WSN a//lication e am/les


4isaster relief o/erations
4ro/ sensor nodes from an aircraft o1er a wildfire Each node measures tem/erature 4eri1e a Atem/erature ma/B

9iodi1ersity ma//ing
:se sensor nodes to obser1e wildlife
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WSN a//lication e am/les


7ntelligent buildings &or bridges)
Eeduce energy wastage by /ro/er humidity3 1entilation3 air conditioning &HFA-) control Needs measurements about room occu/ancy3 tem/erature3 air flow3 ; Monitor mechanical stress after earth<uakes
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WSN a//lication scenarios


@acility management
7ntrusion detection into industrial sites -ontrol of leakages in chemical /lants3 ;

Machine sur1eillance and /re1enti1e maintenance


Embed sensing?control functions into /laces no cable has gone before E!g!3 tire /ressure monitoring

Precision agriculture
9ring out fertiliCer?/esticides?irrigation only where needed

Medicine and health care


Post8o/erati1e or intensi1e care 5ong8term sur1eillance of chronically ill /atients or the elderly
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WSN a//lication scenarios


5ogistics
E<ui/ goods &/arcels3 containers) with a sensor node *rack their whereabouts = total asset management Note0 /assi1e readout might suffice = com/are E@74s

*elematics &telecommunication G informatics)


Pro1ide better traffic control by obtaining finer8 grained information about traffic conditions Intelligent roadside -ars as the sensor nodes
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Eoles of /artici/ants in WSN


!ources of data0 Measure data3 re/ort them AsomewhereB
*y/ically e<ui/ with different kinds of actual sensors

!inks of data0 7nterested in recei1ing data from WSN


May be /art of the WSN or e ternal entity3 P4A3 gateway3 ;

Actuators0 -ontrol some de1ice based on data3 usually also a sink


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Structuring WSN a//lication ty/es


Interaction patterns between sources and sinks classify a//lication ty/es
"vent detection0 Nodes locally detect e1ents &maybe +ointly with nearby neighbors)3 re/ort these e1ents to interested sinks
"vent classification additional o/tion

#eriodic measurement

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Structuring WSN a//lication ty/es


$unction appro%imation& :se sensor network to a//ro imate a function of s/ace and?or time &e!g!3 tem/erature ma/) "dge detection& @ind edges &or other structures) in such a function &e!g!3 where is the Cero degree border line>) 'racking: Ee/ort &or at least3 know) /osition of an obser1ed intruder &A/ink ele/hantB)

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4e/loyment o/tions for WSN


How are sensor nodes de/loyed in their en1ironment>
4ro//ed from aircraft ! (andom deplo)ment
:sually uniform random distribution for nodes o1er finite area is assumed

Well /lanned3 fi ed ! (egular deplo)ment


Not necessarily geometric structure3 but that is often a con1enient assum/tion

Mobile sensor nodes


-an mo1e to com/ensate for de/loyment shortcomings -an be /assi1ely mo1ed around by some e ternal force &wind3 water) -an acti1ely seek out AinterestingB areas
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Maintenance o/tions
@easible and?or /ractical to maintain sensor nodes>
E!g!3 to re/lace batteries> 6r0 unattended o/eration> 7m/ossible but not rele1ant> Mission lifetime might be 1ery small

Energy su//ly>
5imited from /oint of de/loyment> Some form of recharging3 energy sca1enging from en1ironment>
E!g!3 solar cells
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6utline
7nfrastructure for wireless> &Mobile) ad hoc networks Wireless sensor networks
A//lications (e*uirements mechanisms

-om/arison

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-haracteristic re<uirements for WSNs


*y/e of ser1ice of WSN
Not sim/ly mo1ing bits like another network Eather0 /ro1ide answers &not +ust numbers) 7ssues like geogra/hic sco/ing are natural re<uirements3 absent from other networks

Huality of ser1ice
*raditional HoS metrics do not a//ly Still3 ser1ice of WSN must be AgoodB0 Eight answers at the right time
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-haracteristic re<uirements for WSNs


@ault tolerance
9e robust against node failure &running out of energy3 /hysical destruction3 ;)

5ifetime
*he network should fulfill its task as long as /ossible = definition de/ends on a//lication 5ifetime of indi1idual nodes relati1ely unim/ortant

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-haracteristic re<uirements for WSNs


Scalability Wide range of densities Programmability Maintainability
Su//ort large number of nodes Fast or small number of nodes /er unit area3 1ery a//lication8de/endent Ee8/rogramming of nodes in the field might be necessary3 im/ro1e fle ibility WSN has to ada/t to changes3 self8monitoring3 ada/t o/eration 7ncor/orate /ossible additional resources3 e!g!3 newly de/loyed nodes
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Ee<uired mechanisms to meet re<uirements


Multi8ho/ wireless communication Energy8efficient o/eration
9oth for communication and com/utation3 sensing3 actuating

Auto8configuration
Manual configuration +ust not an o/tion

-ollaboration 2 in8network /rocessing


Nodes in the network collaborate towards a +oint goal Pre8/rocessing data in network &as o//osed to at the edge) can greatly im/ro1e efficiency
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Ee<uired mechanisms to meet re<uirements


4ata centric networking
@ocusing network design on data3 not on node identifies &id8centric networking) *o im/ro1e efficiency

5ocality
4o things locally &on node or among nearby neighbors) as far as /ossible

E /loit tradeoffs
E!g!3 between in1ested energy and accuracy
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6utline
7nfrastructure for wireless> &Mobile) ad hoc networks Wireless sensor networks +omparison

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MANE* 1s! WSN


Many commonalities0 Self8organiCation3 energy efficiency3 &often) wireless multi8ho/ Many differences
Applications, e*uipment0 MANE*s more /owerful &read0 e /ensi1e) e<ui/ment assumed3 often Ahuman in the loo/B8ty/e a//lications3 higher data rates3 more resources Application-specifics0 WSNs de/end much stronger on a//lication s/ecificsI MANE*s com/arably uniform
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MANE* 1s! WSN


"nvironment interaction0 core of WSN3 absent in MANE* !cale0 WSN might be much larger &although contestable) "nerg)0 WSN tighter re<uirements3 maintenance issues -ependabilit)./o!0 in WSN3 indi1idual node may be dis/ensable &network matters)3 HoS different because of different a//lications -ata centric vs. id-centric networking Mobilit)0 different mobility /atterns like &in WSN3 sinks might be mobile3 usual nodes static)

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Wireless fieldbuses and WSNs


@ieldbus0
Network ty/e in1ented for real8time communication3 e!g!3 for factory8floor automation 7nherent notion of sensing?measuring and controlling Wireless fieldbus0 Eeal8time communication o1er wireless

! 9ig similarities 4ifference

Scale = WSN often intended for larger scale Eeal8time = WSN usually not intended to /ro1ide &hard) real8time guarantees as attem/ted by fieldbuses

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Enabling technologies for WSN


-ost reduction
@or wireless communication3 sim/le microcontroller3 sensing3 batteries

MiniaturiCation
Some a//lications demand small siCe ASmart dustB as the most e treme 1ision

Energy sca1enging
Eecharge batteries from ambient energy &light3 1ibration3 ;)
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-onclusion
MANE*s and WSNs are challenging and /romising system conce/ts Many similarities3 many differences 9oth re<uire new ty/es of architectures 2 /rotocols com/ared to AtraditionalB wired?wireless networks 7n /articular3 a//lication8s/ecifics is a new issue
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