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Improving Pump Performance

San Tome Operations

PDVSA has had varying success with PCPs Variety of failure modes and little advancement to provide a true solution PDVSA challenged TA to improve PCP performance and end user confidence in the technology To review the approach Tierra Alta and PDVSA have taken to improve PCP performance
Share results of this effort as it pertains to San Tome field

San Tome Field

The Challenges
High Volume Heavy Oil
Viscosity = Frictional losses inside the pump geometry

Aromatic Chemical Swell

Elastomer formulation to combat swell

Explosive Decompression
Elastomer formulation to provide better ED resistance

Other challenges

High Volume Heavy Oil

The Problem
The internal geometry of the pump is an orifice High volume, high viscosity flow through choke
High frictional losses = increased torques/reduced efficiency

The Consequence
Polished rod, sucker rod issues Drivehead clamp, belts Increased well interventions Poor system efficiency

Visual of Cavity

Complex Shape

Simple Concept
The cavity is defined by:
Rotor diameter Eccentricity Rotor pitch

Effectively a cube
width x depth x height

Fluid Mechanics
Short fat cube Long skinny cube

100 M3/day per RPM

This is a scaled graphic of 2 actual pumps
Similar displacement Same number of cavities
Same pressure capacity

Equal Cube volume, different cube shape

Long skinny versus short wide

Top is more conventional Bottom is specifically designed for High Viscosity

PCP Product line-up

Heavy Oil

Optimized Inflow Performance

Shorter cavity length + larger cavity opening =
Improved inflow performance
In high viscosity applications Low intake pressure / marginal fluid levels Eliminate inflow problems

Shorter overall pump length

Reduced torque due to friction Less viscous flow losses through the pump Less torque required to move solids
Improved swept angle

The Result
Geometries developed specifically for application
High volume, high viscosity

Optimized pump geometry design

Rotor major/minor diameter designed to maximize cavity cross section
4e = d

Stator tube selected to provide desired elastomer thickness

Aromatic Chemical Swell

The Problem
Aromatic swell is a function of elastomer resistance Expressed as %, acting on varying thicknesses Alters internal geometry to dog bone/peanut shape
Thickness of elastomer

The Consequence
High torques Low efficiency Hysterisis type failure, broken rods, stuck pump, etc

Effects of Aromatic Swell

The Result
Development of new High Performance elastomer
High Nitrile Minimizing aromatic swell Without reducing mechanical properties

Optimized pump geometry design

Minimizing elastomer thickness
Swell is % of thickness Less thickness less dimensional change

Less % of swell acting on less elastomer thickness

Swell Test Results

Tests are for 20 days, atmos. pressure and 150 F
Change in Volume % MEL -177 MFB - 569 MFB - 573 -1.62 -0.331 -0.324


Hardness Shore A 3 2 1

Balanced Compression Fit

Rotor sizing using balanced compression fit method
Minor Elastomer Thickness = 40mm
5% Compression = 2mm Interference

Major Elastomer Thickness = 10mm

5% Compression = 0.5mm Interference

Advantages of balanced fit

Lower startup & frictional torques
Even pressure distribution across each pump stage

Optimized interference for positive seal

Elimination of failures related to improper fit

Explosive Decompression
The Problem
a condition that occurs after an elastomer is exposed to a gas laden fluid in the presence of high pressure The pressure compresses the gas and forces it into the elastomer While operating, no harmful effects are noted The problem occurs when the system is rapidly depressurized If the differential between the internal pressure of the gas and external pressure exceeds the strength capability of the elastomer, a fracture or rupture will occur

The Consequence
Stator becomes throw away item due to any intervention
I.e. tubing part

Explosive Decompression

The Result
Development of new High Performance elastomer
High nitrile Impossible to eliminate effects of ED on elastomer

Formulated with the ability to control expanding forces

Better route for gas to escape Higher strength to withstand force

5 pumps pulled for well interventions and re-run

MFB-415, MEL236, MEL-217 all once, MFB-569 twice, MEL-288 three due to holes in tubing, both mechanical and corrosion

The First Pump

02/22/2007 MFB-415 55-1600 H1 HO geometry High Performance Elastomer

Balanced Rotor Fit

Pump Test Report

The First Pump

The First Pump

Viscosity ??
Day 1 Day 2 thru today

Pump Performance MFB-415

Date Torque ft-lbs 22/02/2007 24/02/2007 04/02/2008 21/04/2008 350 360 349 345 Speed RPM 80 80 80 130 Wellhead psi 0 120 90 130 Fluid Level feet 2028 1998 2000 2133

Design and develop heavy oil pumps
fit for purpose pump geometries

High Performance elastomer development

Enhanced resistance to:
Aromatic swell Explosive Decompression

Strong Applications support

Overcoming long standing performance issues
Based on a systematic solution approach Understanding the well and applying the correct PCP system

Today the results of these efforts are Providing PDVSA:
Consistent, repeatable pump performance Confidence in utilizing PCP systems more widely throughout their operations Great pride in having a Venezuelan PCP technology provider lead the way on this initiative

Society of Petroleum Engineers
PCP Conference Steering Committee

PDVSA Co-Authors
Carlos Brunings - PDVSA Carolina Gonzalez - Tierra Alta Applications Keyla Marmol Tierra Alta Manager Elastomers