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The 39 Melachos

In the Mishkan Sewing was required to produce the Yerios, the cloths which were draped over the Mishkan. The bottom covering of the Mishkan was composed of ten separately woven panels of wool fabric. The panels were sewn together in two sets of five and connected at the centre by gold hooks and loops. Sewing the panels together was Tofair. The Yerushalmi argues and holds that the Yerios needed to be a continuous fabric without seams so sewing wasnt required. Rather, sewing was needed to repair the Yerios if they became damaged. Even though the word sewing implies stitching two separate pieces of cloth into one, the Melacha of Tofair includes many more types of combining two items together. The Basic Premise of Tofair Tofair, sewing, entails the combining of any two separate objects, e.g. pieces of cloth, into one single entity. This can be achieved through sewing, pinning, gluing or any other method. According to many Poskim, gluing or taping objects is only forbidden under Tofair if the objects are intended to remain in their glued state for more than 24 hours. Therefore, gluing or taping which is temporary and can be detached without tearing the combined surfaces is permissible in some circumstances. Buttons Doing up buttons is certainly a very effective fastening device compared to sewing and gluing but nevertheless, the Talmud permits it. It is not considered Tofair for two reasons: Firstly, buttoning is Derech Tashmisho, a mode of use. Buttons are meant to be fastened and unfastened as part of their functional design and we have a rule that a Melacha-type act that is part of an items designed mode

of use is never a true Melacha. Therefore, buttoning is not Tofair just like closing a door is not Boneh, building. Secondly, buttoning doesnt truly combine two parts into one. Tofair has only been transgressed when two items are combined so much that one must tear them apart to detach them. Since buttons can be done and undone easily, they are not considered properly combined. Zips and Velcro One is permitted to zip and unzip the zip-on lining of a raincoat as the zip is merely performing the action of a button. Similarly, one may remove the zip-on hood of a coat. Also, using Velcro fasteners is permitted as the surfaces are designed to be fastened and unfastened. Therefore, it is considered Derech Tashmisho and is permitted. Common Applications of Tofair It is permitted to stick a plaster on ones skin on Shabbos as the taping is only temporary. One is also permitted to tear open the wrapper of the plaster, provided no letters or pictures are torn, and to remove the adhesive backing. However, some Poskim advise that one must be careful not to tape the plaster to itself but rather only to tape it to the skin. Interestingly, some Poskim question whether it is permitted to stick magnets to a metal surface, especially if the magnets will stay there for a long time. It is also forbidden to stick Post-It Notes to a surface as this is considered a permanent sticking. Besides this, removing each note from the pad is Koraya, tearing, and/or Makeh Bpatish, completing an article. Using Blu-Tac to stick things to a surface is also prohibited as the items are often left stuck indefinitely. It is also forbidden to roll Blu-Tac into a ball or to flatten it to smooth it under Memaraich, a Toldah of Memacheik, which is the Melachah of smoothing.

1st March 2014

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Issue No: 458 Shabbos In: 5:23 Shabbos Out: 6:31 Sof Zman Krias Shema: 9:29

It says at the beginning of this weeks Parsha (38:21), be used as a collateral. When we realise how important These are the numbers the Beis Hamikdash is, then it will be returned to us. of the Mishkan, the Mishkan of the Testimony. Rabbi Moshe Feinstein adds that Moshe took great care Rashi explains that the word Mishkan is repeated to to avoid the slightest suspicion that he had stolen indicate that the word can be pronounced Mashkon anything from the Mishkan. He accomplished this by which means collateral. Hashem in his kindness would counting and recounting, publicly, all the items given to rather punish the Mishkan/Beis Hamikdash, the collateral, the Mishkan. This double expression of Mishkan reminds than send his full punishment against the Jewish people. us not to leave open the possibility of suspicion of acting improperly. Our transgressions caused the destruction of The Dubno Maggid asks how Rashi knew this and suggests the Beis Hamikdash which was held by Hashem as that Rashi noticed that just as a man counts up the value security/collateral for our sins. The Malbim adds, that the of his assets to be used as security/collateral for a loan, so Divine Presence resting in the Mishkan confirmed that too, the Mishkan lists more than once, the exact number Moshe dealt with the donations to the Mishkan with of beams, pillars and bars etc. used in the construction of complete honesty. the Mishkan. This gave Rashi the connection between the Mishkan and the notion of its purpose as collateral for There are other explanations of the repetition of the Israels sins. word Mishkan in the Passuk: Following this idea, the Midrash explains what the Passuk - We in Nechemiah meant when it said, have dealt very corruptly against you. Why is there a double expression of - corrupt here? The Midrash answers that it implies that the Beis Hamikdash was taken as collateral twice for our sins caused by our corrupt ways. However, in Ki Seitzei (24:6) it states that nothing is taken as a collateral if it is vital to the persons life. So how could Hashem use the Beis Hamikdash as collateral? It has been suggested that when the Beis Hamikdash stood, we sinned to such a low level that the Beis Hamikdash became a secondary, needless, unimportant part of our sinful lives. By our reducing the importance of the Beis Hamikdash in our eyes we allowed the Beis Hamikdash to

The Chasam Sofer explains that the second Mishkan was a Torah study centre where Moshe used to learn; paid for by additional contributions to the Mishkan. Rabbeinu Bachya says that there is one Mishkan in heaven and one on earth. Rabbi Eliyahu Munk quotes the Chidushei Harim who says that the second Mishkan alludes to the Jews motivation to serve Hashem. Their eagerness to bring more gifts than required for the Mishkan is the greatest testimony of their enthusiasm of service to Hashem. This act helped draw the Divine Presence into the Mishkan.

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Rishonim Story

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Rabbi Yehoshua Meir HaKohen, the father of Rabbi Yosef, was forced to flee Spain when a terrible decree, banishing all Jews, was released. He moved his family to Avignon and was then admitted to the Genoese Republic and took the opportunity to begin tutoring his son, Yosef, in all aspects of Torah study. Additionally he instructed him in Latin and Greek, the prerequisites for medical school. At a much younger age than most students, Yosef enrolled in one of the great medical schools in Italy in Salerno. Then disaster struck; the Doges of Genoa whimsically decided to expel the Jews from Genoa. Rabbi Yehoshua Meir took his family to the city of Novi nearby, believing that Genoa would soon reverse their decree. However, it was only in 1538, 22 years later, that Genoa allowed its Jewish residents to return and by that time Rabbi Yosef HaKohen had completed his medical studies and was a highly skilled physician. He rapidly acquired much fame as a doctor of extraordinary skill and was consulted by numerous famous personalities, nobles and scholars from across the peninsula. In 1532, the infamous Andrea Doria, an Italian mercenary, took many Jewish captives when he stormed the cities of Coron, Patras and Zante. Rabbi Yosef utilised his prestige and influence to purchase the captives of the heartless Doria. Just 3 years later, Emperor Charles V invaded the city of Tunis and captured many of the hundreds of Iberian Jewish refugees who were struggling to rebuild their lives after being cast out of their homeland. Rabbi Yosef doggedly travelled across the country in order to enlist help and funds from the influential nobles in Italy. Eventually, after a superhuman effort, he was able to buy the prisoners of the Emperor and send them to the relative safety of Turkey.

For 12 years, after being invited back, Rabbi Yosef practised his profession in Genoa and gained huge popularity amongst the non-Jews. However, this incited much jealousy and hostility amongst his non-Jewish competitors who pressurised the Genoese Republic into having the entire community expelled for a second time. After the expulsion, Rabbi Yosef moved on to the town of Voltaggio. The citizens of the small town were delighted to have the opportunity to invite such a famous physician to their town, particularly as Rabbi Yosef had once been instrumental in saving the town from a vicious epidemic. He lived there for 17 years where he utilised the security and tranquillity to write many of his historical works including the famous Emek Habachah. However, unsurprisingly, in 1567 the council of the Genoese republic drove out all Jews from the surrounding land. However, the people of Voltaggio refused to part company with their beloved doctor and petitioned with the Doges of Genoa to permit him to stay. They threatened the Doges that if the doctor was leaving, they were all going with him! The council relented and permitted Rabbi Yosef to stay but he did not even consider the offer. He refused to desert his Jewish brethren. As an old man of over 70 years, he took his family and wandered along with the rest of the Genoese Jews to new cities. The town of Montferrat received him and the other Jews warmly, solely because they had heard about his healing skills. He spent 4 years in the city before returning to Genoa in 1571 when they rescinded their anti-Semitic decree. Rabbi Yosef wrote many Kinos detailing the trials and tribulations which the Jews in Europe experienced, some of which are read on Tishah Bav.

After five technical Parshios dealing with the building and design of the Mishkan, we finally reach the climax of it all in this week's Parsha. It says in Shishi (40:18), - And Moshe set up the Mishkan.

The Midrash is puzzled at how on earth one man, however strong he may be, could stand the beams of this gigantic structure upright? The answer given is that Moshe just involved himself in setting it up, thus making it seem as though he was doing the construction whilst in reality, the Mishkan lifted itself up. Perhaps this is why the Torah has spent the last two Parshios reiterating everything that was described about This Midrash is crucial with regards to the purpose of the Mishkan in Terumah and Tetzaveh. It is not enough what we do in this world. The beams would have taken to show gratitude for the final product; we must myriads of men to erect; no one in their right mind would concentrate on the journey there and all the details believe that it was Moshe's strength. Yet, the Torah which brought about the final result. attributes the achievement to Moshe. How is this so? Surely it wasnt him! Rav Meir Rubman answers that in Based on the Rogatchover, let us add one more spiritual matters, the effort and means to do something application of this principle. When building the Mishkan, is in itself the purpose i.e. the purpose of an action is to Moshe accedes to Betzalel's advice and first builds the make an effort. outer structure of the Mishkan and only then brings in the vessels. Why? Moreover, if you put in all of your ability and effort, then the task will be completed by Hashem, while still being The Rogatchover gives such a beautiful answer. In attributed to you! This should give us encouragement; Judaism, the means come before the result. The often we put in so much effort and time in order to structure was a vehicle for holding the holy vessels and achieve something, and we feel frustrated that we've Hashem's divine presence. Therefore, the structure was wasted our time if it fails. But we should know that the built first, accentuating the importance of the effort. effort in and of itself was worthwhile. As we are told in Let us not allow ourselves to get caught up in the final Pirkei Avos, According to the effort is result, but instead make the utmost effort in all our the reward. endeavours, in which merit Hashem should complete Rav Yaakov Galinsky Zt"l takes this a step further. We those tasks for us. know that apart from the tangible Mishkan that was with Good Shabbos the Bnei Yisrael before they settled in Eretz Yisrael, we

also have a Mishkan inside of each of us. Rav Yehudah HaChassid said, - In my heart I will build a Mishkan [for Hashem's glory]. How are we to do this? The important thing is that we must make the first step we have to put the effort in to grow and improve ourselves; and then, One who comes to purify himself receives divine help. All we have to do is try. Even if we may not see any apparent result, the effort is all that is required from us.

Q) Why is Purim kept in Adar Sheni and not which is merely a thirty day timespan, rather Adar Rishon? than a 60 day timespan if we kept it in Adar Rishon. Anonymous Hasmonean Beis Rabbi A) There is the concept of Smichas Geulah lGeulah - Juxtaposing one redemption to If you have a question on any topic you would like another. Therefore it is preferable to keep the to have answered, just email us at Geulah of Purim closer to the Geulah of or send a text to Pesach. Thus we keep Purim in Adar Sheni 07779579188

If a tree falls in a deserted forest and there is no living creature around to hear it, where do see in Tanach that it is considered as having made a noise? Answer in next weeks Living Torah Last weeks riddle: Which Mitzvah comes about due to a lack of intent on the behalf of the doer or someone acting on his behalf? Answer: The Mitzvah of Shechicha , forgotten bundles left for the poor, and Leket, stalks dropped by accident and left for the poor. These Mitzvahs only occur when one unintentionally forgets his bundles in the field or drops grain whilst harvesting them.