Sunteți pe pagina 1din 29

# \$QDOL]D OHJ

WXULORU

dintre fenomenele
L SURFHVHOH HFRQRPLFH

5(*5(6,\$ 6,03/

81,)\$&725,\$/

Modelul liniar
)XQF LD GH UHJUHVLH

Yxi = a + bxi

Parametrul a UHSUH]LQW ordonata la origine L DUDW caracteristicii Y GDF WR L IDFWRULL - PDL SX LQ FHO vnregistrat - DU
IRUP ULL HL

OD

FH

QLYHO

DU

IL

DMXQV

YDORDUHD DVXSUD

## IL DYXW R DF LXQH FRQVWDQW

Parametrul b VH PDL QXPHWH L coeficient de regresie L UHSUH]LQW  vQ VHQV JHRPHWULF panta liniei drepte. Coeficientul de regresie b DUDW FX FkW VH VFKLPE vQ PHGLH YDULDELOD Y n cazul n care variabila X VH PRGLILF FX R XQLWDWH \$FHVW SDUDPHWUX HVWH SR]LWLY vQ FD]XO OHJ WXULL GLUHFWH L
QHJDWLY vQ FD]XO OHJ WXULL LQYHUVH

Parametrii a L b VH GHWHUPLQ GLQ VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH RE LQXW SULQ PHWRGD FHORU 2 = minim ). PDL PLFL S WUDWH ( y Y ) i xi
Q FD]XO vQ FDUH GLVSXQHP GH XQ QXP U PLF GH SHUHFKL GH YDORUL

xi, yi):

na + b xi = y i 2 a x i + b x i = x i y i

'DF

## VH IRORVHWH PHWRGD GHWHUPLQDQ LORU VH RE LQH

a=

y x x y x n x x x
i i i i i 2 i

i 2 i

y x x y x n x ( x )
i 2 i i i 2 i 2 i

b=

n xi n

y x y x x
i i i 2 i

n xi y i xi y i n xi2 ( xi ) 2

## n cazul n care perechile de valori (xi, yi VH UHSHW

GH Qi

ori:

na + b xi ni = y i ni , 2 a x i n i + b x i n i = x i y i n i
'DF

unde

n = ni

## VH IRORVHWH PHWRGD GHWHUPLQDQ LORU VH RE LQH

y i n i x i2 n i x i y i n i x i n i a= n x i2 n i ( x i n i ) 2

b=

n xi yi ni xi ni

n x i2 n i ( x i n i ) 2
-

yi ni
LQ

Q FD]XO VLVWHPDWL]

## trare n care perechile de valori

(xi, yj VH UHSHW

GH Qij

ori:

k m na + b x n = y j n. j i i. i =1 j =1 , k k k m a x n + b x 2 n = x i y j nij i i. i i. i =1 i =1 j =1 i =1

unde:

n = ni. = n. j = nij
i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1

## xi y j nij = xi y j nij = y j xi nij

i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1 j =1 i =1

'DF

y a=
b=

## Modelul parabolei de gradul doi

Y x i = a + bx i + cx i2
3XQkQG WHRUHWLFH V DFHHDL FRQGL LH FD VXPD S WUDWHORU DEDWHULORU WHUPHQLORU VHULHL GH OD YDORULOH ILH PLQLP  VH RE LQH

(y

## LDU VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH

na + b xi + c xi2 = y i 2 3 a x i + b x i + c x i = x i y i 2 3 4 2 a x i + b x i + c x i = x i y i
5H]ROYkQG VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH SULQ PHWRGD GHWHUPLQDQ LORU VH FDOFXOHD] FHORU WUHL SDUDPHWUL L vQ IXQF LH GH YDORULOH LQGLYLGXDOH DOH YDULDELOHL YDORDUHD YDORULOH

X

VH DMXVWHD]

Yxi = a +

1 b xi

## 6LVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QHFHVDU DIO ULL SDUDPHWULORU IXQF LHL HVWH

1 na + b x = y i i a 1 + b 1 = 1 y i xi xi xi2
0RGHOXO H[SRQHQ LDO

Yxi = a b xi

vQWU

## -un model liniar de forma:

lg Y xi = lg a + xi lg b

## SisWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH YD IL

n lg a + lg b xi = lg y i 2 lg a xi + lg b xi = ( xi lg y i )
2SHUD LD GH DMXVWDUH vQ DFHVW FD] VH YD IDFH GXS LQGLYLGXDOH GH UHJUHVLH \$MXVWDUHD GXS R IXQF LH HFXD LLORU GH UHJUHVLH FDOFXODWH vQ IXQF LH GH FH VH YRU FDOFXOD ORJDULWPLL HFXD LLORU VH IDFH SULQ DQWLORJDULWPDUHD

H[SRQHQ LDO

xi.

5(*5(6,\$ 08/7,3/

Modelul liniar
Yx1 , x2 ,..., xn = a 0 + a1 x1 + a 2 x 2 + ... + a n x n ,

n care:
FRQVWDQW  vQ DIDUD FHORU FRQVLGHUD L GUHSW FDUDFWHULVWLFL

a0 -

UHSUH]LQW

SDUDPHWUXO

FDUH

H[SULP

IDFWRULL

QHvQUHJLVWUD L

FRQVLGHUD L

FX

DF LXQH

factoriale;
FDUDFWHULVWLFD UH]XOWDWLY GDF

FDUDFWHULVWLFD IDFWRULDO

## a1, a2, ... ,an - FRHILFLHQ LL GH UHJUHVLH FDUH DUDW

UHVSHFWLY VH PRGLILF

## FkW VH PRGLILF FX R XQLWDWH

x1, x2, ... , xn - caracteristicile factoriale incluse n raportul de interdHSHQGHQ Parametrii a1,a2, ... ,an VH GHWHUPLQ
GLQ VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH

na 0 + a1 x1i + ... + a n x ni = y i .......................................................... 2 a 0 x1i + a1 x1i + ... + a n x1i x ni = x1i y i ............................................................ 2 a 0 x ni + a1 x1i x ni + ... + a n x ni = x ni y i
Cunoscnd cei n SDUDPHWUL DL IXQF LHL GH DMXVWDUH VH FDOFXOHD] de regresie pe baza valorilor x1, x2,, xn. ModelXO H[SRQHQ LDO
SHQWUX ILHFDUH XQLWDWH HFXD LD

Y x1

, x 2 ,..., x n

= a 0 x1 1

x 2 2 ... x n n
vQ PRGHO OLQLDU

## 3ULQ ORJDULWPDUH PRGHOXO H[SRQHQ LDO VH WUDQVIRUP

0(72'\$ &25(/\$

,(,

&RUHOD LD VLPSO

&RYDULDQ D

(cov(x,y))

cov( x, y ) =

(x

x )( yi y ) n

&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH 6H IRORVHWH SHQWUX P VXUDUHD LQWHQVLWDWHD OHJ WXULL OLQLDUH GLQWUH GRX Q FD]XO vQ FDUH GLVSXQHP GH XQ QXP U PLF GH SHUHFKL GH YDORUL YDULDELOH VWDWLVLFH

xi, yi):

ry / x =

(x

x )( yi y ) n x y
VLPSO SRDWH V LD YDORUL vQWUH

- L 

)RUPXO

## WXUD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

YDULDELOH HVWH GH VHQV LQYHUV L HVWH FX DWkW PDL LQWHQV  YDULDELOH HVWH GLUHFW L HVWH FX DWkW PDL LQWHQV  FX FkW

## QWUH  L  OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

GH FDOFXO VLPSOLILFDW

r y/x =

n x i y i ( x i )( y i )

[n x
(x i

2 i

( x i ) 2 n y i2 ( y i ) 2
GH Qi

][

## n cazul n care perechile de valori (xi, yi VH UHSHW

ori:

ry/ x =

x )( y i y ) n i n x
y

## Formula de calcul simplificat:

n x i y i n i ( x i n i )( y i n i ) ry/x =
i i i

2 2 nxi ni ( xi ni ) i i
unde n = ni

2 2 n y i ni ( y i ni ) i i

Q FD]XO VLVWHPDWL]

-un tabel cu

GXEO

## LQWUDUH vQ FDUH SHUHFKLOH GH YDORUL

(xi, yj VH UHSHW
ry/x =

GH Qij

ori:
x )( y j y ) n ij n x
y

( x i

## iar pentru calculul simplificat:

n x i y j n ij ( x i n i . )( y j n . j ) r y/x =
i j i j

2 2 n x i n i . ( x i n i . ) i i
'DF

2 2 ny j n. j (y j n. j ) j j

R y / x = ry / x

VH FRQILUP

## LSRWH]D OHJ WXULL OLQLDUH

5DSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH

## U PLF GH SHUHFKL GH YDORUL [i

, yi):

y/x

(Yx ( yi

y) y)

2 2

sau

R y/x =

( yi Yx )2 1 ( yi y)2
i

unde Y

UHSUH]LQW

GH Qi

## n cazul n care perechile de valori (xi, yi VH UHSHW

ori:

y/x

( y j Yx )2 ni ( y j y )2 ni
i

sau R

y/x

( y i Y x ) 2 ni 1 ( y i y ) 2 ni
i

Q FD]XO VLVWHPDWL]

## LQWUDUH vQ FDUH SHUHFKLOH GH YDORUL

(xi, yj VH UHSHW

GH Qij

ori:

R y/x =

(Yx
i

y ) 2 n i. y)
2

( y j
sau R y / x =

Yxi ) 2 ni j y ) 2 n.
j

( y j
j

n.

( y j

Pentru

FRUHOD LD QHOLQLDU

## 5DSRUWXO HPSLULF GH FRUHOD LH

y / x

(y
i =1 m

y y

n
2

i .

( y j
r m

yi y

sau
n
. j

(y
j =1

R y/ x =

i =1 j =1 m

)2 n ij

(y j
j =1

)2 n . j

&RUHOD LD PXOWLSO

## &RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH PXOWLSO

r y / x1
L

,x 2

r y2/ x + r y2/ x 2 r y / x r y / x r x 1 x 2
1 2 1 2

r x2 x 1 2

GDF

r x1

,x 2

ry/x

,x 2

r y2/ x

+ r y2/ x

GDF

r x1

,x 2

=0

## 5DSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH PXOWLSO

Ry
x 1 , x 2 ,...., x i ,...., x n

(y i 1

Y x1

, x 2 ,...., x i ,...., x n

( y i

y)

GLVSHUVLRQDO

## 6H SRUQHWH GH OD UHOD LD

(y

y)=(y

y / x i ) + ( y / x i Y xi ) + (Y x i y )

6H RE LQ GHYLDQ HOH

( y j y )
m j =1

n. j = y j y / x i
i =1 j =1

)2 ni j + ( y / xi Yx )2 ni . + (Yx
r r i =1
i

i =1

y 2 ni .

## SH ED]D F URUD VH FDOFXOHD]

GLVSHUVLLOH FRUHFWDWH

( y j y / xi )2 ni j
r m 2 = S1 i =1 j =1

nr
i=1

( y / x i Y x )2 n i
r
i

2 S2

r f 1
i=1

(Yx
r

y 2 ni f
,

2 S3 =

n care: n - QXP UXO WRWDO DO XQLW LORU REVHUYDWH r - QXP UXO GH JUXSH vQ IXQF LH GH IDFWRUXO vQUHJLVWUDW f - parameWULL YDULDELOL DL IXQF LH GH UHJUHVLH
3H ED]D GLVSHUVLLORU FRUHFWDWH VH GHWHUPLQ

F 1 calc =

2 S3

S 12
2 S2

F 2 calc =
VH FRPSDU

S 12
FX OHJ WXUD GLQWUH

'DF

F1 calc F2 calc

F1 tab cu f

; L L < HVWH VHPQLILFDWLY 

VH FRPSDU

FX

'DF 'DF

F2 tab cu r-f-1

## n-r grade de libertate. Y HVWH OLQLDU 

VLPSO  DWXQFL VH DSOLF FHO PDL IUHFYHQW

## V D XWLOL]DW L FRHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU

testul t:

t=

ry/ x 1 r y2/ x

n2,

unde n UHSUH]LQW
9DORDUHD VHPQLILFD LH

P = 1 / 2

FDOFXODW

L FX

'DF

calculat

> t

calculat

<t

tabelar

tabelar

VH

YHULILF

LSRWH]D

VHPQLILFD LHL

UHOD LHL

GH

FRUHOD LH

GDF VH

## L WUHEXLH F XWDW XQ DOW IDFWRU HVHQ LDO FX FDUH V

&RUHOD LH QHSDUDPHWULF

Coeficientul de asociere AceaVW PHWRG VH XWLOL]HD] SHQWUX P VXUDUHD alternative prezentate ntr-un tabel de asociere de forma:
LQWHQVLW LL OHJ WXULL D GRX FDUDFWHULVWLFL

Tabelul 5.1.

y x x1 x2 Total
DUDW

y1 a c a+c

y2 b d b+d

## Total a+b c+d a+b+c+d

L

GH OHJ WXU LQYHUV

## Y, iar produsul bc gradul

LQGLFH H[LVWHQ D L

## vQWUH FHOH GRX

3HQWUX VWDELOLUHD YDORULL QXPHULFH D FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH DVRFLHUH FDUH V LQWHQVLWDWHD XQHL OHJ WXUL IRUPXOD FHD PDL XWLOL]DW HVWH FHD SURSXV GH <XOH

Q=

LD YDORUL vQWUH

-

rs =1

6d

## rilor propus de Spearman

2 i

n3 n

n care: di - UHSUH]LQW GLIHUHQ D vQWUH UDQJXULOH SHUHFKLL GH YDORUL xi , yi); n - QXP UXO GH SHUHFKL GH YDORUL
&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU

propus de Kendall:

rk =

2S , n (n 1)

n care S = ( Pi Qi ) , unde: Pi - QXP UXO UDQJXULORU PDL PDUL FDUH XUPHD] Qi - QXP UXO UDQJXULORU PDL PLFL FDUH XUPHD]

UDQJXOXL FXUHQW SHQWUX YDULDELOD GHSHQGHQW  UDQJXOXL FXUHQW SHQWUX YDULDELOD GHSHQGHQW 

PROBLEME REZOLVATE

1.

Pentru 1 XQLW

## L HFRQRPLFH GLQ DFHODL VHFWRU GH DFWLYLWDWH VH FXQRVF GDWHOH XUP WRDUH

Tabelul 5.2. Nr. crt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Capital fix (mld. lei) 1,4 0,9 1,1 2,2 0,8 0,6 1,3 1,0 1,5 2,0 12,8
3URGXF LD POG OHL

0,8 0,5 0,6 1,2 0,4 0,3 0,7 0,6 0,9 1,1 7,1

Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4.
V V V V VH DUJXPHQWH]H FX DMXWRUXO PHWRGHORU VLPSOH H[LVWHQ D GLUHF LD L IRUPD OHJ WXULL VH GHWHUPLQH SDUDPHWULL IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH FDOFXOH]H YDORULOH IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH DIOH YDORDUHD FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH

Rezolvare: 1. Metoda seriilor paralele interdependente presupune ordonarea valorilor caracteristicii factoriale xi FDSLWDOXO IL[ L vQUHJLVWUDUHD vQ SDUDOHO D YDORULORU FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH DOH caracteristicii dependente yi SURGXF LH  GXS FXP VH SRDWH YHGHD vQ WDEHOXO 
Tabelul 5.3. Nr. crt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

xi (mld. lei)
0,6 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,3 1,4 1,5 2,0 2,2

y i (mld. lei)
0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,1 1,2

&HOH GRX

## H[LVWHQ D XQHL OHJ WXUL GLUHFWH vQWUH FDSLWDOXO VH WUDVH]H JUDILFXO

IL[ L P ULPHD SURGXF LHL 3HQWUX D SXWHD DSUHFLD L IRUPD OHJ WXUL HVWH QHFHVDU V GH FRUHOD LH ILJXUD   FDUH VXJHUHD] GH WLS OLQLDU

SURGXF LH

(mld. lei)

1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 capital fix (mld. lei)

2.

## UH]ROYDUHD XUP WRUXOXL VLVWHP

n a + b x i = y i 2 a x i + b x i = x i y i
&DOFXOHOH QHFHVDUH UH]ROY ULL VLVWHPXOXL DX IRVW VLVWHPDWL]DWH vQ WDEHOXO 

## Tabelul 5.4. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

xi
1 0,6 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,3 1,4 1,5 2,0 2,2 12,8

yi
2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,1 1,2 7,1

xi2
3 0,36 0,64 0,81 1,00 1,21 1,69 1,96 2,25 4,00 4,84 18,76

xi y i
4 0,18 0,32 0,45 0,60 0,66 0,91 1,12 1,35 2,20 2,64 10,43

yi2
5 0,09 0,16 0,25 0,36 0,36 0,49 0,64 0,81 1,21 1,44 5,81

Yxi
6 0,326 0,439 0,496 0,552 0,609 0,721 0,778 0,835 1,117 1,230 7,103

## 6LVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH HVWH

10 a + 12 , 8 b = 7 , 1 , 12 , 8 a + 18 , 76 b = 10 , 43
FX VROX LLOH

a = 0,013 b = 0,565

(FXD LD PHGLH GH HVWLPDUH D OHJ WXULL OLQLDUH GLQWUH FDSLWDOXO IL[ L SURGXF LH HVWH

## Yxi = 0,013 + 0,565 xi

/D R FUHWHUH FX XQ PLOLDUG GH OHL D FDSLWDOXOXL IL[ SURGXF LD VH P UHWH vQ PHGLH FX

## 0,565 mld. lei. 3.

9DORULOH DMXVWDWH DOH SURGXF LHL VH FDOFXOHD] vQORFXLQG ILHFDUH YDULDQW D FDUDFWHULVWLFLL vQ IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH YH]L WDEHOXO 

factoriale xi

.).

Yx1 = 0,013 + 0,565 0,6 = 0,326  Yx10 = 0,013 + 0,565 2,2 = 1,230
4.
&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU VLPSO HVWH

ry / x =

[n x

n xi yi x i
2 i

( x )
i

][n y

yi
2 i

( y i

10 10 , 43 12 , 8 7 , 1

## (10 18 , 76 163 , 84 )(10 5 , 81 50 , 41 )

R OHJ WXU GLUHFW

13 , 420 13 , 517

= 0 , 9928

## IRDUWH SXWHUQLF  DSURDSH IXQF LRQDO  vQWUH YDULDELOHOH

nregistrate.

2.
Num
LQGXVWULDO UXO PHGLX GH DQJDMD L L SURILWXO DQXDO vQUHJLVWUDW GH  ILUPH GLQWU R

VXEUDPXU

VH SUH]LQW

DVWIHO

## Tabelul 5.5. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

1XP U PHGLX GH DQJDMD L SHUVRDQH

## Profit anual (mil. lei) 2 115 45 100 50 55 85 40 50 45 70 655

1 13 4 12 5 6 8 3 4 5 7 67

Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4.
V V V V VH DQDOL]H]H H[LVWHQ D GLUHF LD L IRUPD OHJ WXULL VH GHWHUPLQH SDUDPHWULL IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH FDOFXOH]H YDORULOH IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH P VRDUH LQWHQVLWDWHD FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH FHOH GRX YDULDELOH IRORVLQG FRHILFLHQWXO L

## UDSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH

Rezolvare: 1.
Q UHOD LD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

(xi )

YDULDELOH IDFWRUXO GH LQIOXHQ D HVWH QXP UXO PHGLX GH DQJDMD L HVWH P ULPHD SURILWXOXL

##  LDU YDULDELOD UH]XOWDWLY

(y i ) .

'LQWUH PHWRGHOH VLPSOH GH HYLGHQ LHUH D FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH GRX JUDILF  DFHDVWD RIHULQG FHOH PDL PXOWH LQIRUPD LL 'LQ ILJXUD  UHLHVH F GLUHFW 

## vQWUH QXP UXO GH DQJDMD L L P ULPHD SURILWXOXL H[LVW

de tip liniar.
yi (mil. lei) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 xi (pers.)

## UXO PHGLX GH DQJDMD L

xi L YDORDUHD SURILWXOXL yi )
L

2.

## 6LVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH QHFHVDU SHQWUX DIODUHD SDUDPHWULORU

b ai func LHL

OLQLDUH

este:
n a + b x i = y i 2 a x i + b x i = x i y i

## Folosind rezultatele calculelor intermediare prezentate n tabelul 5.5. (coloanele 1 - 4),

VH RE LQH VLVWHPXO

## 10 a + 67b = 655 , 67 a + 553b = 5170

FX VROX LLOH

a = 15,2017 b = 7,5072

3. Valorile teoretice ale profitului ( Yxi ) se vor calcula nlocuind fiecare valoare a variabilei factoriale xi
vQ IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH

## Yxi = 15,2017 + 7,5072 xi

Rezultatele calculelor efectuate sunt prezentate n tabelul nr. 5.6., coloana 5.
Tabelul 5.6. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

xi
1 13 4 12 5 6 8 3 4 5 7 67

yi
2 115 45 100 50 55 85 40 50 45 70 655

xi y i
4 1.495 180 1.200 250 330 680 120 200 225 490 5.170

xi2
3 169 16 144 25 36 64 9 16 25 49 553

yi2
5 13.225 2.025 10.000 2.500 3.025 7.225 1.600 2.500 2.025 4.900 49.025

Yxi
6 112,80 45,23 105,29 52,74 60,24 75,26 37,72 45,23 52,74 67,75 655,00

(y

Yxi

7 4,86 0,05 27,96 7,50 27,51 94,88 5,18 22,75 59,87 5,05 225,62

4. Rezultatele calculelor efectuate pentru determinarea parametrilor a L b DL IXQF LHL OLQLDUH GH UHJUHVLH WDEHOXO  SRW IL XWLOL]DWH L SHQWUX DSOLFDUHD IRUPXOHL GH FDOFXO VLPSOificat
D FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH

ry

[n x

n xi yi xi
2 i

( x i

][n y
R

yi
2 i

( y i

10 5170 67 655

## [10 553 67 ][10 49025 655 ]

2 2
DSURSLDW GH  LQGLF FX IRUPXOD

= 0 , 9789

\$FHDVW

YDORDUH

OHJ WXU

IRDUWH

SXWHUQLF

vQWUH

FHOH

GRX

variabile.
5DSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH VH GHWHUPLQ

Ry

( y i Y x )2 1 2 (y i y )
i

unde

y=

yi
n

655 = 65 , 5 10

## Utiliznd datele din tabeluO  FDOFXO

= 1
L

P

Ry

255 , 62 6122 , 50

= 0 , 9789
FRUHOD LH DX YDORUL HJDOH FHHD FH FRQILUP OLQLDULWDWHD

## &RHILFLHQWXO OHJ WXULL

UDSRUWXO

GH

3.
ntr-R VXEUDPXU LQGXVWULDO V-au nregistrat ntr-R cheltuielile de prRGXF LH L SURGXF LD RE LQXW
OXQ XUP WRDUHOH LQIRUPD LL SULYLQG

Tabelul 5.7.
3URGXF LH &KHOWXLHOL GH SURGXF LH PLO OHL

## (mii buc.) 0 31-36 26-31 21-26 16-21 11-16 Total:

sub 30 1 1 1 1 5 2 10

30-60 2 6 3 2 2 13

60-90 3 3 4 4 11

90-120 4 3 1 4

 L

peste 5 2 2

Total 6 7 14 8 7 4 40

## VH P VRDUH LQWHQVLWDWHD OHJ WXULL

Rezolvare:
'LVWULEX LD IUHFYHQ HORU vQ WDEHO LQGLF R WHQGLQ GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU  Q FD]XO GLVWULEX LHL ELGLPHQVLRQDOH GH IUHFYHQ H VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH DUH IRUPD

n a + b x i ni . = y i n. j i j a x i n i . +b x i2 n i . = x i y j n i j i i j i
&DOFXOXO GRX YDULDELOH HOHPHQWHORU QHFHVDUH SHQWUX DIODUHD SDUDPHWULORU VLVWHPXOXL GH HFXD LL HVWH

##  vQ WDEHO VH WUHF GLUHFW FHQWUHOH GH LQWHUYDO SHQWUX FHOH

Tabelul 5.8.

yj

15 1 1 1 1 5 2 10

45 2 6 3 2 2 13 585 26325

75 3 3 4 4 11 825 61875

## 135 5 2 2 270 36450 81,9855

ni .
6 7 14 8 7 4 40 2250 171000 -

xi ni .
7 234,5 399,0 188,0 129,5 54,0 1005,0

x i2 n i .
8 7855,75 11371,50 4418,00 2395,75 729,00 26770,00

xi

y j ni j

xi
0 33,5 28,5 23,5 18,5 13,5 9 18592,5 27360,0 10575,0 3052,5 1620,0 61200,0

nj
y j n.
j

150 2250

y2 j n.

xi

20,5255 35,8905

51,255 66,6205

## Cu elementele calculate n tabelul  RE LQHP VLVWHPXO GH GRX

40 a + 1005 b = 2250 2250 a + 26770 b = 61200
5H]ROYkQG VLVWHPXO RE LQHP

HFXD LL

a = 20 , 96

b = 3 , 073 .

5H]XOW

## GUHDSWD GH UHJUHVLH YD DYHD HFXD LD

Y x i = 20 , 96 + 3 , 073 x i
QORFXLQG vQ DFHDVW UHOD LH

pe fiecare xi

## FX FHQWUXO GH LQWHUYDO FRUHVSXQ] WRU DP RE LQXW

YDORULOH QXPHULFH DOH HFXD LLORU GH UHJUHVLH YH]L WDEHOXO   )LLQG R UHSDUWL LH GH IUHFYHQ H SHQWUX P VXUDUHD JUDGXOXL GH FRUHOD LH FDOFXO P UDSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH XWLOL]kQG IRUPXOD GH FDOFXO SUH]HQWDW vQ FRQWLQXDUH

( y j
Ry
x

Yxi y

)
2

ni j

y j n. j
, unde y =
j

( y j
j

n.

n. j
j
FDOFXO P vQ

Pentru aplicarea acestei formule vom folosi datele conform calculelor efectuate
vQ WDEHOXO  6H REVHUY  F SHQWUX GHWHUPLQDUHD UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH HVWH QHFHVDU V SUHDODELO PHGLD L GLVSHUVLD SH WRWDO  PLL EXF L  

Tabelul 5.9.

Yxi
20,5255 35,8905 51,255

yj
15 45 15 45 15 45 75 15 45 75 105 135 15 75 105

ni j
2 2 5 2 1 3 4 1 6 4 1 2 1 3 3

(y

Y xi

ni j

66,6205

81,9855 Total

61,062 1198,002 21,82,065 165,966 1314,425 117,375 2255,300 2664,676 2804,676 280,864 1472,986 9351,512 4487,057 146,392 1589,002 30091,36

## 30091 , 360 = 0 , 568 44437 , 499

Valoarea raportulXL
GRX YDULDELOH VH FDOFXOHD]

GH

FRUHOD LH

LQGLF

OHJ WXU

GH

LQWHQVLWDWH

PHGLH

vQWUH

FHOH

GRX

## tele din tabelul 5.8.

n xi y j n ry
x

ij

xi ni . i
2

y j n. j

=
j

n x i2 n i . x i n i . i i =

n y 2 j n. j y j n. j j = 0 , 57

2 2

## GLQWUH FHL GRL LQGLFDWRUL VLQWHWLFL

GH FRUHOD LH

QH SHUPLWH V

OHJ WXUD HVWH OLQLDU  (IHFWXkQG GHFL FDOFXOXO L FRPSDUkQG UH]XOWDWHOH VH SRDWH DFFHSWD GDF

## OHJ WXUD HVWH OLQLDU

y x=

y x

LDU vQ FD] FRQWUDU VH UHVSLQJH LSRWH]D L vQ DFHDVW YHULILFH IRUPD GH OHJ WXU GLQWUH FHOH GRX

## LL IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH SRW IRORVL L UH]XOWDWHOH DQDOL]HL

dispersionale.

4.

3HQWUX

FLQFLVSUH]HFH

ILUPH

GLQ

DFHHDL

UDPXU

V DX

vQUHJLVWUDW

XUP WRDUHOH

LQIRUPD LL

UHIHULWRDUH OD R OXQ

GH DFWLYLWDWH

## Tabelul 5.10. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Profit (mil. lei) 1 15 17 13 23 16 21 14 20 24 17 16 18 23 15 16

1U VDODULD L

(pers.) 2 10 12 8 17 10 15 10 14 19 10 11 13 16 10 12

Capital fix (mld. lei) 3 2,40 2,72 2,08 3,68 2,56 3,36 2,24 3,20 3,84 2,72 2,07 2,33 2,98 1,94 2,17

Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4.
V VH VWXGLH]H OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH WUHL YDULDELOH vQUHJLVWUDWH L V FDUH H[SULP DFHDVW OHJ WXU  VH J VHDVF IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH PXOWLSO V V V

VH P VRDUH LQWHQVLWDWHD OHJ WXULORU VLPSOH vQWUH VH FDOFXOH]H FRHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU

x1

y , x2

y , x1

x2 ;

PXOWLSO

## VH GHWHUPLQH YDORDUHD UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH PXOWLSO 

Rezolvare: 1.
Q YHGHUHD GHWHUPLQ UL H[LVWHQ HL L IRUPHL OHJ WXULL YRP IRORVL PHWRGD VHULLORU SDUDOHOH LQWHUGHSHQGHQWH WDEHOXO  L PHWRGD JUDILF ILJXULOH 

5.5.)
Tabelul 5.11.

Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1U VDODULD L

( x1 ) 1 8 10 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 17 19

Capital fix ( x2 ) 2 2,08 1,94 2,24 2,40 2,56 2,72 2,07 2,17 2,72 2,33 3,20 3,36 2,98 3,68 3,84

Profit (y) 3 13 15 14 15 16 17 16 16 17 18 20 21 23 23 24

## Seriile paralele trei variabile.

LQWHUGHSHQGHQWH DUDW

H[LVW

vQ JHQHUDO R WHQGLQ

 

15

20

## WXUD GLQWUH SURILW

y1

L QXP

UXO GH VDODULD L

x1 )

30 Profit (mil. lei) 25 20 15 10 5 0 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 Capital fix (mld. lei)

## WXUD GLQWUH SURILW

y L FDSLWDOXO IL[ x2 )

1U VDODULD L

(pers.)

## WXUD GLQWUH QXP

UXO SHUVRQDOXOXL

x1 L FDSLWDOXO IL[ x2 )

*UDILFHOH DUDW

## OLQLDU  GHFL IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH PXOWLSO

este: Y = a 0 + a1 x1 + a 2 x 2
(VWLPDUHD SDUDPHWULORU DFHVWHL IXQF LL SUHVXSXQH UH]ROYDUHD VLVWHPXOXL GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH

n a 0 + a1 x1 + a 2 x 2 = y 2 a 0 x1 + a1 x1 + a 2 x1 x 2 = x1 y a x + a x x + a x 2 = x y 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0

## Efectund calculele din tabelul 5.12., sistemul anterior devine:

15 a 0 + 187 a1 + 40,29 a 2 = 268 , 187 a 0 + 2.469 a1 + 525,38 a 2 = 3.490 40,29 a 0 + 525,38 a1 + 113,34 a 2 = 746,62
FX VROX LLOH

## Tabelul 5.12. Nr. crt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total

yi
15 17 13 23 16 21 14 20 24 17 16 18 23 15 16 268

x1
10 12 8 17 10 15 10 14 19 10 11 13 16 10 12 187

x2
2,40 2,72 2,08 3,68 2,56 3,36 2,24 3,20 3,84 2,72 2,07 2,33 2,98 1,94 2,17 40,29

y i2
225 289 169 529 256 441 196 400 576 289 256 324 529 225 256 4.960

x1 y
150 204 104 391 160 315 140 280 456 170 176 234 368 150 192 3.490
HVWH

x2 y
36,00 46,24 27,04 84,64 40,96 70,56 31,36 64,00 92,16 46,24 33,12 41,94 68,54 29,10 34,72 746,62

x1 x 2
24,00 32,64 16,64 62,56 25,60 50,40 22,40 44,80 72,96 27,20 22,77 30,29 47,68 19,40 26,04 525,38

x 12
100 144 64 289 100 225 100 196 361 100 121 169 256 100 144 2.469

2 x2

5,7600 7,3984 4,3264 13,5424 6,5536 11,2896 5,0176 10,2400 14,7456 7,3984 4,2849 5,4289 8,8804 3,7636 4,7089 113,3400

)XQF LD OLQLDU

GH UHJUHVLH PXOWLSO

2.

,QWHQVLWDWHD

FRUHOD LHL

GLQWUH

QXP UXO

GH

VDODULD L

x1

SURILW

VH

P VRDU

FX

ry

[n x

n x1 y x1
2 1

( x 1

] [n y

y
2

( y ) =

2 2

= 0 , 9684

## ,QWHQVLWDWHD FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH FDSLWDOXO IL[ L SURILW HVWH

ry

[n x

nx2 y x2
2 2

( x 2

] [n y

y
2

( y )

15 746 , 62 40 , 29 268

## [15 113 , 34 ( 40 , 29 ) ] [15 4.960 ( 268 ) ]

2 2

401 , 58 76 , 82 2.576

401 , 58 444 , 85

= 0 , 9027

## ,QWHQVLWDWHD FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH QXP UXO GH VDODULD L L FDSLWDOXO IL[

rx 1

[n

n x1 x 2 x1 x 12 ( x 1

] [n

x2
2 x2

( x 2 =

15 525 , 38 187 40 , 29

346 , 47 2.066 76 , 82

## [15 2.469 (187 ) ] [15 113 , 34 ( 40 , 29 ) ]

2 2

346 , 47 398 , 37

= 0 , 8697

3.

PXOWLSO

HVWH

ry

,x

r y2/ x

+ r y2/ x

2 ry/x 1 r x2
1

ry/x
2

rx

/x

/x

## 0 , 9684 2 + 0 , 9027 2 2 0 , 9684 0 , 9027 0 , 8697 1 ( 0 , 8697 ) 2

0 , 4818 0 , 4936

= 0 , 976

4.

VH FDOFXOHD]

FX IRUPXOD

Ry

,x

= 1

(y i

Y x 1

(y i

## 9DORULOH WHRUHWLFH VH RE LQ vQORFXLQG

x1

x2

vQ IXQF LH GH UHJUHVLH

## Y1 = 3,53 + 0,84 10 + 1,44 2,40 = 15,386

Y2 = 3,53 + 0,84 12 + 1,44 2,72 = 17,527
DPG

y=

yi
n

268 = 17,867 15

HVWH

Ry

x1,x2

= 1

Deoarece R y

x1,x2

= ry

x1, x 2

L QX VXQW

## necesare alte teste de verificare.

5.
&HOH  PDJD]LQH GH DFHODL SURILO GLQWU R ORFDOLWDWH VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]

6XSUDID PS

52 41

60 38

74 72

20 16

25 21

34 22

49 23

38 21,5

45 32

12 15

6H FHUH V

## YDULDELOH IRORVLQG PHWRGH QHSDUDPHWULFH

Rezolvare
Q YHGHUHD DSOLF ULL PHWRGHL FRUHOD LHL YRP RUGRQD FUHVF WRU YDORULOH FDUDFWHULVWLFLL IDFWRULDOH ; VXSUDID XQ  WUHFkQG ILHF UXLD vQWU R FRORDQ  DO WXUDW vQ YDORULOH IXQF LH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH GH P ULPHD DOH FDUDF

teristicii
UDQJXUL

## GHSHQGHQWH < GHVIDFHUL  GXS FkWH UDQJ GLQ

FXP VH SRDWH YHGHD vQ WDEHOXO XUP WRU FRORDQHOH  L  9RP DFRUGD FHOH PDJD]LQH VXSUDIH HL FRPHUFLDOH

FRORDQD  L QLYHOXO GHVIDFHULORU FRORDQD  L YRP P VXUD GLIHUHQ HOH GLQWUH FHOH GRX \$FHVWH GLIHUHQ H YRU IL ULGLFDWH OD S WUDW FRORDQD   VXPD ORU XUPkQG D IL IRORVLW FRHILFLHQWXOXL 6SHDUPDQ GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU

SHQWUX FDOFXODUHD

rS = 1

6 d i2 n n 2 1

## unde: d i - GLIHUHQ D GH UDQJ n - QXP UXO REVHUYD LLORU r S = 0 , 9636 xi

1 15 16 21 21,5 22 23 32 38 41 72 Total
OHJ WXU SXWHUQLF 

Tabelul 5.14.

yi
2 12 20 25 38 34 49 45 60 52 74 -

R xi
3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -

R yi
4 1 2 3 5 4 7 6 9 8 10 -

d i2
5 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 6

Pi
6 9 8 7 5 5 3 3 1 1 0 42

Qi
7 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 3

Pentru a calcula
FDUH DSDU GXS

## vom stabili pentru fiecare ectiv inferioare)

WDEHOXOXL OD VIkULWXO

PDJD]LQ vQ SDUWH QXP UXO WRWDO GH PDJD]LQH FDUH DX XQ QLYHO VXSHULRU DO GHVIDFHULORU FRORDQD   UHVSHFWLY LQIHULRU FRORDQD   3HQWUX DFHDVWD YRP QXP UD UDQJXULOH VXSHULRDUH UHVS

Ry

UkQGXO

FRUHVSXQ] WRU

PDJD]LQXOXL

UHVSHFWLY

SkQ

## magazine nscrise pe rnduriOH XUP obligatoriu ca rangurile R x V calcula coeficientul Kendall:

WRDUH  DX UDQJXUL

## ILH RUGRQDWH FUHVF WRU )RORVLQG WRWDOXULOH GLQ FRORDQHOH  L  SXWHP

rk =

Pi Q i
n (n 1 )

r k = 0 , 87
'DWHOH GLQ WDEHOXO LQL LDO SRW IL IRORVLWH SHQWUX D FRQVWUXL XQ DP WUDQVIRUPDW FHOH GRX vQUHJLVWU UL vQ GRX

## tabel de asociere. Pentru aceasta

DP FDOFXODW YDORDUHD PHGLH D GHVIDFHULORU  PLO OHL L VXSUDID D PHGLH D XQXL PDJD]LQ  PS L YDULDELOH DQDOL]DWH vQ FDUDFWHULVWLFL DOWHUQDWLYH SULQ UHVWUkQJHUHD FHORU  JUXSH YDORUL VXE PHGLH UHVSHFWLY SHVWH PHGLH

Tabelul 5.15.
6XSUDID

## Desfaceri (mil. lei) sub 41 5 0 peste 41 1 4

3HQWUX D DSUHFLD LQWHQVLWDWHD OHJ WXULL VH IRORVHWH FRHILFLHQWXO GH DVRFLHUH FDOFXODW FX UHOD LD

Q=

ad bc a d + bc

5 4 1 0 5 4 + 1 0

Q =1

6.
'LQ GRULQ D GH D L FXQRDWH PDL ELQH FLWLWRULL XQ FRWLGLDQ D LQL LDW R DQFKHW

vQ

rndul acestora.

3ULQWUH vQWUHE ULOH LQFOXVH vQ FKHVWLRQDU HUDX L FHOH UHIHULWRDUH OD VH[XO FLWLWRULORU L IUHFYHQ D DFKL]L LRQ ULL ]LDUXOXL 3H ED]D U VSXQVXULORU FRQVHPQDWH OD DFHVWH GRX OHJ WXULL GLQWUH FHOH GRX YDULDELOH vQWUHE UL YH]L WDEHOXO   DSUHFLD L LQWHQVLWDWHD

## Tabelul 5.16. Sexul cititorului

&XPS U ]LDUXO )UHFYHQ D U VSXQVXOXL

masculin

feminin

foarte rar uneori deseori zilnic foarte rar uneori deseori zilnic

10 10 25 5 20 15 10 5

Rezolvare:
3HQWUX D HYLGHQ LD L P VXUD OHJ WXUD GLQWUH VH[XO FLWLWRUXOXL L IUHFYHQ D FX FDUH FXPS U FRWLGLDQXO DP UHRUJDQL]DW LQIRUPD LLOH vQWU XQ WDEHO GH DVRFLHUH YH]L WDEHOXO   \$ IRVW QHFHVDU

UHJUXSDUHD YDULDQWHORU GH U VSXQV UHIHULWRDUH OD IUHFYHQ D DFKL]L LRQ ULL FRWLGLDQXOXL SHQWUX D RE LQH R YDULDELO DOWHUQDWLY  FXPS FXPS U U WRULL RFD]LRQDOL VXQW FHL FDUH DFKL]L LRQHD] WRULL ILGHOL ]LDUXO IRDUWH UDU VDX XQHRUL

## GHVHRUL VDX ]LOQLF

Tabelul 5.17. Sexul cititorului feminin masculin Total Cititori ocazionali 35 20 55 fideli 15 30 45 Total 50 50 100

## Pe baza datelor din tabelul 5.17. poate fi calculat coeficientul de asociere:

Q= 35 30 20 15 750 = = 0 , 556 35 30 + 20 15 1350
YDULDELOH DQDOL]DWH HVWH GH LQWHQVLWDWH PRGHUDW 

PROBLEME PROPUSE

1.
date:

## Tabelul 5.18. Vechime (ani)

3URGXF LH EXF

3 22

6 30

4 20

5 25

2 18

5 26

4 22

1 19

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
5 V V V VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF GDWHOH L V VH DOHDJ IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH SRWULYLW  VH GHWHUPLQH SDUDPHWULL IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH LQWHUSUHWH]H GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH HFRQRPLF FRHILFLHQWXO GH UHJUHVLH

VSXQVXUL

1. IXQF LH OLQLDU  2. Y i = 14 , 77 + 2 , 13 x i ; 3. pentru fiecare an suplimentar dH YHFKLPH SURGXF LD XQXL PXQFLWRU FUHWH vQ PHGLH cu 2,13 buc..

2.
ntr-R VRFLHWDWH FRPHUFLDO
V DX vQUHJLVWUDW XUP WRDUHOH GDWH

## Tabelul 5.19. Vechime (ani) Salariu lunar (mil. lei)

WLLQG OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

12 2,7

34 4,0

2 2,0

36 4,2

14 2,8

22 3,5

5 2,1

10 2,6

SULQ IXQF LD

## Y i = 1 , 895 + 0 , 0648 x i se cere: 1. 2. 3.

5 FDOFXOD L UDSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH GHWHUPLQD L vQ FH P VXU LQIOXHQ HD] YHFKLPHD VDODULXOXL OXQDU HVWLPD L VDODULXO OXQDU DO XQHL SHUVRDQH FX  DQL YHFKLPH

VSXQVXUL

3.

Tabelul 5.20.
'RWDUH WHKQLF

## 14-16 16-18 18-20 Total

Productivitate (mil. lei / munc.) 10-12 12-14 14-16 100 40 20 80 20 40 100 120 160 120

## Total 140 120 140 400

Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4.
0 VXUD L LQWHQVLWDWHD FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH GRWDUHD WHKQLF OHJ WXUL OLQLDUH Q FH SURSRU LH LQIOXHQ HD] GRWDUHD WHKQLF SURGXFWLYLWDWHD PXQFLL" GH  PLO OHL  SHQWUX (VWLPD L FH SURGXFWLYLWDWH DUH XQ PXQFLWRU FX GRWDUH WHKQLF L SURGXFWLYLWDWH vQ LSRWH]D XQHL

5 VSXQVXUL

## 1. r y x = R y x = 0 , 77 ; 2. 59%; 3. 13,1 mil. lei; 4. da.

4.
ntr-o localitate datele:

vL GHVI RDU

-au nregistrat
Tabelul 5.21.

## Profit (mil. lei) Y 32 47 18 25 49 41 52 38 36 29 43 28 24 36 41

&KHOWXLHOL UHFODP

1U DJHQ L

(mii lei) 249 292 183 201 310 248 246 241 288 191 248 210 256 275 241

X1

X2
15 18 14 16 21 20 18 14 13 15 21 18 20 16 19

WLLQG F

## IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH HVWH

Y i = 19 , 5 + 0 , 158 X 1 + 0 , 962 X 2 ,
V VH GHWHUPLQH P ULPHD UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH FH SURILW YD DYHD R DJHQ LH LPRELOLDU FX  GH DJHQ L L FKHOWXLHOL GH UHFODP

1. 2.

5 VSXQVXUL

## 1. 0,724; 2. 49 mil. lei.

5.
2SW DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL GLQ DFHODL GRPHQLX GH DFWLYLWDWH DX vQUHJLVWUDW XUP WRDUHOH UHDOL] UL

WLLQG F

540 47

580 59

600 52

640 56

700 64

620 58

610 50

470 40

## YDULDELOH DUH FDUDFWHU OLQLDU P VXUD L LQWHQVLWDWHD DFHVWHLD

prin intermediul: 1. UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH 2. coeficientXOXL GH FRUHOD LH 3. FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU 6SHDUPDQ 4. FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU .HQGDOO
5 VSXQVXUL

1. 2. 3. 4.

6.

/D R ILUP

## V DX vQUHJLVWUDW XUP WRDUHOH GDWH SULYLQG FRVWXULOH GH SURGXF LH L SURILWXO RE LQXW

Tabelul 5.23. Costuri (mil. lei) Profit (mil. lei) 90 10 30 15 100 8 50 12 45 14 110 9 70 11 55 13 20 16 15 17

1.

## FRHILFLHQWXOXL L UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH GDF

de regresie este

Y i = 17 , 687 0 , 089 x i ; 2. 3.
5 FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU 6SHDUPDQ FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU .HQGDOO

VSXQVXUL 

## Meniu subsol

### Obține aplicațiile noastre gratuite

Drepturi de autor © 2021 Scribd Inc.