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$QDOL]D OHJ

WXULORU

dintre fenomenele
L SURFHVHOH HFRQRPLFH

5(*5(6,$ 6,03/

81,)$&725,$/

Modelul liniar
)XQF LD GH UHJUHVLH

Yxi = a + bxi

Parametrul a UHSUH]LQW ordonata la origine L DUDW caracteristicii Y GDF WR L IDFWRULL - PDL SX LQ FHO vnregistrat - DU
IRUP ULL HL

OD

FH

QLYHO

DU

IL

DMXQV

YDORDUHD DVXSUD

IL DYXW R DF LXQH FRQVWDQW

Parametrul b VH PDL QXPHWH L coeficient de regresie L UHSUH]LQW  vQ VHQV JHRPHWULF panta liniei drepte. Coeficientul de regresie b DUDW FX FkW VH VFKLPE vQ PHGLH YDULDELOD Y n cazul n care variabila X VH PRGLILF FX R XQLWDWH $FHVW SDUDPHWUX HVWH SR]LWLY vQ FD]XO OHJ WXULL GLUHFWH L
QHJDWLY vQ FD]XO OHJ WXULL LQYHUVH

Parametrii a L b VH GHWHUPLQ GLQ VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH RE LQXW SULQ PHWRGD FHORU 2 = minim ). PDL PLFL S WUDWH ( y Y ) i xi
Q FD]XO vQ FDUH GLVSXQHP GH XQ QXP U PLF GH SHUHFKL GH YDORUL

xi, yi):

na + b xi = y i 2 a x i + b x i = x i y i

'DF

VH IRORVHWH PHWRGD GHWHUPLQDQ LORU VH RE LQH

a=

y x x y x n x x x
i i i i i 2 i

i 2 i

y x x y x n x ( x )
i 2 i i i 2 i 2 i

b=

n xi n

y x y x x
i i i 2 i

n xi y i xi y i n xi2 ( xi ) 2

n cazul n care perechile de valori (xi, yi VH UHSHW

GH Qi

ori:

na + b xi ni = y i ni , 2 a x i n i + b x i n i = x i y i n i
'DF

unde

n = ni

VH IRORVHWH PHWRGD GHWHUPLQDQ LORU VH RE LQH

y i n i x i2 n i x i y i n i x i n i a= n x i2 n i ( x i n i ) 2

b=

n xi yi ni xi ni

n x i2 n i ( x i n i ) 2
-

yi ni
LQ

Q FD]XO VLVWHPDWL]

ULL GDWHORU vQWU XQ WDEHO FX GXEO

trare n care perechile de valori

(xi, yj VH UHSHW

GH Qij

ori:

k m na + b x n = y j n. j i i. i =1 j =1 , k k k m a x n + b x 2 n = x i y j nij i i. i i. i =1 i =1 j =1 i =1

unde:

n = ni. = n. j = nij
i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1

xi y j nij = xi y j nij = y j xi nij


i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1 j =1 i =1

'DF

VH IRORVHWH PHWRGD GHWHUPLQDQ LORU VH RE LQH

y a=
b=

n. j x i2 ni. xi y j nij xi ni. n xi2 ni. ( xi ni. ) 2

n xi y i nij xi ni. y j n. j n xi2 ni. ( xi ni. ) 2

Modelul parabolei de gradul doi


Y x i = a + bx i + cx i2
3XQkQG WHRUHWLFH V DFHHDL FRQGL LH FD VXPD S WUDWHORU DEDWHULORU WHUPHQLORU VHULHL GH OD YDORULOH ILH PLQLP  VH RE LQH

(y

(a + bxi + cxi2 )) 2 = minim

LDU VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH

na + b xi + c xi2 = y i 2 3 a x i + b x i + c x i = x i y i 2 3 4 2 a x i + b x i + c x i = x i y i
5H]ROYkQG VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH SULQ PHWRGD GHWHUPLQDQ LORU VH FDOFXOHD] FHORU WUHL SDUDPHWUL L vQ IXQF LH GH YDORULOH LQGLYLGXDOH DOH YDULDELOHL YDORDUHD YDORULOH

X

VH DMXVWHD]

caracteristicii rezultative. Modelul hiperbolic

Yxi = a +

1 b xi

6LVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QHFHVDU DIO ULL SDUDPHWULORU IXQF LHL HVWH

1 na + b x = y i i a 1 + b 1 = 1 y i xi xi xi2
0RGHOXO H[SRQHQ LDO

Yxi = a b xi

3ULQ ORJDULWPDUH PRGHOXO VH WUDQVIRUP

vQWU

-un model liniar de forma:

lg Y xi = lg a + xi lg b

SisWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH YD IL


n lg a + lg b xi = lg y i 2 lg a xi + lg b xi = ( xi lg y i )
2SHUD LD GH DMXVWDUH vQ DFHVW FD] VH YD IDFH GXS LQGLYLGXDOH GH UHJUHVLH $MXVWDUHD GXS R IXQF LH HFXD LLORU GH UHJUHVLH FDOFXODWH vQ IXQF LH GH FH VH YRU FDOFXOD ORJDULWPLL HFXD LLORU VH IDFH SULQ DQWLORJDULWPDUHD

H[SRQHQ LDO

xi.

5(*5(6,$ 08/7,3/

Modelul liniar
Yx1 , x2 ,..., xn = a 0 + a1 x1 + a 2 x 2 + ... + a n x n ,

n care:
FRQVWDQW  vQ DIDUD FHORU FRQVLGHUD L GUHSW FDUDFWHULVWLFL

a0 -

UHSUH]LQW

SDUDPHWUXO

FDUH

H[SULP

IDFWRULL

QHvQUHJLVWUD L

FRQVLGHUD L

FX

DF LXQH

factoriale;
FDUDFWHULVWLFD UH]XOWDWLY GDF

FDUDFWHULVWLFD IDFWRULDO

a1, a2, ... ,an - FRHILFLHQ LL GH UHJUHVLH FDUH DUDW


UHVSHFWLY VH PRGLILF

FkW VH PRGLILF FX R XQLWDWH

x1, x2, ... , xn - caracteristicile factoriale incluse n raportul de interdHSHQGHQ Parametrii a1,a2, ... ,an VH GHWHUPLQ
GLQ VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH

na 0 + a1 x1i + ... + a n x ni = y i .......................................................... 2 a 0 x1i + a1 x1i + ... + a n x1i x ni = x1i y i ............................................................ 2 a 0 x ni + a1 x1i x ni + ... + a n x ni = x ni y i
Cunoscnd cei n SDUDPHWUL DL IXQF LHL GH DMXVWDUH VH FDOFXOHD] de regresie pe baza valorilor x1, x2,, xn. ModelXO H[SRQHQ LDO
SHQWUX ILHFDUH XQLWDWH HFXD LD

Y x1

, x 2 ,..., x n

= a 0 x1 1

x 2 2 ... x n n
vQ PRGHO OLQLDU

3ULQ ORJDULWPDUH PRGHOXO H[SRQHQ LDO VH WUDQVIRUP

0(72'$ &25(/$

,(,

&RUHOD LD VLPSO

&RYDULDQ D

(cov(x,y))

cov( x, y ) =

(x

x )( yi y ) n

&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH 6H IRORVHWH SHQWUX P VXUDUHD LQWHQVLWDWHD OHJ WXULL OLQLDUH GLQWUH GRX Q FD]XO vQ FDUH GLVSXQHP GH XQ QXP U PLF GH SHUHFKL GH YDORUL YDULDELOH VWDWLVLFH

xi, yi):

ry / x =

(x

x )( yi y ) n x y
VLPSO SRDWH V LD YDORUL vQWUH

&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU

- L 

ntre - L  OHJ cu ct se apropie de 1. se apropie de 1.


)RUPXO

WXUD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

YDULDELOH HVWH GH VHQV LQYHUV L HVWH FX DWkW PDL LQWHQV  YDULDELOH HVWH GLUHFW L HVWH FX DWkW PDL LQWHQV  FX FkW

QWUH  L  OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

GH FDOFXO VLPSOLILFDW

r y/x =

n x i y i ( x i )( y i )

[n x
(x i

2 i

( x i ) 2 n y i2 ( y i ) 2
GH Qi

][

n cazul n care perechile de valori (xi, yi VH UHSHW

ori:

ry/ x =

x )( y i y ) n i n x
y

Formula de calcul simplificat:

n x i y i n i ( x i n i )( y i n i ) ry/x =
i i i

2 2 nxi ni ( xi ni ) i i
unde n = ni

2 2 n y i ni ( y i ni ) i i

Q FD]XO VLVWHPDWL]

ULL GDWHORU vQWU

-un tabel cu

GXEO

LQWUDUH vQ FDUH SHUHFKLOH GH YDORUL

(xi, yj VH UHSHW
ry/x =

GH Qij

ori:
x )( y j y ) n ij n x
y

( x i

iar pentru calculul simplificat:

n x i y j n ij ( x i n i . )( y j n . j ) r y/x =
i j i j

2 2 n x i n i . ( x i n i . ) i i
'DF

2 2 ny j n. j (y j n. j ) j j

R y / x = ry / x

VH FRQILUP

LSRWH]D OHJ WXULL OLQLDUH

5DSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH

Q FD]XO vQ FDUH GLVSXQHP GH XQ QXP

U PLF GH SHUHFKL GH YDORUL [i

, yi):

y/x

(Yx ( yi

y) y)

2 2

sau

R y/x =

( yi Yx )2 1 ( yi y)2
i

unde Y

UHSUH]LQW

YDORULOH DMXVWDWH LQGLIHUHQW GH PRGHOXO GH UHJUHVLH VHOHFWDW

5DSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH SRDW

e lua valori de la zero la +1.


GH Qi

n cazul n care perechile de valori (xi, yi VH UHSHW

ori:

y/x

( y j Yx )2 ni ( y j y )2 ni
i

sau R

y/x

( y i Y x ) 2 ni 1 ( y i y ) 2 ni
i

Q FD]XO VLVWHPDWL]

ULL GDWHORU vQWU XQ WDEHO FX GXEO

LQWUDUH vQ FDUH SHUHFKLOH GH YDORUL

(xi, yj VH UHSHW

GH Qij

ori:

R y/x =

(Yx
i

y ) 2 n i. y)
2

( y j
sau R y / x =

Yxi ) 2 ni j y ) 2 n.
j

( y j
j

n.

( y j

Pentru

FRUHOD LD QHOLQLDU

 P VXUDUHD JUDGXOXL GH LQWHQVLWDWH D OHJ WXULL VH IDFH QXPDL SULQ

UDSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH

5DSRUWXO HPSLULF GH FRUHOD LH

y / x

(y
i =1 m

y y

n
2

i .

( y j
r m

yi y

sau
n
. j

(y
j =1

R y/ x =

i =1 j =1 m

)2 n ij

(y j
j =1

)2 n . j

&RUHOD LD PXOWLSO

&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH PXOWLSO

r y / x1
L

,x 2

r y2/ x + r y2/ x 2 r y / x r y / x r x 1 x 2
1 2 1 2

r x2 x 1 2

GDF

r x1

,x 2

ry/x

,x 2

r y2/ x

+ r y2/ x

GDF

r x1

,x 2

=0

5DSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH PXOWLSO

Ry
x 1 , x 2 ,...., x i ,...., x n

(y i 1

Y x1

, x 2 ,...., x i ,...., x n

( y i

y)

3HQWUX YHULILFDUHD RELHFWLYLW

LL IXQF LHL DOHDV

SHQWUX DMXVWDUH VH IRORVHVF vQ DFHVW FD] vQ

special SURFHGHHOH GH DQDOL]

GLVSHUVLRQDO

6H SRUQHWH GH OD UHOD LD

(y

y)=(y

y / x i ) + ( y / x i Y xi ) + (Y x i y )

6H RE LQ GHYLDQ HOH

( y j y )
m j =1

n. j = y j y / x i
i =1 j =1

)2 ni j + ( y / xi Yx )2 ni . + (Yx
r r i =1
i

i =1

y 2 ni .

SH ED]D F URUD VH FDOFXOHD]

GLVSHUVLLOH FRUHFWDWH

( y j y / xi )2 ni j
r m 2 = S1 i =1 j =1

nr
i=1

( y / x i Y x )2 n i
r
i

2 S2

r f 1
i=1

(Yx
r

y 2 ni f
,

2 S3 =

n care: n - QXP UXO WRWDO DO XQLW LORU REVHUYDWH r - QXP UXO GH JUXSH vQ IXQF LH GH IDFWRUXO vQUHJLVWUDW f - parameWULL YDULDELOL DL IXQF LH GH UHJUHVLH
3H ED]D GLVSHUVLLORU FRUHFWDWH VH GHWHUPLQ 

F 1 calc =

2 S3

S 12
2 S2

F 2 calc =
VH FRPSDU

S 12
FX OHJ WXUD GLQWUH

'DF

F1 calc F2 calc

F1 tab cu f

n-r grade de libertate.


; L L < HVWH VHPQLILFDWLY 

F1 calc > F1 tab


VH FRPSDU

FX

'DF 'DF

F2 calc > F2 tab -

OHJ WXUD GLQWUH

F2 tab cu r-f-1

n-r grade de libertate. Y HVWH OLQLDU 


VLPSO  DWXQFL VH DSOLF FHO PDL IUHFYHQW

V D XWLOL]DW L FRHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU

testul t:

t=

ry/ x 1 r y2/ x

n2,

unde n UHSUH]LQW
9DORDUHD VHPQLILFD LH

YROXPXO HDQWLRQXOXL VH FRPSDU FX FHD WDEHODU VWDELOLW SUREDELOLVWLF SHQWUX XQ QLYHO GH

P = 1 / 2

FDOFXODW

L FX

n-2 grade de libertate.

'DF

calculat

> t

VWXGLH]H FRUHOD LD

calculat

<t

tabelar

OHJ WXUD HVWH QHVHPQLILFDWLY

tabelar

VH

YHULILF

LSRWH]D

VHPQLILFD LHL

UHOD LHL

GH

FRUHOD LH

GDF VH

L WUHEXLH F XWDW XQ DOW IDFWRU HVHQ LDO FX FDUH V

&RUHOD LH QHSDUDPHWULF

Coeficientul de asociere AceaVW PHWRG VH XWLOL]HD] SHQWUX P VXUDUHD alternative prezentate ntr-un tabel de asociere de forma:
LQWHQVLW LL OHJ WXULL D GRX FDUDFWHULVWLFL

Tabelul 5.1.

y x x1 x2 Total
DUDW

y1 a c a+c

y2 b d b+d

Total a+b c+d a+b+c+d


L

Produsul ad
GH OHJ WXU LQYHUV

JUDGXO GH UHDOL]DUH D OHJ WXULL GLUHFWH GLQWUH FDUDFWHULVWLFL FHUFHWDWH

Y, iar produsul bc gradul


LQGLFH H[LVWHQ D L

vQWUH FHOH GRX

3HQWUX VWDELOLUHD YDORULL QXPHULFH D FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH DVRFLHUH FDUH V LQWHQVLWDWHD XQHL OHJ WXUL IRUPXOD FHD PDL XWLOL]DW HVWH FHD SURSXV GH <XOH

Q=

ad bc ad + bc
LD YDORUL vQWUH

$FHVW LQGLFDWRU SRDWH V DVRFLHULL FHORU GRX

-

L  DU WkQG QX QXPDL JUDGXO GH LQWHQVLWDWH DO

FDUDFWHULVWLFL GDU L VHQVXO HL

&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJX

rs =1

6d

rilor propus de Spearman

2 i

n3 n

n care: di - UHSUH]LQW GLIHUHQ D vQWUH UDQJXULOH SHUHFKLL GH YDORUL xi , yi); n - QXP UXO GH SHUHFKL GH YDORUL
&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU

propus de Kendall:

rk =

2S , n (n 1)

n care S = ( Pi Qi ) , unde: Pi - QXP UXO UDQJXULORU PDL PDUL FDUH XUPHD] Qi - QXP UXO UDQJXULORU PDL PLFL FDUH XUPHD]

UDQJXOXL FXUHQW SHQWUX YDULDELOD GHSHQGHQW  UDQJXOXL FXUHQW SHQWUX YDULDELOD GHSHQGHQW 

PROBLEME REZOLVATE

1.

Pentru 1 XQLW

L HFRQRPLFH GLQ DFHODL VHFWRU GH DFWLYLWDWH VH FXQRVF GDWHOH XUP WRDUH

Tabelul 5.2. Nr. crt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Capital fix (mld. lei) 1,4 0,9 1,1 2,2 0,8 0,6 1,3 1,0 1,5 2,0 12,8
3URGXF LD POG OHL

0,8 0,5 0,6 1,2 0,4 0,3 0,7 0,6 0,9 1,1 7,1

Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4.
V V V V VH DUJXPHQWH]H FX DMXWRUXO PHWRGHORU VLPSOH H[LVWHQ D GLUHF LD L IRUPD OHJ WXULL VH GHWHUPLQH SDUDPHWULL IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH FDOFXOH]H YDORULOH IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH DIOH YDORDUHD FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH

Rezolvare: 1. Metoda seriilor paralele interdependente presupune ordonarea valorilor caracteristicii factoriale xi FDSLWDOXO IL[ L vQUHJLVWUDUHD vQ SDUDOHO D YDORULORU FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH DOH caracteristicii dependente yi SURGXF LH  GXS FXP VH SRDWH YHGHD vQ WDEHOXO 
Tabelul 5.3. Nr. crt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

xi (mld. lei)
0,6 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,3 1,4 1,5 2,0 2,2

y i (mld. lei)
0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,1 1,2

&HOH GRX

LUXUL GH GDWH GLQ WDEHOXO  LQGLF R OHJ WXU

H[LVWHQ D XQHL OHJ WXUL GLUHFWH vQWUH FDSLWDOXO VH WUDVH]H JUDILFXO

IL[ L P ULPHD SURGXF LHL 3HQWUX D SXWHD DSUHFLD L IRUPD OHJ WXUL HVWH QHFHVDU V GH FRUHOD LH ILJXUD   FDUH VXJHUHD] GH WLS OLQLDU

SURGXF LH

(mld. lei)

1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 capital fix (mld. lei)

)LJXUD  /HJ

WXUD GLQWUH FDSLWDOXO IL[ L SURGXF LH

2.

$IODUHD SDUDPHWULORU IXQF LHL OLQLDUH GH UHJUHVLH QHFHVLW GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH

UH]ROYDUHD XUP WRUXOXL VLVWHP

n a + b x i = y i 2 a x i + b x i = x i y i
&DOFXOHOH QHFHVDUH UH]ROY ULL VLVWHPXOXL DX IRVW VLVWHPDWL]DWH vQ WDEHOXO 

Tabelul 5.4. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

xi
1 0,6 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,3 1,4 1,5 2,0 2,2 12,8

yi
2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,1 1,2 7,1

xi2
3 0,36 0,64 0,81 1,00 1,21 1,69 1,96 2,25 4,00 4,84 18,76

xi y i
4 0,18 0,32 0,45 0,60 0,66 0,91 1,12 1,35 2,20 2,64 10,43

yi2
5 0,09 0,16 0,25 0,36 0,36 0,49 0,64 0,81 1,21 1,44 5,81

Yxi
6 0,326 0,439 0,496 0,552 0,609 0,721 0,778 0,835 1,117 1,230 7,103

6LVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH HVWH

10 a + 12 , 8 b = 7 , 1 , 12 , 8 a + 18 , 76 b = 10 , 43
FX VROX LLOH

a = 0,013 b = 0,565

(FXD LD PHGLH GH HVWLPDUH D OHJ WXULL OLQLDUH GLQWUH FDSLWDOXO IL[ L SURGXF LH HVWH

Yxi = 0,013 + 0,565 xi


/D R FUHWHUH FX XQ PLOLDUG GH OHL D FDSLWDOXOXL IL[ SURGXF LD VH P UHWH vQ PHGLH FX

0,565 mld. lei. 3.


9DORULOH DMXVWDWH DOH SURGXF LHL VH FDOFXOHD] vQORFXLQG ILHFDUH YDULDQW D FDUDFWHULVWLFLL vQ IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH YH]L WDEHOXO 

factoriale xi

.).

Yx1 = 0,013 + 0,565 0,6 = 0,326  Yx10 = 0,013 + 0,565 2,2 = 1,230
4.
&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU VLPSO HVWH

ry / x =

[n x

n xi yi x i
2 i

( x )
i

][n y

yi
2 i

( y i

10 10 , 43 12 , 8 7 , 1

(10 18 , 76 163 , 84 )(10 5 , 81 50 , 41 )


R OHJ WXU GLUHFW

13 , 420 13 , 517

= 0 , 9928

$FHVW UH]XOWDW DUDW

IRDUWH SXWHUQLF  DSURDSH IXQF LRQDO  vQWUH YDULDELOHOH

nregistrate.

2.
Num
LQGXVWULDO UXO PHGLX GH DQJDMD L L SURILWXO DQXDO vQUHJLVWUDW GH  ILUPH GLQWU R

VXEUDPXU

VH SUH]LQW

DVWIHO

Tabelul 5.5. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total


1XP U PHGLX GH DQJDMD L SHUVRDQH

Profit anual (mil. lei) 2 115 45 100 50 55 85 40 50 45 70 655

1 13 4 12 5 6 8 3 4 5 7 67

Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4.
V V V V VH DQDOL]H]H H[LVWHQ D GLUHF LD L IRUPD OHJ WXULL VH GHWHUPLQH SDUDPHWULL IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH FDOFXOH]H YDORULOH IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH P VRDUH LQWHQVLWDWHD FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH FHOH GRX YDULDELOH IRORVLQG FRHILFLHQWXO L

UDSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH

Rezolvare: 1.
Q UHOD LD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

(xi )

YDULDELOH IDFWRUXO GH LQIOXHQ D HVWH QXP UXO PHGLX GH DQJDMD L HVWH P ULPHD SURILWXOXL

 LDU YDULDELOD UH]XOWDWLY

(y i ) .

'LQWUH PHWRGHOH VLPSOH GH HYLGHQ LHUH D FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH GRX JUDILF  DFHDVWD RIHULQG FHOH PDL PXOWH LQIRUPD LL 'LQ ILJXUD  UHLHVH F GLUHFW 

YDULDELOH DP DOHV PHWRGD R OHJ WXU

vQWUH QXP UXO GH DQJDMD L L P ULPHD SURILWXOXL H[LVW

de tip liniar.
yi (mil. lei) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 xi (pers.)

)LJXUD  /HJ

WXUD GLQWUH QXP

UXO PHGLX GH DQJDMD L

xi L YDORDUHD SURILWXOXL yi )
L

2.

6LVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH QHFHVDU SHQWUX DIODUHD SDUDPHWULORU

b ai func LHL

OLQLDUH

este:
n a + b x i = y i 2 a x i + b x i = x i y i

Folosind rezultatele calculelor intermediare prezentate n tabelul 5.5. (coloanele 1 - 4),


VH RE LQH VLVWHPXO

10 a + 67b = 655 , 67 a + 553b = 5170

FX VROX LLOH

a = 15,2017 b = 7,5072

3. Valorile teoretice ale profitului ( Yxi ) se vor calcula nlocuind fiecare valoare a variabilei factoriale xi
vQ IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH

Yxi = 15,2017 + 7,5072 xi


Rezultatele calculelor efectuate sunt prezentate n tabelul nr. 5.6., coloana 5.
Tabelul 5.6. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

xi
1 13 4 12 5 6 8 3 4 5 7 67

yi
2 115 45 100 50 55 85 40 50 45 70 655

xi y i
4 1.495 180 1.200 250 330 680 120 200 225 490 5.170

xi2
3 169 16 144 25 36 64 9 16 25 49 553

yi2
5 13.225 2.025 10.000 2.500 3.025 7.225 1.600 2.500 2.025 4.900 49.025

Yxi
6 112,80 45,23 105,29 52,74 60,24 75,26 37,72 45,23 52,74 67,75 655,00

(y

Yxi

7 4,86 0,05 27,96 7,50 27,51 94,88 5,18 22,75 59,87 5,05 225,62

4. Rezultatele calculelor efectuate pentru determinarea parametrilor a L b DL IXQF LHL OLQLDUH GH UHJUHVLH WDEHOXO  SRW IL XWLOL]DWH L SHQWUX DSOLFDUHD IRUPXOHL GH FDOFXO VLPSOificat
D FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH

ry

[n x

n xi yi xi
2 i

( x i

][n y
R

yi
2 i

( y i

10 5170 67 655

[10 553 67 ][10 49025 655 ]


2 2
DSURSLDW GH  LQGLF FX IRUPXOD

= 0 , 9789

$FHDVW

YDORDUH

OHJ WXU

IRDUWH

SXWHUQLF

vQWUH

FHOH

GRX

variabile.
5DSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH VH GHWHUPLQ

Ry

( y i Y x )2 1 2 (y i y )
i

unde

y=

yi
n

655 = 65 , 5 10

Utiliznd datele din tabeluO  FDOFXO


= 1
L

P

Ry

255 , 62 6122 , 50

= 0 , 9789
FRUHOD LH DX YDORUL HJDOH FHHD FH FRQILUP OLQLDULWDWHD

&RHILFLHQWXO OHJ WXULL

UDSRUWXO

GH

3.
ntr-R VXEUDPXU LQGXVWULDO V-au nregistrat ntr-R cheltuielile de prRGXF LH L SURGXF LD RE LQXW 
OXQ XUP WRDUHOH LQIRUPD LL SULYLQG

Tabelul 5.7.
3URGXF LH &KHOWXLHOL GH SURGXF LH PLO OHL

(mii buc.) 0 31-36 26-31 21-26 16-21 11-16 Total:

sub 30 1 1 1 1 5 2 10

30-60 2 6 3 2 2 13

60-90 3 3 4 4 11

90-120 4 3 1 4

 L

peste 5 2 2

Total 6 7 14 8 7 4 40

3H ED]D DFHVWRU GDWH VH FHUH V FHOH GRX YDULDELOH L V

VH GHWHUPLQH IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH FDUH H[SULP

OHJ WXUD GLQWUH

VH P VRDUH LQWHQVLWDWHD OHJ WXULL

Rezolvare:
'LVWULEX LD IUHFYHQ HORU vQ WDEHO LQGLF R WHQGLQ GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU  Q FD]XO GLVWULEX LHL ELGLPHQVLRQDOH GH IUHFYHQ H VLVWHPXO GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH DUH IRUPD

n a + b x i ni . = y i n. j i j a x i n i . +b x i2 n i . = x i y j n i j i i j i
&DOFXOXO GRX YDULDELOH HOHPHQWHORU QHFHVDUH SHQWUX DIODUHD SDUDPHWULORU VLVWHPXOXL GH HFXD LL HVWH

sistematizat n tabelul nr. 5.8.. PHQWUX XXULQ

 vQ WDEHO VH WUHF GLUHFW FHQWUHOH GH LQWHUYDO SHQWUX FHOH

Tabelul 5.8.

yj

15 1 1 1 1 5 2 10

45 2 6 3 2 2 13 585 26325

75 3 3 4 4 11 825 61875

105 4 3 1 4 420 44100

135 5 2 2 270 36450 81,9855

ni .
6 7 14 8 7 4 40 2250 171000 -

xi ni .
7 234,5 399,0 188,0 129,5 54,0 1005,0

x i2 n i .
8 7855,75 11371,50 4418,00 2395,75 729,00 26770,00

xi

y j ni j

xi
0 33,5 28,5 23,5 18,5 13,5 9 18592,5 27360,0 10575,0 3052,5 1620,0 61200,0

nj
y j n.
j

150 2250

y2 j n.

xi

20,5255 35,8905

51,255 66,6205

Cu elementele calculate n tabelul  RE LQHP VLVWHPXO GH GRX


40 a + 1005 b = 2250 2250 a + 26770 b = 61200
5H]ROYkQG VLVWHPXO RE LQHP

HFXD LL

a = 20 , 96

b = 3 , 073 .

5H]XOW

GUHDSWD GH UHJUHVLH YD DYHD HFXD LD

Y x i = 20 , 96 + 3 , 073 x i
QORFXLQG vQ DFHDVW UHOD LH

pe fiecare xi

FX FHQWUXO GH LQWHUYDO FRUHVSXQ] WRU DP RE LQXW

YDORULOH QXPHULFH DOH HFXD LLORU GH UHJUHVLH YH]L WDEHOXO   )LLQG R UHSDUWL LH GH IUHFYHQ H SHQWUX P VXUDUHD JUDGXOXL GH FRUHOD LH FDOFXO P UDSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH XWLOL]kQG IRUPXOD GH FDOFXO SUH]HQWDW vQ FRQWLQXDUH

( y j
Ry
x

Yxi y

)
2

ni j

y j n. j
, unde y =
j

( y j
j

n.

n. j
j
FDOFXO P vQ

Pentru aplicarea acestei formule vom folosi datele conform calculelor efectuate
vQ WDEHOXO  6H REVHUY  F SHQWUX GHWHUPLQDUHD UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH HVWH QHFHVDU V SUHDODELO PHGLD L GLVSHUVLD SH WRWDO  PLL EXF L  

Tabelul 5.9.

Yxi
20,5255 35,8905 51,255

yj
15 45 15 45 15 45 75 15 45 75 105 135 15 75 105

ni j
2 2 5 2 1 3 4 1 6 4 1 2 1 3 3

(y

Y xi

ni j

66,6205

81,9855 Total

61,062 1198,002 21,82,065 165,966 1314,425 117,375 2255,300 2664,676 2804,676 280,864 1472,986 9351,512 4487,057 146,392 1589,002 30091,36

30091 , 360 = 0 , 568 44437 , 499

Valoarea raportulXL
GRX YDULDELOH VH FDOFXOHD]

GH

FRUHOD LH

LQGLF

OHJ WXU

GH

LQWHQVLWDWH

PHGLH

vQWUH

FHOH

GRX

YDULDELOH OXDWH vQ VWXGLX 3HQWUX YHULILFDUHD OLQLDULW

LL IXQF LHL FDUH HVWLPHD]

OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH

FRHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH XWLOL]kQG vQ DFHVW VFRS GD

tele din tabelul 5.8.

n xi y j n ry
x

ij

xi ni . i
2

y j n. j

=
j

n x i2 n i . x i n i . i i =

n y 2 j n. j y j n. j j = 0 , 57

40 61200 2250 1005

(40 26770 1005 )(40 171000 2250 )


2 2

Q H[HPSOXO OXDW HJDOLWDWHD DILUP P F F

GLQWUH FHL GRL LQGLFDWRUL VLQWHWLFL

GH FRUHOD LH

QH SHUPLWH V

OHJ WXUD HVWH OLQLDU  (IHFWXkQG GHFL FDOFXOXO L FRPSDUkQG UH]XOWDWHOH VH SRDWH DFFHSWD GDF 

OHJ WXUD HVWH OLQLDU

y x=

y x

LDU vQ FD] FRQWUDU VH UHVSLQJH LSRWH]D L vQ DFHDVW YHULILFH IRUPD GH OHJ WXU GLQWUH FHOH GRX

VLWXD LH VH UHFXUJH OD R DOW

IXQF LH GH DMXVWDUH FDUH V

YDULDELOH 3HQWUX YHULILFDUHD RELHFWLYLW

LL IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH SRW IRORVL L UH]XOWDWHOH DQDOL]HL

dispersionale.

4.

3HQWUX

FLQFLVSUH]HFH

ILUPH

GLQ

DFHHDL

UDPXU

V DX

vQUHJLVWUDW

XUP WRDUHOH

LQIRUPD LL

UHIHULWRDUH OD R OXQ

GH DFWLYLWDWH

Tabelul 5.10. Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Profit (mil. lei) 1 15 17 13 23 16 21 14 20 24 17 16 18 23 15 16


1U VDODULD L

(pers.) 2 10 12 8 17 10 15 10 14 19 10 11 13 16 10 12

Capital fix (mld. lei) 3 2,40 2,72 2,08 3,68 2,56 3,36 2,24 3,20 3,84 2,72 2,07 2,33 2,98 1,94 2,17

Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4.
V VH VWXGLH]H OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH WUHL YDULDELOH vQUHJLVWUDWH L V FDUH H[SULP DFHDVW OHJ WXU  VH J VHDVF IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH PXOWLSO V V V

VH P VRDUH LQWHQVLWDWHD OHJ WXULORU VLPSOH vQWUH VH FDOFXOH]H FRHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU

x1

y , x2

y , x1

x2 ;

PXOWLSO 

VH GHWHUPLQH YDORDUHD UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH PXOWLSO 

Rezolvare: 1.
Q YHGHUHD GHWHUPLQ UL H[LVWHQ HL L IRUPHL OHJ WXULL YRP IRORVL PHWRGD VHULLORU SDUDOHOH LQWHUGHSHQGHQWH WDEHOXO  L PHWRGD JUDILF ILJXULOH 

5.5.)
Tabelul 5.11.

Nr. crt. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1U VDODULD L

( x1 ) 1 8 10 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 17 19

Capital fix ( x2 ) 2 2,08 1,94 2,24 2,40 2,56 2,72 2,07 2,17 2,72 2,33 3,20 3,36 2,98 3,68 3,84

Profit (y) 3 13 15 14 15 16 17 16 16 17 18 20 21 23 23 24

Seriile paralele trei variabile.

LQWHUGHSHQGHQWH DUDW

H[LVW

vQ JHQHUDO R WHQGLQ

GH FUHWHUH SHQWUX FHOH

Profit 30 (mil. lei) 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10

 

15

20

)LJXUD  /HJ

WXUD GLQWUH SURILW

y1

L QXP

UXO GH VDODULD L

x1 )

30 Profit (mil. lei) 25 20 15 10 5 0 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 Capital fix (mld. lei)

)LJXUD  /HJ

WXUD GLQWUH SURILW

y L FDSLWDOXO IL[ x2 )

1U VDODULD L

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 Capital fix (mld. lei))

(pers.)

)LJXUD  /HJ

WXUD GLQWUH QXP

UXO SHUVRQDOXOXL

x1 L FDSLWDOXO IL[ x2 )

*UDILFHOH DUDW

OHJ WXULOH VLPSOH VXQW GH IRUP

OLQLDU  GHFL IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH PXOWLSO

este: Y = a 0 + a1 x1 + a 2 x 2
(VWLPDUHD SDUDPHWULORU DFHVWHL IXQF LL SUHVXSXQH UH]ROYDUHD VLVWHPXOXL GH HFXD LL QRUPDOH

n a 0 + a1 x1 + a 2 x 2 = y 2 a 0 x1 + a1 x1 + a 2 x1 x 2 = x1 y a x + a x x + a x 2 = x y 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0

Efectund calculele din tabelul 5.12., sistemul anterior devine:


15 a 0 + 187 a1 + 40,29 a 2 = 268 , 187 a 0 + 2.469 a1 + 525,38 a 2 = 3.490 40,29 a 0 + 525,38 a1 + 113,34 a 2 = 746,62
FX VROX LLOH

a 0 = 3,53 a1 = 0,84 a 2 = 1,44

Tabelul 5.12. Nr. crt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total

yi
15 17 13 23 16 21 14 20 24 17 16 18 23 15 16 268

x1
10 12 8 17 10 15 10 14 19 10 11 13 16 10 12 187

x2
2,40 2,72 2,08 3,68 2,56 3,36 2,24 3,20 3,84 2,72 2,07 2,33 2,98 1,94 2,17 40,29

y i2
225 289 169 529 256 441 196 400 576 289 256 324 529 225 256 4.960

x1 y
150 204 104 391 160 315 140 280 456 170 176 234 368 150 192 3.490
HVWH

x2 y
36,00 46,24 27,04 84,64 40,96 70,56 31,36 64,00 92,16 46,24 33,12 41,94 68,54 29,10 34,72 746,62

x1 x 2
24,00 32,64 16,64 62,56 25,60 50,40 22,40 44,80 72,96 27,20 22,77 30,29 47,68 19,40 26,04 525,38

x 12
100 144 64 289 100 225 100 196 361 100 121 169 256 100 144 2.469

2 x2

5,7600 7,3984 4,3264 13,5424 6,5536 11,2896 5,0176 10,2400 14,7456 7,3984 4,2849 5,4289 8,8804 3,7636 4,7089 113,3400

)XQF LD OLQLDU

GH UHJUHVLH PXOWLSO

Yx 1x 2 = 3,53 + 0,84 x1 + 1,44 x 2

2.

,QWHQVLWDWHD

FRUHOD LHL

GLQWUH

QXP UXO

GH

VDODULD L

x1

SURILW

VH

P VRDU

FX

DMXWRUXO FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH

ry

[n x

n x1 y x1
2 1

( x 1

] [n y

y
2

( y ) =

[15 2.469 (187 ) ] [15 4.960 ( 268 ) ]


2 2

15 3.490 187 268

2.234 2.066 2.576

= 0 , 9684

,QWHQVLWDWHD FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH FDSLWDOXO IL[ L SURILW HVWH

ry

[n x

nx2 y x2
2 2

( x 2

] [n y

y
2

( y )

15 746 , 62 40 , 29 268

[15 113 , 34 ( 40 , 29 ) ] [15 4.960 ( 268 ) ]


2 2

401 , 58 76 , 82 2.576

401 , 58 444 , 85

= 0 , 9027

,QWHQVLWDWHD FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH QXP UXO GH VDODULD L L FDSLWDOXO IL[

rx 1

[n

n x1 x 2 x1 x 12 ( x 1

] [n

x2
2 x2

( x 2 =

15 525 , 38 187 40 , 29

346 , 47 2.066 76 , 82

[15 2.469 (187 ) ] [15 113 , 34 ( 40 , 29 ) ]


2 2

346 , 47 398 , 37

= 0 , 8697

3.

&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH OLQLDU

PXOWLSO

HVWH

ry

,x

r y2/ x

+ r y2/ x

2 ry/x 1 r x2
1

ry/x
2

rx

/x

/x

0 , 9684 2 + 0 , 9027 2 2 0 , 9684 0 , 9027 0 , 8697 1 ( 0 , 8697 ) 2

0 , 4818 0 , 4936

= 0 , 976

4.

5DSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH PXOWLSO

VH FDOFXOHD]

FX IRUPXOD

Ry

,x

= 1

(y i

Y x 1

(y i

9DORULOH WHRUHWLFH VH RE LQ vQORFXLQG

x1

x2

vQ IXQF LH GH UHJUHVLH

Y1 = 3,53 + 0,84 10 + 1,44 2,40 = 15,386


Y2 = 3,53 + 0,84 12 + 1,44 2,72 = 17,527
DPG

Profitul mediu este:

y=

yi
n

268 = 17,867 15

9DORDUHD UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH PXOWLSO

HVWH

Ry

x1,x2

= 1

8,101 = 0,976 171,733

Deoarece R y

x1,x2

= ry

x1, x 2

 OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH WUHL YDULDELOH HVWH OLQLDU

L QX VXQW

necesare alte teste de verificare.

5.
&HOH  PDJD]LQH GH DFHODL SURILO GLQWU R ORFDOLWDWH VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]

SULQ XUP WRDUHOH GDWH

Tabelul 5.13. Desfaceri (mil.lei)


6XSUDID PS

52 41

60 38

74 72

20 16

25 21

34 22

49 23

38 21,5

45 32

12 15

6H FHUH V

VH P VRDUH OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

YDULDELOH IRORVLQG PHWRGH QHSDUDPHWULFH

Rezolvare
Q YHGHUHD DSOLF ULL PHWRGHL FRUHOD LHL YRP RUGRQD FUHVF WRU YDORULOH FDUDFWHULVWLFLL IDFWRULDOH ; VXSUDID XQ  WUHFkQG ILHF UXLD vQWU R FRORDQ  DO WXUDW vQ YDORULOH IXQF LH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH GH P ULPHD DOH FDUDF

teristicii
UDQJXUL

GHSHQGHQWH < GHVIDFHUL  GXS FkWH UDQJ GLQ

FXP VH SRDWH YHGHD vQ WDEHOXO XUP WRU FRORDQHOH  L  9RP DFRUGD FHOH PDJD]LQH VXSUDIH HL FRPHUFLDOH

FRORDQD  L QLYHOXO GHVIDFHULORU FRORDQD  L YRP P VXUD GLIHUHQ HOH GLQWUH FHOH GRX $FHVWH GLIHUHQ H YRU IL ULGLFDWH OD S WUDW FRORDQD   VXPD ORU XUPkQG D IL IRORVLW FRHILFLHQWXOXL 6SHDUPDQ GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU

SHQWUX FDOFXODUHD

rS = 1

6 d i2 n n 2 1

unde: d i - GLIHUHQ D GH UDQJ n - QXP UXO REVHUYD LLORU r S = 0 , 9636 xi


1 15 16 21 21,5 22 23 32 38 41 72 Total
OHJ WXU SXWHUQLF 

Tabelul 5.14.

yi
2 12 20 25 38 34 49 45 60 52 74 -

R xi
3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -

R yi
4 1 2 3 5 4 7 6 9 8 10 -

d i2
5 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 6

Pi
6 9 8 7 5 5 3 3 1 1 0 42

Qi
7 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 3

Pentru a calcula
FDUH DSDU GXS

FRHILFLHQWXO .HQGDOO GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU

vom stabili pentru fiecare ectiv inferioare)


WDEHOXOXL OD VIkULWXO

PDJD]LQ vQ SDUWH QXP UXO WRWDO GH PDJD]LQH FDUH DX XQ QLYHO VXSHULRU DO GHVIDFHULORU FRORDQD   UHVSHFWLY LQIHULRU FRORDQD   3HQWUX DFHDVWD YRP QXP UD UDQJXULOH VXSHULRDUH UHVS

Ry

UkQGXO

FRUHVSXQ] WRU

PDJD]LQXOXL

UHVSHFWLY

SkQ

'H H[HPSOX PDJD]LQXO FX GHVIDFHUL GH  PLO OHL DUH UDQJXO  GXS

GHVIDFHUL 'LQWUH FHOH SDWUX

magazine nscrise pe rnduriOH XUP obligatoriu ca rangurile R x V calcula coeficientul Kendall:

WRDUH  DX UDQJXUL

R y VXSHULRDUH L  DUH UDQJ R y inferior. Este

ILH RUGRQDWH FUHVF WRU )RORVLQG WRWDOXULOH GLQ FRORDQHOH  L  SXWHP

rk =

Pi Q i
n (n 1 )

r k = 0 , 87
'DWHOH GLQ WDEHOXO LQL LDO SRW IL IRORVLWH SHQWUX D FRQVWUXL XQ DP WUDQVIRUPDW FHOH GRX vQUHJLVWU UL vQ GRX

tabel de asociere. Pentru aceasta

DP FDOFXODW YDORDUHD PHGLH D GHVIDFHULORU  PLO OHL L VXSUDID D PHGLH D XQXL PDJD]LQ  PS L YDULDELOH DQDOL]DWH vQ FDUDFWHULVWLFL DOWHUQDWLYH SULQ UHVWUkQJHUHD FHORU  JUXSH YDORUL VXE PHGLH UHVSHFWLY SHVWH PHGLH

Tabelul 5.15.
6XSUDID

(mp) sub 30 peste 30

Desfaceri (mil. lei) sub 41 5 0 peste 41 1 4

3HQWUX D DSUHFLD LQWHQVLWDWHD OHJ WXULL VH IRORVHWH FRHILFLHQWXO GH DVRFLHUH FDOFXODW FX UHOD LD

Q=

ad bc a d + bc

5 4 1 0 5 4 + 1 0

Q =1

6.
'LQ GRULQ D GH D L FXQRDWH PDL ELQH FLWLWRULL XQ FRWLGLDQ D LQL LDW R DQFKHW

vQ

rndul acestora.

3ULQWUH vQWUHE ULOH LQFOXVH vQ FKHVWLRQDU HUDX L FHOH UHIHULWRDUH OD VH[XO FLWLWRULORU L IUHFYHQ D DFKL]L LRQ ULL ]LDUXOXL 3H ED]D U VSXQVXULORU FRQVHPQDWH OD DFHVWH GRX OHJ WXULL GLQWUH FHOH GRX YDULDELOH vQWUHE UL YH]L WDEHOXO   DSUHFLD L LQWHQVLWDWHD

Tabelul 5.16. Sexul cititorului


&XPS U ]LDUXO )UHFYHQ D U VSXQVXOXL

masculin

feminin

foarte rar uneori deseori zilnic foarte rar uneori deseori zilnic

10 10 25 5 20 15 10 5

Rezolvare:
3HQWUX D HYLGHQ LD L P VXUD OHJ WXUD GLQWUH VH[XO FLWLWRUXOXL L IUHFYHQ D FX FDUH FXPS U FRWLGLDQXO DP UHRUJDQL]DW LQIRUPD LLOH vQWU XQ WDEHO GH DVRFLHUH YH]L WDEHOXO   $ IRVW QHFHVDU

UHJUXSDUHD YDULDQWHORU GH U VSXQV UHIHULWRDUH OD IUHFYHQ D DFKL]L LRQ ULL FRWLGLDQXOXL SHQWUX D RE LQH R YDULDELO DOWHUQDWLY  FXPS FXPS U U WRULL RFD]LRQDOL VXQW FHL FDUH DFKL]L LRQHD] WRULL ILGHOL ]LDUXO IRDUWH UDU VDX XQHRUL

sunt cei care-O DFKL]L LRQHD]

GHVHRUL VDX ]LOQLF

Tabelul 5.17. Sexul cititorului feminin masculin Total Cititori ocazionali 35 20 55 fideli 15 30 45 Total 50 50 100

Pe baza datelor din tabelul 5.17. poate fi calculat coeficientul de asociere:


Q= 35 30 20 15 750 = = 0 , 556 35 30 + 20 15 1350
YDULDELOH DQDOL]DWH HVWH GH LQWHQVLWDWH PRGHUDW 

$DGDU FRUHOD LD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

PROBLEME PROPUSE

1.
date:

Pentru cei 8 muncitori dintr-R

VHF LH D XQHL XQLW

L HFRQRPLFH V DX vQUHJLVWUDW XUP WRDUHOH

Tabelul 5.18. Vechime (ani)


3URGXF LH EXF

3 22

6 30

4 20

5 25

2 18

5 26

4 22

1 19

Se cere: 1. 2. 3.
5 V V V VH UHSUH]LQWH JUDILF GDWHOH L V VH DOHDJ IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH SRWULYLW  VH GHWHUPLQH SDUDPHWULL IXQF LHL GH UHJUHVLH VH LQWHUSUHWH]H GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH HFRQRPLF FRHILFLHQWXO GH UHJUHVLH

VSXQVXUL

1. IXQF LH OLQLDU  2. Y i = 14 , 77 + 2 , 13 x i ; 3. pentru fiecare an suplimentar dH YHFKLPH SURGXF LD XQXL PXQFLWRU FUHWH vQ PHGLH cu 2,13 buc..

2.
ntr-R VRFLHWDWH FRPHUFLDO
V DX vQUHJLVWUDW XUP WRDUHOH GDWH

Tabelul 5.19. Vechime (ani) Salariu lunar (mil. lei)


WLLQG OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

12 2,7

34 4,0

2 2,0

36 4,2

14 2,8

22 3,5

5 2,1

10 2,6

YDULDELOH HVWH H[SULPDW

SULQ IXQF LD

Y i = 1 , 895 + 0 , 0648 x i se cere: 1. 2. 3.


5 FDOFXOD L UDSRUWXO GH FRUHOD LH GHWHUPLQD L vQ FH P VXU LQIOXHQ HD] YHFKLPHD VDODULXOXL OXQDU HVWLPD L VDODULXO OXQDU DO XQHL SHUVRDQH FX  DQL YHFKLPH

VSXQVXUL

1. 0,9935; 2. 98,7%; 3. 3,19 mil. lei.

3.

6H FXQRVF XUP WRDUHOH GDWH UHIHULWRDUH OD R XQLWDWH HFRQRPLF 

Tabelul 5.20.
'RWDUH WHKQLF

14-16 16-18 18-20 Total

Productivitate (mil. lei / munc.) 10-12 12-14 14-16 100 40 20 80 20 40 100 120 160 120

Total 140 120 140 400

Se cere: 1. 2. 3. 4.
0 VXUD L LQWHQVLWDWHD FRUHOD LHL GLQWUH GRWDUHD WHKQLF OHJ WXUL OLQLDUH Q FH SURSRU LH LQIOXHQ HD] GRWDUHD WHKQLF SURGXFWLYLWDWHD PXQFLL" GH  PLO OHL  SHQWUX (VWLPD L FH SURGXFWLYLWDWH DUH XQ PXQFLWRU FX GRWDUH WHKQLF L SURGXFWLYLWDWH vQ LSRWH]D XQHL

&RHILFLHQWXO GH FRUHOD LH HVWH VHPQLILFDWLY VWDWLVWLF SHQWUX R SUREDELOLWDWH GH 

care t tabelat este de 1,965?


5 VSXQVXUL

1. r y x = R y x = 0 , 77 ; 2. 59%; 3. 13,1 mil. lei; 4. da.

4.
ntr-o localitate datele:

vL GHVI RDU

DFWLYLWDWHD  DJHQ LL LPRELOLDUH SHQWUX FDUH V

-au nregistrat
Tabelul 5.21.

Profit (mil. lei) Y 32 47 18 25 49 41 52 38 36 29 43 28 24 36 41

&KHOWXLHOL UHFODP

1U DJHQ L

(mii lei) 249 292 183 201 310 248 246 241 288 191 248 210 256 275 241

X1

X2
15 18 14 16 21 20 18 14 13 15 21 18 20 16 19

WLLQG F

IXQF LD GH UHJUHVLH HVWH

Y i = 19 , 5 + 0 , 158 X 1 + 0 , 962 X 2 ,
V VH GHWHUPLQH P ULPHD UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH FH SURILW YD DYHD R DJHQ LH LPRELOLDU FX  GH DJHQ L L FKHOWXLHOL GH UHFODP

1. 2.

de 300 mii lei.


5 VSXQVXUL

1. 0,724; 2. 49 mil. lei.

5.
2SW DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL GLQ DFHODL GRPHQLX GH DFWLYLWDWH DX vQUHJLVWUDW XUP WRDUHOH UHDOL] UL

Tabelul 5.22. Cifra de afaceri (mil. lei) Profit (mil. lei)


WLLQG F

540 47

580 59

600 52

640 56

700 64

620 58

610 50

470 40

OHJ WXUD GLQWUH FHOH GRX

YDULDELOH DUH FDUDFWHU OLQLDU P VXUD L LQWHQVLWDWHD DFHVWHLD

prin intermediul: 1. UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH 2. coeficientXOXL GH FRUHOD LH 3. FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU 6SHDUPDQ 4. FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU .HQGDOO
5 VSXQVXUL

1. 2. 3. 4.

0,8857; 0,8857; 0,714; 0,571.

6.

/D R ILUP

V DX vQUHJLVWUDW XUP WRDUHOH GDWH SULYLQG FRVWXULOH GH SURGXF LH L SURILWXO RE LQXW

Tabelul 5.23. Costuri (mil. lei) Profit (mil. lei) 90 10 30 15 100 8 50 12 45 14 110 9 70 11 55 13 20 16 15 17

0 VXUD L LQWHQVLWDWHD OHJ WXULL GLQWUH FHOH GRX

YDULDELOH FX DMXWRUXO IXQF LD

1.

FRHILFLHQWXOXL L UDSRUWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH GDF

de regresie este

Y i = 17 , 687 0 , 089 x i ; 2. 3.
5 FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU 6SHDUPDQ FRHILFLHQWXOXL GH FRUHOD LH D UDQJXULORU .HQGDOO

VSXQVXUL 

1.  L 2. 0,9758; 3. 0,9111.