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A SHORT INTRODUCTION TO

TWO-PHASE FLOWS
Condensation and boiling heat transfer
Herve Lemonnier
DM2S/STMF/LIEFT, CEA/Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9
Ph. +33(0)4 38 78 45 40, herve.lemonnier@cea.fr
herve.lemonnier.sci.free.fr/TPF/TPF.htm
ECP, 2011-2012
HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISMS
Condensation heat transfer:
drop condensation
lm condensation
Boiling heat transfer:
Pool boiling, natural convection, ebullition en vase
Convective boiling, forced convection,
Only for pure uids. For mixtures see specic studies. Usually in a
mixture, h

x
i
h
i
and possibly h
i
.
Many denitions of heat transfer coecient,
h[W/m
2
/K] =
q
T
, Nu =
hL
k
, k(T?)
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 1/42
CONDENSATION OF PURE VAPOR
Flow patterns
Liquid lm owing.
Drops, static, hydrophobic wall
( ). Clean wall, better htc.
Fluid mixture non-condensible
gases:
Incondensible accumulation at
cold places.
Diusion resistance.
Heat transfer deteriorates.
Traces may alter signicantly h
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 2/42
FILM CONDENSATION
Thermodynamic equilibrium at the interface,
T
i
= T
sat
(p

)
Local heat transfer coecient,
h(z)
q
T
i
T
p
=
q
T
sat
T
p
Averaged heat transfer coecient,
h(L)
1
L
_
L
0
h(z)dz
NB: Binary mixtures T
i
(x

, p) and p

(x

, p). Approximate equilibrium condi-


tions,
For non condensible gases in vapor, p
V
= xP
sat
(T
i
), Raoult relation
For dissolved gases in water, p
G
= Hx
G
, Henrys relation
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 3/42
CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
Slow lm, little convective eect, conduction
through the lm (main thermal resistance)
Heat transfer controlled by lm characteristics,
thickness, waves, turbulence.
Heat transfer regimes,

M
L
P
, Re
F

4

L
Smooth, laminar, Re
F
< 30,
Wavy laminar, 30 < Re
F
< 1600
Wavy turbulent, Re
F
> 1600
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 4/42
CONDENSATION OF SATURATED STEAM
Simplest situation, only a single heat source: interface, stagnant vapor,
Laminar lm (Nusselt, 1916, Rohsenow, 1956), correction 10 to 15%,
h(z) =
_
k
3
L

L
g(
L

V
)(h
LV
+0, 68C
PL
[T
sat
T
P
])
4
L
(T
sat
T
P
)z
_
1
4
Averaged heat transfer coecient (T
W
= cst) : h(z) z

1
4
, h(L) =
4
3
h(L)
Condensate lm ow rate, energy balance at the interface,
(L) =
h(L)(T
sat
T
P
)L
h
LV
Heat transfer coecient-ow rate relation,

h(L)
k
L
_

2
L

L
(
L

V
)
_
1
3
= 1, 47 Re

1
3
F
h
LV
and
V
at saturation. k
L
,
L
at the lm temperature T
F

1
2
(T
W
+T
i
),
=
1
4
(3
L
(T
P
) +
L
(T
i
)), exact when 1/
L
linear with T.
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 5/42
SUPERHEATED VAPOR
Two heat sources: vapor (T
V
> T
i
) and interface.
Increase of heat transfer wrt to saturated conditions, empirical correction,

h
S
(L) =

h(L)
_
1 +C
PV
(T
V
T
sat
)
h
LV
_1
4
Energy balance at the interface, lm ow rate,
(L) =

h
S
(L)(T
W
T
sat
)L
h
LV
+C
PV
(T
V
T
sat
)
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 6/42
FILM FLOW RATE-HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
Laminar,

h(L)
k
L
_

2
L

L
(
L

V
)
_
1
3
= 1, 47 Re

1
3
F
Wavy laminar and previous regime (Kutateladze, 1963), h(z) Re
0,22
F
),

h(L)
k
L
_

2
L

L
(
L

V
)
_
1
3
=
Re
F
1, 08Re
1,22
F
5, 2
Turbulent and previous regimes (Labuntsov, 1975), h(z) Re
0,25
F
,

h(L)
k
L
_

2
L

L
(
L

V
)
_
1
3
=
Re
F
8750 + 58Pr
0,5
F
(Re
0,75
F
253)
NB: Implicit relation, Re
F
depends on h(L) through .
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 7/42
OTHER MISCELLANEOUS EFFECTS
Steam velocity, v
V
, when dominant eect,
V
v
descending ow, vapor shear added to gravity,
Decreases l thickness,
Delays transition to turbulence turbulence,
h
1
2
i
See for example Delhaye (2008, Ch. 9, p. 370)
When 2 eects are comparable, h
1
stagnant, h
2
with dominant shear ,
h = (h
2
1
+h
2
2
)
1
2
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 8/42
CONDENSATION ON HORIZONTAL TUBES
Heat transfer coecient denition,

h =
1

_

0
h(u)du
Stagnant vapor conditions, laminar lm,
Nusselt (1916)

h =
0.728
(0.70)
_
k
3
L

L
(
L

V
)gh
LV

L
(T
sat
T
p
)D
_
1
4
0.728, imposed temperature, 0.70, im-
posed heat ux.
, lm ow rate per unit length of tube.
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 9/42
Film ow rate- heat transfer coecient, energy balance,

h
k
L
_

2
L

L
(
L

V
)
_
1
3
=
1.51
(1.47)
Re

1
3
F
Vapor superheat and transport proprieties, same as vertical wall
Eect of steam velocity (Fujii),

h
h
0
= 1.4
_
u
2
V
(T
sat
T
P
)k
L
gDh
LV

L
_
0.05
1 <

h
h
0
< 1.7,
Tube number eect in bundles, (Kern, 1958),
h(1, N)
h
1
= N
1/6
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 10/42
DROP CONDENSATION
Mechanisms,
Nucleation at the wall,
Drop growth,
Coalescence,
Dripping down (non wetting wall)
Technological perspective,
Wall doping or coating
Clean walls required, fragile
Surface energy gradient walls. Self-
draining
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 11/42
heat transfer coecient,
1
h
=
1
h
G
+
1
h
d
+
1
h
i
+
1
h
co
G : non-condensible gas, d : drop, i : phase change, co coating thickness.
Non-condensible gases eect,
i
0, 02 h h/5
Example, steam on copper, T
sat
> 22
o
C, h in W/cm
2
/
o
C,
h
d
= min(0, 5 + 0, 2T
sat
, 25)
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 12/42
POOL BOILING
6
I=J
7
1
Nukiyama (1934)
Only one heat sink, stagnant saturated
water,
Wire NiCr and Pt,
Diameter: 50m,
Length: l
Imposed power heating: P
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 13/42
BOILING CURVE
4 35 200
,T
sat
(C)
q (W/cm
2
)
2
1 1 6
Imposed heat ux,
P = qDl = UI
Wall and wire temperature are equal,
D 0
R(T) =
U
I
, <| T>|
3
T
W
Wall super-heat: T = T
W
T
sat
Heat transfer coecient,
h
q
T
W
T
sat
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 14/42
BOILING CURVE
B
H
e
a
t

I
l
u
x
Wall superheat
C
E
F
G
AD
H
A
http://www-heat.uta.edu, Next
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 15/42
HEAT TRANSFER REGIMES
,T
0
, q
0
q
A
D
H
G
Nucleate boiling
Film boiling
Flux max.
Flux min.
Burn-out
,T
sat
OA: Natural convection
AD: Nucleate boiling
DH: Transition boiling
HG: Film boiling
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 16/42
TRANSITION BOILING STABILITY
,T
0
, q
0
q
A
D
H
G
Nucleate boiling
Film boiling
Flux max.
Flux min.
Burn-out
,T
sat
Wire energy balance,
MC
v
dT
dt
= P qS
Linearize at T
0
, q
0
, T = T
0
+T
1
,
MC
v
dT
1
dt
= P q
0
S
. .
=0
S
q
T
T
1
Solution, linear ODE,
T
1
= T
10
exp(t), =
S
MC
v
_
q
T
_
T
0
2 stable solutions, one unstable (DH),
q
T
< 0
Transition boiling, imposed temperature experiments (Drew et M uller,
1937).
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 17/42
NATURAL CONVECTION
Wire diameter D, natural convection
q = h(T
F
T
sat
), Nu =
hD
k
Pr =

L

L
, Ra =
g(T
F
T
sat
)D
3

L
Nusselt number is the non-dimensional heat transfer coecient (h).
k
L
,
L
,
L
at the lm temperature
1
2
(T
F
+T
sat
), `a T
sat
.
Churchill & Chu (1975), 10
5
< Ra < 10
12
,
Nu =
_
_
_
0, 60 +
0, 387 Ra
1/6
_
1 +
_
0,559
Pr
_
9/16
_
8/27
_
_
_
2
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 18/42
NATURAL CONVECTION ON A FLAT PLATE
Scales A, P, plate area and perimeter. Length scale, L =
A
P
.
Nu =
hL
k
=
qL
k
L
(T
P
T

)
, Ra =
g(T
P
T

)L
3

L
Two regimes,
Nu =
_

_
0, 560 Ra
1/4
_
1 + (0, 492Pr)
9/16
_
4/9
1 < Ra < 10
7
0, 14 Ra
1/3
_
1 + 0, 0107Pr
1 + 0, 01Pr
_
0, 024 Pr 2000, Ra < 2 10
11
Thermodynamic and transport properties Raithby & Hollands (1998). For
liquids: all at T
F
=
1
2
(T
P
+T

)
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 19/42
ONSET OF NUCLEATE BOILING
4
H
6
9
6

Control parameters: p
L
et T
W
= T
L
Super-heated wall: T
L
= T
sat
(p
L
) + T
Site distribution: r, R = R(r, )
Mechanical balance: p
V
= p
L
+
2
R
Thermodynamic equilibrium:
p
V
= p
sat
(T
Li
) T
Li
= T
sat
(p
V
)
T
Li
= T
sat
(p
L
+
2
R
) (T
L
T)+
2
R
dT
dp
sat
Heat ux to interface: q > 0,

R > 0
q = h(T
L
T
Li
) = h
_
T
2
R
dT
dp
sat
_
T > T
eq
=
2
R
dT
dp
sat
, R > R
eq
=
2
T
dT
dp
sat
1 bar, T = 3
o
C, R
eq
= 5, 2 m, 155 bar, T = 3
o
C, R
eq
= 0, 08 m
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 20/42
NUCLEATE BOILING MECHANISMS
Super-heated liquid transport, Yagumata et al.
(1955)
q (T
P
T
sat
)
1.2
n
0.33
n: active sites number density,
n T
56
sat
q T
3
sat
Very hight heat transfer, precision unneces-
sary.
Rohsenow (1952), analogy with convective h. t.: Nu = CRe
a
Pr
b
,
Scales : Re =

L
V L

L
,
Length: detachment diameter, capillary length: L
_

g(
L

V
)
Liquid velocity: energy balance, q = mh
LV
, V
q

L
h
LV
Ja
C
pL
(T
P
T
sat
)
h
LV
= C
sf
Re
0.33
Pr
s
L
C
sf
0.013, s = 1 water, s = 1.7 other uids.
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 21/42
BOILING CRISIS, CRITICAL HEAT FLUX
Flow pattern close to CHF: critical heat ux), Rayleigh-Taylor instability,
Stability of the vapor column: Kelvin-Helmholtz,
Energy balance over A,

T
= 2

3
_

g(
L

V
)
,
1
2

V
U
2
V
<

H
, qA =
V
U
V
A
J
h
LV
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 22/42
Zuber (1958), jet radius R
J
=
1
4

T
,
H
= 2R
J
, marginal stability,
q
CHF
= 0.12
1/2
V
h
LV
4
_
g(
V

L
)
Lienhard & Dhir (1973), jet radius R
J
=
1
4

T
,
H
=
T
,
q
CHF
= 0.15
1/2
V
h
LV
4
_
g(
V

L
)
Kutateladze (1948), dimensional analysis and experiments,
q
CHF
= 0.13
1/2
V
h
LV
4
_
g(
V

L
)
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 23/42
FILM BOILING
Analogy with condensation (Nusselt, Rohsenow), Bromley (1950), V L
Nu
L
= 0.62
_

V
g(
L

V
)h

LV
D
3

V
k
V
(T
W
T
sat
)
_
1
4
, h

LV
= h
LV
_
1 + 0.34
C
PV
(T
W
T
sat
)
h
LV
_
Transport and thermodynamical properties:
Liquid at saturation T
sat
,
Vapor at the lm temperature, T
F
=
1
2
(T
sat
+T
W
).
Radiation correction: T
W
> 300
o
C, : emissivity, = 5, 67 10
8
W/m
2
/K
4
h = h(T < 300
o
C) +
(T
4
W
T
4
sat
)
T
W
T
sat
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 24/42
TRANSITION BOILING
Minimum ux,
q
min
= Ch
LV
4

g(
L

V
)
(
L
+
V
)
2
Zuber (1959), C = 0.13, stability of lm boiling,
Berenson (1960), C = 0, 09, rewetting, Liendenfrost temperature.
Scarce data in transition boiling,
Quick x, T
min
and T
max
, from each neighboring regime (NB and FB),
Linear evolution in between (log-log plot!).
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 25/42
SUB-COOLING EFFECT
Liquid sub-cooling, T
L
< T
sat
, T
sub
T
sat
T
L
Ivey & Morris (1961)
q
C,sub
= q
C,sat
_
1 + 0, 1
_

V
_
3/4
C
PL
T
sub
h
LV
_
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 26/42
CONVECTIVE BOILING REGIMES
Increasing heat ux, constant ow rate
1. Onset of nucleate boiling 3. Liquid lm dry-out
2. Nucleate boiling suppression 4. Super-heated vapor
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 27/42
BACK TO THE EQUILIBRIUM (STEAM) QUALITY
Regime boundaries depend very much on z. Change of variable, x
eq
Equilibrium quality, non dimensional mixture enthalpy,
x
eq

h h
Lsat
h
LV
Energy balance, low velocity, stationary ows,
M
dh
dz
= Mh
LV
dx
eq
dz
= qP
Uniform heat ux, x
eq
linear in z. Close to equilibrium, x
eq
x
According to the assumptions of the HEM,
0 > x
eq
single-phase liquid (sub-cooled)
0 < x
eq
< 1 two-phase, saturated
1 < x
eq
single-phase vapor (super-heated)
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 28/42
CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN VERTICAL FLOWS
Boiling ow description
Constant heat ux heating,
Fluid temperature evolution, (T
sat
),
Wall temperature measurement,
Flow regime,
Heat transfer controlling mechanism.
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 29/42
From the inlet, ow and heat transfer regimes,
Single-phase convection
Onset of nucleate boiling, ONB
Onset of signiant void, OSV
Important points for pressure drop calculations, ow oscillations.
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 30/42
Nucleate boiling suppression,
Liquid lm dry-out, boiling crisis (I),
Single-phase vapor convection.
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 31/42
HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
DO: dry-out, DNB: departure from nucleate boiling (saturated, sub-cooled), PDO:
post dry-out, sat FB: saturated lm boiling, Sc Film B: sub-cooled lm boiling
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 32/42
BOILING SURFACE
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 33/42
S-Phase conv: single-phase convection, PB: partial boiling, NB: nucleate boiling
(S, saturated, Sc, subcooled), FB: lm boiling, PDO: post dry-out, DO: dry-out,
DNB: departure from nucleate boiling.
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 34/42
SINGLE-PHASE FORCED CONVECTION
Forced convection (Dittus & Boelter, Colburn), Re > 10
4
,
Nu
hD
k
L
= 0, 023Re
0,8
Pr
0,4
, Re =
GD

L
, Pr
L
=

L
C
PL
k
L
Fluid temperature, T
F
, mixing cup temperature, that corresponding to the
area-averaged mean enthalpy.
Transport properties at T
av
Local heat transfer coecient,
q h(T
W
T
F
), T
av
=
1
2
(T
W
+T
F
)
Averaged heat transfer coecient (length L),
q

h(

T
W


T
F
),

T
F
=
1
2
(T
Fin
+T
Fout
), T
av
=
1
2
(

T
W
+

T
F
)
Always check the original papers...
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 35/42
NUCLEATE BOILING & SIGNIFICANT VOID
Onset and suppression of nucleate boiling, ONB, (Frost & Dzakowic, 1967),
T
P
T
sat
=
_
8qT
sat
k
L

V
h
LV
_
0,5
Pr
L
Onset of signiant void, OSV, (Saha & Zuber, 1974)
Nu =
qD
k
L
(T
sat
T
L
)
= 455, Pe < 7 10
4
, thermal regime
St =
q
GC
PL
(T
sat
T
L
)
= 0, 0065, Pe > 7 10
4
, hydrodynamic regime
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 36/42
DEVELOPPED BOILING AND CONVECTION
Weighting of two mechanisms, x
eq
> 0 (Chen, 1966)
Nucleate boiling(Forster & Zuber, 1955), S, suppression factor,same model for
pool boiling,
Forced convection, Dittus Boelter, F, amplication factor,
h = h
FZ
S +h
DB
A
1
S
= 1 + 2.53 10
6
(ReF
1.25
)
1.17
, F =
_
_
_
1 1/X 0.1
2.35(1/X + 0.213)
0.736
1/X > 0.1
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 37/42
CHEN CORRELATION (CTD)
Nucleate boiling,
h
FZ
= 0.00122
k
0.79
L
C
0.45
pL

0.49
L

0.29
L
h
0.24
LV

0.24
V
(T
W
T
sat
)
0.24
p
0.75
sat
Forced convection
h
DB
= 0.023
k
L
D
Re
0.8
Pr
0.4
L
From Clapeyron relation, slope of saturation line,
p
sat
=
h
LV
(T
W
T
sat
)
T
sat
(v
V
v
L
)
Non dimensional numbers denitions,
Re =
GD(1 x
eq
)

L
, X =
_
1 x
eq
x
eq
_
0.9
_

L
_
0.5
_

V
_
0.1
, Pr
L
=

L
C
pL
k
L
NB: implicit in (T
W
T
sat
).
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 38/42
CRITICAL HEAT FLUX
No general model.
Dry-out, multi-eld modeling
DNB, correlations or experiment in real bundles
Very sensitive to geometry, mixing grids,
Recourse to experiment is compulsory,
In general, q
CHF
(p, G, L, H
i
, ...), articial reduction of dispersion.
For tubes and uniform heating, no length eect, q
CHF
(p, G, x
eq
)
Tables by Groenveld,
Bowring (1972) correlation, best for water in tubes
Correlation by Katto & Ohno (1984), non dimensional, many uids,
regime identication.
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 39/42
MAIN PARAMETERS EFFECT ON CHF
After Groeneveld & Snoek (1986), tube diameter, D = 8 mm.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
20 0 20 40 60 80 100
C
H
F
[
k
W
/
m
2
]
exit quality [%]
G=1000 kg/s/m
2
P= 10 bar
P= 30 bar
P= 45 bar
P= 70 bar
P= 100 bar
P= 150 bar
P= 200 bar
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
20 0 20 40 60 80 100
C
H
F
[
k
W
/
m
2
]
exit quality [%]
p=150 bar
G= 0 kg/s/m
2
G=1000 kg/s/m
2
G=5000 kg/s/m
2
G=7500 kg/s/m
2
Generally decreases with the increase of the exit quality. q
CHF
0, x
eq
1.
Generally increases with the increase of the mass ux,
CHF is non monotonic with pressure.
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 40/42
MORE ON HEAT TRANSFER
Boiling and condensation,
Delhaye (1990)
Delhaye (2008)
Roshenow et al. (1998)
Collier & Thome (1994)
Groeneveld & Snoek (1986)
Single-phase,
Bird et al. (2007)
Bejan (1993)
Condensation and boiling heat transfer 41/42
REFERENCES
Bejan, A. (ed). 1993. Heat transfer. John Wiley & Sons.
Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E., & Lightfoot, E. N. 2007. Transport phenomena. Revised
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