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GeneratorGenerator ProtectionProtection Relay Setting Calculations
GeneratorGenerator ProtectionProtection
Relay Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Generator Protection Sample Relay Setting Calculations

The

steps involved in calculating the relay settings for

generator protection.

sample

calculations

shown

here

illustrate

methodologies

and

techniques

may

be

Other applied

to

calculate

relay

settings

based

on

specific applications.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations Example Generator One Line Diagram X T = 10%
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Example Generator
One Line Diagram
X T = 10%
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

V84.2 GENERATOR TYPE TLRI 93/33-36 COSΘ=0.85

DESCRIPTIONS

RATED @ 40.0° C

CURVE A @ 15.0° C

CURVE B @ 10.0° C

APPARENT POWER

(MVA)

125.0

150.0

155.0

ACTIVE POWER

(MW)

106.2

ACTIVE POWER (MW) 106.2 127.5 131.7

127.5

131.7

POWER FACTOR / FREQUENCY (HZ)

0.85 / 60

0.85 / 60

0.85 / 60

STATOR CURRENT

(kA)

5.230

6.276

6.485

RATED VOLTAGE

(kV)

13.8

RATED VOLTAGE (kV) 13.8 13.8 13.8

13.8

13.8

COLD AIR TEMPERATURE

(° C)

40.0

COLD AIR TEMPERATURE ( ° C) 40.0 15.0 10.0

15.0

10.0

VOLTAGE RANGE (%)

-5.0 / +5.0

TYPE OF EXCITATION

STATIONARY

 

STANDARD

ANSI / IEC

INSULATION CLASS

B

STATOR WINDING

TYPE OF COOLING

INDIRECT

COOLING MEDIUM

AIR

HEAT LOSSES DISSAPATED AT RATED LOAD

222.4

KW

STATOR CORE

TYPE OF COOLING

RADIAL

COOLING MEDIUM

AIR

HEAT LOSSES DISSAPATED AT RATED LOAD

237.0

KW

ROTOR WINDING

TYPE OF COOLING

DIRECT RADIAL

COOLING MEDIUM

AIR

HEAT LOSSESS DISSAPATED AT RATED LOAD

287.7 KW

STATOR WINDING – SLOT TEMPERATURE RISE

62.8° K

ROTOR WINDING – AVERAGE TEMPERATURE RISE

71.1° Κ

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

V84.2 GENERATOR TYPE TLRI 93/33-36 COSΘ=0.85

EFFICIENCIES

RELATIVE TO:

RATED AT

CURVE A

CURVE B

OUTPUT POWER FACTOR COLD GAS TEMPERATURE

(MVA)

125.0

150.0

155.0

0.85

0.85

0.85

(°C)

40.0

15.0

10.0

STATIONARY

98.46 %

98.47 %

98.46%

- 100% LOAD

- 75% LOAD

98.32%

98.42%

98.43%

- 50% LOAD

97.88%

98.11%

98.15%

- 25% LOAD

96.32%

96.85%

96.94%

OUTPUT AND ALLOWABLE LOAD UNBALANCE

 

CONTINUOUS LOAD UNBALANCE – PERMISSIBLE I 2

CONTINUOUS LOAD UNBAL ANCE – PERMISSIBLE I 2 10%

10%

SHORT TIME ( K= I 2 2 t)

SHORT TIME ( K= I 2 2 t) 30

30

OUTPUT AT DEVIATING COLD AIR TEMPERATURE

 

ΔT=0.8% / °K

OUTPUT LIMIT WITH 1 COOLER SECTION OUT OF SERVICE

67%

OUTPUT AT COS Θ=0

58.5

- UNDER – EXCITED

(MVAR)

- OVER – EXCITED

(MVAR)

91.3

- CURVE A

(15° C)

(MVAR)

109.6

- CURVE B

(10° C)

(MVAR)

113.6

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

V84.2 GENERATOR TYPE TLRI 93/33-36 COSΘ=0.85

GENERATOR – EXCITER CURRENTS AND VOLTAGES

GENERATOR

 

EXCITER CURRENTS AND VOLTAGES

 

LOAD

RATED

CURVE A

CURVE B

@ 40.0° C

@15.0° C

@10.0° C

CURRENT

FIELD

CURRENT

FIELD

CURRENT

FIELD

VOLTAGE

VOLTAGE

VOLTAGE

(A)

(V)

(A)

(V)

(A)

(V)

NO LOAD

298

142

- -

-

-

125% LOAD

1011

480

- -

-

-

100% LOAD

822

391

970

459

1003

476

75% LOAD

662

314

- -

- -

50% LOAD

519

247

- -

- -

25% LOAD

395

188

- -

- -

REACTANCES

BASE MVA = 125 MVA

D-AXIS SUB-TRANSIENT

X D

UNSAT

19.3%

XD

SAT

15.6%

D-AXIS TRANSIENT

X D ′ D

 

UNSAT

27.2%

XD

SAT

24.5%

D-AXIS SYNCHRONOUS

X D D X D

 

UNSAT

206.8%

-

-

Q-AXIS SUB-TRANSIENT

X Q

UNSAT

21.2%

XQ

SAT

17.2%

Q-AXIS TRANSIENT

X Q

UNSAT

51.3%

XQ

SAT

46.1%

Q-AXIS SYNCHRONOUS

X Q

UNSAT

196.4%

 

-

-

NEG PHASE SEQUENCE

X 2

UNSAT

20.3%

X2

SAT

16.4%

ZERO PHASE SEQUENCE

X 0

10.9%

 

- -

 

POTIER

X P

26.8%

 

- -

 

STATOR LEAKAGE

X SLG

15.1%

 

- -

 

NO LOAD SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO SAT.

   

0.57

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

V84.2 GENERATOR TYPE TLRI 93/33-36 COSΘ=0.85

TIME CONSTANTS

D-AXIS SUB-TRANSIENT

X D ΄΄

SHORT

0.031

S

TDO΄΄ NO-LOAD

0.045

S

CIRCUIT

   

D-AXIS TRANSIENT

T D ΄

SHORT

0.873

S

TDO΄ NO-LOAD

7.150

S

CIRCUIT

   

Q-AXIS SUB-TRANSIENT

X Q ΄΄

SHORT

0.068

S

TQO΄΄ NO-LOAD

0.150

S

CIRCUIT

   

Q-AXIS TRANSIENT

T Q ΄

SHORT

0.534

S

TQO΄ NO-LOAD

2.500

S

CIRCUIT

   

DC

TIME CONSTRAINT

T

A

0.030

S

-

 

-

RESISTANCES

 

OF

STATOR WINDINGS

@20° C

RA20

 

0.001674 Ω

 

OF

ROTOR WINDINGS

@20° C

RF20

 

0.3501 Ω

POSITIVE SEQUENCE

 

R1

0.367%

INVERSE SEQUENCE

 

R2

3.201%

NULL SEQUENCE

 

R0

0.267%

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Nominal Voltages and Currents

Voltages and currents that are present at the input terminals when the generator is operating at rated voltage and current.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Inputs and their connections

. . 3V 0
.
.
3V 0
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Inputs

Open Delta-Open Delta VT, secondary wired L-L Example

VT Ratio = 14,440 / 120 = 120 13.8kV LL ABC A B C 13,800
VT Ratio = 14,440 / 120 = 120
13.8kV LL
ABC
A
B
C
13,800 / 120 = 115 V

VT Type: Line-to-Line V NOM = 115 V

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Inputs, 3Y-3Y VT, secondary wired L-L Example

Example:

Generator rating V L-L = 13,800V VT Ratio = 14,400/120V = 120/1

13,800V 13,800/120 = 115 M-3425A
13,800V
13,800/120 = 115
M-3425A

= 120

VT Type: Line-to-Line V NOM = 115 V

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Inputs

3Y-3Y VT, secondary wired L-G Example

Example:

Generator rating V L-L = 13,800V VT Ratio = 14,400/120V = 120

VT Type: Line-to-Ground V NOM = 115/3 = 66.4 V

14,440 120 √
14,440
120
√

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Inputs

3Y-3Y VT, secondary wired L-G (L-G to L-L selection) Use of L-L Quantities for Phase Voltage-based elements

The “Line-Ground to Line-Line” selection should be used when it is desired to provide the phase voltage-based elements (27, 59, 24 functions) with phase-to-phase voltages

They will not operate for neutral shifts that can occur during stator ground faults on high impedance grounded generators

The oscillograph in the relays will record line-ground voltage to provide stator ground fault phase identification

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Neutral Shift on Ground Fault:

High Impedance Grounded Generator

C B System A a SLG V Fault an =V ag a ground n=g v
C
B
System
A
a
SLG
V
Fault
an =V ag
a
ground
n=g
v
ag =0
V an = -V ng
c
b
V
V
V bn =V bg
bn =V bg
cg
V bg
n
High
Impedance
c
b
Ground
V cn
V bn

A ground fault will cause LG connected phase elements through a 3Y-3Y VT to have undervoltage or overvoltage (depending on faulted phase)

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Inputs

3Y-3Y VT, secondary wired L-G (L-G to L-L selection on the relay). This selection is recommended for the example generator.

Generator rating V L-L = 13,800V VT Ratio = 14,400/120V

VT Type: LG to LL V NOM = 115 V

14,440 120 √
14,440
120
Type: LG to LL V N O M = 115 V 14,440 120 √ √ Software

Software converts

(66.4V)

LG (66.5V) voltages to

LL (115V) quantities

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Current Inputs

Determine primary current at rated power I pri nom = MVA*10 6 / 3*V LL I pri nom = 125*10 6 /(1.732*13800) I pri nom = 5,230 A

Convert to secondary value

Ct ratio is denoted as R C

R C = 8000/5 = 1600

I sec nom = 5230/1600

I sec nom = 3.27 A

I sec nom =

I pri nom /R C

I NOM = 3.27A

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Delta-Y transform setting (used with 21, 51V)

This setting Determines calculation used for 21 and 51V functions (calculates the GSU high side voltages and currents)

Disable: Used for YY and Delta/Delta connected transformers

Delta-AB: Used for Delta-AB/Y connected transformers

Delta-AC: Used for Delta-AC/Y connected transformers

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

59/27 Magnitude Select:

This setting adjusts the calculation used for the overvoltage and undervoltage functions. RMS selections keeps the magnitude calculation accurate over a wide frequency range. RMS setting is preferred for generator protection applications where the frequency can vary from nominal value especially during startup and shutdown.

Phase Rotation (32, 46, 81):

This setting adjusts nominal rotation. We do not recommend reversing the CT and PT connections to change the rotation. Using the software switch will result in proper phase targeting.

50DT Split phase Differential:

Used for split phase hydro machine applications. This setting changes IA, IB, and IC metering labels and does not affect the operation of any protective element.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Relay Seal In Time:

Normal output mode: Sets the minimum amount of time a relay output contact will be closed.

Pulse output mode: Sets the output relay pulse length.

Latched: No affect

Pulse Relay:

When selected, the output contacts close for the seal in time setting then de-energize, regardless of function status.

Latched Outputs:

This function simulates lock out relay (LOR) operation. When selected, the output contacts remain closed until the function(s) have dropped out and the target reset button is pressed.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

59N – Neutral Overvoltage (Gen)

I S V LL Rating = 13,800 V PRI S I S = 3.5 x
I S
V LL Rating = 13,800 V
PRI S
I S = 3.5 x 13,800 = 201.3A
240

V 59N = 0.7 x 201.3 = 140.9V

Therefore, for a terminal L-G fault, there will be 140.9 V applied to the generator relay neutral voltage input connection.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

59N – Neutral Overvoltage (Gen)

59N setpoint # 1 = 5.4 V, 2 ~ 10 sec.

This is a standard setting which will provide protection for about 96% of the stator winding The neutral-end 4% of the stator winding will be protected by the 27TN or 59D elements

-

59N setpoint #1 time delay should be set longer than the clearing time for a 69 KV fault - GSU transformer-winding capacitance will cause a voltage displacement at the neutral. 10 seconds should be long enough to avoid this situation, or the voltage generated at the neutral resistor can be calculated and a high enough setting with small delay may be applied.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

59N – Neutral Overvoltage (Gen)

59N Setpoint #2 = 35 V, 5 sec. (300 cycles)

Note: Setpoints should be coordinated with low voltage secondary VT fuses

59N #3 can be used for alarm and trigger an oscillograph (set to 5 V at 1 sec)

low voltage secondary VT fuses 59N #3 can be used for alarm and trigger an oscillograph
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

27TN – Third Harmonic Undervoltage

27TN is set by measurement of

third

commissioning

harmonic

voltage

during

Observe 3 rd harmonic voltage under various loading conditions

Set the 27TN pickup to 50% of the observed minimum

Set power and other supervisions as determined from the data collected above

1.50 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 Desired Minimum Setting 10% 30% 50% 70% 90% 20%
1.50
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
Desired Minimum Setting
10%
30%
50%
70%
90%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
3rd Harmonic Voltage

Power / VAr

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

27TN – Third Harmonic Undervoltage

0.3
0.3
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

27TN Third Harmonic Neutral Undervoltage

The 27TN function overlaps with the 59N function to provide 100% stator ground fault protection. See the graph below.

to provide 100% stator ground fault protection. See the graph below. Overlap of Third Harmonic (27TN)

Overlap of Third Harmonic (27TN) with 59N Relay

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

59N – Neutral Overvoltage (Bus)

14,400 120 V VT 3E O = 3 x 66.5 = 200 V
14,400
120 V VT
3E O = 3 x 66.5 = 200 V

59N is connected to a broken-delta VT input on the line side of the generator breaker for ungrounded system bus protection

ungrounded when backfed from the GSU and the generator disconnect switch is open

The

system

is

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

59N – Neutral Overvoltage (Bus)

The maximum voltage for a solidly-grounded fault

is 3 x

66.5 = 200 V.

Because of the inaccuracies between the VTs, there can be some normal unbalanced voltages.

59N Setpoint #1 Pick-up = 12 V, 12 sec (720 cycles)

59N Setpoint # 2 cycles)

Pick-up

=

35

V,

5.5

sec (330

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

46 – Negative Sequence

Nameplate

10% continuous capability of stator rating (125 MVA), the same as that stipulated in ANSI/IEEE C37.102.

The K factor is 30.

Set Inverse Time Element for Trip

Pick-up for tripping the unit (Inverse Time) = 9%

K=29

Definite Maximum time = 65,500 cycles.

Set Definite Time Element for Alarm

Pickup =5%

Time delay = 30 sec (1800 cycles). Note that 30 sec should be longer than a 69 KV system fault clearing time.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

46 – Negative Sequence

Check the response of the 46 function phase-to-phase faults.

for high-side (69 kV)

46 function phase-to-phase faults. for high-side (69 kV) Relay operating time is 7 seconds for 69

Relay operating time is 7 seconds for 69 kV faults. This should provide adequate coordination with 69 kV system.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Negative Sequence Overcurrent (46)

46IT Pickup=9%

Definite maximum time (65,500 cycles) Pickup 5% 46DT Alarm Time Delay = 30 s 46IT,
Definite maximum time (65,500 cycles)
Pickup 5%
46DT Alarm
Time Delay = 30 s
46IT, K=29
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

46 – Negative Sequence

29
29
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

87G – Generator Differential

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations 87G – Generator Differential CT’s are of C800 Standard quality

CT’s are of C800 Standard quality

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

87G – Generator Differential

Generator CT Short Circuit Calculation:

Differential Generator CT Short Circuit Calculation: Check for the maximum three-phase fault on the terminals of

Check for the maximum three-phase fault on the terminals of the generator to determine the secondary current for the worst-case internal fault.

X” d

X

"

I pu

I

pri

d

(

saturated ) =

15.6%

V

100

=

=

I

15.6

(13.8

KV

)

=

6.4 pu

5230(6.4)

=

33,472 A

I sec =

I pri

33,472

=

R

c 1600

=

20.92 A

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

87G – Generator Differential

69KV Fault Current Calculation:

– Generator Differential 69KV Fault Current Calculation: Check for the maximum three-phase fault on the terminals

Check for the maximum three-phase fault on the terminals of the generator to determine the secondary current for the worst-case external fault.

X” d

X

X

"

d

sys

(

saturated =

)

= 10%(125

V

=

X

"

d

+

X

t

15.6%

)

MVA

100

15.6

+

10

I

=

pu

3.9 pu

I

pri

(13.8

KV

)

=

5230

3.9

=

20,397

I sec =

I pri

20,397

=

R

c 1600

=

12.75 A

A

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

87G – Generator Differential

CT Requirement Check

R ctr

R W

R R

V S
V S
V S
V S
V S
V S
V S
V S

V

V S
V S

S

V S
V S
V S

R ctr = CT Resistance R w = Wiring Resistance R R = Relay Burden = 0.5 VA @ 5A = 0.02Ω

45° V K V S I S V K > V S
45°
V K
V S
I S
V K > V S

CTs should perform well since the maximum current is only 21 A (CT secondary) for worst-case short circuit.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

87G – Generator Differential

IEEE GUIDE FOR THE APPLICATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS IEEE Std C37.110-1996

Calculations 87G – Generator Differential IEEE GUIDE FOR THE APPLICAT ION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS IEEE Std
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

87G – Generator Differential

Setting Summary

Pick-up = 0.3 A (480 A primary sensitivity)

Slope = 10%

Time Delay = 1 cycle (no intentional time delay) (if ct saturation is possible time delay should be increased to 5 cycles)

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

87G – Generator Differential

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations 87G – Generator Differential
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
24 – Volts/Hertz (Overfluxing) 1.40 p.u. • 1.35 • 1.30 1.25 1.20 1.15 • 1.10
24 – Volts/Hertz (Overfluxing)
1.40
p.u.
1.35
1.30
1.25
1.20
1.15
1.10
1.05
1.00
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000

time

Overfluxing Capability, Diagram

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

24 – Volts/Hertz (Overfluxing)

10000 Inverse Time Element Generator V/Hz Capability Pickup = 110% V/Hz Protection Curve (Inverse) Curve
10000
Inverse Time Element
Generator V/Hz Capability
Pickup =
110%
V/Hz Protection Curve
(Inverse)
Curve #2
V/Hz Protection Curve (Definite
time)
1000
K= 4.9
(115 + 2.5 K − VHz
)/ 4.8858
t
=
60 e
100
Alarm Settings:
Definite Element #2
Pickup = 106%
Definite time element #1
Time Delay = 3
sec
Pickup =
135%
10
Time Delay = 4 sec
1
0.1
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
Time in sec

V/Hz in percent of nominal

Protection can be provided with an inverse time element (24IT) in combination with a definite time element (24DT#1)

Another definite time element (24DT#2) can be used for alarm with a typical pickup of 106% and a time delay of 3 sec

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

24 – Volts/Hertz (Overfluxing)

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations 24 – Volts/Hertz (Overfluxing)
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

50/27 – Inadvertent Energizing

The 50/27 inadvertent energizing element senses the value of the current for an inadvertent energizing event using the equivalent circuit below.

X 1SYS = 6.25% X 2 All reactances on generator base (125 MVA)
X 1SYS = 6.25%
X 2
All reactances on generator base (125 MVA)

X 2 = 16.4 %

Values shown above are from generator test sheet

Where X 2 is the negative sequence reactance of the generator

The current can be calculated as follows:

I = E S /(X 2 + X T1 + X 1SYS )

= 100/(16.4 + 10 + 6.25)

= 3.06 pu

= 3.06 x 5230 = 16,004 A

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

50/27 – Inadvertent Energizing

The current can be calculated as follows:

I = E S /(X 2 + X T1 + X 1SYS )

= 100/(16.4 + 10 + 6.25) = 3.06 pu

= 3.06 x 5230 = 16,004 A

The relay secondary current :

= 16004/R C = 16004/1600 = 10 A

Set the overcurrent pickup at 50% of this value = 5 A

For situations when lines out of the plant are removed from service, X 1SYS can be larger. Considering this case set 50 element pickup at 125% of full load or 4.0 A. Many users set the 50 Relay below full load current for more sensitivity, which is ok.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

50/27 – Inadvertent Energizing

The undervoltage element pickup should be set to 40 to 50% of the nominal value:

The undervoltage pickup = 0.4 x 115 V = 46.1 V

The pickup time delay for the 27 element should be set longer than system fault clearing time.

Typical value is 5 sec (300 cycles)

The dropout time delay is set to cycles).

7

sec (420

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

50/27 – Inadvertent Energizing

46
46
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V)

Calculations Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V) System Configuration with Multiple In-Feeds Provide backup

System Configuration with Multiple In-Feeds

Provide backup for system phase faults

Difficult to set: must coordinate with system backup protection

Coordinate general setting criteria

- backup relaying time

- breaker failure

- Consideration should be given to system emergency conditions.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V)

Voltage control/restraint needed because of generator fault current decay

needed because of generator fault current decay Voltage Control Types: Voltage Control (VC): set 51V pickup

Voltage Control Types:

Voltage Control (VC): set 51V pickup at a percent of full load (40-50%) Voltage Restraint (VR): set 51V pickup at about 150% of full load

set 51V pickup at a percent of full load (40-50%) Voltage Restraint (VR): set 51V pickup
set 51V pickup at a percent of full load (40-50%) Voltage Restraint (VR): set 51V pickup
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

51V Voltage Restraint Overcurrent

This function provides backup protection for phase faults out in the power system.

Set this relay for Voltage Restraint mode.

It will have the following characteristic.

% Pickup

• It will have the following characteristic. % Pickup Input Voltage (% of rated voltage) Pickup

Input Voltage (% of rated voltage)

Pickup = 1.5 x Generator Full Load Rating

I FL = 3.27A

Pickup current = 3.27 x 1.5 = 4.9 A

Where % pickup is the adjusted pickup current based on the voltage as a percent of pickup setting.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V)

Calculate the fault current for a 3 phase 69 KV fault:

X X” d T E gen
X
X” d
T
E gen

X" (saturated)

d

= 15.6%

X sys

I

pu

=

= 10% (125MVA)

100

E gen

X"

d

+

X

t

=

15.6

+

10

I

pri

(13.8KV)

=

5230(3.9)

3.9pu

=

20,397A

I sec

=

I pri

20,397

=

R

c 1600

= 12.75A

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V)

Determine generator phase voltage for 3 phase 69KV fault:

V

gen

=

X

t

X

"

d

+

X

t

100% =

10

15.6

+

10

100%

=

39%

Multiples of pickup (MPU) for a 3 phase fault on 69KV bus:

MPU =

I fault

I

V

pickup gen

(%)

=

12.75

4.9(0.39)

= 6.67

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Definite Time Overcurrent Curve

Select the Curve and Time Dial to get 1.0 sec clearing time for 69KV fault:

Definite Time curve Time Dial = 4.5

MPU = 6.67
MPU = 6.67
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V)

51V Setting Summary:

Pickup = 4.9 A

Definite Time Curve

Time Dial = 4.5

Voltage Restraint

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V)

Now calculate the lowest fault current for a 3-phase fault:

Assumptions:

Generator was not loaded prior to fault Automatic Voltage Regulator was off-line Transient and Subtransient times have elapsed and the machine reactance has changed to its steady state value (X d ).

The fault current is given by the same equivalent circuit except replace the subtransient reactance of the generator with synchronous reactance (X d ) of 206.8%.

I

I

MinFault

sec

=

I

=

E gen

X

d

+

X

t

=

100

206.8

+

10

= 0.46 pu

I

MinFault no

min

al

=

0.46(3.27)

=

1.5

A

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V)

It can be seen that for a bolted 3-phase fault (at the transformer terminals), the current is less than 50% of the full load current. This is the reason why we need to apply Voltage restraint/Voltage control setting for overcurrent function.

The voltage at the generator terminals during this condition is given by:

V gen = (E gen x X T )/(X d + X T )

= 100 x 10/(206.8+10) = 0.04612 pu

= 0.04612 x 115 = 5.3 V

Since the voltage is below 25% of the rated voltage, the overcurrent pickup will be 25% of the setting:

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V)

Over Current pickup = 4.9 x 25% = 1.225 A.

Since the fault current is 1.5 A, the multiple of pickup is 1.5/1.225 = 1.23 multiple.

With time dial setting of 4.5 and definite time curve, the relay operating time is around 5.3 seconds.

Since the actual fault current during transient and subtransient periods are much higher than 1.5 A the operating time will be between 1 and 5.3 seconds.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V)

Calculations Voltage Control/Restraint Overcurrent (51V) =>Enable Voltage Restraint =>Do not select blocking

=>Enable Voltage Restraint =>Do not select blocking on VT fuse loss (only for Beckwith Relays, other relays may require blocking). VT fuse-loss blocking is not required for Voltage restraint and it is only required for Voltage Control. For voltage restraint the relay will internally keep the 51V pickup at 100% during VT fuse-loss condition.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

System Phase Fault Backup (21)

Provides protection for failure of system primary relaying

Provides protection for breaker failure

Must balance sensitivity vs. security

- loadability

- load swings

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

System Phase Fault Backup (21)

– Setting Calculations System Phase Fault Backup (21) For a fault at F the approximate apparent

For a fault at F the approximate apparent impedance effect is:

a fault at F the approximate apparent impedance effect is: The fault appears farther than the

The fault appears farther than the actual location due to infeed.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

System Phase Fault Backup (21)

   

Transformer Direct Connected

Transformer Delta- AC Connected

Transformer Delta- AB Connected

 

VT Connection

 

VT Connection

   

VT Connection

L-L or L-G to L-L

 

L-G

L-L or L-G to L-L

L-G

L-L or L-G to L-L

L-G

 

V

AB

V

A- V B

V

BC- V AB

V

B- V O

V

AB- V CA

V

a- V o

AB Fault

I

a -I b

I

a -I b

 

(3)I b

I

b

(3)I a

I

a

 

V

BC

V

B- V C

V

CA- V BC

V

C- V O

V

BC- V AB

V

b- V o

BC Fault

I

b -I c

I

b -I c

(3)I c

I

c

(3)I b

I

b

 

V

CA

V

C- V A

V

AB- V CA

V

A- V O

V

CA- V BC

V

c- V o

CA Fault

I

c -I a

I

c -I a

 

(3)I a

I

a

(3)I c

I

c

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

System Phase Fault Backup (21)

0.85 power factor corresponds to 31.8º
0.85 power factor corresponds to 31.8º
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

21 Phase Distance

The 21 function should be set to provide system backup protection.

To 5559

line 96

line 86 3976 3975 line 87 125 MVA base 3977 3974 10% line 97 GEN
line 86
3976
3975
line 87
125 MVA base
3977
3974
10%
line 97
GEN
69 KV
4,000 foot cable
3978
3973
3972
21
line 94
To line 83

To PP4

To sub 47

To sub PP4

To PP4

All breakers have breaker failure protection.

All lines out of the substation have high-speed pilot wire protection.

The 4,000 foot cable of 69 KV is protected by a HC8-1 pilot wire scheme. We need to provide backup if this high-speed scheme fails. Set 21-2 unit to look into the substation.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

21 Phase Distance

Typical 69 kV cable impedance: (0.2 + j0.37)% per mile

= (0.2 + j0.37) x 4000 = (0.152 + j0.28)% @100 MVA

5280

Change base to 125 MVA:

= (0.152 + j0.28)x (125/100) = (0.19 + j0.35)%

The transformer impedance is 0.1 pu on generator base

The secondary (relay) impedance = 0.1 x 20.3 = 2.03 ohms.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

21 Zone-1 Settings:

Zone-1 will be set to look into the low side of the step-up transformer, but not into the 69kV system.

125 MVA base 10% or 0.10 p.u. GEN (0.19 + j0.35)% 69 KV 4,000 foot
125 MVA base
10% or 0.10 p.u.
GEN
(0.19 + j0.35)%
69 KV
4,000 foot cable
21
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

21 Zone-1 Settings:

Set zone 21-1 into generator step-up transformer but short of 69 kV bus. A margin of .8 is used to compensate for LTC (if used).

(0.1 for margin, and 0.1 for the LTC variation)

2.03 x .8 = 1.60Ω

Setting Summary for 21-1

Diameter =1.6 Ω

Time delay = 0.5 sec. (30 cycles)

Angle of maximum torque: 85°

60FL supervised

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

21 Zone-2 Settings:

Zone-2 will be set to look up to the substation bus.

Calculate zone 21-2 setting as follows:

(0.19 + j0.35) + j10.0 = 0.19 + j10.35 10.35%

Set zone 21-2 with 1.3 margin:

10.35% x 1.3 13.45%

From our earlier calculations 1.0 pu secondary (relay) impedance

= 20.3 Ω

Then the Zone-2 reach setting is:

= 0.1345 x 20.3 = 2.73 Ω.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

21 Zone-2 Settings:

Setting Summary for 21-2

Diameter = 2.73 Ω

Time delay = 1.0 sec (60 cycles). This should cover backup clearing for fault on transmission (69 KV) system. Most lines have a dual primary.

Angle of maximum torque: 85°

60FL supervised

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Phase Distance (21)

jX Z2 Z1 85 o Z2 reach at RPFA 1.64 (31.8 o ) 0 R
jX
Z2
Z1
85 o
Z2 reach at
RPFA 1.64 (31.8 o )
0
R

1.6 Ω

1.6 Ω

2.7 Ω

RPFA:

Factor Angle

Rated

Power

loadability

considerations:

Z2 at RPFA should not exceed 150 to 200 % of generator rating

Generator

In our example Zone-2 reach at RPFA should not exceed 50% to 66.66% of 1.0 pu impedance (200% to 150% load).

50% impedance = 10.15 Ohms at 0.85 pf (31.8 o ) With Zone-2 set at 2.7 Ohms and MTA of 85 o the reach at RPFA of 31.8 o = 2.73 x (Cos (MTA-RPFA) = 1.64 Ohms. Normal load will not encroach into the Zone-2 characteristic.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

(21) – Phase Distance

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations (21) – Phase Distance
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Breaker Failure-50BF

When the relay (or another device) send a trip signal to open the breaker and current continues to flow OR the breaker contact continues to indicate closed, the upstream breaker is tripped.

and current continues to flow OR the breaker contact continues to indicate closed, the upstream breaker
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

50BF – Generator Breaker Failure

Steady

state

bolted

fault

current

for

a

3-phase

fault

at

the

transformer terminals is 1.5 A (relay secondary).

Set the 50BF phase function current pickup at 1 A, which is below the fault current.

Set the breaker failure time longer than the maximum clearing time of the breaker plus the margin.

Initiate 50BF with all relays that can trip the generator breaker.

Set the 50BF Timer: 4(margin) + 1(accuracy) + 5(breaker time) = 10 cycles.

Use programmable inputs to initiate the breaker failure for all other relays that trip the generator breaker.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

50BF – Generator Breaker Failure

Setting Summary

50BF Pickup = 1 A

Time Delay = 10 cycles

Initiate the breaker failure with programmable inputs from external trip commands.

Initiate the breaker failure with the

outputs (from

internal trip commands) connected to trip.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

50BF – Generator Breaker Failure

1.00
1.00
Setting Calculations 50BF – Generator Breaker Failure 1.00 Breaker Failure Trip Output BFI BFI Output Initiate
Setting Calculations 50BF – Generator Breaker Failure 1.00 Breaker Failure Trip Output BFI BFI Output Initiate

Breaker Failure Trip Output

BFI

BFI

Output Initiate – Output contacts within M-3425A that trip generator breaker.

Input Initiate – Input into breaker failure logic tripping of generator breaker of other trip device – i.e., turbine trip, other relays.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Loss of Field Protection (40) TYPICAL GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations Loss of Field Protection (40) TYPICAL GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations Loss of Field Protection (40) TYPICAL GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations Loss of Field Protection (40) TYPICAL GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations Loss of Field Protection (40) TYPICAL GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations Loss of Field Protection (40) TYPICAL GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations Loss of Field Protection (40) TYPICAL GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations Loss of Field Protection (40) TYPICAL GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations Loss of Field Protection (40) TYPICAL GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

TRANSFORMATION FROM MW-MVAR TO R-X PLOT

MVA = kV 2 ( R c ) Z R v
MVA = kV 2
(
R c
)
Z
R v

MW – MVAR

R-X PLOT

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

LOSS OF FIELD PROTECTION SETTING CHARACTERISTICS

-R

HeavyLoad LightLoad - Xd’ 2 -R +R ImpedanceLocus 1.0 pu During Loss of Field Zone1
HeavyLoad
LightLoad
- Xd’
2
-R
+R
ImpedanceLocus
1.0 pu
During
Loss of Field
Zone1
Xd
Zone2
Scheme 1

+X

Heavy Load Light Load X TG +X min SG1 +R - Xd’ Directional Zone 2
Heavy Load
Light Load
X TG +X min SG1
+R
- Xd’
Directional
Zone 2
2
Element
Zone 1
1.1Xd
Impedance Locus
During Loss of Field

-X

Scheme 2

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

40 – Loss of Field

Generator Ratings (Primary):

Rated (base) MVA = 125 Rated (base) Phase-PhaseVoltage (V B ): 13.8 kV Rated (base) Current (I B ) = MVA x 10 3 /(3 V B ) = 5,230 A

Secondary (Relay) quantities:

CT Ratio (R C ) = 8000/5 = 1600; VT Ratio (R V ) = 14400/120 = 120

Nominal VT Secondary (V NOM ): = V B / R V

= 13.8 x 10 3 /120 = 115 V

Nominal CT Secondary (I NOM ): = I B / R C = 5230/1600 = 3.27 A

Nominal (1.0 pu) impedance = V NOM /I NOM

= 115/ (3 x 3.27) = 20.3 Ω

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

40 – Loss of Field (Scheme 1)

Generator Parameters (125 MVA base)

X d = 2.068 pu

'

X d

= 0.245 pu

Zone-1 Settings

Diameter: 1.0 pu = 1.0 x 20.3 = 20.3 ohms

Offset = -

X

'

d

/2 = (0.245/2)x20.3 = -2.5 ohms

Time Delay = 5 cycles

Zone-2 Settings

Diameter:

X

d = 2.068 x 20.3 = 42.0 ohms

Offset = -

'

X d

/2 = (0.245/2)x20.3 = -2.5 ohms

Time Delay = 30 cycles

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

40 – Loss of Field

1.0 p.u. = 20.3 Ω

R 0 X’ d = 2.5 Ω 2 Zone 1 Zone 2
R
0
X’ d = 2.5 Ω
2
Zone 1
Zone 2

-X

X d = 42.0 Ω

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Generator Characteristics

20 Overexcited Real Power into the System P(MW) 0 0 20 40 60 80 100
20
Overexcited
Real Power into the System
P(MW)
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Underexcited
-20
MEL
GCC
-40
SSSL
MEL
GCC
-60
SSSL
-80
Reactive Power into the Generator
Q(Mvar)_)

If it is possible, it is desirable to fit the relay characteristic between the steady state stability limit and generator capability curve. In this example the Zone-2 diameter can be reduced to meet this criteria.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Loss of Filed Settings on the R-X Plane

10 jX MEL GCC (Scheme –1) SSSL R 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20
10
jX
MEL
GCC
(Scheme –1)
SSSL
R
0
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
-10
Zone 2
Zone 1
-20
-30
-40
-50
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Loss Field Settings on P-Q Plane

(Scheme – 1)

20 Overexcited P (MW) Real Power into the System 0 0 20 40 60 80
20
Overexcited
P (MW)
Real Power into the System
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Underexcited
-20
GCC
MEL
SSSL
-40
MEL
GCC
-60
SSSL
Zone 2
-80
-100
-120
Zone 1
-140
Q (Mvar)
Reactive Power into the Generator
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

40 – Loss of Field (Scheme 1)

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations 40 – Loss of Field (Scheme 1)
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

40 – Loss of Field (Scheme 2)

Zone-1 Settings Diameter

Off-set

Time Delay

= 1.1 X d – X’ d /2 = 1.1 x 42 – 5/2 = 43.7 ohms

= -X’ d /2 = -5/2 = -2.5 ohms

= 15 cycles

Zone-2 Settings Diameter

= 1.1 X d + X T + X sys = 1.1 x 42+2.03+1.27 = 49.5 Ohms

= X T +X sys = 2.03 + 1.27 = 3.3 ohms

Off-set

Angle of Directional Element: -13 o

Time Delay

tripping with undervoltage supervision is not applied)

= 3,600 cycles (60 cycles if (accelerated

Undervoltage Supervision:

Undervoltage Pickup = 80% of nominal voltage = 0.8 x 115 = 92 V Time Delay with undervoltage = 60 cycles.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Loss of Filed Settings on the R-X Plane

(Scheme – 2) 10 jX Directional Element R 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20
(Scheme – 2)
10
jX
Directional Element
R
0
-30
-20
-10
0
10 20
30
Zone
2
Zone 1
-10
MEL
GCC
SSSL
-20
Dir Element
-30
X
10
-10
-40
-50
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Loss Field Settings on P-Q Plane

(Scheme – 2)

20 Overexcited Real Power into the System P(MW) 0 0 20 40 60 80 100
20
Overexcited
Real Power into the System
P(MW)
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Underexcited
-20
MEL
GCC
Zone 2
-40
SSSL
MEL
GCC
-60
SSSL
Zone1
-80
Q(Mvar)_)
Reactive Power into the Generator
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

40 – Loss of Field (Scheme 2)

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations 40 – Loss of Field (Scheme 2)
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Reverse Power (32)

Prevents generator from motoring on loss of prime mover

Typical motoring power in percent of unit rating

Prime Mover

% Motoring Power

Gas Turbine:

Single Shaft

100

Double Shaft

10 to 15

Four cycle diesel

15

Two cycle diesel

25

Hydraulic Turbine Steam Turbine (conventional) Steam Turbine (cond. cooled)

2 to 100 1 to 4 0.5 to 1.0

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Reverse Power (32)

Generator is not affected by motoring (runs like a synchronous motor)

Turbine can get damaged

Since the example generator is driven by a gas turbine (10 to 15%) the reverse power relay pickup is set at 8%

Time delay is set at 30 sec.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Reverse Power (32)

Protection – Setting Calculations Reverse Power (32) In some applications it is desirable to set a

In some applications it

is

desirable to set a

low forward power setting instead of reverse power.

This can be achieved by selecting Under Power selection along with a positive pickup setting.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

78 – Out-of-Step

Generator and transformer test sheet data, and system information:

Xd =24.5% X T = 10% on generator base X SYS = 6.25% on generator base

X T = 10% on generator base X S Y S = 6.25% on generator base

Use graphical method to determine settings.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

78 – Out-of-Step

The per unit secondary (relay) impedance = 20.3 Ω Convert all impedances to secondary (relay):

Direct axis transient reactance (Xd ) = (24.5/100)x 20.3 = 5.0 Ω Transformer impedance (X T ) = (10/100)x 20.3 = 2.03 Ω System impedance (X SYS ) = (6.25/100)x 20.3 = 1.27 Ω.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Out-of-Step (78)

jX X SYS 1.5 X T = 3 ohms X T 1.5 X T 0
jX
X SYS
1.5 X T = 3 ohms
X T
1.5 X T
0
T N
S
o
GEN
120
swing locus
(X d )
'
'
2 X d = 10 ohms
d
2.4 ohms

R

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Settings of 78 Function From Graph:

Circle diameter Offset

Impedance angle = 90° Blinder distance (d) = ((X’ d + X T +X SYS )/2) tan (90-(120/2))

= (2 X’ d + 1.5 X T ) = 10 Ω + 3 = 13 Ω = -2 X’ d = -10 Ω

d = 2.4 Ω

Time delay = 2 to 6 cycles (3 cycles)

Trip on mho exit = Enable Pole slip counter = 1.0 Pole slip reset = 120 cycles

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

78 – Out-of-Step

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations 78 – Out-of-Step
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Fuse Loss Detection (60FL)

(block 51V, 21, 40, 78, 32)
(block 51V, 21, 40, 78, 32)
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Phase Undervoltage (27)

Under voltage condition generally does not cause generator damage.

The limitation will be with the dropping of the plant auxiliaries

Undervoltage function is typically set to Alarm rather than Trip.

Definite time element #1

Pickup = 90% (104 V)

Time delay = 10 sec (600 cycles)

Definite time element #2

Pickup = 80% (92 V)

Time delay = 5 cycles

Ensure fuse loss and breaker position (52b) are set to block.

104 600 92 120
104
600
92
120
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

Phase Overvoltage (59)

Generators are designed to operate continuously at 105% of the rated voltage

Overvoltage condition can cause over fluxing and also can cause excessive electrical stress.

Set the overvoltage function as follows:

Definite time element #1 Pickup = 110% (127 V) Time delay = 10 sec (600 cycles)

Definite time element #2 Pickup = 150% (173 V) Time delay = 5 cycles

127 600 173
127
600
173
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

81 Frequency Protection

The generator 81U relay should be set below the pick-up of underfrequency load shedding relay set-point and above the off frequency operating limits of the turbine generator.

If there are any regional coordinating council requirements they must be met also.

The multiple setpoint underfrequency protection is common on Steam turbine generators and for gas turbines a single setpoint underfrequency protection may be employed.

In this example the Florida Coordinating Council requirements are used as a guideline for under frequency/over frequency settings. Due to the lack of information from the generator/turbine manufacturer and load shedding relay settings.

Generator Protection – Setting Calculations
Generator Protection – Setting Calculations

81 Frequency Protection

Florida Regional Coordinating Council