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Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling (Materials and Mix Design)

(This set of slides come from “Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments” by NCAT.)

Sampling

Sampling from Pavements for Preliminary Analysis

Sampling from Trucks

Sampling from Stockpiles

If Pavement is One Lane Wide If Pavement is Two Lane Wide Divide Pavement into
If Pavement is One
Lane Wide
If Pavement is Two
Lane Wide
Divide Pavement into
12 to 16 Sections of
Equal Length
Divide Pavement into 6
to 8 Sections of Equal
Length, 2 Lanes Wide
Obtain One Random
Sample Per Section
Obtain One Random
Sample Per Section,
Per Lane
Perform Tests
Determine Mean, Standard Deviation

Mix Design

Material Evaluation

– Sampling

– Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

– Recycling Agents

Mix Design Procedures

– Conventional (Marshall/Hveem)

– Superpave

Sampling from Pavements

Divide Pavement into Sections of Equal Length

Conduct Random Sampling

Perform Tests

Milling Machine Loading a Truck
Milling Machine Loading a Truck

Sampling from Trucks

Divide Production into one or two day periods

Randomly Select Two Trucks Per Sampling Period Conduct Random Sampling

Perform Tests

RAP Stockpile
RAP Stockpile

Divide Stockpile into a Grid of 12 to 16 Blocks

Divide Stockpile into a Grid of 12 to 16 Blocks

Select One Random Sampling Point in Each Block

With Power Equipment, Obtain One Sample from Upper Third and One from Lower Third of
With Power
Equipment, Obtain
One Sample from
Upper Third and One
from Lower Third of
Pile at Each Sampling
Point
and One from Lower Third of Pile at Each Sampling Point Without Power Equipment, Obtain One

Without Power Equipment, Obtain One Sample from top of Pile at Each Sampling Point and One from Lower Half of Pile at Sides of Adjacent Blocks

Divide Production into 12 to 16 One Day Period Randomly Select Two Trucks per time
Divide Production into 12 to
16 One Day Period
Randomly Select Two Trucks
per time Period for Sampling
Obtain One Random
Sample Per Truck
Perform Tests

Determine Mean, Standard Deviation

Sampling from Stockpiles

Divide Stockpile into Grid of Blocks

Conduct Random Sampling from Each Block Obtain Samples from Top and Bottom Portion of Pile Perform Tests

Conduct Sampling
Conduct Sampling

Conduct Sampling

Conduct Sampling
Conduct Sampling
Conduct Sampling
Conduct Sampling
Conduct Sampling

Perform Tests

Determine Mean, Standard Deviation

Determine Mean, Standard Deviation

Evaluation of RAP

RAP Mix Composition Asphalt Content Gradation

Asphalt Binder Recovery (More than 15-20% RAP)

Viscosity at 60 o C or Rutting Factor (G*/Sin delta)

Types of Recycling Agents

Soft Asphalt Cements

AASHTO M226 (Viscosity Graded Asphalt Cements) AASHTO MP1 (PG Asphalt Binders)

Commercial Recycling Agents

ASTM D4552 (Classifying Hot-Mix Recycling Agents)

Steps in Conventional Mix Design

Aggregate Gradation, Asphalt Content, and viscosity of Extracted Binder from RAP

Aggregate Gradation, Asphalt Content, and viscosity of Extracted Binder from RAP

Aggregate Gradation, Asphalt Content, and viscosity of Extracted Binder from RAP
Aggregate Gradation, Asphalt Content, and viscosity of Extracted Binder from RAP

Gradation of New Aggregate

Determine Combined Gradation in Recycled Mix

Determine Combined Gradation in Recycled Mix

Recycling Agents

Restore Aged Asphalt Binder to Desired Consistency Restore Aged Asphalt Binder to Optimum Properties for Durability Provide Sufficient Additional Binder for Coating Added Virgin Aggregate Provide Sufficient Additional Binder to Satisfy Mix Design

Recycling Agents (ASTM D4552)

RA1

RA5

RA25

RA75

RA250

RA500

Viscosity @

60C (cSt)

50-175

176-900 901-

4501-

12501-

37501-

 

4500

12500

37500

60,000

Flash Point, C, Minimum

218

218

218

218

218

218

Saturates, %,

30

30

30

30

30

30

Minimum

Viscosity Ratio (RTFO or TFO)

33

3

3

3

3

Steps in Conventional Mix Design (continued)

Determine Approximate Asphalt Demand of Combined Aggregate

Determine Approximate Asphalt Demand of Combined Aggregate Estimate Percent of New Asphalt Binder in Mix Select
Estimate Percent of New Asphalt Binder in Mix

Estimate Percent of New Asphalt Binder in Mix

Estimate Percent of New Asphalt Binder in Mix
Estimate Percent of New Asphalt Binder in Mix

Select Grade of New Asphalt Binder (from Viscosity Chart)

Steps in Conventional Mix Design (continued)

Select Grade of New Asphalt Binder

Select Grade of New Asphalt Binder
Select Grade of New Asphalt Binder
Select Grade of New Asphalt Binder

Run Trial Mix Designs by Marshall or Hveem Method

(continued) Select Grade of New Asphalt Binder Run Trial Mix Designs by Marshall or Hveem Method

Select Job Mix Formula

Viscosity, Poise, 60C 10 8 10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3
Viscosity, Poise, 60C
10
8
10
7
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
700
10
2
10
1
0
10
20
30
40
50 60
70
80
90 100
New Asphalt or Recycling Agent, R,
Percent by Weight
Viscosity, Poise, 60C 10 8 10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3
Viscosity, Poise, 60C
10
8
10
7
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
180
10
2
10
1
0
10
20
30
40
50 60
70
80
90 100
New Asphalt or Recycling Agent, R,
Percent by Weight

Example 1

Viscosity of Aged Binder in RAP: 46,000 Poise Target Viscosity: 2,000 Poise

Percentage of Recycling Agent in Total Binder: 69

Viscosity of Recycling Agent ?

700 PoisePoise Target Viscosity: 2,000 Poise Percentage of Recycling Agent in Total Binder: 69 Viscosity of Recycling

Example 2

Viscosity of Aged Binder in RAP: 100,000 Poise Target Viscosity: 2,000 Poise

Percentage of Recycling Agent in Total Binder: 57

Viscosity of Recycling Agent ? 180 Poise

Target Viscosity: 2,000 Poise Percentage of Recycling Agent in Total Binder: 57 Viscosity of Recycling Agent

Example 2 (continued)

Let us Use AC 20

Viscosity of Available Recycling Agent: 1 Poise Percentage of Recycling Agent Required to Blend with AC 20 to Produce a Viscosity of 180 Poise?

22 %Agent: 1 Poise Percentage of Recycling Agent Required to Blend with AC 20 to Produce a

Viscosity, Poise, 60C 10 8 10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3
Viscosity, Poise, 60C
10
8
10
7
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
180
10
2
10
1
22
%
0
10
20
30
40
50 60
70
80
90 100
New Asphalt or Recycling Agent, R,
Percent by Weight
Marshall Hammer

Marshall Hammer

or Recycling Agent, R, Percent by Weight Marshall Hammer Steps 5 and 6 Trial Mix Design

Steps 5 and 6 Trial Mix Design and Job Mix Formula

5 Asphalt Contents (2 Above and 2 Below Estimated AC) Heat RAP to Mixing Temperature (Not More Than 1 Hour) Heat New Aggregate 10 o C Above Mixing Temperature Marshall or Hveem Mix Design Procedures

Marshall Stability Machine
Marshall Stability Machine
Kneading Compactor
Kneading Compactor
Stabilometer
Stabilometer

Steps in Superpave Mix Design (continued)

Determine Approximate Asphalt Demand of Combined Aggregate

Determine Approximate Asphalt Demand of Combined Aggregate Determine G*/sin δ of Proposed Recycling Agent Determine

Determine G*/sin δ of Proposed Recycling Agent

Determine G*/sin δ of Proposed Recycling Agent
Determine G*/sin δ of Proposed Recycling Agent
Determine G*/sin δ of Proposed Recycling Agent

Determine Amount of Recycling Agent (Use G*/sin δ Blending Chart)

Step 4 Selection of PG Grade for New Binder

Up to 15% RAP: Use Same PG Grade 16-25% RAP: Select One Grade Below (Both high and low temperatures) For Example: PG 58-28 in Lieu of 64-22, Blending Chart Optional 25% or More RAP: Use Blending Chart

Steps in Superpave Mix Design

Aggregate Gradation, Asphalt Content, and viscosity of Extracted Binder from RAP

Aggregate Gradation, Asphalt Content, and viscosity of Extracted Binder from RAP

Aggregate Gradation, Asphalt Content, and viscosity of Extracted Binder from RAP
Aggregate Gradation, Asphalt Content, and viscosity of Extracted Binder from RAP

Gradation of New Aggregate

Determine Combined Gradation in Recycled Mix

Determine Combined Gradation in Recycled Mix

Steps in Superpave Mix Design (continued)

Compact Trial Mixes with Superpave Gyratory Compactor

Select Job Mix Formula

G*/Sin δ Blending Chart

Uses 1.0 kPa and 2.0 kPa Stiffness Lines Determines Minimum and Maximum Percentages of New Binder Determines Maximum and Minimum Amounts of RAP

Data Needed for Blending Chart

Target PG Grade G*/Sin δ of Aged Asphalt Binder from RAP Determined at High Temperature of Target PG Grade G*/Sin δ of New (Virgin) Binder Also Determined at High Temperature of Target PG Grade % New Binder in Total Binder

G*/Sin(delta), kPa, 64C 100 10 2 1 0.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
G*/Sin(delta), kPa, 64C
100
10
2
1
0.1
0 10
20
30
40
50 60
70
80
90 100
New Asphalt or Recycling Agent, R,
Percent by Weight
G*/Sin(delta), kPa, 64C 100 10 2 1 0.65 kPa 72 89 0.1 0 10 20
G*/Sin(delta), kPa, 64C
100
10
2
1
0.65
kPa
72
89
0.1
0 10
20
30
40
50 60
70
80
90 100
New Asphalt or Recycling Agent, R,
Percent by Weight

Example 1

Binder Specified: PG 64-28

G*/sin δ of Aged Binder, at 64C: 100 kPa

G*/sin δ a of Virgin Binder, at 64C : 1.13 kPa

Amount of Virgin Binder to be Added to RAP:

85 - 100 %

Example 2

Binder Specified: PG 64-28

Binder to be Used: PG58-34

G*/sin delta of Aged Binder, at 64C: 100 kPa

G*/sin delta of Virgin Binder, at 64C : 0.65 kPa Amount of Virgin Binder to be Added to RAP:

at 64C: 100 kPa G*/sin delta of Virgin Binder, at 64C : 0.65 kPa Amount of

72 - 89 %

Steps 5 and 6 Trial Mix Design and Job Mix Formula

5 Asphalt Contents (Bracket the Estimated Asphalt Content Heat RAP to Mixing Temperature (Not More Than 1 Hour) Heat New Aggregate 10 o C Above Mixing

Temperature Compact Specimens in Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC)

% Gmm Binder Content 10 100 1000 Log Gyrations
% Gmm
Binder
Content
10
100
1000
Log Gyrations

Summary

Material Evaluation

Sampling of RAP Evaluation of RAP Recycling Agents

Mix Design

Selection of New Binder

Viscosity Grade

Superpave PG Grade

Trial Mix Design and JMF

Marshall/Hveem Procedures

Superpave Volumetric Procedure