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Q1 Q2 Q3 What are nucleons? Protons and neutrons together is called as nucleons. Why nucleus is positively charged? As nucleus contains positive protons and neutral neutrons. So nucleus is positively charged. Na+ ion have completely filled K and L shell. Explain Na+ ionis formed when Na atom loses one electron from the valence shell i.e M shell. The Na+ ion formed has only two shells left which are completely filled. Na : K(2) , L(8) , M(1) Na+ : K(2); L(8) If K and L shell of an atom are full, then what would be the number of electrons in the atom? K has maximum number of electrons = 2 L has maximum number of electrons = 8 Total = 2+8= 10 electrons What are isobars? Give two examples Atoms of different element which have same mass numbers but different atomic numbers are known as isobars 22 22 ; 20Ar40 and 20Ca40 10Ne and 11Na Explain why elements have fractional atomic masses. The elements have fractional atomic masses due to existence of isotopes. For example chlorine has two isotopes 17Cl35 and 17Cl37 therefore Average atomic mass of chlorine = 35 x 17 + 37 x 17 = 35.5 u 100 Define atomic mass unit A.M.U is defined as the mass of 1/12th mass of one atom of C-12 isotope. Define molecular mass of the substance It is the sum of atomic masses of all the atoms in the molecule of the substance. Atoms of inert gases are monoatomic while that of the other elements are not. Give reason The atoms of inert gases have stable configuration, therefore they can independently exist and are monatomic. The atoms of other elements do not have stable configuration as their also orbit does not contain 8 electrons, so they combine with other atoms. An atom of an element has full K and L shell and has 5 electrons in its M shell. (i)Write its electronic configuration (ii) What is its atomic number? (iii) Name the element. (iv) What is its valency? (v) Is it metal or non metal? (vi) Will it form cation or anion? Electronic configuration : K(2), L(8), M(5) Atomic number: 15 Element: phosphorous Valency : gains three electrons so -3 Non Metal as it has tendency to gain electrons Anion , as it gains three electrons to become stable. Enlist the conclusion drawn by Rutherford from his particle scattering experiment 1. Most the space inside the atom is empty because most of the particles passed straight through the gold foil without getting deflected. 2. Very few particles were deflected from their path indicating that the positive charge of the atom occupies very little space




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3. A very few particles bounced back indicating nucleus is dense and hard. What are isotopes? Isotopes are the atoms of the same element having same atomic number and different mass number. Example 17Cl35 and 17Cl37 and 1H1 , 1H2 , 1H3 isotopes of hydrogen: protium, deuterium, tritium respectively. Why do isotopes have different mass number? Mass number is number of neutrons and protons. Since number of neutrons are different , hence mass number varies. Write down the chemical formulae of Aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3 Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 Potassium Nitrate KNO3


Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3 Zinc Chloride ZnCl2 Give reasons (i) ions are more stable than atoms Atoms have incomplete outermost shell,i.e it does not have stable configuration , but when atoms looses or gains electrons to for ion, they attain stable configuration. Hence ions are more stable than atoms (ii) Nucleus is heavy and dense Mass of electrons is negligible. Since neutrons and protons are inside the nucleus . hence the mass of an atom is due to masses of protons and neutrons. That is why nucleus is heavy. (iii) isotopes have identical chemical properties Isotopes have same atomic number, hence their electronic configuration is same. So their chemical properties are same. How are electrons distributed in different orbits?(State Bohr and Bury scheme) 1. The maximum outermost number of electrons which can be present in a particular shell is given by 2n2 where n is the shell no. Sl.N o 1 2 3 4 Electron Shell K Shell L Shell M shell N shell 2N2 Maximum Capacity 2 X (1)2 = 2 2 X (2) = 8 2 X (3) = 18 2 X (4)2 = 32
2 2


2 electrons 8 electrons 18 electrons 32 electrons

2. The outermost shell of an atom cannot have more than eight electrons , even it has capacity of more to take up. 3. Electrons fill in the shells step by step. When one shell is completely filled only then the electrons jump into the next shell Q17 An Element M has its oxide as M2O3. Write its formulae of its chloride. From the formulae M2O3 , valency of M is +3 and that of oxide is -2 Valency of chlorine is -1 M Cl Formulae is MCl3 +3 -1 Write the cations and anions present in the following compounds NaCl , NH4NO3 , CaSO4 , ZnCl2 , KNO3 , Fe2O3 COMPOUND CATION ANION NaCl Na+


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NH4NO3 NH4 + NO32+ CaSO4 Ca SO42ZnCl2 Zn 2+ Cl+ KNO3 K NO3Fe2O3 Fe 3+ O2What are polyatomic ions? The ions which consist of more than one atom are called polyatomic ions. Example SO42- ; NO3Define atomcity . Name one diatomic and tetratomic molecule of an elemnt The number of atoms present in a molecule of an element. Diatomic : H2 ; O2 , Cl2 ; N2 ; I2 Tetratomic : P4 Write the formulae of the compound formed by the following ions (a) Cr 3+ and SO42- (b) Pb 2+ and NO3Symbol/ formulae Valencies Cr 3+ SO4 2Pb 2+ NO3 1-


Compound Cr2(SO4)3 Pb(NO3) Calculate the molar mass/ molecular mass of the following H2CO3 ; C2H5OH ; H2SO4 ( H=1u ; C= 12u ; O= 16u ; S=32u) H2CO3 = 2 x 1 + 12 + 3 x 16 = 2 + 12 + 48 = 62 u or g/mol C2H5OH = 2 x12 + 5 x 1 + 16 + 1 = 24 + 5 + 16 + 1 = 46 u or g/mol

H2SO4 = 2 x 1 + 32 + 4 x16 = 2 +32 +64 = 98 u or g/mol Q23 Calculate the formulae mass of sodium carbonate Na2CO3 . 10H20 [ Na = 23u ; C= 12u ; O= 16u] Note : formulae mass is also calculated as same done in above question. The word formulae mass is used when compound is ionic. Na2CO3 . 10H20 = 2 x 23 + 12 + 3x 16 + 10 [ 2 x1 + 16] = 46 + 12 + 48 + 180 = 286 u or g/mol Q24 The given figure depicts the atomic structure of an element X Write the following information (a) atomic number of X = protons =6 (b) atomic mass of X = p + n = 6+ 6 =12 ( c) valenc electrons = electrons in valence shell = 4 (d) valency = 8-4 = 4 (e) metal/ non metal = since it gains electrons to have 8 electrons in outermost shell, so it is non metal