Sunteți pe pagina 1din 39

2. THE ADJECTIVE (specialized texts) The Degrees of Compariso . !

eg"lar Ad#ecti$es Irreg"lar Ad#ecti$es %hrases &ith Ad#ecti$es 'pecific o(#ecti$es '"mmar) Assessme t exercises *i(liograph)

Specific objectives: At the end of the chapter you will be able to: define and identify the regular and irregular adjectives correctly use the degrees of comparison translate some Idioms containing adjectives Estimated time for individual study: 4 hours

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

2.+. The Degrees of Compariso . !eg"lar Ad#ecti$es

Adjectivul este de dou feluri: descriptiv - arat calit ile unui obiect! fiin e! etc" #important! clever! young! red! small$ i restrictiv - e%prim modificri ale distan ei! cantit ii! etc" #this, m"ch, m)$" My sister is tall, slim and beautiful. Adjectivul se plasea& de obicei 'naintea substantivului pe care 'l determin: A red car. A smart lawyer. A bank account. This contract. (n limba engle& adjectivul nu se acord cu substantivul 'n gen! numr i caz. El are e%act aceiai form pentru singular i plural" A beautiful girl. Two beautiful girls. )umele de ri! na ionalitatea! limba vorbit 'ntr-o anumit regiune se scriu 'ntotdeauna cu majuscule: I am a omanian citizen, but, as I!m working in the banking system, I can s"eak English #ery well. *rdinea adjectivelor este urmtoarea: A$ +entru obiecte: )umrul! calit ile! vechimea! forma! culoarea! originea! materialul! -ing! ,-ubstantivul"
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

Two beautiful, old, round, black, $erman tables. .$ +entru fiin e: )umrul Calit ile /rimea 01rsta *riginea ,-ubstantivul Three beautiful, tall, young, Romanian girls.

Ad#ecti$ele a" trei grade de compara-ie: %oziti# & atunci c1nd este descris un obiect sau un set de obiecte 'long, small, good, beautiful(, )om"arati# & atunci c1nd comparm calit ile unui obiect sau set de obiecte cu cele ale unui alt obiect sau set de obiecte 'longer, smaller, better, more beautiful( i *u"erlati# 'the longest, the smallest, the best, the most beautiful(. (n func ie de modul 'n care adjectivele formea& gradele de compara ie ele sunt 'mpr ite 'n ad+ecti#e neregulate i ad+ecti#e regulate, acestea din urm fiind la r1ndul lor 'mpr ite 'n adjective scurte #adjectivele monosilabice i adjectivele bisilabice terminate 'n -y! precum i c1teva alte adjective de origine germanic terminate 'n -ow! -er! -le! etc" # ha""y, yellow, gentle, cle#er, common, handsome, narrow, "leasant, quiet, sim"le, stu"id( i adjective lungi #plurisilabice$" 2%ist c1teva adjective care nu au grade de compara ie! cum ar fi: *u"erior, unique, e,ce"tional, glorious, great, mar#ellous, s"lendid, su"reme, wonderful, ultramodern, matchless, absent, equal, left, o""osite, right, single, etc" 3ormarea comparativului i superlativului unui adjectiv urmea& aceste reguli: A$ A452C6I0272 -C8962 +*:I6I0 A-. L10$ /A%%2 C*/+A9A6I0 A-.&ER 'T/A0( L10$ER 'T/A0( /A%%IER 'T/A0( -8+297A6I0 T/E A-.&EST T/E L10$EST T/E /A%%IEST

.$ A452C6I0272 78);I
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

+*:I6I0 A-. 3EA4TI54L E6%E0*I7E

C*/+A9A6I0 MORE A-. 'T/A0( MORE 3EA4TI54L 'T/A0( MORE E6%E0*I7E 'T/A0(

-8+297A6I0 T/E MOST A-. T/E MOST 3EA4TI54L T/E MOST E6%E0*I7E

Iat 'n cele ce urmea& schema integral a compara iei adjectivelor: %18ITI7 good 2ou are ha""y beautiful

)1M%A ATI7 A( -e inferioritate good 2ou are not as9so ha""y beautiful as your sister

3( -e egalitate good 2ou are as ha""y beautiful as your sister

)( -e su"erioritate better 2ou are ha""ier more beautiful than your sister

*4%E LATI7
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

A( elati# best 2ou are the ha""iest most beautiful .$ Absolut good 2ou are #ery ha""y 3eautiful girl in the world

2.2. The Irreg"lar Ad#ecti$es

+*:I6I0 $ood 'bun, bun:, 3ad 'r:u( Much 'mult, mult:( Many 'mul<i, multe( Little '"u<in, "u<in:( 1ld 'b:tr=n, #echi(

C*/+A9A6I0 3etter 'mai bun( ;orse 'mai r:u( More 'mai mult( More 'mai mul<i( Less 'mai "u<in( 1lder 'mai #echi,mai b:tr=n( Elder 'mai >n #=rst:, mai mare, referitor la "ersoane din aceea?i familie 'mai & fra<i, surori(@ 5arther de":rtat "entru distan<e( 5urther 'mai de":rtat @ "entru s"a<iu ?i tim"A su"limentar, adi<ional( Later 'mai t=rziu( The latter 'cel de&al doilea, ultimul din doi, folosit mai ales >n sintagmaB The formerC the latter( 0earer 'mai a"ro"iat(

-8+297A6I0 The best 'cel mai bun( The worst 'cel mai r:u( The most 'cel mai mult( The most 'cei mai mul<i( The least 'cel mai "u<in( The oldest 'cel mai #echi, cel mai b:tr=n( The eldest 'cel mai mare, cel mai b:tr=n, referitor la The farthest 'cel mai de":rtat @ ca distan<:( The furthest 'cel mai >nde":rtat @ folosit mai ales tem"oral( The latest 'cel mai t=rziu, cel mai recent, cel mai nou( The last 'ultimul final @ du": el nu mai urmeaz: nimic altce#a din aceea?i serie( The nearest 'cel mai a"ro"iat( The ne,t 'urm:torul dintr&o serie(

5ar 'de":rtat(

Late 't=rziu(

0ear 'a"ro"iat(

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

2... %hrases &ith Ad#ecti$es 2%presia Dcu c=t....cu at=t este e%primat 'n limba engle& prin folosirea comparativelor de superioritate ale respectivelor adjective! precedate de prepo&i ia theB The more, the merrier! " )u cat suntem mai multi, cu atat e mai #esel. The longer the days are, the warmer they become.E )u cat sunt zilele mai lungi, cu atat de#in mai calde The more beautiful, the better. E )u cat sunt mai frumoase, cu atat e mai bine. 2%presia Ddin ce >n ce mai....D superioritate: este redat prin repeti ia comparativului de

2our results are better and better.E ezultatele tale sunt din ce in ce mai bune. *he becomes more and more beautiful.E Ea de#ine din ce in ce mai frumoasa. As winter comes, the weather is colder and colder. E )and #ine iarna, #remea e din ce in ce mai rece.

Acti$it) + #! $omplete the sentences %ith adjectives from the bo&: Strong, e&pensive, cheap, ade'uate, much, perfect, short, legal, many, further, busy, latter!

e&pensive, practical,

<" 6he rooms at the 9it& are very """" =" >ow""" airports are in )ew ?or@A B" I thin@ I need some""" information if you want me to help you" C" *f the two solutions he preferred the former to the""" D" >er action was"""" E" 7etFs eat here" I donFt have much money and itFs reallyG H" >er plan is very"""! but his is just""" I" >ow""" does a hotel room cost A J" 6he hotel is very"""
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

<K" I lent him a""" sum of money" <<" Le can wal@ from here" ItFs only a""" distance" <=" >is measures were""" <B" 3ather comes home late because he is a very""" man" (! )ut the adjectives in brac*ets into the correct form: <" 6hese boo@s are not""" #e%pensive$ as the other ones" =" 6he #many$""" people who have a problem with cash flow phone the ban@ and as@ for an overdraft" B" A personal loan is often a #good$""" idea because the repayments are structured over a pre-arranged period" C" -tore cards are generally #e%pensive$""" then other credit cards and can only be used in shops which offer them" D" ?our homewor@ is #bad$""" than hers" E" 6his hotel manager was the #polite$""" we had ever met" H" -ir Linston Churchill was the #faimous$""" 2nglishman in the Lorld Lar II" I" M6he more! the #merry$"""M says an 2nglish proverb" J" .oo@s are""" and""" #e%pensive$ nowadays" <K" 7eviFs ma@e the""" #famous$ trousers in the world" <<" ?our""" #old$ sister is my""" #old$ friend" <=" Certain regions produce""" #much$ petroleum than they consume! and others consume""" #much$ than they produce" <B" Africa produces more than twice what it consumes! and the /iddle 2ast is the #big$""" producer of all" <C" >owever! those two regions are tied for consuming the""" #small$ amount" <D" 2urope consumes about H=N more than it produces" It is one of the""" #large$ producers but it is also the #large$ consumer of all the regions" .. +ill in the blan*s %ith the right %ord! $hoose bet%een the follo%ing %ords: m"ch/ ma )/ fe&/ a fe&/ little/ a little0 <" Le have""" friends here" =" 6here arenFt""" jobs for middle-aged persons"

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

B" /i@e would li@e""" mil@ in his tea" C" As we didnFt have""" time! we had to ta@e a ta%i" D" )owadays""" people have servants in their houses" E" -he didnFt spend """ money on her holiday" H" 6his te%t is rather difficult" -he has had to loo@ up""" new words in the dictionary" I" I donFt read""" boo@s because I donFt have""" spare time" J" >e couldnFt give me""" information" <K" ?ou must hurry" 6here is""" time left" <<" 0ery""" e%periments have been done to find out the cause of that accident" <=" I have""" friends that I can trust! but not """" <B" I had""" time to spare! so I browsed round a boo@shop" <C" It didnFt cost""" <D" *nly""" of the committee members went to the meeting" <E" 8nfortunately! the solicitor has very""" clients"

1or a (etter " dersta di g of grammar a d $oc("lar) practice !ead a d tra slate the follo&i g text0 Identity and solidarity Identity is one of the most important ingredients for the cohesion of the human society" >umans need
to feel about themselves that they belong to the same group and that can be made only by discovering the same characteristics in their behavior! in the language! the @nowledge and the culture! so that this identity creates the solidarity of the human group" Le can not draw the e%istence of human race! the civili&ation and the transformation from autonomous individuals or ha&ardous and random couples to a structured group and to a well established society! with human civili&ed institutions without the solidarity component" Identity is the ingredient that ma@es humans recogni&e a responsibility towards the other individuals from their group! or the structured group as a whole! or the human society or! at the end! the solidarity with the entire humanity and man@ind" 9esponsibility ma@es humans behave sympathetic with their neighbors"

Identity and so#ereignty


Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses


together and creating responsibility! coagulating human societies

6he identityFs role in bringing people

was politically speculated by group of interests who wanted the power and the legitimacy to rule" 3irst! it was the animal behavior ma@ing the human to draw o territory and a group of friends who recogni&ed a certain authority! personali&ed by a specific individual"

After this civil and laic power! the

human society needed t o e % p r e s s the fears and to e%plain

the things of life! so that a religious power appeared! organically connected to the human society" 6he historical

fight between the two powers made the humanity establish the institu tion of sovereignty! with its divine origin"
6he soveieignty legitimated a political power with a divine force! including the infallibility of the leaders" -tep by step! the evolution of human society and institutions! the evolution of the state! led to many changcs in the composition ol the sovereignty institution! which became what it is today" 6his rule regarding the state sovereignty still represents a primary principle of the 8nited )ations and of the current organi&ation of the world"

Identity and nationalism .ut these religious and divine characteristics of sovereignty contain a great power! having the capacity of legitimating political reOuests" 6here have always been leaders or interest groups who wanted to ta@e over the power" 6hus! this ma@es them speculate the identity and the attributes of sovereignty for political reasons" 6herefore! if a certain group of interests wants more power than it can be obtained through democratic system! it can very easily speculate the creation of a certain identity that legitimates the reOuest of a state! connected to a certain nation created over night" 6his is the case of every nationalism that sees in identity the differences between a certain privileged group and the rest of the population of an e%isting state" It is very easy to demand more political rights and power when you are dealing with a state where the democratic laws are not well established and the democracy does not function! where some ethnic or minority groups are not included in the process of decision and the governance is Ouestionable" 6he result of such challenge of the current state government! under the above mentioned circumstances could lead to war! when the conflict masters are also involved with their own interests" The e,"erience of early warning in identity conflicts 6he e%periences of Lestern .al@ans! of ethnic conflicts in the former -oviet 8nion and in Caucasus ma@e the e%perts establish many programs for solving ethnic conflicts! for preventing identity conflicts and establish a networ@ of early warning 6he special purpose of these programs is to prevent every difference that can be speculated by political groups for destabili&ing an e%isting state! especially within the democracies and economies in transition" 6he -tability +act in -outh-2astern 2urope sustained by the 2uropean 8nion! the -22C+ and other institutions! programs created by 8)4+ and the C+C of *-C2 and a number of );*Fs are very efficient nowadays! leading to an important e%perience in dealing with this @ind of problems" 6hose problems arc not solved yet! but a special reaction plan in dealing with emerging identity conflicts is being elaborated"
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

6he present study presents the main actions on an identity conflict agenda! a very profound radiography of the origin of identity conflicts mechanism and the phases of sovereignty in the history! that ma@es this institution so important! credible and indispensable as a tool in identity conflicts! a thorough overview on the types of nationalism that speculates identity differences for political reasons" Le have also focused on the current solutions to this problem: a presentation of the political! economic and social factors of confidence and stability building! the thesis on ethnic conflict prevention! the issue of refugees! the e%periences of 6he 8) >igh Commissioner for refugees and the *-C2 >igh Commissioner for )ational /inorities and the role of non governmental organi&ations" 7ast but not least! we present some results of the common project theory within the -tability +act actions"

Acti$it) 2 #! $hose the right form of the personal pronouns given in brac*ets: <" /y husband and #IPme$ have just come bac@ from the theatre" =" I am writing a letter to #shePher$" B" If you see 5ane! please give #shePher$ my best regards" C" I sent #theyPthem$ a present for their wedding" D" 6ell #hisPhim$ to come home as soon as possible" E" 4onFt as@ #usPours$ so many Ouestions! we are very tired now" H" #LeP8s$! the 9omanians are very proud of our past" I" 6hatFs very @ind of #theyPthem$" J" +ass #mePI$ the bread! pleaseQ <K" Le wanted to @now where #theyPthem$ lived" (! +ill in the blan*s %ith the corresponding )ossessive )ronouns or ,djectives: <" It seems that my secretary is more efficient thanG =" -he offered""" services" B" ;rannie canFt find""" glasses" C" I always pay""" bills on time" D" -he is typing""" reports and we are typing""""
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

E" >e has left""" boo@ here" H" Is this""" opinionA I" ?ou should use""" pencil" J" 6hey show /ary""" toys" <K" I li@e""" 2nglish teacher" .. )ut in the corresponding Refle&ive or Emphatic )ronouns: <" 6he princess used to spend long hours loo@ing at""" in the mirror" =" >e washes""" every morning" B" 6he light in the gate switches""" off after two or three minutes" C" /y brother""" withdrew the money from the .an@" D" As she was not hungry she had to force""" to eat" E" 6he first condition to be successful is that you should believe inG H" Le were surprised when we saw""" in that large mirror" I" )obody helped me" I did it by""" J" Children should behave""" when their parents have guests invited" <K" I feel very lonely when I have supper by""" 4! -se the appropriate interrogative.pronouns or adjectives in the 'uestions belo%: <" At""" time do you get up in the morningA =" """ is that beautiful ladyA B" """ is your favourite writerA C" """ colour is his new tieA D" """ does this car belong toA E" """ of the tourists have visited .ritish /useumA H. "". car is thatA I" """ university is the best in your countryA J" """ did you go to the theater withA <K" """ are you loo@ing atA /! +ill in the blan*s %ith the corresponding Relative )ronouns %here
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

necessary: <" I donFt @now""" was this painting painted by" =" Although reliable enough! the partners""" you are waiting for have not arrived yet" B" Is this the man""" sold you the +CA C" >e said that""" frightened him was the appalling silence of the place" D" 6he man""" car was hit by that lorry is our manager" E" 6he dog""" is under that tree is very old" H" I couldnFt remember the number of my own car""" made the police suspicious" I" 6he woman""" is crossing the street is our neighbour" J" 6he child to""" you gave that toy was very happy" <K" 6his is the man""" son won the contest" <<" G rich you are you canRt buy happiness" 0! +ill in the blan*s %ith the appropriate indefinite pronouns or adjectives: <" I have""" sugar and my neighbour hasnFt either" =" """ of us will be very pleased to help you" B" 4o you have""" to addA C" >e must be""" very important" D" """ of us has ever heard such an interesting story" E" 4onFt you reali&e that""" detail is important in this caseA H" """ passenger for this flight must have his belongings e%amined at the airport" I" I thin@ thereFs""" at the door" Lere you e%pecting""" A J" I want to show you""" interesting" <K" """ can never say for sure what is right and what is wrong" <<" *ne of my sisters is a lawyer! """ is an accountant" <=" 6here are""" apples leftS you have eaten""" of them" <B" >e made two proposals! but""" was accepted"

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

<C" )either /i@e""" his wife has an alibiS """ of them might be the @iller" <D" I have a very good wine" Lould you li@e""" A <E" 6here are several boo@s on the tableS """ of them are in 2nglish" <H" 5ames as@ed me for""" money but I couldnFt give him""" <I" I canFt see my walletS """ must have ta@en it" <J" If you have no money! I can lend you""" =K" """ hour they are getting closer to the end of the journey" =<" 6his time I canFt do""" for you" ==" 6here isnFt""" to be said regarding that matter as only""" details are still unclear" 1! +ill in the blan*s %ith the corresponding pronouns: <" Le helped""" with some hot tea and felt much better afterwards" =" >e lost his @ey and 7aura lostG B" After getting up I dress""" and rush to my office" C" 6hereFs a bed in the bedroom and""" one in the guest room" D" /y friend""" is a very e%perienced climber is now in an e%pedition in the Alps" E" /y girl has made this ca@e all by""" H" >e is""" best friend" I" 4o you thin@""" will rain today A J" /y brother has two girls: one is a teacher and the""" is an economist" <K" 6he girl""" s@irt is short is my classmate" <<" If I were you IFd give up both solutionsS """ is reasonable"

Acti$it) . ead and translate the following te,tB


Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

THE H23A4 DI3E4'I54 51 C5416ICT' 6he issue of refugees a" 4isintegration and globali&ation 6he international
community has invested unprecedented effort in responding to the series of crises that have ta@en place in the .al@ans since <JJ<" 6he sheer scale of the political and military interventions and humanitarian assistance programs has been mar@ed by an international presence unparalleled elsewhere around the world and a protracted period of e%tensive interaction with the .al@an people" 6he human conseOuences of the inhuman forms of conflict that the region have witnessed! have become carved in the memories not only of the population! but also of thousands of international wor@ers who have responded to the needs of the .al@an people in the past decade"

6he history of the .al@an people over the past centuries reflects the

struggle

that too@ place in order to integrate the population into the nation state of ?ugoslavia" In the late <JIKFs! the loss of the control mechanism provided both by 6ito and the former Communist regime created the opportunity for many local .al@an leaders to reverse the efforts of the past and pursue disintegration and independence for their respective provinces and ethnic groups" 6hese internal initiatives came at a time when the e%ternal pressures resulting from the globali&ation of the world economy were also growing" 6he same political leaders who sought independence and an increasingly defensive! +resident /ilosevic! in the 3ederal 9epublic of ?ugoslavia! sei&ed the opportunity to actively encourage inter-ethnic violence in pursuit of their political ambitions"

6he spiralling cycle of harassment! intimidation and fighting between


military

forces! militia! neighbors and even

relatives

led to

over

B million people

being displaced from their homes because of conflict in

-outh-2astern 2urope" It also

produced a climatc in which widespread abuse of both human rights and of the norms of international humanitarian law could be carried out with relative impunity"

6he response of the international community

to the crises in the .al@ans has

been confusing" .efore the signing of the 4ayton +eace Accord in 4ecember <JJD! there were a plethora of 8) -ecurity Council 9esolutions on humanitarian issues! but a noticeable lac@ of political investment in finding solutions" After 4ayton! this political-humanitarian confusion shifted to military-humanitarian confusion! with over-lapping enforcement and consensual mandates and with the military as@ed to be simultaneously both belligerent and humanitarian relief actors"

b" +opulation displacement /any! among the population! have


lost hope in the future of then country of origin and have attempted to migrate to safer! more prosper ous communities in Lestern 2urope and elsewhere" In <JJI! over BIC!KKK asylum applications were lodged in B= 2uropean countries" In <JJJ! this increased to nearly CDI!KKK - with ;ermany being the largest 2uropean recipient country! followed by the 8nited Tingdom" -wit&erland became the third largest recipient country during <JJJ" /ost of the hosting countries are growing increasingly @een to witness more returns in the year =KKK - especially to Tosovo and to .osnia>er&egovina - and fewer asylum see@ers arriving at their borders"

Among the large numbers of people displaced from their homes! the
Limba engleza

majority of

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses


those still needing solutions have homes in areas where they would be a minority if they returned" /ost countries in the region have produced refugees! have shared the burden of hosting refugees! or hosted a population of internally displaced persons"

'"mmar) 6his second chapter has approached the regular and irregular adjectives! it has defined them and analysed the degrees of comparisonS you have been given sentences to e%emplify all the grammar issues that have been taught" /oreover! you have found various phrases and Idioms containing adjectives" .esides the grammar practice! you have been reOuested to read and translate several te%ts! thus improving your vocabulary"

'elf7e$al"atio tests Choose the right variant:

#! Translate into English: <" Cheltuielile acestei companii au fost din ce 'n ce mai sc&ute 'n ultimii ani" =" Aceast companie a cheltuit anul trecut mai mult dec1t 'i putea permite" B" +rofitul de anul trecut al acestei firme a fost mai mare dec1t cel de anul acesta" C" Anul acesta infla ia a fost ceva mai mare dec1t anul trecut" D" Uie ' i este mult mai fric dec1t ei c pre urile vor deveni din ce 'n ce mai mari" E" Cambia este una dintre cele mai vechi metode de plat" H" +roduc ia de anul acesta a companiei noastre este mult mai ridicat dec1t cea din anii preceden i" I" .anca Angliei este mult mai veche dec1t .anca )a ional a 9om1niei" J" Anul acesta s-au emis mai multe ac iuni dec1t anul trecut" <K" Am nevoie de informa ii suplimentare 'nainte s plec mai departe" <<" Am doi prieteni! Andrei i Ioan: cel dint1i este contabil! cel de-al doilea este avocat" <=" 2ra din ce 'n ce mai speriat c nu va putea s termine anali&a financiar la timp"
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

<B" Cu c1t sunt termenii mai avantajoi! cu at1t este mai greu de ob inut contractul" <C" 3ratele meu cel mai mare este economist i lucrea& de doi ani 'ntr-o banc" <D" Veful meu vine 'ntotdeauna primul i pleac 'ntotdeauna ultimul" (! Translate into English: <" /ai dori i nite vinA 4a! doar pu in v rog" =" 2ste mai cald a&i dec1t a fost ieri" B" 4up ce i-au luat rmas bun unul de la cellalt! cei doi turiti i-au v&ut de drum" C" -e spune c ea vorbete cinci limbi strine" D" 2 timpul s 'n elege i astfel de lucruri" E" Ave i grij de voi! copii Q H" Ioan 'nsui i-a scris i i-a e%pediat scrisoarea cu ceva timp 'n urm" I" 0ine o vreme c1nd e bine s lup i i s ob ii ceea ce vrei" J" Ce ai reuit s afli la poli ie A <K" Cele trei fete se ateptau una pe cealalt la ieirea din coal" <<" 2u 'nsumi am 'ncercat s o fac s 'n eleag c nu are dreptate" <=" 4up ce s-au uitat unul la altul cei doi copii au i&bucnit 'n r1s" <B" A cui este aceast carteA

2! Translate into English: <" 6irajele presei 60 sunt de &ece ori mai ridicate 'n 3ran a dec1t cele ale marilor cotidiene na ionale" =" 6elevi&iunea a dat o lovitur foarte grea presei scrise deturn1nd 'n folosul su grosul bugetelor pentru publicitatea destinat marelui public" B" 7ocurile de afiaj obinuite! pe care se percepe ta%! sunt adesea acoperite cu afie WviolenteM" C" +rocentul posesorilor de aparate radio #JJN$ este mai mare dec1t cel al de intorilor de televi&oare" D" 9eclama de la cinema se re ine de patru-ori mai mult dec1t cea de la televi&iune" E" 4ei relativ ieftin 'n raport cu numrul de persoane la care ajunge! publicitatea televi&at este foarte scump dac privim din perspectiva sumei de bani necesare" H" 4oar marile firme 'i pot permite reclame televi&ate pentru a-i luda produsele" I" * anumit parte a presei nu accept ca difu&area sa s fie msurat sau controlat" J" 6inerii! orenii i persoanele 'nstrite merg cel mai mult la cinema" <K" +entru unii manageri de canale 60 contea& numai audien a" <<" 8nul dintre re&ultatele cele mai evidente este scderea calit ii programelor" <=" 8n alt re&ultat este proliferarea jocurilor televi&ate stupide i abruti&ante"
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

4! Translate into English: <" )u trebuie s se confunde tirajul cu difu&area" =" )u toate e%emplarele tiprite sunt 'n mod obligatoriu v1ndute" <" Costul spa iului publicitar este costul care trebuie achitat pentru inserareaPdifu&area mesajului de ctre orice mijloc de comunicare 'n mas" =" 9ata de circula ie! care este foarte sc&ut pentru cotidiene #mai pu in de dou$! este! dimpotriv! ridicat pentru reviste #B! C sau mai multe$" B" 9ata este de asemenea foarte ridicat 'n mediile industriale i studen eti #biblioteci$" C" +resa scris este singurul mijloc de comunicare 'n mas care face posibil argumentarea pe larg" D" (ntruc1t revistele sunt rsfoite foarte frecvent! reclamele lor c1tig propor ional 'n audien " E" Aspectul calitativ al publicului este repre&entat de caracteristicile sale socio-economice! socio-demografice i de obiceiurile sale de consum" H" * combina ie ideal trebuie s permit punerea 'n aplica ie a unor suporturi publicitare care se bucur de o mare credibilitate" <K" 2a trebuie de asemenea s mreasc la ma%imum acoperirea individual a audien ei- int" <<" -cara de eficien a unui astfel de suport publicitar este propor ia din inta atins care apar ine audien ei totale i care corespunde audien ei relevante" <=" Cumularea audien ei indic dup c1te inser ii se consider c s-a atins cel pu in o dat audien a total a unui suport publicitar"

/! Read and translate the follo%ing te&ts:

ED2CATI54 I4 8!EAT *!ITAI4

I" 2ducation in ;reat .ritain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of D and <E" At the age of <E about =PB of pupils leave school and get jobs" About <PB stay at school until the age of <I" 6here are about BK!KKK state schools with =!KKK private fee-paying schools" %!I3A!9 'CH556' Children attend a primary school for E years! from D to <<" +rimary school may be housed in a single building with two departments: Infant and 5unior or in separate schools! Infants #D to H$ and 5unior #H to <<$" 'EC54DA!9 'CH556' A comprehensive school offers D-year courses to pupils of all levels of ability" +romotion to a higher class every year does not depend upon e%amination results! it is almost automatic" +upils never repeat the year"
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

THE 4ATI54A6 C2!!IC2623 *ne of the most important changes in education brought the 2ducation 9eform Act in <JII" It was the introduction of a )ational Curriculum for children aged D to <E in all state schools" It consists of <K subjects which all children must study at school" 6hey are: 3oundation subjects: 2nglish! /ath! -cience! a modern foreign language #for <<-<E year olds$! 6echnology and 4esign! >istory! ;eography! /usic! Art and +hysical 2ducation" 9eligious 2ducation is reOuired for pupils as part of the basic curriculum! although parents have a right to withdraw their children from religious classes" +upils progress in subjects is measured by written and practical tests" E:A34ATI54' 8C'Es and A-levels #Advanced level e%aminations$" ;C-2s stands for the ;eneral Certificate of -econdary 2ducation" +upils sit for the ;C-2s e%ams at the end of D-year course" 6hey usually ta@e as many subjects as possible" Lea@ students may only sit for three or four subjects" .etter students will ta@e five or si%" /ore ambitious pupils continue with Eth form" 6hey remain at school for two more years and ta@e their A-level e%ams" THE 'I:TH 15!3 /ost secondary schools have Eth-form departments providing one- or two-year courses" -ome pupils! however go to a special Eth-form college! where the atmosphere is less li@e at school and where they are treated as adults" At the Eth-form stage students are highly specialised in three or four subjects which will prepare students either for entry to 8niversity! +olytechnic or College of 3urther education! or for direct entry into employment in industry or commerce"

II. ;reat .ritain doesnFt have a written constitution! so there are no constitutional provisions for education" 6he system of education is determined by the )ational 2ducation Acts" -chools in 2ngland are supported from public funds paid to the local education authorities" 6hese local education authorities are responsible for organi&ing the schools in their areas" If we outline the basic features of public education in .ritain! firstly weFll see that in spite of most educational purposes 2ngland X Lales are treated as one unit! though the system in Lales is a different from that of 2ngland" -cotland X )othern Ireland have their own education systems" 6hen education in .ritain mirrors the countryFs social system: itFs class-divided X selected" 6he first division is! as you! I thin@! have already guessed! is between those who do X donFt pay" 6he majority of schools in .ritain are supported by public funds X the education provided is free" 6hey are maintained schools! but thereFs also a considerable number of public schools" /ost pupils go to schools which offer free education! although fee-paying independent schools also have an important role to play" Another important feature of schooling in .ritain is the variety of opportunities offered to schoolchildren" 6he 2nglish school syllabus is divided into ArtsPor >umanitiesP and -ciences which determine the division of the secondary school pupils into study groups: a science pupil will study Chemistry! +hysics! /athematics! 2conomics! 6echnical 4rawing ! .iology! ;eographyS an Art pupil will do 2nglish 7anguage and
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

7iterature! >istory! foreign languages! /usic! Art! 4rama" .esides these subjects they must do some general education subjects li@e +2! >ome 2conomics for girls! 6echnical subjects for girls! ;eneral -cience" Computers play an important part in education" 6he system of options e%ists in all @inds of secondary schools" 6he national 2ducation Act in <JCC provided B stages of education: primary! secondary and further education" 2verybody has a right to school place for a child from age D to <E! and a school of college place for him or her from <E to <I" 6hese places are provided free of charge" 2verybody has a duty to ma@e sure that the child goes to school until he or she is <E! that means that education is a compulsory from age D to <E P<< years in wholeP" 6hereFs no law which provides for education on the underfives" In 2ngland about CHN of three- X four-year-olds receive education in nursery schools or classes" In addition many children attend informal pre-school play groups organi&ed by parents and voluntary bodies" In <JCC 6he )ational Curriculum was introduced" It sets out in detail the subjects that children should study and the levels of achievement they should reach by the ages of H! <<! <C X <E! when they are tested" 6he tests are designed to be easier for teachers to manage than they were in the past" /ost pupils will also be entered for ;C-2sP;eneral Certificate of the -econdary 2ducationP or other public e%aminations! including vocational Oualifications if they are <E" 8ntil that year headmasters and headmistresses of schools were given a great deal of freedom in deciding what subjects to teach and how to do it in their schools so that there was really no central control at all over individual schools" 6he )ational Curriculum does not apply in -cotland! where each school decides what subject it will teach" 6he child is taught the subjects he or she must study under the )ational Curriculum" 6hese are 2nglish! /aths! -ciencePthe core subjectsP! 6echnology! a foreign language in secondary school! as it was mentioned! +2! >istory! ;eography! Art! /usicP foundation subjectsP" 6he last C ones are not compulsory after the age of <C" .ut the child must be given religious education unless the parents decide otherwise" 2ach subject has a set programme of study and attaining levels for each subject covering the years from D to <E" 6hereFre <K levels" 6he full reOuirements of the )ational Curriculum are being introduced gradually" All the pupils will be following it in full by -eptember <JJH"6he )ational Curruculum itself was introduced in <JIJ#until that time the schools had a curriculum supervised by the local 72A$" According to 6he )ational Curriculum schools are allowed to introduce a fast stream for bright children" Actually after young people reach <E they have C main FroadsF of their ne%t life: they can leave the school! stay at school! move to a college as a full time student! combine part-time study with a job! perhaps through the ?outh 6raining programme" -chool-leavers without jobs get no money from the government unless they join a youth training scheme ! which provides a living allowance during = years of wor@ e%perience" .ut a growing number of school students are staying on at school! some until <I or <J! the age of entry into higher education or universities! +olytechnics or colleges" -chools in .ritain provide careers guidance" A specially trained person called careers advisor! or careers officer helps school students to decide what job they want to do and how they can achieve that" )ow let us tal@ about the e%ams the young people in .ritain ta@e during their process of education" -ince <JII! most si%teen-year-old have ta@en the ;C-2 in D!<K of even <D subjects" +upils going on to higher education or professional training usually ta@e FAF level e%aminations in two or three subjects" 6hese reOuire two more years of study after ;-C2! either in the si%th form of a secondary school! or in a separate E-form college" *thers may choose vocational subjects P catering! tourism! secretariat! building s@illsP" -ubsidi&ed courses in these subjects are run at colleges of further education" III" 2 ited ;i gdom

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

-tructure of 2ducational -ystem +re-higher 2ducation -ystem >igher 2ducation -ystem Administrative structure of higher education Admissions to >igher 2ducation and 9ecognition

I)-6I686I*) 6?+2- X C9242)6IA7T)pes of higher ed"catio i stit"tio s0 8niversity *pen 8niversity College and Institution of >igher 2ducation *pen College College of 6echnology 6eacher 6raining College Institute

'chool lea$i g a d higher ed"catio crede tials0 ;eneral Certificate of -econdary 2ducation ;eneral Certificate of 2ducation Advanced 7evel 3irst 4iploma )ational 4iploma >igher )ational Certificate >igher )ational 4iploma Certificate

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

4iploma 4iploma of >igher 2ducation 3oundation 4egree .achelorFs 4egree .achelorFs >onours 4egree /asterFs 4egree #taught$ +ostgraduate Certificate of 2ducation +ostgraduate 4iploma /asterFs 4egree /aster of +hilosophy 4octorate >igher 4octorate

-698C6892 *3 248CA6I*) -?-62/ %re7higher ed"catio 0 4uration of compulsory education: Age of entry: D Age of e%it: <E -tructure of school system: %rimary 6ype of school providing this education: Combined 5unior and Infant -chool 7ength of program in years: E Age level from: D to: <<
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

3asic 5irst *tage 6ype of school providing this education: Infant -chool 7ength of program in years: = Age level from: D to: H 3asic *econd *tage 6ype of school providing this education: 5unior -chool 7ength of program in years: C Age level from: H to: << )om"rehensi#e 6ype of school providing this education: Comprehensive -chool 7ength of program in years: D Age level from: << to: <E CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of #;C-2$P0ocational Certificate of -econdary 2ducation #0C-2$ *econdary 6ype of school providing this education: -econdary /odern 7ength of program in years: D Age level from: << to: <E CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of #;C-2$P0ocational Certificate of -econdary 2ducation #0C-2$ Academic *econdary 6ype of school providing this education: ;rammar -chool 7ength of program in years: D Age level from: << to: <E CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of #;C-2$P0ocational Certificate of -econdary 2ducation #0C-2$ Technical 6ype of school providing this education: C6C #City 6echnology College$
Limba engleza

-econdary

2ducation

-econdary

2ducation

-econdary

2ducation

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

7ength of program in years: D Age level from: << to: <E CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of #C;-2$P0ocational Certificate of -econdary 2ducation #0C-2$ *i,th 5orm 6ype of school providing this education: -i%th 3orm 7ength of program in years: = Age level from: <E to: <I CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of 2ducation Advanced 7evelP;eneral Certificate of 2ducation Advanced -ubsidaryP0ocational Certificate of 2ducation Advanced 7evelP0ocational Certificate of 2ducation Advanced -ubsidiary 7evel 'chool ed"catio 0 +rimary education may ta@e the form of combined junior and infant schools and therefore lasts for si% years or a first stage covering infant schools #two years$ and a second stage covering junior schools #four years$" -econdary education covers schooling from the age of eleven to the minimum school leaving age of si%teen" +upils follow a common curriculum leading to the ;C-2 and 0C-2" 6hey may combine a number of ;C-2s! 0C-2s or a combination of both" At some schools! pupils may stay on at a school si%th form for a further two years when they sit for the ;eneral Certificate of 2ducation Advanced 7evel #;C2 A 7evels$ or the ;eneral Certificate of 2ducation Advanced -ubsidiary e%aminations #;C2 A- e%aminations$! or vocational courses leading usually to a 0ocational Certificate of 2ducation Advanced 7evelP0ocational Certificate of 2ducation Advanced -ubsidiary 7evel$" 3urther education colleges also offer these courses" Higher ed"catio 0 >igher education is provided by three main types of institutions: universities! colleges and institutions of higher education and art and music colleges" All universities are autonomous institutions! particularly in matters relating to courses" 6hey are empowered by a 9oyal Charter or an Act of +arliament" As a result of the 3urther and >igher 2ducation Act of <JJ=! the binary line separating universities and polytechnics was abolished and polytechnics were given university status #i"e"! the right to award their own degrees$ and too@ university titles" 6he Council for )ational Academic Awards was abolished! leaving most institutions to confer their own degrees" >igher 2ducation 3unding Councils were created for 2ngland! -cotland and Lales! replacing the 8niversities 3unding Council and the +olytechnics and Colleges 3unding Council" /ost universities are divided into faculties which may be subdivided into departments" 8niversities 8T e%amines matters of concern to all universities" /any colleges and institutions of higher education are the result of mergers of teacher training colleges and
Limba engleza

-econdary

2ducation

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

other colleges" 6he 4epartment for 2ducation and -@ills is responsible for all universities" )on-university higher education institutions also provide degree courses! various non-degree courses and postgraduate Oualifications" -ome may offer >igher 4egrees and other Oualifications offered by most non-university higher education institutions are validated by e%ternal bodies such as a local university or the *pen 8niversity" An institution can also apply for the authority to award its own degrees but it must be able to demonstrate a good record of running degree courses validated by other universities" Institutions can apply for university status but must satisfy a number of criteria! including the power to award its own first and higher degrees" -ome higher education is also provided in further education institutions" 6his provision is funded by the >igher 2ducation 3unding Councils and the 4epartment of 2ducation )orthern Ireland" 6he 3urther and >igher 2ducation Act <JJ= allows for the transfer of further education institutions to the higher education sector! if Fthe full-time enrolment number of the institution concernedGfor courses of higher education e%ceeds DDN of its total full-time eOuivalent enrolment numberF" 3ai la&s/decrees go$er i g higher ed"catio 0 4ecree: 2ducation 9eform Act ?ear: <JII 4ecree: 3urther and >igher 2ducation Act ?ear: <JJ= 4ecree: >igher 2ducation Act ?ear: =KKC Academic )ear0 Classes from: -ep to: 5ul 7ong vacation from: < 5ul to: BK -ep 6a g"ages of i str"ctio 0 2nglish 'tages of st"dies0 )on-university level post-secondary studies #technicalPvocational type$: )on-university level: )on-university level post-secondary technical education is provided by technical colleges! colleges of further and higher education and accredited independent colleges which offer a large number of courses leading to a vocational Oualification" 6he .usiness and 6echnology 2ducation Council offers many vocational courses leading to the .62C 3irst 4iploma #one year! full-time$ or to the .62C )ational 4iploma #two to three years! full-time$" A >igher )ational 4iploma is conferred after three yearsF study by the .usiness and 6echnology 2ducation Council" As regards professional education! the professions have laid down their own professional Oualifications #some thirty major professional bodies e%ist$"

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

8niversity level studies: 8niversity level first stage0 8ndergraduate stage: 6his stage lasts for three or four years and leads to the award of a .achelorFs 4egree in Arts! -cience or other fields #6echnology! 7aw! 2ngineering! etc"$" In some -cottish universities the first degree is a /asterFs 4egree" 6he .achelorFs 4egree is conferred as a +ass 4egree or an >onours 4egree where studies are more speciali&ed" 6he .achelorFs >onours 4egree is classified as a 3irst Class >onours! a -econd Class >onours or a 6hird Class >onours" In some universities and colleges of higher education! a two-year course leads to a 4iploma in >igher 2ducation #4ip>2$" 6his is a recogni&ed Oualification in its own right" -ome universities have adopted the credit-unit or modular system of assessment" In some universities students must follow a foundation course before embar@ing on the course leading to the .achelorFs 4egree" -tudents of foreign languages are sometimes reOuired to study or wor@ for an additional year in the country of the target language" -andwich courses generally involve an additional yearFs wor@ e%perience" -ome institutions have introduced accelerated two-year degrees which reOuire students to study during the normal vacation period" It is now rare for the class of degree to depend entirely on student performance in final e%aminations" /ost institutions base a component of the degree class on e%aminations ta@en during the period of study! especially those ta@en at the end of the second year! and many also use some form of continuous assessment" 6he majority of degree courses also involve the research and writing of an e%tensive thesis or dissertation! normally ma@ing up around DKN of the final year assessment" 8niversity level second stage0 /asterFs 4egree! /aster of +hilosophy: -tudy at masterFs level is at the forefront of an academic or professional discipline" -tudents must show originality in their application of @nowledge and advancement of @nowledge" 6he normal entry reOuirement for a /asterFs degree is a good .achelorFs degree" A /asterFs degree is normally studied over one year" -ome /asterFs programmes! including the /"2ng! are integrated in undergraduate programmes and result in a postgraduate Oualification! not an undergraduate one! after four years of study"At a university! after two years of additional study and the successful presentation of a thesis! students obtain the /aster of +hilosophy #/"+hil$ degree" 8niversity level third stage0 4octor of +hilosophy! >igher 4octorate: After usually three yearsF further study beyond the /asterFs 4egree! the candidate may present a thesis for the 4octorate of +hilosophy #4"+hil" or +h"4"$"A further stage leads to >igher 4octorates which may be awarded by a university in 7aw! >umanities! -cience! /edical -ciences! /usic and 6heology after a candidate! usually a senior university teacher! has submitted a number of learned! usually published! wor@s"

6eacher education:
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

6raining of pre-primary and primaryPbasic school teachers +rimary school teachers must hold a first degree and a +ostgraduate Certificate of 2ducation awarded by a university or college of higher education" Alternatively! they must hold a .2d 4egree and have a Oualified teacher status which can be obtained after successful completion of an approved course of initial teacher training #I66$" 6he main types of I66 courses are the one-year +ostgraduate Certificate in 2ducation course or the .achelor of 2ducation #.2d$ course" 6raining of secondary school teachers -econdary school teachers must hold a first degree and a +ostgraduate Certificate of 2ducation awarded by a university or college of higher education" Alternatively they must hold a .2d 4egree and have a Oualified teacher status which can be obtained after successful completion of an approved course of initial teacher training #I66$" 6he main types of I66 courses are the one-year +ostgraduate Certificate in 2ducation course or the .achelor of 2ducation #.2d$ course which normally lasts for four years" 6raining of higher education teachers >igher education teachers normally hold a higher degree"

)on-traditional studies: 4istance higher education 6he *pen 8niversity offers instruction for part-time study for degrees and other courses by correspondence! supplemented by radio and television broadcasts! residential summer schools and an e%tensive counselling and tutorial service which operates through local study centres" 6hree main types of course are available: undergraduate level courses! postgraduate courses and study pac@s" 6hey are offered as part of Certificate! 4iploma or 4egree programmes" 8ndergraduate students ta@e a series of courses which are worth one half or one full credit" A one-credit course is estimated to reOuire BDK-CKK hours of study" An *rdinary 4egree .A or .-c is awarded to students who have obtained si% creditsS an >onours degree #.A or .-c >onours$ to students who have obtained two of these credits at the higher levels of study" -tudents may choose from a selection of <BC courses at four levels of difficulty" 8p to three credits may be allowed for previous Oualifications such as an initial teacher training Oualification or a >igher )ational 4iploma" 6he *pen College offers vocational and professional training often leading to recogni&ed Oualifications" 6he *pen College of Arts! set up in <JIH! is affiliated to the *pen 8niversity" It aids students of the arts who wish to study at home" It receives no government funding but as a registered charity it receives donations from other organi&ations" 7ifelong higher education
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

2%tra-mural education is provided by universities or other institutions of higher education to adults living in the region served by the institutions and who do not belong to the regular student body" >igher education institutions may also choose to offer courses that are specifically intended to meet the needs of the local community" 6hus they may offer parttime courses providing professional updating which people attend on day-release from wor@ or attend in the evening! or leisure courses on local >istory or ;eography! or 7anguage and 7iterature classes" >igher education training in industry 6here are sandwich courses in which an undergraduate course is incorporated with periods of industrial training" 6he duration of study for an >onours 4egree is four years" Admission conditions vary enormously and courses are offered only in universities which were formerly colleges of advanced technology" *ther forms of non-formal higher education 3oundation degree programmes were finali&ed in autumn =KKK for the first students to begin the courses in =KK<" 3oundation degrees are employment-related higher education Oualifications designed to eOuip students with wor@-related s@ills" 6he sectors include construction! creative industries! e-business! e-commerce! finance! information technology and law" 3oundation degrees have been designed with employers to provide an employment base at associate professional and higher technician level" 6hey are awarded by universities and higher education colleges" A 3oundation 4egree can be used as a starting point for further study! either a related >onours 4egree or further professional development in the wor@place" 6here are no specific entry reOuirements and it is up to the college or university providing the degree to decide if a candidate is eligible"

IV. 2ducation in 2ngland may differ from the system used elsewhere in the 8nited Tingdom " .asically! there are two systems: one covering 2ngland! Lales and )orthern Ireland and one covering -cotland" 6he two education systems have different emphases" 6raditionally the 2nglish! Lelsh and )orthern Irish system has emphasised depth of education whereas the -cottish system has emphasised breadth" 6hus 2nglish! Lelsh and )orthern Irish students tend to sit a small number of more advanced e%aminations and -cottish students tend to sit a larger number of less advanced e%aminations" It should be noted that local 2nglish practice can vary from this general picture although -cottish practice is well nigh universal"

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

Ed"catio i <ales )owadays education in Lales differs slightly from the system used in 2ngland" 6he statutory national @ey stage tests in Lales were! until =KKK! the same as in 2ngland and were managed by the -chool Curriculum and Assessment Authority #-CAA$" In =KKK! the )ational Assembly for Lales too@ responsibility for these tests in Lales! at which point they were developed by test agencies on behalf of the Awdurdod Cymwysterau! Cwricwlwm ac Asesu Cymru #ACCAC$! whilst the tests in 2ngland were developed for the Yualifications and Curriculum Authority #YCA$" In =KK=! the Lelsh Assembly decided to cease the tests at Tey -tage *ne" Instead! optional teacher assessment materials were provided to schools in =KKB for use in 2nglish! mathematics and Lelsh " 6hese had been adapted from materials that had originally been developed by the )ational 3oundation for 2ducational 9esearch #)329$ and the other test agencies to be used as statutory assessment materials for =KKB" At the end of =KKB! the 4augherty 9eport was commissioned by the Lelsh Assembly to underta@e a review of the countryFs assessment procedures" 6he interim report by the committee was perceived by the media as supporting a complete abolishment of the assessments at @ey stages two and three" The school years in England and 3ales In general! the cut-off point for ages is the end of August! so all children must be of a particular age on the <st of -eptember in order to begin class that month"

+rimary 2ducation o Infant -chool or +rimary -chool


o

9eception! age C to D ?ear <! age D to E ?ear =! age E to H #T-< )ational Curriculum 6ests - 2ngland only$

5unior -chool or +rimary -chool


?ear B! age H to I ?ear C! age I to J ?ear D! age J to <K ?ear E! age <K to << #2leven plus e%ams in some areas of 2ngland! Tey -tage = )ational Curriculum 6ests$

-econdary 2ducation
o

/iddle -chool! >igh -chool or -econdary -chool

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

?ear H! old 3irst 3orm! age << to <= ?ear I! old -econd 3orm! age <= to <B ?ear J! old 6hird 3orm! age <B to <C #Tey -tage B )ational Curriculum 6ests! @nown as -A6s #-tandard Assessment 6ests$$

8pper -chool or -econdary -chool


?ear <K! old 3ourth 3orm! age <C to <D ?ear <<! old 3ifth 3orm! age <D to <E #old * 7evel e%aminations! modern ;C-2 e%aminations$

8pper -chool! -econdary -chool! or -i%th 3orm College


?ear <= or 7ower -i%th! age <E to <H #A--level e%aminations$ ?ear <B or 8pper -i%th! age <H to <I #A=-level e%aminations" .oth A-levels and A=-levels count towards A-levels "$

In some regions of 2ngland! pupils attend a 7ower #+rimary$ -chool before going to! a /iddle -chool between I and <= or! more commonly J and <B! and then a >igh -chool or 8pper -chool" *ther! more vocational Oualifications offered including ;)0Ys and .62Cs "

Ed"catio i 'cotla d 2ducation in -cotland differs from the system used elsewhere in the 8nited Tingdom " .asically! there are two systems: one covering 2ngland ! Lales ! or )orthern Ireland and one covering -cotland " 6he two education systems have different emphases" 6raditionally! the 2nglish! Lelsh and )orthern Irish system has emphasised depth of education whereas the -cottish system has emphasised breadth" 6hus 2nglish! Lelsh and )orthern Irish students tend to sit a small number of more advanced e%aminations and -cottish students tend to sit a larger number of less advanced e%aminations" The school years in Scotland In general! the cut-off point for ages is the end of August! so all children must be of a particular age on the <st of -eptember in order to begin class that month"

)ursery -chool o ?ear <! age B - D" +rimary -chool

Limba engleza

Alina Chec
o o o o o o o

The sequence of tenses

+rimary <! age range C - E" +rimary =! age range D - H" +rimary B! age range E - I" +rimary C! age range H - J" +rimary D! age range I - <K" +rimary E! age range J - <<" +rimary H! age range <K - <="

-econdary -chool
o o o o o o

3irst year! age range << - <B" -econd year! age range <= - <C" 6hird year! age range <B - <D" 3ourth year! age range <C - <E" 3ifth year! age range <D - <H" -i%th year! age range <E - <I"

)ote that the age ranges specify the youngest age for a child entering that year and the oldest age for a child leaving that year" Also note that children may leave school at the end of any school year after they reach <E years of age and that they may attend -cottish universities when they are <H" 6herefore two sets of national e%aminations are held" 6he first set! the -tandard ;rade e%aminations! ta@e place in the 3ourth year of secondary school and show basic education level" 6he second set! the >igher e%aminations ta@e place in the 3ifth and -i%th years" A third level! Advanced >igher! is sometimes ta@en by students intending to study at an 2nglish university! or those wishing to pass straight into second year at a -cottish university! and covers the gap between the -cottish M>igherM level and the 2nglish MAdvancedM level courses! although there is not always a one-to-one mapping"

Ed"catio i 4orther Irela d 2ducation in )orthern Ireland differs slightly from the system used elsewhere in the 8nited Tingdom " 6he )orthern Irish system emphasises a greater depth of education compared to the 2nglish and Lelsh systems" 6he majority of e%aminations sat! and education plans

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

followed! in )orthern Irish schools are set by the Council for Curriculum! 2%aminations and Assessment # CC2A $" -chool holidays in )orthern Ireland are also considerably different to the rest of the 8nited Tingdom " )orthern Irish schools generally only get < day off for the half term holiday #in 3ebruary! /ay and *ctober" Christmas holidays usually only consist of a wee@ or so! the same with the 2aster vacation! compared to 2nglands two wee@s" 6he major difference however is that )orthern Irish summer holidays are considerably longer with the entirety of 5uly and August off giving a nine wee@ summer holiday" The school years in 4orthern 5reland In general! the cut-off point for ages is the end of August! so all children must be of a particular age on the <st of -eptember in order to begin class that month"

+rimary 2ducation o +rimary -chool


+rimary <! age C to D +rimary =! age D to E +rimary B! age E to H +rimary C! age H to I +rimary D! age I to J +rimary E! age J to <K +rimary H! age <K to << # 2leven plus e%ams to determine secondary school placement"$

-econdary 2ducation
o

>igh -chool or ;rammar -chool


3irst 3orm! age << to <= -econd 3orm! age <= to <B 6hird 3orm! age <B to <C 3ourth 3orm! age <C to <D 3ifth 3orm! age <D to <E #old *-7evel e%aminations! modern ;C-2 e%aminations$

Limba engleza

Alina Chec
o

The sequence of tenses

>igh -chool! ;rammar -chool! or -i%th 3orm College


7ower -i%th! age <E to <H #A--level e%aminations! where applicable$ 8pper -i%th! age <H to <I # A-levels $

%rimar) ed"catio +rimary or elementary education is the first years of formal! structured education that occurs during childhood" In most Lestern countries! it is compulsory for children to receive primary education #though in many jurisdictions it is permissible for parents to provide it$" +rimary education generally begins when children are four to seven years of age" 6he division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary! but it generally occurs at about twelve years of age # adolescence $S some educational systems have separate middle schools for that period" +rimary and secondary education together are sometimes #in particular! in Canada and the 8nited -tates $ referred to as M T-<= M education! #T is for @indergarten! <= is for twelfth grade$" 6ypically! primary education is provided in schools ! where #in the absence of parental movement or other intervening factors$ the child will stay! in steadily advancing classes! until they complete it and move on to secondary schooling" Children are usually placed in classes with one teacher who will be primarily responsible for their education and welfare for that year" 6his teacher may be assisted to varying degrees by specialist teachers in certain subject areas! often music or physical education" 6he continuity with a single teacher and the opportunity to build up a close relationship with the class is a notable feature of the primary education system" *ver the past few decades! schools have been testing various arrangements which brea@ from the one-teacher! one-class mold" 6he major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy amongst all their students! as well as establishing foundations in science! geography! history and other social sciences " 6he relative priority of various areas! and the methods used to teach them! are an area of considerable political debate" 6raditionally! various forms of corporal punishment were an integral part of early education in the 8T" 6his practice has now been outlawed in the 8T"

Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

;i dergarte 6he ;erman e%pression @indergarten usually refers to the first level of official education ! according to the T-<= educational system" Tindergarten is usually administered in an elementary school " 6he eOuivalent in 2ngland and Lales is reception " 6he Australian eOuivalent of this is the preparatory grade #commonly called Fgrade prepF or FprepF$! which is the year before the first grade" In the state of )ew -outh Lales ! however! it is called @indergarten" At least in 0ictoria ! @indergarten #distinct from grade prep$ is a form of! and used interchangeably with! pre-school " 6he first @indergarten was opened in <IBH in .ad .lan@enburg ! ;ermany by 3riedrich Lilhelm August 3rZbel " 6he first @indergarten in the 8nited -tates was established by /argarethe #/argaretta$ /eyer -chur& #wife of activistPstatesman Carl -chur& $! in Latertown! 4odge County! Lisconsin " ?oungsters ! usually aged C-E attend @indergarten to learn the finer points of meeting friends #and enemies$! professional authority #in the form of a teacher $! playtime ! naptime ! drawing ! music ! sometimes the basics of reading and writing ! and various other activities" 3or children who previously have spent most of their time at home! @indergarten often serves the purpose of training them to be apart from their parents without an%iety" 6he youngster continues to ;rade < after @indergarten" 6he actual word M@indergartenM! as one may guess! translates to MchildrenFs gardenM" /any private businesses in the 8-A name their day-care businesses FTindergartenF or FTindergardenF" Tindergarten establishment #day-care$ in ;ermany are for pre-school children of all ages and are often run by churches! city or town administrations" Tindergartens #;erman plural Tinderg[rten $ in ;ermany are not a part of the actual school system! such as in the 8-A" Tindergartens often last only for half a day #morning or afternoon$! though in many locations there are full-day @indergartens"

Eleme tar) school 6he elementary school consists of the first seven years of school! that is! grades < through D or E! as well as @indergarten ! a preliminary year of school before grade < #@nown in 2ngland
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

and Lales as F 9eception F$" *riginally! however! it was studied after primary school in the <Jth century! #some schools that have only the youngest students are called primary schools to this day$" Also @nown as grammar school in the 8nited -tates it is a major segment of compulsory education" 8ntil the latter third of the =Kth century! however! grammar school #or elementary school$ was grades < through I" After grammar school! one usually attends high school " #In many districts! grades D-I or D-J were called M middle school M! or further separated into M intermediate school M! Mmiddle schoolM! andPor M junior high school M"$

'eco dar) ed"catio -econdary education ! or secondary school ! is a period of education which follows directly after primary education #such as intermediate school or elementary school $! and which may be followed by tertiary or Mpost-secondaryM education" 6he purpose of a secondary education can be to prepare for either higher education or vocational training " 6he e%act boundary between primary and secondary education varies from country to country and even within them! but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of education! with middle school covering any gaps" -econdary education occurs mainly during the teenage years" +rimary and secondary education together are sometimes #in particular! in Canada and the 8nited -tates $ referred to as M T-<= M education! # T is for @indergarten ! <= is for twelfth grade$"

8rammar schools i the 2 ited ;i gdom In education in the 8nited Tingdom ! a grammar school is a secondary school attended by pupils aged << to <I to which entry is controlled by means of an academically selective process consisting! largely or e%clusively! of a written e%amination " After leaving a grammar school! as with any other secondary school! a student may go into further education at a college or university " 6he e%amination is called the eleven plus " +artly due to the failure to fully implement the tripartite system prescribed by the <JCC 2ducation Act! the e%amination came to be seen as delivering a passPfail result with the academically selected pupils passing and attending grammar schools and the remaining pupils being deemed to have failed and being consigned to the poorly funded schools euphemistically designated -econdary /odern -chools " 6his arrangement proved politically unsustainable! and! over the period <JEK to <JHD! nonselective #McomprehensiveM$ education was instituted across a substantial majority of the country" 6he eleven plus e%amination had been championed by the educational psychologist Cyril .urt and the uncovering of his fraudulent research played a minor part in accelerating this process"
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

6o understand grammar schools in the 8T! some history is needed" After Lorld Lar II ! the government reorganised the secondary schools into two basic types" -econdary moderns were intended for children who would be going into a trade and concentrated on the basics plus practical s@illsS grammar schools were intended for children who would be going on to higher education and concentrated on the classics! science! etc" 6his system lasted until the <JEKs! at which point changes in the political climate led to the general acceptance that this was a discriminatory system which was not getting the best out of all children" 6his was partly because some authorities tended to prioritise their budgets on the grammar schools! damaging the education prospects of children attending secondary moderns" 6he decision was ta@en to switch to a single type of school designed to give every child a complete education" 6hat is why this new type of school is called a comprehensive school" >owever the timetable of the changeover was left to the local authorities! some of whom were very resistant to the whole idea and thus dragged their feet for as long as possible" 6he result is that there is now a mi%ture" /ost authorities run a proper comprehensive system! a few run essentially the old system of secondary moderns and grammar schools #e%cept the secondary moderns are now called McomprehensivesM$" -ome run comprehensive schools along side one or two remaining grammar schools" 6he 7abour government that came to power in <JJH instituted measures that allowed parents to force a local referendum on whether to abolish grammar schools in their area" 6he form of this referendum depends on whether there is still a full two-tier system running! in which case all parents with children at primary schools in the area are eligible to vote! or whether there are only a few grammar schools in the area! in which case only those parents with children at primaries that regularly send children to the grammar school are eligible" .y =KKB! only a few referenda had ta@en place and none of these had delivered the reOuisite majority for conversion" 6he debate over selective education has been widened by other measures introduced by the 7abour government! allowing schools to select a portion of their inta@e by MaptitudeM for a specific subject" 6here are many who thin@ that selection allows children to receive the form of education best suited for their abilities! while Mone-si&e-fits-allM comprehensives fail everybody eOually" *ne of the greatest attac@s on the comprehensive system is that it leads! in essence! to selection on the grounds of wealth as the good schools are generally located in areas with e%pensive housing! so children from poor areas are denied the possibility of attending them" Conversely! there are many who thin@ that the selection of children at << divides them into MsuccessesM and MfailuresM at that age! and is therefore wrong" 6he current 7abour government! from the party that originally championed comprehensive education! appears to favour the first of these groups! and their introduction of local referenda on grammar schools has been attac@ed by opponents of selective education as an unwor@able system designed to give the semblance of choice while maintaining the status Ouo"
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

+rivate schools generally give the same sort of education as grammar schools! but there are e%ceptionsS ;ordonstoun for one" In areas where the local authority provides a comprehensive education \ which some parents donFt li@e for various reasons \ independent schools are particularly common"

Higher ed"catio >igher education is education provided by universities and other institutions that award academic degrees! such as university colleges! and liberal arts colleges " >igher education includes both the teaching and the research activities of universities! and within the realm of teaching! it includes both the undergraduate level #sometimes referred to as tertiary education $ and the graduate #or postgraduate $ level #sometimes referred to as Ouaternary education$" >igher education differs from other forms of post-secondary education such as vocational education " >owever! most professional education is included within higher education! and many postgraduate Oualifications are strongly vocationally or professionally oriented! for e%ample in disciplines such as law and medicine"

Degrees a d 8rad"atio 6here is a three-level hierarchy of degrees # .achelor ! /aster ! 4octor $ currently used in the 8nited Tingdom" A graduate student #also! grad student or grad in American 2nglish ! postgraduate student or postgrad in .ritish 2nglish$ is an individual who has completed a bachelorFs degree #."A"! ."-"P."-c"! or another flavor$ and is pursuing further higher education ! with the goal of achieving a masterFs degree #/"A"! /"-"P/"-c"! /"2d"! etc"$ or doctorate #+h"4"! 2d"4"! 4"A"! 4"-c"! 4"/"A"! 6h"4"! etc"$ In the 8nited -tates! graduate education can also refer to those pursuing a post-masterFs 2ducational -pecialist degree or post-masterFs Certificate of Advanced -tudy" 6he term usually does not refer to one in medical school and only occasionally refers to someone in law school or business school " ,dmission Admission to do a research degree in the 8T typically reOuires the sponsorship of a professor" Admission to do a masterFs degree #based on coursewor@$ depends upon having an undergraduate degree! generally in a related subject" 6ife
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

+ostgraduate wor@ at universities in the 8T is very intense" +unding It is very difficult to obtain funding for postgraduate study in the 8T" 6here are a few scholarships for masterFs courses! but these are rare and dependent on the course and class of undergraduate degree obtained" /ost masterFs students are self-funded" 3unding is available for some +h"4" courses" 6here is more funding available to those in the sciences than in other disciplines

Costs 6he costs for a normal education in the 8nited Tingdom are as follows:

+rimary: )o Charge -econdary: )o Charge 3urther #-econdary$ 2ducation in either a si%th form or college: )o Charge if under <J in that particular academic year or on a low income"

>igherP6ertiary 2ducation #8niversity$: A tuition fee per year

7ey 8e&ercise 29: <" 6he circulation figures of the 60 press are ten times as high in 3rance as those of the major na ional dailies" =" 60 has dealt the printed press a terrible blow by capturing the bul@ of general public advertising" B" 9egular posters! on which a charge is levied! are often pasted over with MwildM posters" C" 6he eOuipment rate for radio-sets #JJN$ is even higher than the one for 60 sets" D" 6he recall rate for cinema advertising is four times as high as for 60 ads" E" Although relatively low-priced in relation to the number of people reached! 60 advertising is very e%pensive in terms of the amount of money needed" H" *nly large advertisers can afford 60 ads to e%tol their products" I" -ome press media refuse to have their circulation monitored and measured" J" Cinema-goers are to be found mainly among young people! urban dwellers and affluent citi&ens" <K" 3or some managers of 60 channels! the number of viewers is all that counts" <<" *ne of the most obvious results is the downgrading of programmes" <=" Another conseOuence is the boom of stupid and debasing 60 games" 7ey 8e&ercise 49:
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

<" *ne should not confuse print-run and circulation" =" All printed copies are not necessarily sold" <" 6he cost of advertising space is the price to be paid for the message to be inserted inPrun by any medium" =" 6he pass-on readership rate! which is very low for dailies #less than two$ is on the contrary high for maga&ines #B! C or more$" B" 6he rate is also very high in industry! and among students #libraries$" C" 6he printed press is the only medium in which arguments can be developed at length" D" As maga&ines are very freOuently leafed through! their advertisements gain proportionate e%posure" E" 6he Oualitative measurement of the audience is represented by its socio-economic and socio-demographic features! its consumption pattems" H" An ideal combination should enable to feature media that enjoy high credibility" <K"It should also ma%imi&e the individual coverage of the target audience" <<"6he efficiency scale of such a medium is the proportion of the target being reached that belongs to the overall audience and corresponds to the addressable audience" <="Audience cumulation indicates after how many insertions one considers that the overall audience of a medium has been reached at least once"

TE3= DE C54T!56 (3e -io at> pe %latforma 'a?ai) <rite a essa) of . pages o The Higher Ed"catio i E"rope a d emphasize the role of ed"catio i people@s li$es.

*i(liograph)0 .roo@es! /ichael! >orner! 2" #=KK=$ 3usiness English. Engleza "entru afaceri. .ucureti: 2d" 6eora" .roo@es! /ichael" #=KKB$" Engleza "entru +uri?ti. .ucureti: 2d" 6eora" Chifu! Iulian #=KKC$" Identity Conflicts" .ucureti: +oliteia--)-+A" Chirlescu! /"! +aidos C" #=KKD$" %roficiency in English. Institutul 2uropean" Coo@! 5"! ;ethin! A" #<JJD$" A 0ew ;ay to %roficiency in English. *%ford" 4ayan! A"! 7indsay! L">" #=KKK$" Engleza "entru marketing si "ublicitate" .ucureti: 2ditura 6eora" 4elgiudice! 7uminita #<JJJ$" 5ifty 4seful Tests in English" .ucureti: 2d" Aramis" 4ema&et! .ertrand #<JJJ$" Engleza comertului e,terior. .ucureti: 2ditura 6eora" ;l eanu-31rnoag! ;" #=KKK$" Limba englez: >n con#ersatie. .ucureti: 2d" Vtiin ific i 2nciclopedic" ;heorghitoiu! Andreea" #<JJI$" -ictionar englez&roman de #erbe cu "articula ad#erbiala" .ucureti: 6eora"
Limba engleza

Alina Chec

The sequence of tenses

>anga Calciu! 9odica #<JJE$" Crestomatie de te%te juridice engle&e" .ucureti: 2d" 7umina 7e%" >anga! 0ladimir #=KKK$" -ictionar +uridic englez&roman" .ucureti: 7umina 7e%" >ealth! 9"." #=KK=$" Im"act Assignments in English. 7ondon: 7ongman" >ulban >" #<JJH$" English for 2ou" Iai: 2d" 9&eu" 7e 4ivenach! 2loi #=KKD$" Engleza in "resa" .ucureti: 2ditura 6eora" 7upuleasa! 9" #=KKC$" eady for E,ams. .ucureti: 2ditura +olirom" /arie-Claude! 9oland #=KKK$" )7 in limba engleza.4n "as s"re anga+are " .ucureti: 2ditura 6eora" /artin! /" Combe #=KKK$" Listening and )om"rehending" /acmillan" /ihaescu! Ale%andra #=KKH$" $ramatica limbii engleze" .ucureti: 2ditura )iculescu" /olnar *prea! )icoleta #=KKK$" )urs de limba engleza "entru studentii facultatilor cu "rofil +uridic. .ucureti: 2d" All 2ducational" *prescu! -imona #<JJJ$" Engleza "entru +uri?ti" .ucureti: 2d" *scar +rint" +eters! 5o-Ann #=KKC$" Let!s Learn English. Metod: Larousse de >n#:<are a limbii engleze" .ucureti: 2ditura 6eora" 9usu! 7iliana #=KK<$" Limba engleza "entru studentii facultatii de dre"t" .ucureti: 2d" -ylvi"

Limba engleza