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Areas of protection
Role of fibers and non-woven
Ballistic protection
Environmental protection
Stab and ballistic
Impact textiles
Decontamination technology
1. Introduction
Technical textile is classified into 12 major sectors. In this paper, protective
textiles, geo textiles, automobile textiles and medical textiles are mainly
focused. Most demanding customers of textile materials in the world specific
protective performance requirements like battlefield, tanks, aircrafts,
etc. also in gravitational forces during high
accelerationdeceleration. The technical textiles have proved to be the major contributor
to the defence applications.
1.1. Primary areas of protection
Ballistics protection
Environmental protection
Thermal protection

Flame protection
Insects and micro-organisms protection
1.2. Secondary areas:
Resistance to sun
Resist mildew
Water repellent
Excellent durability
Air permeability
2. Main requirements for defence textile:

Fiber type selection

Fiber size

Dyestuff selection

Functional finish utilization

For example, a particular dye or pigment needed to meet infrared

protection against detection may not have good properties to
colorfastness to laundry

2.1. Role of fibres

Significant impact

Paramount is the excellent fibers available for the ballistic protection

Aramid and Polyethylene fibers for body armor

M5 fibers

2.2. Role of non-wovens

Non-woven material products

Combat clothing and equipment

For military use is the durability


Reduced resulting from abrasion resistance

Nanotechnology and electro textiles

Fragmenting projectiles rather than bullets

From grenades, mortars, artillery shells,

Mines and improvised explosive weapons

Low velocity bullets from handguns

High velocity bullets from rifles and machine guns

3. Fiber properties for Ballistic Protection

Woven silk fabrics

High modulus aliphatic nylon 6.6

high degree of crystallinity

Low elongation

Used in body armor composite helmets

3.1 Textile Fibers used for Ballistic Protection

Kevlar widely used in the modern generation of lightweight body



absorbing a bullets impact and quickly dissipating its energy through

engaged and adjacent fibers


These fibers are 10 times stronger than steel

DSM Dyneema

It has high energy absorption characteristics and dissipates shock

waves faster

4. Environmental Protection
Protection can be classified into three major components

Thermal protection

Chemical protection

Biological protection

4.1. Thermal Protection

Entrapment of still air in the structure

Finer fibers tend to entrap more still air than coarse fibers for the
same bulk

Textiles have advantage of low density, good resilience, good drape

and handle, easy care and durability

Units of measuring thermal insulation are warmth/thickness Tog/cm

4.2. Chemical Protection

These effects are insidious, lethally horrific

Mustard attacks moist skin, tissues and respiratory tract causing

severe blistering

Nerve agents affect the transmission of nerve impulses in the body

4.3. Biological Protection

Bacteria and viruses

Nasal or full face respirators

Hoods and efficient seals, gloves and over boot complete the ensemble

Clothing is made of completely impermeable but rubber materials

5. Impact on Protection Textiles

Protect against high energy impacts without sacrificing flexibility,

breathability or ease of use

APS is an intelligent fabric


consists of 3-D spacer textile

Fully integrated active safety that can be stitched directly into the

Material customization and versatility that allow many creative design


Breathable, flexible and light weight construction for outstanding

comfort and freedom of movement

Washable for easy care and maintenance

6. Stab & Ballistic Protection

vests that protect their wearer against the twin threats of bullet and

DSMs high performance

ballistic protection

Bekaerts steel cord (Steel skin) gives the wearer stab protection




Flames, Heat and Flash Protection

Flame retardant material inforces is Proban treated cotton

Low cost

Wide availability

Low shrinkage in fire

It must not be laundered with soap using hard water

7. Decontamination Technology

Process of neutralizing or removing chemical or biological agents

Military purposes, decontamination must restore the combat

effectiveness of equipment and personnel as rapidly as possible

In one of the existing technology it is based on micro-porous


Naval Research Laboratory's Center for Bio/Molecular Science and

Engineering (CBMSE) have developed a new cost-effective, selfdecontaminating ultrathin materials coating that actively destroys
pesticides and related chemical agents on contact

Coating neutralizes toxins instantly leaving no hazardous residue,

which makes it ideal for use in protective clothing for military
personnel and civilians

The U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC)

developed a patented technology to neutralize organo phosphorus
chemical agents and pesticides

Enzymatic decontamination technology

DEFENZ is now on the market

8. Camouflage:

Camouflage became an essential part of modern military tactics

The word camouflage comes from the French word camoufler (to
disguise) and was first introduced by the French during World War I to
define the concealment of objects and people by the imitation of their
physical surroundings, in order to survive

8.1. Camouflage Requirements

Visual spectrum


Near infrared

Far infrared

Acoustic emissions

Radar spectrum

9. Conclusion
The developments are never ending process. The general aims of
development in protective textiles are gives improvement in protection
against natural and battle field threats. Also it maintains thermophysiological comfort or survival in extreme conditions.