\

=
1
(2)
where
s
and c
d
characterize the resistance to damage caused by static loading and the
environment;
th
and c
th
are resistance threshold parameters. The m
s
and m
c
are exponents
similar to the exponents of equations for fatigue and crack growth rate curves. t
c
is a time
constant, whose magnitude depends on the parameters
s
and c
d
or be chosen arbitrarily. is
the average tensile stress that acts in the considered material point, and c is the corrosive
agents concentration at this point.
The stress concentration at the crack tip is related to the curvature tip radius, . Its
evolution is governed by several processes, such as the crack growth, the accumulation of
mechanical damage and corrosion damage. The evolution of the curvature tip radius of a
crack with length a, is given by:
s
m
s
th
c
s
t dt
d


.

\

=
o
o o 1
(1)
( )
( )
dt
d
dt
da
dt
d
c s
b
a
s
+
+
=
(3)
The first term on the right side of the equation describes the tip sharpening due to crack
growth with the rate da/dt to the magnitude
s
. The second describes the tip blunting due to
damage accumulation to the magnitude
b
.
a
is a parameter with length dimension.
s
and
c
are the zone lengths of damage evolution of two degradation processes (Fig. 1)
Figure 1: Distribution of mechanical and corrosion damages in an edge crack in the mode I (Font: Bolotin and
Shipkov, 2001).
The last relationship that closes the set of govern equations of the model, interrelates the
generalized resistance force with the damage measures ahead the crack tip. For a crack in
plane strain state, is given by:
] ) ( [1
0
o
_
s c
+ =
(4)
where
0
is the fracture specific work for an undamaged body, characterizes the residual
fracture toughness and is a material parameter. The generalized propagation force can be
calculated by:
( )
2
2
I
I
1 u =
E
K
G (5)
where E is the Young's modulus, is the Poisson's ratio and K
I
the stress intensity factor.
2.3 Environmental agent transport
The concentration of an active environmental agent in the neighborhood of the crack tip is
characterized with a scalar variable that depends on a physical time and is denoted by c(t).
When the agents transport occurs monotonically, quasistationary models are accepted. One
this models is given by:
dt
da c c c c
dt
dc
t b t a t
D D
t
+
=
(6)
where the first term on the right side represents the diffusion mechanism, and the second, the
effect of crack propagation.
D
is the characteristic length of diffusion zone and
D
the
characteristic time of diffusion. c
t
is the concentration at the crack tip and c
b
is a characteristic
concentration for rapid crack growth. The parameter c
a
, which characterizes the stationary
concentration reach for a stationary crack in the time t>>
D
, depends on the environment
agents concentration and the crack length, is given by:
a
n
e a
a
a
c c


.

\

+ = 1 (7)
where c
e
is the agents concentration at the crack mouth. a
> 0 and n
a
0 are constants that
depend on the material properties and the environment.
3 NUMERICAL FORMULATION
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the crack propagation problem under SCC
conditions using the mathematic model described previously. The simulation was performed
in elastic regime, in a rectangular specimen with an edge crack loaded in the opening mode I,
in plane strain state. The SCC conditions were given for a static mechanical load and a
corrosive environmental effect.
The mechanical load was given by the stress
a
and the corrosive effect by the chemical
agents concentration at the crack mouth. Both were considered constant throughout the
process. The equations of evolution of concentration, damage, crack length, crack tip radius
and of generalized resistance forces form a 1storder differential equations system, which was
solved through the 4th order RungeKutta method. The software used was Matlab 7.0, with
wide applicability in engineering as a computational tool to solve equations that describe
physical problems.
The 4th order RungeKutta method is a numerical method based in the Taylor Series,
which consist in determine the average value of the derivative of function on an interval
through estimating the derivatives of this function at different points of this interval. Despite
using a high computational capacity, produces more accurate results than those obtained with
other numerical methods. Given that allows to solve equations with complicated analytical
solution, your choice was crucial in lowering the difficulty to solve the equations system of
the model adopted.
The computational procedure is quite complicated due to the high interdependence of the
model equations, which causes deviations in the results and computational instability. The
developed program consists of a main routine of 127 command lines and a subroutine of 62
lines. The 4th order RungeKutta method was implemented in the main routine and the model
equations were placed in the subroutine. The interaction between the main routine and the
subroutine allows the construction of a vector results, which is then stored in the row of a 5
columns matrix. From the values stored in this matrix, the software was able to plot graphs
with the results.
The points that describe the solution of the system were obtained through:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 2 / , 2 /
2 / , 2 /
2 / , 2 /
,
2 2
6
3 0 0 4
2 0 0 3
1 0 0 2
0 0 1
4 3 2 1 0
hK y h t f K
hK y h t f K
hK y h t f K
y t f K
K K K K
h
y y
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
=
+ + + + =
(8)
where y
0
is the initial conditions vector of the problem, h is the iteration step and f is the
vector of differential equations of model. In this case, y
0
is given by:
y
0
={a, c,
c
,
s
, } (9)
where a = a
0
, c = c
e
,
c
= 0,
s
= 0, and =
0
.
The program works very efficiently due to the way in which the routines were
implemented, with a very low processing time (about 30 seconds on a computer with
processor i3 and 3GB RAM), thus providing results with very low computational cost.
The algorithm used in the numerical simulation is shown in Fig. 2.
1. Enter
a
, K
IC
, a
0
, c
e
,
c
,
s
,
0
2. Define the vector of initial variables {y
0
}
3. Compute , K
I
, G,
4. Verify: K
I
< K
IC
4.1. No
4.1.1. Print graphs.
4.1.2. End.
4.2. Yes
4.2.1. Go to 5
5. Verify: G <
5.1. Yes
5.1.1. Then da/dt = 0
5.1.2. Compute/actualize c
t
5.1.3. Compute/actualize
c
,
s
,
5.1.4 Compute/actualize
5.1.5. Go to 6
5.2. No
5.2.1. Then
c
=
s
= 0
5.2.2. Compute/actualize c
t
5.2.3. Compute da/dt
5.2.4 Compute/actualize
5.2.5. Go to 6
6. Actualize {y
0
}
7. Go to 3
Figure 2: Algorithm used in the simulation.
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
For the evaluation of the applicability of model under the study conditions discussed
previously, was used a cracked rectangular specimen with dimensions: l = 120mm, w =
80mm, b = 20mm, according Fig. 3. The crack dimensions were: a
0
= 4 mm and
0
= 50m.
The material chosen was the 13Cr95 supermartensitic stainless steel, whose mechanical
and physical properties are shown in Table 1.
In the simulation was assumed that the initial damage and the entrance concentration were
null. The applied tension,
a
= 300MPa, approximately 48% of
Y
, was kept constant
throughout the process.
The material parameters adopted for the simulation are shown in Table 2.
Figure 3: Rectangular specimen with an edge crack under the applied stress
a
.
Table 1: Physical and mechanical properties of 13Cr95 supermartensitic stainless steel (Font: V & M tubes,
2010, Dias et al, 2008).
r
e
E K
IC
(Pa) (Pa) (Pa) (ad.) (Pam)
7.24E8 6.55E8 2.01E11 0.30 1.28E8
Table 2: Materials parameters (Font: Bolotin and Shipkov, 2001).
c
b
c
d
c
th
D
t
c
s
th
s
b
D
a
c
s
0
m
s
m
c
(ad.) (ad.) (ad.) (s) (s) (Pa) (Pa) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (ad.) (kJ/m
2
) (ad.) (ad.) (ad.)
0.5 4.0 0.0 1E3 1E5 5E9 25E7 10.0 1E2 10.0 1E2 1E2 1E2 1.0 74.2 2.0 2.0 1.0
The Figure 4 shows the concentration evolution of corrosive agent at the crack tip after the
application of the full model, which include damage accumulation and crack growth rate. In
the generated curve can be observed that the mass transport in the initial stage of the process
is very fast, which is due to the diffusion speed of the corrosive agent in the crack.
Figure 4: Evolution of concentration at the crack tip, c
t
, normalized with c
a
.
The second stage, where a stable concentration is reached, corresponds to a critical value
of saturation and the onset of crack propagation. When growth becomes more intense, the
transport of the corrosive agent to the crack tip is difficult, causing the rapid drop in
concentration observed at the end of the third stage.
In Figure 5 are shown the curves of damage evolution at the crack tip of two damages
considered,
s
and
c
. Can be observe that the magnitude of both damages increases
monotonically when the crack is fixed and a sharply decrease when starts the crack
propagation. It is clear that the influence of corrosion damage is much greater than the
mechanical damage. This behavior is the result of the conditions of concentration and load
adopted, and the high toughness of 13Cr95 steel and its low resistance to the SCC.
In the case of a simulation using an SCCresistant steel will be possible to observe that the
contribution of mechanical damage is much more important than the corrosion damage, so the
final fracture can be attributed mainly to mechanical loading effect.
Figure 5: Evolution of mechanical and corrosion damages.
The Figure 6 shows the total damage curve, which is the sum of mechanical and corrosion
damages. This curve shows that at the time of onset of crack propagation, the sum of both
damages is equal to 1. This is consistent with the damage mechanics theory, which indicates
that the crack starts its propagation when the material ahead the tip is completely damaged,
namely when the total damage is equal to 1.
Figure 6: Evolution of total damage. The contributions of mechanical and corrosion damages are included.
This is consistent with the fracture mechanics too. On framework of this theory, the fact of
the damage total equals to 1, can be interpreted as the residual toughness of the material ahead
of tip is not enough to stop the crack growth, and that, if the load and/or the concentration
conditions are not changed, the critical intensity stress of material will be achieved, leading to
unstable crack propagation.
The curve in Fig. 7 shows the evolution of the effective crack tip radius and illustrates
phenomena that are difficult to observe directly. The growing part of the curve represents the
blunting tip due to damage accumulation process. When the process of tip blunting is
finalized, starts the tip sharpening process, which also corresponds to the onset of crack
propagation.
Figure 7: Evolution of the effective crack tip radius.
In Figure 8 are shows the curves of evolution of crack growth plotted for the same applied
stress and three different entrance concentrations, c
e
, normalized with c
a
. In them can be seen
that the initial evolution of the crack is very slow and that only after a certain time it starts a
smooth growth with an increasing rate. The highest point in the curves represents the onset of
unstable propagation, which results in the final fracture of the component. As expected, the
times of onset of crack growth and fracture decreases as the concentration increases, since
promotes a more active degradation process.
Figure 8: Evolution of the crack growth for the same applied stress and different concentrations.
Figure 9 shows the graph of evolution of stress intensity factor in time, caused by the crack
growth. The trend in evolution of stress intensity factor, showed by the behavior of the curve,
is to grow until reach to fracture toughness of the material (red line), moment when the
collapse of the structure will occur. In the work of Palma et al. (2009), where were used the
parameters of a Maraging T250 steel under hydrogen embrittlement effect, was observed a
similar behavior, typical of environmentalassisted cracking processes. This behavior is
consistent with the curves obtained from experimental results (Brown and Beachem, 1965)
and allow visualize the propagation process of cracks under the effect of mechanic static loads
and environmental actions, characterized in this case, by the corrosive agent effect.
Figure 9: Evolution of the stress intensity factor.
The curve of Fig. 10 show the relationship between the rate of crack growth and stress
intensity factor, where can be observed three regions. In the first two regions, the crack
growth mechanism is controlled by an environmental mechanism complemented by a
mechanical rupture. The subcritical crack growth is limited to these regions. In the third
region the proportion of mechanical rupture increases rapidly with increasing of the stress
intensity factor values, until a critical value is reached and the final fracture occurs
(McLaughlin, 1997).
Figure 10: Relationship of crack growth rate with the stress intensity factor.
The curve obtained in the simulation shows the same behavior of a typical curve obtained
in the scientific literature (Fig. 11), where the lower value of K
I
is designated as "threshold
value of SCC" (or K
ISCC
) that characterizes the stress intensity factor at the first extension
measurable of crack. The practical significance of K
ISCC
is that below this stress intensity
level, the crack growth rates in SCC fall below to a very small limit, as 10
10
m/s, which
corresponds to an increase in crack extension of approximately 3mm/year (Speidel, 1971).
Figure 11: Typical curve da/dt vs. K
I
(Speidel, 1971).
4 CONCLUSIONS
The simulations of crack evolution processes in different concentrations showed that the
times of onset of crack growth and final fracture decreases as the concentration increases,
namely, when the corrosive action of environmental agent is more deleterious.
The results of simulations shown that the proposed model is quite consistent and robust,
which is able to describe the behavior of physical phenomena present at the onset and crack
propagation in a component under SCC effects.
The applied model showed a good interaction between the principles of mechanics of
continuous damage and fracture mechanics, which provided satisfactory results when
compared with experimental results found in the scientific literature.
It can be concluded from these results, it is feasible to use numerical simulation as an
additional tool for the design of structures operating in chemically aggressive environments,
optimizing the balance between security and economic design.
5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are very grateful to FINEP / CTPETRO / CNPq / PETROBRAS / RPCmod
and to ANP/UFCG/PRH25 for have financed the development of this investigation work.
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