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CVG2140 Winter 2014


Mechanics of Materials
Course Instructor
Won Taek Oh
A609(CBY)
woh@uottawa.ca
4 March 2014
Department of Civil Engineering
@
(613)562-5800 Ext. 6687
Example 11.1
The steel beam ABC shown in the following figure has simple
supports at A and B and has an overhang BC of length L (1.5 m).
The length of the simple span is 2L. A uniform load of intensity q
= 3.5 kN/m acts throughout the entire length of the beam (4.5
m). The beam has a rectangular cross-section of width b and
height 2b. The weight density of the beam material is = 77
kN/m
3
. If the allowable bending stress in the steel is 60 MPa,
determine the dimensions of the beam when (a) the self weight is
neglected, and (b) if the self weight is considered.
q
2
A
B
q
L
C
2L
A
y
B
y
2
Design of beams for bending stresses
General Factors Influencing the Design of Beams
Type of Structure: Airplane automobile bridge building Type of Structure: Airplane, automobile, bridge, building,
etc.
Beam Materials: Steel, concrete, other metals, plastics,
composites, etc.
Loads to Resist (Strength): Dead, live, dynamic, wind,
earthquake, heat, etc.
Environmental Conditions: Temperatures, moisture, salt,
3
chemicals, etc.
Cost: Budgetary constraints.
Design of beams for bending stresses
Strength shape and size (o o
allow
)
Doubly symmetric and Doubly symmetric and
Not doubly symmetric or
( ) ( )
max max
top bot
allow top allow bot
M M
S S S
o o
= = = =
( ) ( ) allow top allow bot
o o =
( ) ( ) allow top allow bot
o o =
4
Smallest cross-sectional area for the required section
modulus
3
Design of beams for bending stresses
Beams of standardized shapes and sizes
Beams are manufactured in large variety of shapes and sizes Beams are manufactured in large variety of shapes and sizes
to suit many applications
Canadian Institute of Steel Construction (CISC)
Relative efficiency of various beam shapes
Principal objective in designing a beam
Bending efficiency mainly depends on the cross-sectional
shape
5
shape
Most efficient beam: material is located as far as practically
possible from the neutral axis
Relative efficiency of various beam shapes

2
0.167 ( , )
6 6
bh Ah
S Ah f A h = = = =
3
3
3 3
0.0982
32
circle
d
S d
h d
t
t t
= =
6
3
0.1160
6 48
1.18
square
square
circle
h d
S d
S
S
t t
= = =
=
4
Relative efficiency of various beam shapes
2
A
2
A
0.35
( )
S Ah
for standard wide flangebeams
=
7
2
2
2 0.5
2 2 4 / 2
A h Ah I
I S Ah
h
| || |
= = = =
| |
\ .\ .
Example 11.2
A simple beam of length L = 15 ft carries a uniform load of q = 900
lb/ft and a concentrated load P = 8000 lb, as shown in the
following figure. Assuming an allowable stress of 18,000 psi,
calculate the required section modulus S, and select a 12-inch
wide-flange beam (W shape) from table E-1. Recalculate S taking
into account the weight of the beam and select a new section if
necessary (5-6.4).
q = 900 lb/ft
P = 8000 lb
L / 2
8
L =15 ft
5
Beam with axial loads

9
Beam with axial loads

10