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THE HUNG-LEAGUE.

THIAN

TI
THE

HWUI

HUNG LEAGUE
OR

sjsa^iaGJ-aaQTra-iaa^i
A SECRET SOCIETY WITH THE CHINESE IN CHINA AND INDIA.
BY

t9i

OUSTA.VE [SCHLEG^EL,
loteiprctcr fnr
tlic

Cliincsf
llic

Language

lo Ujc (iuvcinment

iif

Netlierlaods-lO'lla

Mcmlier of

Bataviaii Socicly of Arts and Sciences.

and of
Royal
litslilutc

ttie

for tbc

Fhllolosr

Ccograpliy and Etlioolojy of Sctlicrlands-lndia.

WriH AN INTRODUCTION AND NUMEROITS

CU'L'S

AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

B A T A V

LAINTOE & C
MDCCCLXVI.

P I^ E F A C E.
It
is

known

fact

that

secret

societies

not only exist in

China
a

itself,

but

also

with laws
very

the Chinese in the Colonies, where they lead very often to a


of the land,

tacit resistance against the


lot

or even to revolt.

In

the

spring of the
of a

year 18G3,

of

books

AA'cre,

accidentally,

found by the police in the house

Chinaman

suspected of theft

at

Padang

(Sumatra), which proved the existence of a secret society at that place, numbering about 200

members. These books, containing the laws, statutes, oath, mysteries description of flags, symbols and secret signs etc., etc., were placed
for

of initiation, catechism,
officially

into

my

hands

translation.

the case pressed, I had no leisure to study

Most of these books were, at the time, quite unintelligible to me and, as them more thoroughly. I requested, however, the
books
to

Government
nese and

to return these

me

after the decision of the case,

and

to
I.

place

all

Chi-

foreign

documents
I

relating to

Chinese

secret

societies in
to

the N.

Archipelago at

my
to

disposal,

as

hoped

to

be enabled, in that Avay,


liberally
to
this

find

out the secrets of those soall

cieties.

Government acceded
full

request, and
besides
the

ordered

such books,

it

found,

be delivered to me.

In this

way we
in

got,

books found in Padang, a Chi-

nese book

of drawings, found

1S51

at Japara (Java),

with the statutes of the Shan-

tung-branch;

a
of

memorial concerning

seven friendly societies found in Palembang (Sumatra)

and a copy

Dr. Milne's account of the Triad-society.

The most valuable contributions, however, were two Chinese manuscripts presented to the. IJatavian Society of Arts and Sciences by Mr. Teysman, of Buitenzorg, containing the whole
Catechism, History, description of the
rites, lodges,
flags,

secret signs

and implements, enriched

with a

series

of drawings;

both which books were kindly placed at

my

disposal

by the above

named
I

society.

am

indebted also to
of the
t

my

colleague,

M. von Faber, Esq.,

for the loan

of a print on linen

ff the

diploma

brotherhood, obtained from Montrado, and to the Resident of Pthio, E.


loan of half a dozen similar

Ketsclier, Esq., for

lie

diplomas.

Provided with these valuable

1219158

V:

rEETACK.
interesting
,

and

documents we have been enabled

to

throw more

light

on

this

remarkable
(*)

association

of

which

little,

and very fragmentary knowledge was formerly obtained.


still

Much, however, remains


contains
all

to be studied,

and we do not presume that the


all

jircsent

work
if

possible informatiou.
in
this place

Notwithstanding

our endeavours

we

could not induce a single

Chinaman
this

whom we
not

supposed to be a
benefit

member

to

confess this.

But even
it.

had been the case,

much

would, probably, have been derived from


of the population,

The
suffi-

greater part of the


ciently versed in
to be able

members,

consisting of the lower orders

are not

their

own

language and history,


of the

or initiated into the secrets of the league,


etc.

to give an3- explanation


is

symbols,

second ditliculty

found in the unwillingness of Chinese


If they are

literati to investigate

any book

treating on this subject.


to tell

members, and are


in
it

initiated into the secrets, they are afraid

them

for,

both in China they


in

and

the colonies, the

league

is

forbidden

by
as

severe laws.
the league

In the other
is

case

are prejudiced against


it's

by education

and example,

always represented

blackest colours;

and a Chinaman, not belonging

to the league,

(')

AVe dj not

deem

it

unnecessary to
are:

nijntion

the

principal papers

wliicli

have been written about the

Hung-league.
I.

They

Some account

of a Secret Society in

China

entitled The

Tnad-socuty."

By

the

late

Dr.
5
,

Milne,

Principal of the Anglo-Chiuese College.

Communicated by the

llev.

Eob. Morrison. Bead Febr.

1825.

(Transactions K. A. S. of Great. Brit, and Irel., Vol. I, 240.)


II.

transcript

in

Koman
By

characters with a translation of a manifesto

in

Chinese language,
(Journal of the A.

issued
S.,

by the
1, p.
III.

Triad-society.
93).

the Eev. E. Morrison.

Eead 4th of April,

1S2'J.

Vol.

The Chinese Triad-society


IS,

of the Tien-ti-luiih.

By
des

Lieiitenant
S.,

Newbold and JIajor-General


p.

AVil-

son, Madras army. Eead Jan.

1S40.

(Jouiual of the A.
Briidorschaft

Vol. VI,

120.)
der coramunistischen
(Berlin 1852).
for the

IV.

Thien-ti-hoih

Geschichte dcr
II.

Himmels und der Erden


im Indischen

Propaganda China's von E.


V.

Eottger, fr.ihcr Missionsprediger

Archipel.

refutation of lluttger's

work by Dr.

Ilotl'maiiii

in

the periodical

of the

Eoyal Institute
title:

Philology, geography and ethnolo.^y of Netherlands-India, No. 3, 1S53, under the


aarde verbond.

Hot liemel-

Een geheim genootschap


dienaaugaande herzien,

in

China en onder de Chinezen


aangevuld

in

Indie.
II.

(Milne's en MorriItottgers Geschichte

son's mededeelingen

en gchandhaafd tegen E.

der Brinlerschaft das Ilimmels tind dtr Erden.)

VI.

translation of the Jli'wjat Ahdallah iln Abdelkadtr Moensji


Sept., 1S52.

by E. Braddel in the Journal of

the Indian Archipelago aiul Eastern Asia.

VII.

second article by Dr. Hoffmann on the Heaven and Earth-league under the

title:

Bijdragen

tot de keunis der for the

geheime genootschappeu onder de Chinezen, bepaaldetijk het Thien-ti-hoei." (Periodical


I.,

Philology, geography and ethnology of N.

Vol. II,

p.

293.)

The

last

work
from a

containing the

most information and compiled with much discernment by the learned professor,

Manuscript of

Abraham Betting van Campen,

the August numbers of the Overland China Mail, 1S53, aud the Chinese

Eepository, Vol. XVIII, June, 1S49.

PREFACE.

Vir

cannot be induced to take up a manual deemed already contaminating.

or

book treating of

it's

rites

the
wo may

looking on

it

hehvj;

On

this

account only a high degree of probability


especially of

may

be attached to

tlie

translations

av
ori-

have given,
ginal text,
if

the pieces of poetry.


it

For the same reason

have added the

wherever

we

judged

necessary, so that the translation

be later confronted,

necessary.

The introduction

of the original text has given us, at the

to give a free translation, as the literal


to the

same time, the liberty meaning can be restored by every sinologue, according

original.

Jlilne

translated

the

characters

No. 33

i3

in

the

first

octagon of his

diploma:

)t

^
-^

^ m
m

m
by:

*
all

^ ^ ^
in battle join
sip;n.

m m

m
#

The bvetheni

Each ready with a chosen

An
Still

ancient brook with parting; streams;

flowing

down from

lonp; past

tlraes.

il//A/e

knew

nothing of the History of the league and did not


tied.

know

of the

Ku-kAi temple

wliither the live founders

If

he had

known

of it,

he would have translated:

The brethern

are all marshalled;


sicrn.

Each ready with a chosen

From Kao-klil \}] they dispersed themselves; And since ages this has been transmitted!

By which
gations

rendering

the obscurity of the


that Ave have

quatrain

is,

at

once,

cleared up.
in

Later investi-

may, perhaps, show


only
be

made

similar mistakes

the translation of

some
ran

of the pieces of poetry

abounding

in the present

work.
so

As masonry can
a member,
for the

explained

by very learned masons,


In the colonies
it

the

Hung-loaguc

only be explained by a A'ery learned member.

is

fruitless to search for sucii

most learned Chinese we have met with hero are, on the average, on a par with the most commonplace schoolmasters in China. In the latter country, it's cradle,
s^ however,
it

would, perhaps, be possible

to lay hold of a distinguished

and learned Hung-member,


the P.udhist

who would

be able and willing to give correct information.


is

last,

but not the least, difficulty

found

in

the

numerous

allusions to

and
lat-

Taoist symbolism.
Kao-khi,

Concerning the former,


means a

we

are

pretty
as

well informed,
an

but about the


brook."

(')

literally translated,

high brook" or,

Milne says,
all

r,ncient

Here

it

means the Aao-({V/j-temple from whence the brethern dispersed themselves

over the Empire. (Corap.

p. 14.)

VIII

PREPACE.

ter in

very

little is

known.

My

learned friend Dr.


to

J.

Hoffinann, professor of the Chinese language


this

Leiden, wrote

me
to

in

answer

a question on

point: ,/Of the

symbolism

of

the

Tao-

kia,

which seems
yet very

be

much

in vogue

with

the

Chinese in the Indian Archipelago,

we

know
It

little."

was

of no use to consult

the Taoist priests at


religion,

the place.

We

found

all

of

them most
to

ignorant

concerning their

own

and
in

none of them could even explain

us

the

meaning of the amulets found at the end of this work.

The
rather

illustrations

in

the text

were cut

wood by

Chinese

xylographer,

the best,
to

or

the least unskilful,

workman

of the place.

He was, however, unable


As
the

cut

with

sufficient neatness

the plates at the end of this work.

execution of these plates could

not be trusted to a person unacquainted with Chinese, on account of the numerous characters
occurring in them,

we

had

to

take the task upon ourselves.

The

plates

were drawn with


Dictionary,

lithographic ink on so-called transfer-paper , and tlien turned over on a stone prepared for their
reception.

This method has answered


of,

well in printing

Mr. Medhurst's

Chinese

and can always be availed


as
far

in cases

like the present.


so

Care has been taken to imitate,


plates

as as

possible,
fac-similes,

the

Chinese original,

that

these

ought

rather

to

be looked

upon

than as copies.

With a few exceptions the Chinese text will be found to be arranged in the European manner of writing, in order to save space. So it must be read horizontally from the left to the right, exactly like any European sentence. Lastly, we would observe that we have written this work in the English and not in our own language, because the former is more generally known by educated persons, and beas it does cause the Hung-league does not count so many members in the Dutch colonies, We claim, finally, the indulgence of the reader for in others where Chinamen are found. the numerous typographical errors occurring in this work. It was, perforce, composed by
compositors unacquainted with the language; whilst
the correction devolved
entirely

on the

author, and had to be done amidst constant interruptions occasioned by his

official duties.

GUSTA.VE SCHLEGEL,
BATAVIA,
Marcli

1866.

INTEODUCTION.
EX ORIEXTE LUX.

1.

Every person who has read anj^thing

of the secret societies iiv China,

must have been struck


paper on
the

with the resemblance between tiiem and the society of Freemasons.

We

believe

that

it

was

Dr. Milne

who

iirst

noted this resemblance in his

Triadsociety.

communication in the //Miinchener gelchrten Anzeigen" regarding


Schauberg;
it

this society'',

impressed, forcibly, a learned mason from Zurich, Dr. Jos.

little

as

was known

at

that time about the Chinese Hungleague, yet the doctor expressed

as his conviction,

that the

Chinese league was similar to free-masonry

in its institutions.

(})

The ample materials we now possess


resting point, whilst

will,

we

hope,

enable us to develop further this inte-

we

express the wish, that the more able and learned, especially amongst

masons,

may

be induced,

by

the subject of a

more

serious

the few hints we will and extensive researcli.

give,

to

make

the Chinese

Hungleague

For those

who

believe in the unity of the

human

race,
,

it

should exist a marked resemblance between both societies

Avill seem less strange that there and they Avill more readily compre-

hend the similarity of the symbols and institutions of these


of the

societies.

If the theory of the

unity

would be very likely that the nations, when they the plains of Middle Asia, spread themselves from the supposed cradle of mankind over all the world, retained the notion that they were once all brethern and formed one family. Besides, the Chinese have not always been so exclusive as they are now; the Chinese eye-lashpaint-vases, found in Egyptian tombs of the XVIIIth and XXth d.vnasties (B. C. ISOO 1100.), would suggest that there has existed a direct or indirect intercourse between both nations. (-)
race be the

human

more

correct one,

it

C-)

Nacli den Miinclieuer gelehrten Anzeigen


tigen China,
toelc/ie

fiir

1S57

No. 17,
den

liaben

die gelicimen Gesellschafteu

im

lieu-

uberhaupt in ihren

EinrichtnttgeH

Freimaiirern

almlich

sinil,

besondere

eigene

Erkennungszeichen

nnd

Erkennungsworte haben,

und einen
Siegel.

inuigen Bruderbund bilden, den Seckigen


Jos.

Stern nait versetzten Cliinesischen Characteren


rerei, Theil I, S. 178.
(')

zum

(Dr.

Scliauberg,

Symbolik der Freiman-

Zurich, 1861.)

Davis, China and the Chinese.

INTRODUCTION.
the

The absolute resemblance between the system of Pj'thagoras and


is

Chinese

musical system
(i)

in strong favor of the

supposition that he got

liis

notions for

it

from the Chinese,

They

attach to

numbers
(-)

them long
a

before he did, wliich

the Chinese,

attached to them by the Greek philosopher, and they knew makes it rather probable that it was he who learned them from though modern critique has shown that the voyage of Pythagoras to India is
all the properties
(^)

fable of the Alexandrine period.

It is

proved that

the Chinese had intercourse with


(^)

the

Romans; and Antoninus even


according to klapeotii,
till

sent an

embassy
is
:

to China.

This intercourse

was kept up,


them consider
did not

the eleventh century.

According

to

the masons their society

as old as the

world

itself;

some

of

Egypt

as its

cradle.

Dr.

Schauberg says

that

the mediaeval building corporations

originate spontaneously with antecursor in the Greek and

all their institutions,

usages, and

symbols,

but had a historical

Roman

building-mysteries Avhich, in their turn, took their root in

the Phenician and Egj'ptian building-mysteries,


of Zoroaster,

and have suffered


(^)

the inlluence of the Lightcultus

and probably, nay

surely,

of

JBitd/iism."

Perhaps masonry divided development in China. C)

itself into

two branches: one passing to the West, in the wa}' Dr.


itself to the

Schauberg supposes, and the other directing

East and finding a

fertile

soil

for its

The members
their

of the
it is

Hungleague claim,
,/

at least,

a high antiquity.

In the .32d answer of

Catechism

said:

Since the time that the foundation of the world

was

laid,

we

all

bear the
united,

name of Hung." Likewise the Vanguard answers on the 220th Question: ,/Tin and YangHeaven and Earth accoupled, first produced the sons of Hung in myriads united." It will, probably, be objected that the Avorkiugs of the Hungleague and of the society of freemasons are quite different; that the object of the latter is tlioroughly peaceful, whilst the Hungleague has carried civil war and murder whereever it went. ^Ye do not deny these facts, but we must bear in mind that the circumstances have forced the brotherhood to become a political body, and that it is impossible for any society to be held responsible for the acts of all its members.

(1) (=)
(^)

Memoires concernant
Ibid.
C'lir.

les

Ckinois, T. VI, 173.

T.

II, 193.
,

Lassen, ludiscbe Alterthumskunde

I,

862.

()
(5)

Wells Williams,

Middle Kingdom.
p.

II.

pp. 214 & 420.

Symb.

d.

Freim. II,
I

299.
written the above

C)

few weeks after


his

liad

my

friend

E.

Swiiilioc,

H. B. M. Consul
I

at

rormosa, sent

me

Narrative of the

North China Campaign

of 1860,"

wlure
:

fnid

on page 366 the following

lines

on

secret signs of recognition

between the Peking Chinese


to

But a similar sign


point to the sky

was made by any

native

who wished
heart,

show the

sincerity of his heart.


tlie

He would
by

and to the earth, then to his


thus meaning that he
called

and would
r.nd

finish

demonstr.ition

holding up his thumb;


Tlie officers

upon heaven

earth to witness the integi'ity of his heart.

declared that these signs of mutual trust and sincerity were proof positive that freemasonry had long been

known and

established in China."

INTEODl'CTIOX.

XI

Freemasonry
discuss
at

has, likewise, formerly been used as a cover for political conjurations in


too.

England;
ought

(')

and there are surely perverted and bad people amongst masons
present
its

We
not

have, howevei-, not to


it

what

the

Chinese

Hungleagiie has done or does; but what

to do

according to

own

tenets

and teachings: that


In the

war and

revolt

is

its

proper object
the

the

brotlierhood itself acknowledges.

10th question of their

Catechism

master asks:

,/Therc is a great and a petty Heaven and Earth-league; do you know that?" whereupon the Vanguard answers: I do: the petty league originated at the waters of San-ho; the great

league

is

contained in the principle of Heaven."


discourse

(")

The following
and says:
liis

which

we
its

find at the

head of two copies of the handbook


,/E.\;cellent

of this

league, gives us a better idea of


//A great

tendency.

It is eirtitled:

words

of exhortation,"

man

easily establishes his house; the true noble has no difficulties in fixing

will.

They

alwaj^s

some points and,

therefore,

composed; they restrain

in peace and rest; they always yield They suffer insults and, therefore, are calm and themselves some moments and, therefore, are happy as tlie Gods above.
retreat a step

and

are, therefore,

have no troubles.

The blue mountains do not care for man's affairs, Nor did the green waters ever wash away right or wrong, If some one asks you the affairs of the Hungleague; Shake your liead and answer: //I don't know."
I have also heard people say:

Make righteous profits and gains and fulfil 3^our duties; Do not act wrongly and confuse right and wrong.
,/Drink pure and
clear water,

but do

not

touch the wine of brothels.


If people insult
to bear
it,

Converse with

vir-

tuous friends and renounce heartless companions.

you, injure you, revile you,


endure
it,

abuse you,
it.

how

ought you

to

take it?

You ought

suffer it,

and forgive^

Don't ask immoral people to drink wine witli you.


their

Don't believe those


not frequent

with

mouths and unrighteous

in their hearts.

Do
for

who are righteous people who turn you a

cold shoulder, and are without heart or faith.

Do

not despise people whose


{^)

fortune

has

turned;
in

you

will
tlie

only be for a few years a

lamb and an inferior. Heaven, of Eartli and


(') (=) (')

Always remember
(*)

j^our

actions

fundamental principles of

of yourself.

Symb.

d.

Freira.

II.

Introduction, p. YII.
ifnl

4-

#
)

^ H
ijjl
^qSi

;tC.

A # ^ ^ *
T'^'^

Tliis sentence contains

the promise

that they will be free in a few years.


I

t"*)

^ ^
Tlie

2iS
jt'

fundamental principle, or the intrinsic virtue of Heaven

is

con-

tained in these four words:

"^

^j]

Which

gives existence,

increase,

perfection,

and

consummation.

Heaven, therefore, is Perfect [Jj j, j Q] fundamental principle, or intrinsic virtue of Earth is to produce mountains and rivers, trees and grains, animals and birds, iu short, all which is imposing, sraud, and useful. Hence it is called il/ryVs^ic.

XII

INTEODrCTIOX.

Let 3'our

man
So

to

name be man, and in


find,

iivyo.

The

statutes

the red-flower pavilion

we

with a few exceptions, in

and concerns of the Hungleague are handed down from you have bound yourself by an oatli." the formulary of oath, and in the statutes and laws of
and piousness, which offers^not the least idea of the Hungleague is reminded of the
AA'ritten

this league, a_;spirit of fraleraity;, devotion, filiality

of rebellion
object:

or murder;

and on every page the member


act
righteously''."
is

//Obey Heaven and

It is

on the second wall of the lodge,

whilst the cosmopolitic spirit of the league

expressed

by

the

words on the fourth wall:

//Ex-

treme conversion, wliich blends with Heaven."


Fraternal love
serving brother
faith,

and

faith

are also the

first

masonic
//

duties.

fragment of a harangue

to

may

serve as an illustration:

You ought, with immutable


You have been
to

to

be devoted to the lodge and to each member.

received into the bond

of the brethern as a brother,

and have solemnly bound yourself

serve all the brethern, in

every

case, as

a faithful brother. Fulfil inviolably

this sacred duty,

then you

may

be

sui-e

that

we

will never
us,

belong to
death,

From this day forth you forget, iu word or deed, that j'ou are our brother. you are a "hiember of our lodge, and 3'ou will be and remain so until your whilst you ought to redeem through your whole life the promise just now given, and may
Not only before the lodge but, especially, befirst

not deviate from yourself nor from your word.


fore the profane

world, you ought to show, by your actions and behaviour, that the
the meanest

mafra-

sonic duty,

which can, however, be practised by


"
(')

mason,

is

fraternal love

and

ternal faith

So, too, says jierzdoef, in his paper //The symbols, histoxy, laws and object of Masonry"
(Leipzig, 18-36):
in

//Masonry considers every


(")

man
act

as a brother,

and excludes no one who believes


sajing of
is

God, morality and immortality."

The

so oft repeated

//Obey Heaven and

righteously" accords well with the


//Act as a

the Constitution-book of the lodge //Archimedes" in Alteuburg:


trated with the purest esteem for equity

man who

pene-

From

this it results clearlj^,

and duty for God and man, should act." (') that masonry is, and ought to be, cosmopolitic; and this
is

is also

recognised

by masons.
,

This

cosmopolitism
(^)

expressed in the
man'/,
()

name

of the Chinese league:

-the character Hioiy

{*)

composed of wafer
boundless.
of

and

signifies iiiianhfio?i;

and, in a
to

tropi-

cal sense, great, extensive,

So

it

means

that

the

league

intends

inundate the
sincerily

world

Avith

the

blessings

the primary virtues;

that every one


is,

who

intends

the

liberation of his fellow creatures from tyranny

and immoralitj',

in fact, a

member

of the lea-

gue, AA^hose influence, therefore,

is

immensely great

boundless
is

like

an inundation.

The fundamental

principle, or intrinsic virtue of

Man

contained in these
faith.
is

five

words
is

'^Zl

^^
man

f\^
stands

^ ^
(1)

Humanity, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and

Hence

it

said

that

between Heaven and Earth, and that one and the same principle

common

to these three powers.

Symh.

d.

Freim. 11,

26L

(=)

Ibid.

I,

375.

{^)

Ibid. I,

376.

INTRODUCTION-.

XIII

//When darkness dispersed and light arose, sun, moon and stars moved on their eternal orand man adored God as the creator of the world and of man. God the creator is, also, thei'efore, the everlasting light, the eternal law ol" tlic world the everlasting Harmony, Order and Wisdom which creates and maintains all. The world was made because God the Eternal thought and spoke; for the thinl:ing and speaking of G..! is production and creation. The holy Avord is the godlike fundamental thought and the godlike fundamental word, the word of Avords, by virtue of which the All was created and born in the beginning by the allmighty One out of the primary darkness, \\ hen lie spoke and tliere was." (')
bits,

nese.

God has been retained through all ages by the ChiThey named Him the Snpreme ruler (Sliang-ti), (~) whilst tliey gave Him as synonyms the names Heaven (Thian), Old Heaven (Lao thian) (*) and Sovereign Heaven (Hwang thian) (=). Some philosophers called Him, also, Li, (") or the necessary principle \Ahich makes that all
This notion of the single and undivided
("')

things
all

as they exist, and Tai-hlh, C) Greatest exlreme; whilst they mean to express by names what wc express by: //Essential truth, sovereign wisdom, eternal and immu//table reason whichin All and every where, -which subsists by itself and through itself, //Which gives to all intelligent beings the excellency of their nature and the sublimity of their understanding." C^) As father of the universe they called Him Fu-thian, Father Heaven ('), like the old Germans called Him Allvater.

are

these

i.s

God,
dity of
tion or

saj's the old doctrine,

which

it

by His almighty breath (i"), gave to the Yin and Yang the was susceptible, hy making it pass from the state of rest to the state
letting
it

fecunof

mo-

work; by

take, successively, the different

forms and modilications which connatural things,


(ii)

stitute the different

ways

of existence in the production of

Yin and Yang


lieat,

may be called darkness and light, night and day, motion and rest, cold and male and female, positive and negative: Sun and Heaven are Yang, Moon and Earth
//

are Yin.
the
in

So

we

meet," says Dr. Schaubcrg,

(^-)

//in

the oldest sacred book of Eastern Asia

(^^)

same worldprinciplo of rest and motion, of mutability and immutability, which is expressed masonry by the two sacred words and pillars Jachin and Boaz." The following fragment of a speech contained in the first volume of Dr. Schauberg's work (p. 650) would not be misplaced in the mouth of a Chinese philosopher discoursing about the properties of Yin and Yang.
//These pillars," saj'S the speaker,
or physical,

//have a double symbolical meaning; firstly a cosmogonic

and secondly an ethic or moral one.

In the cosmogonic or physical sense, in their

(1)

Symb,

d.

Freim.

I,

301303,
'^)

H
C)
()

3||

^t

;;fcC

^
111

^
d.

@
of Changes,

(*)

^ %
Memoires concernant
p.
les

(^)

M ^
,

l^)

Chinois

T. 11,

p.

11.

(")

^
Book

(") Memoires, ibid.

13.

(1-)
('')

Symb.

Freim. I, 318.

the Yili-king or

composed

in

prison by

Wan-wang,

//the literary

prince",

about

B, C. 1150.

XIV

INTEODUCTIOX.
pillars

pure natural mea:iiiig, the two


light

proclaim the

everlasting

change and struggle

between

forms the

and darkness, night and day, winter and summer, cold and heat, death and life and the law of the creation and the world
pillars do

life,

which
forms

But the two

not
life,

allude

only to the cosmogonic or physical dualism whicli


as the everlasting universal

the universal and natural


tural law; but,
still

and which wrangles together


the ethic or

more,

to

moral dualism between good and


life

evil,

and napure and unand that


on

pure,
of all

true

and

false,

right

and wrong, which constitutes the


change

of each individual

mankind."
of this eternal

As a symbol

we

find the

diagram, pourtraying the

Ti/i

and

I'aiii;,

the diploma of the brotherhood in the province of Shantung.


Yin and Tanff united, formed Harmony
(i)

out of which

were produced
bodies

the three powers

(-):

Heaven, Earth and ULan.

Everything concerning the knowledge


Heaven.

of the celestial

was ranged under


all

the

power

Water,

fire,
tlie

metals,

Avinds,

thunder,

lightning,

geography and

natural produc-

tions, constituted

second power Ear/h.


the old philosophers looked
to

The
with

third

power Man,

upon

as the only visible creature

endowed

intellect,

and who was able

do actions worthy of praise or blame, of reward or punish(5)

ment, according as he was virtuous or depraved.

These

three

powers being produced by

one and the same breath possess, of course, the same nature, and are pervaded by one principle; or, as it is said in the 32d answer of the Catechism of the Hungleague:

The three powers were established together.

One
In the same spirit
is

principle

is

common

to

them.

this old

Chinese adage:

Heaven is above. Earth is below, Man was born between both; The three powers were established One principle is common to them. Oh, How great is Confucius!

together,

By

the great virtue of his holy bonds

The whole world followed his conversion. And by all ages he is honoured. This intimate union between Heaven, Earth and Man, was expressed by the symbol /\. According to the Shwoh-wan this symbol means: //three united in one". It is composed of the chaA to enter, penetrate and , one, so that the symbol /\ signifies three united, peneracter
,

trated, lleruledmto one. Liu-shu-tsing-hun says

l\

means intimate union, harmony,


all things.
{*)

the

first bles-

sing of Man, Heaven and

EarlJi

it

is

the conjunction of the three powers because,

when

they

are united, they, together, rule, create and nourish

0)
C')

5^
Memoires concernant
Memoires caucerr.aut

o
les

H
Chinois,

:^
II, pp.

Cliinois, T.
I.

2723.

()

les

299.

INTRODL'CTIOX.

XV
explained so that
,/

With
If

the

Egyptians

the

equilateral

triangle

was

one side expressed the


(i)

male deity, the other

side tlae female deity,

and the base symbol

the created."

we call
we

one side 3Iale (Yang or Heaven), the other side Female (Yin or Earth), and the base
/\ expressing

Mail,

will hav^e the Chinese acceptation of the


,/Oxe

Heaven, Earth and Man.

Bachofen says:
with the matter
fire,
it

becomes three by

its

incorporation

the

tioo,

whose
is
(2)

with the matter,

by

its

union
vital

vivifying and
the

henceforth forms; the three

Tuo

moving principle, the creating and shaping power in

vital spirit

and

the

matter,

the two

the spirit, the Unity."


too,

So,

says the old Chinese philosopher Lao-tsze:


^'///(?5;

,/The Tao produced oe;

07te

produced to; ;

tea produced

;'//e

produced

all

beings",

which

is

explained in this

way:

that as long as the

was concentrated
universe

in itself.
to

One was not yet born; as soon, however, as the Tao had diffused
This One divided
itself in

itself in tlie

produce the creatures. One was born.


This Harmony condensed

J7 and

Yarij

who, united, formed Harmovy.


is

itself

the Tao

Lao-tsze explains tons himself.


in

He

says:

If I

and produced all things. (^) What were endowed with some prudence I
like the
7;/'/^$.

would walk
(Chap. LIII).

the great Tao." The great The Tao may be looked upon
it

Tao

is

very even, but the people

as the

mother
(Chap.

of the universe.

I don't

know

its

name;
fucius

to quality it, I call


it's

the Tao or the Road."

XXV)

So the Tao

may

be called the

Road; but in

most broad and extensive acceptation.


it

who

called

the right

It illustrates the

nature of

This Road was also taught by Con(*) medium (Chung-yung). His grandson Tsze-sze worked it out. human virtue, and describes the state of the true and immaculate

man

(Kiun-tsze)

,/The sage

sublime

is

who always demeans himself correctly, without going to extremes. It says: keeps the true medium in all things; the fool neglects it." ,,0, how grand and the true medium! but how few are there who know how to keep it long." The
it,

philosophers exceed

the fools don't reach

it."
it is

Describing, furtlier,

how man
anytliing

ought

to be,

said:

//The princely man, in dealing with others,

does not descend to

low

or improper.

middle and
not himself.
if

leans
If

not to either

side.

unbending his valor! He stands in tlie The princely man enters into no situation where he is
he does not treat with contempt those below him;

How

he holds a

high situation

he occupies an

inferior station

he uses no

mean

arts to gain the favor of his superiors.

He

corrects himself

not at

and blames no others; he feels no dissatisfaction. On the one hand he murmurs Heaven; nor, on the other, does he feel resentment towards man. Hence the superior
(')

man

dwells at ease, entirely waiting the will of Heaven."


to

The whole

doctrine of Confucius

tended

bring

man back

to the

pure and undeliled state in which he lived in antiquity.


the divine essence,

As a reasonable being and possessing

man

has various duties to

fiillil.

(})
(-)

Krause, Kunsturkuiiden
Synib. d. Freim.

I, 1, pag.

453, Note

a.

U, o26.
Tradiiit par St.
Isiti'oduction,

(^)
(*)
[^]

Le Le

livre de la vole et de la vertu. livre de la voie et

Julien

pag. 15

8.

de la vertu.
6

XIII XIV.

Collie's

Four books,

pp.

10.

XVI

INTEODVCTION.
to

He ought

which and \vife, father and these son. To are are the relation between ruler and ruled, husband added the duties of brothers and friends amongst each other, which five duties constitute the
himself and to
others.
to fullil the three social bonds,
live relations.
(-)

know

know

He has

(i)

Humanity, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and

faith, are

the five constant

virtues

(^)

he has conscientiously to consider.

He

has to restrain and modify his passions:


(^)

joy, auger, love, sorroAv, fear, hatred and concupiscence.

As a

subject,
to

citizen,
fulfil.

father,

husband, son, brother,


to act properly

friend, senior

and junior, he has several duties


life

He ought
funerals,

and righteously

in all the circumstances of

as: birth

and death,

marriages, in his conduct and actions, in his duties

as

an

officer,

in
{=)

his pursuits of

husban-

dry, in the perpetration of ceremonies, and intercourse Avith others.

God
There
this

or Shang-ti

was adored
ascended
to

in antiquity on the top of a mountain: the chief of the nation,


this

the emperor,

alone

mountain,

whilst the people remained standing at


to

it's

foot.

the

emperor prajed
five

the

Supreme Ruler,
to these

Him who had

created ev'erything.
(")

For
loss

purpose

mountains

were deatined,

called //The fire peaks."

Afterwards the
to erect a
first

of time
for the

occasioned

by
the

the

voyages

mountains, suggested the idea

building

purpose of praying to Shang-ti.

This building
//The

was

called,

under the

dynasty Hia
erec-

(B. C. 2:209

1766),

Sln-sli'ili

("),

House

of Generations

and Ages" or the temple

Under the Shang-chi.ng-uh 1766 temple called the was Shang-dynasty (B. C. (8) or The tem1122), this ple renewed by the Shang-dynasty. Under the Chau-dynasty (B. C. 1122 25.5), it was named the Ming-thang, (') Temple erected in honour of Him who is the source of all light, or, simThe character J/w/?, (^o) light, is composed of two parts Sun (") and ply, The temple of Uglit." Moon. {}-) Nothing being more resplendant in the eyes of man than the sun and moon, he
ted

by

the dynasty of Hia in honour of

Him who made

the ages and generations.


,

naturally took these symbols to


is

name

the place especially designed for the

worship of Him
(i^)

who

the Taller of ligJil. Afterwards, this temple was divided into two parts: one was called the Sun-lemple ,

and the

other the Moon-temple, Q*) or,


It is possible that the, in

more

literally, the altar of the

Sun and

the altar of the Moon.

the Hungleague, so oft repeated words Ming-tluing , which we have palace of the Ming, or Bright, dj-nasty), may refer to this old Ming (the of Lighttemple. Further investigations would be necessary, however, on this important point; for if
translated

hy Hall
is

Temple of light

the true

meaning which ought

to

be attached to the expression Ming-t/iang,


is

it

would

be proved, beyond doubt, that the object of the Hungleague

not simply the restoration of the

(^)

IMfmoires concernaut les Chiiiois, T. II, pp. 175

ISl.

I")

5^

(")

0')

i^'J

(")

M ^

INlRODrCTIOX.

XVII

Light-dynasty
ted

(^),

but the search after

light in

the masonic acceptation. the


priest
is

by the white apron and the sword, like symbol of light, the symbol of the sundisk. masonry as the symbol of the LUjlU and of Omniscience. (-) So we find the sun as a red
6'/<ia

The mason is consecraby the tonsure. Tiie tonsure is a The sun itself is often taken in religion and in God, especially as the Eye of Providence and
is,

disk painted on the doors of Budhist temples ia


like the

and Japan.

Besides, the

member

of the

Hungleague

mason, consecrated hy

tiie

white, dress and the sword.

Before

we

pass to

the

comparison of the symbols of


the old doctrine of the ten or decas
to
is

masonry and
is

of the

Hung-league,

we
and

have

to offer

a few remarks on the sacred numbers of the Chinese.


tiie

The unity, according to tiie beginning of numbers;

Chinese,

the principle of calculation

the limit

ment

of

numbers.

From

10

is

the I'epresentation

the state of primordial confusion.

1, 3, 5, 7

&

where calculation ends, and the compleof the two principles Yin and Yang in are the perfect numbers: these numbers, not
limit;

having the
the end.

decas,

have the principle witliout having the


6, 8

they have the beginning but not


tlie

3,

!,

&

10 are the imperfect numbers: these numbers do not possess

unity;

they have the limit but not the principle; they have the end but not the beginning, f) The number 3, as we have seen already on page xiv & xv, possesses a high mystic and sj'mbolical

meaning.

//T!ie

principle of

all

doctrine", says Hoai-nan-tsze

,/is

one.

One being

alone,

principles

it could produce everything, as it contained in itself the two whose harmony and union produce everything." In this sense it may be said that 1 produces 2, 2 produces 3 and by 3 all things are produced. Heaven and Earth form what Three lunations form a season. (') Hence 3 offerings were made in the cerew'e call time. monies for the worship of the ancestors, and the people wept thrice. (^) So there are 3 lights: sun, moon and stars. Three bonds: between Prince, Father and Husband. Three kinds of sacrifices: the great, middle and inferior. () With the Budliists we have the three "treasures: Budha, Dharma and Sangha, or the Intelligence, These three treasures are called Preciosa, like the 3 movable and 3 unthe Law and Church. movable Preciosa (jewels or Regalia) of tlie masons which may, as Dr. Schauberg thinks, have

could never beget anything; but

been, very probably, imitated from Budhism.

(")

(M
(=) (')
(*)

H^
Symb.

1^
d.

Jliug-dyr.asfy.
Freini.
I,

260.
les

Memoires concernaiit

Chinois, T. TI, 137.


les

H^

(*)

Memoires couoernaut

Chinois, T. VI, 118.

<')
I')

-k
Symb.
unter

/TfEo A. Freim.

^
II,

JnEo
378 k

A^
f/.

M
Krause, Kuiistiu-kunden,
I,

2.

pp. 92

k 369.

Lenning, Eiicyklopiidie,

Kkimde.

XVIII

INTEODUCTION.
to the

According

Shu-king

there are 3 virtues: //Honesty, severity and kindness.


tlie

(')

Three

things the emperors ought to observe in ruling

people, viz: to

make

right the virtues of the


(-)

people, to

make

the people prosperous, and to

make

the people flourishing.

In three parts the Chinese army was divided, these consisting of the superior aud inferior
ficers

of-

and the

soldiers.

(^) (*)

There are 3

beginnings:
(*)

the
of

first
tlie

beginning

(^)

on the

loth

of the

first
(")

month;

the

middle beginning

on the 15th

seventh month; and the last beginning

on the 15th

of the tenth month.

The
years
.^7

first

elementary book
(^)

for children is

written in verses of 3 words each, and

is

called the
{")

Trimetrical classic.
is

Equally the Chinese distinguish 3

souls, called the Sau-lnvan.

Three
0,

the time of

mourning

for

a parent, being reduced, however, in practise, to 3 x


is

or

months.

Three times a

woman
his

dependent: as a virgin
son.
is

lier

husband, as a widow upon her


life,

without giving sign of


rities.

widow

upon husband remains away 3 years from his v.ife allowed to marry again with consent of the authofather, as a wife
If a

upon her

Q")

There are

degrees of the pain of death, (") viz:

Quartering,

Decapitation and

Strangulation. Q~)

Even
9.
is

the

number

of concubines of the

According to the Book of Rites,


allowed 3 concubines of the
first

upon the numbers 3 and composed towards the year B. C. 1112 by Chao-kuug, He
emperor
of

China

is

based

rank;

3x3,

or 9 concubines of the second;


(i^)

3x9,

or 27

concubines of the third, and 9 x

9, or 81 concubines of the fourth rank,

thagoras taught.

and the even numbers are female (Yin), just as PyHeaven is male (Y'ang), Earth is female (Yin): therefore the odd numbers represent Heaven and the even numbers Earth. To illustrate this, these numbers, from the unit to the decas, are drawn up in the following
All the odd numbers are male (Yang),

diagram.

(^)

H
IE

^.
f.

[^
^1)

IE
gg),

It.

:^

il

:^.

^c

%>

^I'^p^^i-

Hung-fan
(')
(3) (*)

Mles

W-

^
7C
7C

Shu-klng, chapter Yu-mu.

Memoires concernant

Chinois, T. VII, 75.

{')

(^)

H ^ 7C H ^
Ft?

C)
(')

)^
'^

()

T H
'^J
chan,

5^
Laws
of the great Tsing-dynasty.

(1")

See the

3^

Q')
{^')

H ^ ^ ^
/M
fit

^
|ff

?S
IG

Ling-ehi,

j^

i.

1")

Chap.

Part II, Vol,

I,

fol.

49 verao, of the Edition

f|

gj

XX

lyTRODUCTION,

Of
these odd

o e

number
oi Heaven or
Goil.

numbers
is

the 5

is

the

number

of Shxngti or Thian; the


,/that

Bachofen's explication
tion; the

similar

when he
(i)

says

the 3 and 5 are the

numbers

of crea-

numbers

of the Creator."

In antiquity 5 families in China formed a hamlet and 5 hamlets a village,

{^)

a division which

has been preserved in Japan.


conditions:
the external

The

Cliinese

natural system
the

is

divided into
tlie

5.

There are
hearing
stars,

five

appearance
the stomach,

of

the body,

speech,

sight,

the

and
pla-

the thought.
nets.

Five periods or revolutions: the year, month or moon, sun or day,


the liver,
the heart, the lungs

and

Five intestines:

and the kidneys.

Five

Sweet, bitter, sour, sharp and South, East, and yellow, red, white, green and black are the five colours. Humanity, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and faith are the five duties or virtues. Earth, wood, fire, inetal and water are the 5 elements; Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Mercury the 5 placardinal points:
the Xorth,
salt are the 5 tastes;

^Yest and Middle.

nets.

have seen already that God or Shangti was worshipped on five mountains. health, love of virtue, and a natural death constitute the 5 blessings: i/May the five blessings descend upon our house" (') is a common inscription on the lintels nf
Longevity, riches,
of
{*)

We

Chinese houses.

At the time and baronets.


(')

Mencius

there

were

degrees:

the

emperor,

dukes, feudal

barons,

earls

Grabersvmbolic, pp. 246 k ff.

e)
(')

m.

in

^ %

U %
Is
f^

M"*'

5'4t>

M
'

Sacred Edict, III,

PI

T. ^. #.

^fi.-T-

INTRODUCTION.

XXI

The emperor governed 1000 Ly


earls 70,

or Cliinese miles
(')

the dukes and barons each a 100 Ly; the

and the baronets 50 Ly.

At present

the 5 degrees of nobihty are

Duke, marquis,

earl, viscount
E'ive

and baronet.

(-)

were the founders of the political Hungleague: Thediplomaof the society given by Milne, is pentagonal.
the

they have 5 banners, 5 lodges etc. The diploma given by us, is octogonal

number

being equallj' sacred, as


5

we

will later explain.

The numbers

and

are in

refers only to the 5 planets

Saturn,

China the numbers of (he world: either that the number 5 Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Mercury, without the sun and
('')

moon, Avhen they are called //The 5 planets," or that they refer to the five planets with sun and moon, in which case they are called //the seven rulers." () Tlie week of the old Chinese was derived from the seven planets. (') Confucius spoke of the week of seven daj's, and every seventh day was destined by him for the reflection on the faults and sins committed during the week. In the Yili-king it is said: //Thou shalt come to Avorship fi-om seven to
{'^)

seven days."
fice

So, too,

it

is

said in the annals of Sze-ma-tsian that the emperor offered a sacri(")


-3

to

the Supi-eme Unity, Tal-y, avcvy seven days.

Before sacrificing to Heaven and Earth


days.
(*)

the princely

man

abstained himself

days and fasted

The
red
7

is,

returns at every
holes,
is

mourning the number 7 moment. On the bottom of the Chinese coffins is a plank in which are boand which is named the //scvcn-star-plank." () Seven days after the decease a Budhist
especially, the

number

of death,

and

in the ceremonies of

priest
if

asked

to

pray a mass

for

the dead.

After 3

7,

or 21 days

tiie

corpse
called

is

buried,
the
sgi-e>f,

a lucky place has been found.

7x7
(B.
(^')

days are the 49 days


C.
\\-l-Z

of mourning,

weeks. (")

During the Chau-dynasty


month.

255)
^'re

the

body of the Emperor remained


t/iree

above earth during seven months, that of a vassal

months, that of a minister

months,

and
So

that of an officer one

we

find

back

in

the old Chinese

doctrines the ideas of Creation,


7.

existence and destruc('-),

tion expressed

by

the

numbers

3, 3

&

//In

a masonic view", says Dr. Schauberg

,/the

(1)

Hia-meng,

'^

Part.

II.

Chap.

II,

3.

(^)

4^.

it.

^6.

f.

^
aucieniie,
p.

Bailly, Ilistoire de

rAstronomie

493.

Gaiihil,

Moraoh'es, T.

XVI,

p.

3S2.

(")
l'')

Gaiibil, Lettres edifiantns, p.

808.
conccrnaiit Its Cliinois, T.

Tai-y

\/C

X-i]

^^h'uioh'es

IX, 3S1.
Lnn-yii,

(**)

'^ -b

Q
-f-

5j^

^^

7^

Commentary on

tlie

Book

III,

(^)

M ^
-b
|;^ >g.

n
iM

\i

^
^.

(")

^
Symb.

# ^

A ^ H
/^
^jj
R,I|

^.
1,

M:

s-th,

Tsochiien,
(12)

^)
.338.

Records of Tso-kliiu-ming

d.

Preim. II,

XXII

INTEODUCTION.
3

number

appears
life,

as

(he

number

of creation,

as the

beginning,

existence and

as the middle,

the

as

the

number

of

and the

as the

number

of destruction, as

the material

end and the

celestial

beginning."

mention a few examples more to show how important a part the number 7 has in the Chinese institutions. According to the Shi-king the insignia of rank of a regulus in antiquity
Avere sevenfold: he had 7 kind of clothes, 7 kind of chariots etc.
(') (-)

We

The

old Chinese had seven


7

mountains

of

worship

to

the

presiding spirits.

Tiie

works

of

Jlencius consist of

chapters

which

treat of i\\Q four virtues; rectitude, virtne, benevolence


for divorce in

and

righteousness.

(")

Seven are the reasons

China, viz: Barrenness, adultery, talk-

ativeness, thievery, disobedience to


dy.
(^)

the husband's

parents,
their

bad character or incurable mala-

Boys and

girls

in

China are separated in

seventh year.

The Chinese count


the 5 senses.
()

3 souls

and

spirits,

the latter referring to the energy of the limbs and


7

Joy, anger, sorrow, fear, love, hatred and concupiscence are the
militarj', literati,
(")

passions.

(")

The mandarins,
classes of citizens.

priests, labourers, artisans

and merchants form the seven

//Seven years" said Confucius, //the sage instructs the people,"


that he teaches

(^)

and the commentary adds

them a

filial,

brotherly and faithful conduct.


(^i)

(')

Likewise the Chinese moralist

Lam-luh-chau
bol

(^o)

mentions a man, named Loh-yang,


in the first
place, the
it

who

travelled seven years to improve himself.

The square means,


.

world and was anciently represented by the symearth, or state, or


is

Q~)

In a narrower sense
is

means the
parts

kingdom.

Hence the
the four

altar of
cities

earth in Peking
are square,
points.

square,

whilst the altar of Heaven


four

circular.

Most of the Chinese


to

and

divided into

by two

cross-streets

running

Cardinal

Likewise the //forbidden city", the inner part of Peking, the sacred red town, the seat

of the

Emperor,

is

square.
is

room

or house

called Fang, Q^) a character

composed of

IIii,

(i*)

to

protect,

and Fann,

('")

a square,

thus a protected or inclosed square.

(M
(-) ^'^

Slii-king.

P. Lacharrae interpretntione, Pars I, cap.

10, ode 9, at the note.

llcraoires coiicernant Ics Chinois, T. II,

171.

u m
;/C

t^

(*1

M ^

m
i^J
^"^'^ ^
''"^

Tsing-d.vnasty.

Q]
(") [')

W.

Williams.

Canton dictionary

under

6^
.1

-b III. 1^ ^. Wcmoircs concernant Ics

^
Cliiiiois,

ii

^
Hia-liui,

T. IV, 312.

0.# A^tK-tl^ ^ Wi M^ ^ nm m m Wf
C)-^ n
('2)

Book XIII, Chap.

29-

>''H

(")

Mcmoii-es

c.

1.

Chinois,

I,

Tab, YI.

C')

('^)

(''')

')j

INTRODUCTION.

XXIII
is

As a symbol of
German & Butch)
bol of the

the world, the

LMlye

of the

Hungleague

square and

is

called Fang,

,/tha

inclosed square" or, in a narrower sense, the House, Loggia {Hal),

Lodge

[Eiujlish),

Loge {French,

The lodge

is

contained within a circle (Catechism, Q. 219

&

227) as a sym-

universality

of the brotherhood.
,/

In a wider sense the square means


Confucius
did not eat

correctness

righteousness."
for the princely

anything

which was not cut square,


it

man

does not

leave off correctness even being in haste; therefore he always cut up his meat in square slices
before he ate.
(i)

In the Yih-king

is

also
(-)

said:

//The princely

man

has a

square (correct)

heart and

is

pervaded by righteousness."

Fuh-hi

to

whom

is

ascribed the invention of signs to express thoughts, has been supposed to

form them in the following manner.

He
lines

took 2 straight lines,

one entire and one broken

which

were

called Liang-i

{^),

the

two fundamental
(*),

rules."

These

two

lines

were combined

together and formed //the four ligures" (sze-siang)

standing thus:

Doubling these bigrams and trebling the number of strokes he got the eight diagrams (Pah-

kwa)

(^),

standing thus

These
is

diagrams were multiplied


to

to

61 by subsequent combinations, and the Chinese scripture


lines.

supposed

have been derived from these primary


did

,/One, two, three and four" says Tso-kiiiu-ining


doctriae.

in his

Chuen,

(")

,/

contain the most profound


the obj(^ct
of their

This doctrine

not

escape the

ancients,

who made

it

most
of

profound studies and meditations."

The number
the
old
is

is

expressed by a very expressive character, Sze


(

PU

which

is

composed

sj^mbol hwui
to

H]

ioxxv,

square, and

jB/i

(/V)

to divide or separate, denoting that the

square

The

first

division of

be separated. C) Hence the division into four of many things in China. mankind in China was fourfold, viz: The learned, husbandmen, artisans,

Q)
(-)

Lnn-yii,

Book X, Chap. VIII,

3.

"^

-f-

:^

f^

M ^
.\xi.

Yih-king, Chap.

II,

under

i^
of Confacius and, consequently,
nun-li

\^]

See note 11, at the foot of page

Tso-khiuwasa contemporary

more ancient than Pythagoras who taught the same


(')

doctrine. (Memoires conceriiant les Chinois, VJ, 13C).

Morrison's Chinese Dictionary,

XiciV

INTRO DICTION.

and merchants.

(')

In high antiquity," says Davis (China and the Chinese), //knowledge and

AvisdoHi v/ere the chief claim for dislinctiou

and consideration.

Tiie society progressing,

and the

nomadic hordes settling

at fixed places,

they directed their attention to agricultural pursuits.

Witli the gt-adual increase of the

raw

production, the origin of cities and the beginning of ex-

change between town aud country, the handicraft follows and, lastly, the inland and foreign trade appears with the increase of capital aud the augmentation of manufactures.'"' The old Chinese counted four seas (-) which were supposed to surround the Earth, whilst
four rivers, called -the four canals
(^),

discharged their waters in these 4 seas, after having wa,/

tered and fertilized the


till

//The four seas," or whole the present day the empire or the world.

empire.

within

the

four seas,"

denotes

From

the remotest antiquity the year

was

divided into 12 lunations.

The old Chinese counted

the lunations by the number of days elapsing from the conjunction of the sun with the moon until the next conjunction, and as there could not always be an equal number of days, they
ifounted, alternatively, 29
loruied their

aud 3d days

to

complete their lunations.

Thus

12 of their lunations

common

year; whilst the embolismic year was divided into 13 lunations.

These 12 lunations were divided again into four seasons, (') which were divided, each, into 3 Besides, they diparts, beginning, middle aud end, \'iz: one lunation for each of these parts.
.

vided the year into 24 equal parts, which are the points Avlierc the sun
the different signs of the zodiac.

is

when
()

passing through
di-

These points were called the 24 terms.


it

The day was

vided into 12 hours, each hour being the double of our hours, and
first

was reckoned, under

the

dynasties, from midday to midday.

Only during the

third dynasty

Wu

wang

(B. C.

1122)

ordered the

day

to

begin at midnight.
into 2 equal parts, each

The hours were divided again

composed of i quarters.
:

C")
I

Hence
j

the

names

for

month and moon

are, in Chinese, as in

most languages the same, viz


It is scarcely

I'vei,

a chai'ac-

ter derived

from the old hieroglyph

moo/i.

necessary to mention the 4 car-

dinal points: N. S. E.

the light

came: E.

W. W. S.

or, according to the Chinese order wliich takes, firstly, the point

whence

N.

(')

To these were added the Zenith and Nadir (*) and they, together, were called, the 6 points. () The fields aud lands were divided into 4 parts \^hich division is still retained in the character for field, ^/fl// (^). Equally the Chinese provinces were subdivided into four classes the Fu, Ting, Chau and Ilien, (") which division exists also in Siam for the cities, (i-) Fourfold, too, are the
,

0)

M: ^

-f^

^>
|p
^t

called the four classes

[Jl]
(

^).
1.

(5)

Pn

l^)

Me'moires

c.

Chiuois, II, 159

Sc

.)(/.

o o
(^-]

M ^ >^ ^

~^

(')

.
(")

n m

T
}^,

m,

f\],

M'

Pallegoix, Description

du Eoyaume de Thai oa Siam,

I, p. 293.

IKTRODI'CTIOX.

XXV
is

human
due,

virtues
call

{^),

viz., LI (-), the

ceremonies, usages, and everything which


viz.,

comprised in
is

what we

2^oli(eness.

proprieti) , justice.

The / (^), The Lian (*),


(=)

that

duty which makes us give

to

each what

his

disinterestedness,

doing nothing which could be detrimen-

tal to others;

and the

Chi

or Shmne, the fear


to

of

infamy attached

to a

bad

action.

(')

We

have

still

a few words

say

concerning the numbers G and 8, before

we

pass

to

the high symbolical

number

9.

venerable Ones C), who were genii presiding over the (s). four seasons, the temperature, the sun, the moon, the planets and stars, and the earth

The Chinese

of antiquity had

six

Six are the liberal arts, viz..

Etiquette,

Music,
6

Archery, Chariotteering, Writing and Arithcalled


etc.,

metic
Luli-po.

("),

called the Luh-i.

{}^)

There are

departments or ministeries in Peking,


six

the
as

(11)

At the time

of Li-ioang the

magnates had
So

sorts

of

chariots,

dresses

the princes had sev^en sorts of each. ^~)

the Chinese count, also, six elements or depart(i^)


;

ments,

viz., fire,

water, metal, wood, earth and grains

and

six kinds of sacrificial


(i*)

animals

viz., the

horse, oxen, sheep,

fowls, dogs and swine, called the Luh-chuh.

Six kinds of grain, viz: Paddy,


led the Luli-hih.
(i=)

barbadoes, pulse, wheat,

millet,

and panicled millet,


six

cal-

&ix is also the

symbol of Earth in the eight diagram, being represented by


is

broken

lines

==

whilst Heaven

represented

by

six

entire lines

^^^^

which bear, each, the name


order to

of the

number 9. The Emperor Chi

{^^)

used the

number
in

very

extensively.
for the

He gave
and

compose a

sextile arithmetic,

which was used


for the for the

Astronomy

periodic revolutions of the stars

and
of

seasons;
places; in

in Geography,

itinerary measures,

the position

reciprocal distance

Geometry,

land-survey; in Music, for the great ceremonies; in

Commerce and
6 feet long,
6

Arts, for the different

measures of dimension and weight.


foot,

He determined
His

that 6 inches should

be the measure
six

of the

and

feet

the

geometric pace.

own
on
his

chariot

was

drawn by The product high.

horses.

His cap,

which he wore when

sitting

throne,
of the

was

inches

of 6 multiplied
visit

by

itself

he proposed himself to

in periods

was the dividing number divided by six. (i")

Empire, which

(5)

^ii,

(0)

Memoires

c.

1.

Clduois, II,

176177.
7|c

C)

^ ^
(")

e)
i^)

K
f^
-JLj

^ #. 0. ^. M ^ M W W Wc
a#.

J^.
i''^

i>

W
(i^)

>^
j

i^

(12)

Lacliarme, Shi-king, Pars I, Cap. 10, ode 9, at the note.

-^ j^

See the Shu-king.

(14)

:gj
'^i

See the Trimetrical classic

|^
-^

^
m.

^^|,
(^^)

p)^
(17)

t%

'^

M'

i^

^,

B.C.

221.

Memoires III, 234235.

XXVI

ryrEODrcnoN.
S
is

The
of the

the fourth

of

the

imperfect

diagrams of Fuli-hi

were arranged
(')

into S figures in

numbers and the duplication of the 4. The famous an octagonal, as represented on the warrant

Shan-tung branch.
S refers

They were

called, as

we

have mentioned already, the eight susthe S salutations or genuflexions


are the

pended, Pah-hoa,

because they were suspended everywhere for the instruction of the people.
in the Hung-league
especially to
8

The number

menof

tioned on page

131.

Related
life,

to

these

genuflexions

common

eight gradations

commencing with the lowest form of respect called Kung-shau {-) which is merely joining the hands and raising them before the breast. The next is Tso-yiJi (5) The third is Ta-isien (*) bending the knee as if I'owing low with the hands thus joined. kneeling, is the fourth. The fifth is Kau-tau[^) kneeactual about to kneel; and Kwei (=), an ling and knocking the head on the ground, which, when thrice repeated, makes the sixth The seventh is luh-lcxii, (*), or kneeling and knocking called san-Jcau (") or //thrice knocldng." the head thrice upon the ground, then standing upright and again kneeling and knocking the head three times. The climax is closed by the san-Jcwei-kiu-kau (^), or thrice kneeling and
obeisance in Chinese

nine times knocking the head.

{^'')

The

points of the compass are called the S faces

{'i)

or

points

{}-).

The

PaJi-yin

i}^)

are the 8

sounds in Chinese music.

distinguished
is

The highest Chinese officers are allowed eight sedan-bearers, and such an official is often by the number of chair-bearers he has. K Pah-tJiai-Mao Q*) an //eight-borne sedan",
,

said instead of the Governor-General.

Other
tJiree.

officers

are entitled to

4 or

2 bearers,

(i^)

We
duces

have seen above that one produced


9.

In the same

way

3 multiplied

by

itself pro-

The number The great Emperor Tu


iirincipal

is,

as

such, the last of the perfect numbers.

(Compare pag.

xvii).

who

saw

the figure Lo-sJiu on the back of a tortoise, divided into nine

parts, three on

each of the sides and three in the middle


of,

terminated

in 9 all the

operations
all

he

made on, and by means


with the nine as term,

the numbers.

{}^)

AVe have seen also that by 3

was

created;

this brings to

our mind the masonic sentence on the

underpart of the

monument

of the master:

Ternario formatur , novenario dissolvitur. Q~)

The

old Chinese hieroglyph for

the

number
is

9 is

^
^

Q^),

and

carries

with

it

the signifi-

cation of the highest.

The ninth Heaven

the highest one.

Nine times

man

ought to knock

(1)

See p. 32.

(-")

i^

^
(^"l

(=)

f^

(*)

^J

=f-

or

^J

O
(")
(15)

^ A
"^
Memoires

jh

PP
r-)

f^illiams, Middle

Kingdom,

II, p.

6869.

:^
(17)

0')

A #
Fa/i,

(")

ti

'Williams, Middle

Kingdom, I, 404.

Tonic dictionary nnder


Symbolic
d.

(:e)

Memoires II, 191.


I, planclie vi.

Freim.

II, 560.

(15)

INTEODUCTIO>f.

XXVIl

his

head on the ground when worshipping


divided into 9

Shang-ti or

God.

Under the
8 families ,

first

dynasties the land


to

was

equal

portions

cultivated

by

which gave
for

the empeuse.

ror the produce of the ninth, whilst the other portions


of these

were divided
Kiu-cli.au,,

their

own

Nine

squares were surrounded


CJnna
is still

by

a brook; 81 had a small canal, and 9 of these a larger

one.
it

(1)

often designated

by

the

name

//the

nine

regions",

because

was the emperor Yu,


year B. C. 2197
city of

the founder of the dynasty of Ula,


(3).

who

divided Cluna into 9 parts

in the

The imperial
//nine-walled".

Peking has

9 gates; whilst the imperial palace is called Kiu-clmng

i^),

the

The Emperor himself is

called Kiu-wu-cM-tsun called

(*)

the venerable of the nine


as

fifth." (')

There are 9 grades or degrees of rank,


Km-hliing.
(7)

Km-pin. C),

there are 9

grandees called

The

astrologers, conjurors

or magicians,

writers, attorneys or sollicitors, mediators, envoys


literati (^)

or ambassadors, officials,

husbandmen, military and


and 9

are the 9 professions.

(^)

Ninefold are the apertures of animal bodies, designated by the


9 kinds of punishments, the Km-Jdnj Q^),
called Kiu-fu, the 9 offices.
(}-)

name

Km-kiao.

(i*')

There were
stores,

officers

who had

the care of

Government

In antiquity the Emperor made to distinguished personages the so-called //nine presents i}^)"
consisting of chariots, clothes, musical instruments,

the permission to have a red-painted door,

the permission to have an elevated seat in one's hall, a body-guard of soldiers dressed in dra-

gon-embroidered clothes,

bow and

arrows, axe and hatched, black millet and fragrant wine.


practised annually
5,

(^*)

In the great ceremony of ploughing,

by

the

Emperor
(i''),

of

China, the
furrows,

Emi}'")

peror himselfs ploughs 3 furrows; the 3 princes each

and the

9 grandees each 9

common

sentence on Chinese door-posts

is

the phrase San-to-kiu-ju


of happiness

//The

three mani/s
sous.

and nine

likes."

The

manys being many years


is

and

life
:

and
{}'')

many

The

explication of the nine likes

found in the Shi-king where

it is

said

,/May Heaven be yours and confirm you,


//to

and

may
like

there be nothing that does not prosper

you. (May your happiness be)

like

a mountain,

hill, like

field

on an elevated place.

(1)

Memoires IX, 370


jli

(=)

Memoires II, 16S.


'

(3)

(*)

^.

^ g

'^.

I')

<^-

Tlie 5tli line of the 6

diagram given on page xxv.

^'"t

JU

^
(15)

%^ M ^ ^ ^ ^^
^"^

^ij

(^")

i^j

Uictionaries of Morrison, Williams, etc.

Imperial Dictionary of Khang-hi.


J

Memoires

c.

1.

Chinois, T. Ill, 500 k

I")

H ^ A

ff.

^P

i^^)

I'^'^s

II' Cap. I, ode 6.

XXVIII

INTKODTJCTIOX.

Uke an earth-mound,
/,to

liJce

a welling brook, so

that there

may

be nothing more to be added


like

your

felicity

(May

it

be)

liJce

the

moon

increasing to fullness,

the sun rising

,/to
/,

brightness.

May you
like

live long like the

mountain

Nan-sJian

which does not get fractured nor

crumble down;

the pine

and cypress whose leaves,

eternallj^ green,

grow [uninterruptedly."

(i)

When

Confucius asked the boy liiang-ioh what were the

connecting bonds between Heaven

and Earth, and what the beginning and ending of the dual poAvers Yin and Yang, the boy answered; //Nine multiplied nine times makes eighty one, which is the controlling bond of Heaven and Earth; eight multiplied into nine makes seventy two, the beginning and end of
the dual powers."'
is
(-)

72 are the

earthly malign stars

("')

or the

diamond-stars of earth, that


of

to

say
tlie

the

seventy-two

intelligences charged
(*)

with the
of

administration

the

Universe;

whilst

36

Heavenly

stars

are the 36

dccans

the ancient

Egyptian and Chaldean

zodiacs,

because each section of 10 degrees of the zodiac was under the inspection of a particular
called Inspector ,
is
t-pliorus

genius,

who was The number 12

or decanus.
is

sacred because the zodiac

divided into 12 signs or houses, and because

the addition of the sacred

numbers
it is

and

gives 12.

Likewise the numbers 30 and 360 are


divided into 3 sections of 10 degrees
or the
division

also sacred, the first because each sign

of the zodiac

was

each, and the second, because


into 360 degrees.
If

the year Avithout cpagomenes,

of the

zodiac

sults

S2)

we may apply the science of the astronomical numbers to this Avork some important remay be obtained. The 36 peaches and 73 plums in AnsAver 175 of the Catechism (pag. may mean these 36 decans and 72 intelligences Avhich, in fact, settle Heaven and Earth,
Avliole

astronomically speaking.

upon unfaithful and disobedient members of the Hung-league is based upon the numbers. These numbers are 3 x 9 or IS; 3 X 7 or 21; 3 X 13 or 36; 2 X 36 or 72; 36 + 72 or lOS; 30 x 12 or 360. This short digest on the sacred numbers of China Avill suffice to understand the meaning of the numbers used in the Hung-league. Those Avho Avish to know more about them, may
of strokes in the

The

number

punishments

inflicted

consult
the

in

the

//Memoires

concernant

les

Chinois,"

the

able

treatises

of

Father

Amiot

on

numbers and the music

of the Chinese.

(^)

% %

ll]

^R
-^
ll]

^r

-^ ^'

m
%

"^

'X-

INTRODUCTION.
3.

SXIX

We

come now

to the

most important part of our introduction,

viz.,

the comparison

of the

symbols of Masonry and of the Hung-league, which will give us


semblance.

many

points of striking re-

According
darkness,
to enter

to

Dr. Schauberg Q), the sword


against evil,
of the true
life

is

worn by masons
waging

as combatants of light against

of good

against

the false, and as a sign that they hope


of this

the everlasting light

and

by

the victorious

combat.

If

we

observe what

we have
(-), it

said in

the

first

part

of our

introduction

on the ancient

is attached to would not seem the Hung-league. At present the sword is used, especially, for the defence this symbol in Gaedieke in his Freeof the lodge against attacks, and for the reception of new members. masons-lexicon says in his chapter "Weapons or sword" that in olden times every brother in the lodge ought to be armed Avith a sword for defence in case of an attack of the lodge, that formerand as a symbol of manly force. Likewise Mossdorff in the Enclyclopaedia says ly the sword served perhaps for the defence of the sacred place of the lodge."

Light-worship of China

improbable that the

same meaning

,/

,/

The new members are received at the Hung-gate by the brotherhood drawn up into a douijKrow, forming an arch by crossing the points of their swords. (^) A similar ceremony seems to, have prevailed with the old masons, as would appear from the 15th Question of the presiding master in the English apprentice Catechism: How did you enter and whereat?" ,/At the point of a sword or spear, or some other warlike instrument, which was put upon my breast." (M
Till the

present

day
an

it

is

a custom
of

amongst

freemasons

to

receive high officers

or high-

placed

people
at

under

arch

crossed swords.

The

prince

and pfincess
eight

of

Wales

were

received

Oxford by
(=).

the Freemasons of the Apollo-lodge

by

templars

who formed an
and

arch of swords.

We may

note,

also,

that the swords of the

members

of the Hung-league are straight


light.
(")

two-edged, like the swords of the freemasons, which symbolize the rays of

We

have

translated in the

whole bulk of

this

work

the reunion-places of the Hung-league

by the masonic term hdje. This is not an arbitrary rendering, but given only after a ripe analysis of the meaning of both words lodge and y7 C), and of the interpretation which the masons and the members of the Hang-league give to it. (^) With the masons the word Jjodgr is the symbol of the world. Dr. Schauberg even goes so far as to surmise that the word, The younger biras well as the square by which it is expressed, is derived from Budhism.
nianese Budhists in After-India call the universe Logha, which means in their language //Gene-

(1)

Symb.

d.

Freim., I, 53.

(2)

See p. xvi.
(^)
(")

()
(3)

See pp. 5S and 81, Q. 164; pag. 87, Q. 204.

Symb. Symb.

d.

Freim.

I,

oa.

Supplement Ilhistrated London-news; June 27, 1SG3.

d.

Freim., I, 55.

(''l

-^

(*)

Compare

also

what we have said on pp. xxji

xxiii.

iXi
tic

ISTEODUCTIOV.
destruction

and regeneration/'
fire,
(i)

because the world renews

itself

spontaneously after

every

contest of storms, -water or

The

lodges of the freemasons

and of the Hung-league are both square and perfectly


towards the East.

oriented,

A\ith the principal gate or entrance

Now we

will compare for a

moment

the old English apprentice Catechism and the Catechism of the Hung-league.

The SOth question in the former runs: //How broad brother"? (is the lodge). A. //Between North and South." Q. 90. ,/How high brother?"
A. //From Earth to Heaven."

The 230 question of the Catechism //How high is the lodge?"


Q. 231. ,/And

of the Hung-league runs;

A. //As high as one's eyes can reach."

how broad?"
(-)

A. //As broad as the two capitals and 13 provinces."

The latter, as a Chinese locution, means simply as the whole empire or, in extenso, as the whole world or univ^erse. Noav the old Chinese symbol for a state, a kingdom or the world is a square (compare p. xxii), and as such we find tliis symbol amongst the designs on the
walls of the Lodge of the Hung-league.
{^)

The Chinese lodge


the

is

situated, like the masonic lodge, towards the East,


all light, is sacred.

In the old Chinese

Light-worship, the East, as the source of

Already in the 13th question of

CatecMsm of the Hung-league the novice is asked: Whence do you come?" and he answers: //I come from the East." Q. 16. //At what time did you come hither? A. Ill went at sunrise when the East was light." (*)
,/

In Browne's Masterkey these questions are given under another form, viz.,

//Whence do you come as a mason?"


A. //From the west."
Q.
,/

Whither do you go?"


idea,

A. ,/To the East."

The

however,

is

quite similar,
of

as the

Chinese

member

has entered the lodge by the

East-gate.

The members

both

societies

seem,

however,

to express,

by

their answers,

the

desire for the research of light.

and S)/<7-lodge the altar and seat of the presiding master are at The East, symbolizing tlie source of light, is an idea so natural, that we need not Avonder to find it back with the Chinese. All nations have considered it so, because
In both, the Masonic
,

the East.

(1)

Symb.

d.

Freim., II, 311.

(=)

See

p.

93.
(^)

(5)

See Tab. tii

& vni, and comp.

p.

20,

See p. 61.

INTRODUCTION.

XXXI

they saw the sun


ing light and

rise

every day with undiminished splendour at that part of Heaven, spreadeach other brethern.

warmth around.
of both societies
call

The members
//A free

In BroAvne's

Masterkey the mas-

ter asks the apprentice:

man, born from a

^What manner of man, a free and accepted mason ought to be?" free woman, the brother of a king, the companion of a prince
if

or the fellow of a mendicant,

he be a mason."

Q. //Why this equality amongst masons?"

A.

,1

JFe are

all
(^)

hrethern since

tlie

creation,

but

we

are

still

more

so

by

virtue of

an

inti-

mate union."
If Ave

compare
all

now

art. 3

of the

league consider
ter
gall

classes, if they be

having entered the Hung-league ,

Oath (-), it will be seen that the members of the Hunt;members, as brethern. Art. 13 of the Oath says: Afyou are bound by a bloody oath, you have become one
,/

and one heart (with the brethern.) {^) The words: ,/In peace united together, the pledged myriads make it their signal" (^) press the same idea of freemasonry, and are somewhat like Schiller's expression: //Seid
schlungen, Millionen!"
(5)

exuni-

The spirit members of


called
also

of

fraternity

and equality which

vivifies

masonry

is
,

found

the Hung-league.

The

latter

call

themselves Tai-ping

which

amongst the means in the naalso

tural acception ,/Universal peace",


Tai-ping-ti
,

but in a Budhist sense //Equality."


This spirit
is,

Hence the lodge


amongst

is

//Land of equality."
principles
to

however, so diffused
the

all

the ceremonies, laAVS and


is

of the

Hung-league, that Ave Avould only repeat

what,

contained in these,

and
that

Avhich, therefore,
is

we

refer

reader.

The bond
rituals

in the Hung-league

confirmed by a bloody oath, and there are traces in the


brethern confirmed
their

of

masonry
is

formerly the

oath

also

with blood.

("*)

This custom
a small Avound

as old as the Avorld.

The

Scythes, Avhen
this

making a bond, made


Avound with wine,

themse'tves

and mixed the blood

running out of

which they

The same ceremony Avas practised by the .Greeks, Romans and the Magyars of preCatalina and his confederates united themselves by drinking bloody Avine. (") sent day. The same custom seems to have been in use Avith the old Germans. (S) With the Chinese the bloody oath is very old (^}, and a different character is used for this
drank.

oath and the simple sworn oath.

In olden times, Avhen a prince made a treaty Avith the prime


Avas

of another country, the ear of a victim Avas cut off and laid in a jade vase; the contract
Avritten Avith
it's

blood,

and the

parties,

having smeared the corners of their mouths with

(1)

Symb.

d.

Freim., II,

83.

{)

See p. 136.

(3)

See pag. 138.

(*)

^
Symb.

-Od.

I^

IS

^
(")

:^
Symb.
d.

IE,

See page 24, notes.


(J)

(=)

Freim., II, 512.

Freim., II, 53.


(*)

Grimm,

Eechts-altertliiimer, 194.

(8)

Grimm,

Lieder der alteren Edd.a, 237.

See p.

12.

XXXII
Ijlood,

INTRODUCTION.

read the treaty aloud,

(i)

This ceremony

was

called

Shah-Jdueh.

(-)

The drinking

of

blood
us

was

the

symbol that they were


from one womb.
If a

now

of one blood,

and would consider each other


or

brothers born
oiT,

victim

was slaughtered
might be cut

the

head of an animal
this victim.
It

cut

the idea

was expressed

that the perjurer

off

like

will

be remembered that with the


sacrificial

Romans

the parties

swore that even as they killed


(')

now

the

sow,

even so Jupiter might strike the perjurer.

With
nish
nity

the

Dajaks on Borneo the same


Society,

custom prevails:
October

Rev.

/. //.

Barnstein
,

of the

Rhefrater-

Missionaiy

who

died in
Avliich

1S63

at

Bandjerviasin

had

sworn

with

the

Kahajan-ivihQ,

fraternity

was confirmed by
live

the shedding of blood

of

both parties.

So he
(*)

was

enabled to wander

and

unscathed

amongst those wild and

barbarian tribes.

The

society

of Ash-drinkers

(Tephrapotes)

erected in Italy in

1498, after the execution of


it's

Savano.role

on the 23d of

May by

pope Alexander VI, also confirms

oath

by
his

the drink-

ing of a mixture of ashes, wine and blood.


the stake and,

Three of
a

his disciples

had saved

head

from

having mixed the burnt

flesh into

cup of wine, one of the three,


it,

who had

been wounded in the affray, dropped his blood into


ing to revenge their beloved master.
Before
the Altar.
seat
(^)

and of

this

mixture they drank, swear-

the swearing of the oath,


(^)

three cups of

wine are pledged


is

to

Heaven,
the

Earth and
of the

In the oldest English Catechism the novice

requested

by

master

to pledge

wine

to

the genius (funde meruni genio),

by

Avhich genius

was meant
is

the ge-

nius of the corporation

and

of the league.

Dr.

Schauberg thinks that the custom


(")

probably

derived from the

On
dead

page 117

Roman & /". we


,

building corporations.
see that the

new members

of the

Hung-league are dressed in mourn-

ing apparel with straw-sandals at their feet and dishevelled hair.


for

The new member becomes


is,

every one except for the members of the league.


or family,

Not that he

therefore,

allowed

to discard his parents

on the contrary,
is

he ought to serve them faithfully and


regeneration as a

love
to

them even more.


duties the

But the death

the

symbol

of

new man, who


(^)

has

fulfill his

more strenuous and


after
is

faithfully;

he has only put aside his corruptness

and perversity, and considers himself,


tion
calls

having entered the league, as new-born.


attached to the death of the Master.
a

In masonry the same symbolical meaning


should be
a

His recep-

second birth,
Sm-tiag,
a.

the

birth

of
(ip)

new man.

()

Likewise the Hung-member


of the G^//^-dynasty

himself also

new man."
Khang-hi,
'^^

The Emperor CUng-tang

{})
'"1

Chinese Imperial Dictionary of

under Ming

(^^),

1^

jft
,

Lasaulx, Studien, 216.


p.

(*) (=)

Cliincso Itepository

Vol.

V, No. 5,
1

334.

BataviaascU Handelsblad, IS November, 1863.


(")

Ecvue des deux Mondes, T. 46,

Aout, 1863.
(')

See pag. 126.

C)
(")

Symb.
Symb.

d.

Freim., I,

601.
(lO)

[ij

fH:

See pp. 56 and 233.

d.

Freim., 1, 633.

"p

IXTRODUCTIOy.

XXXIII

caused the following words to be engraved on his


daily and daily

bathing tub:
(')

//Every day renew

thj-self,

renew

thyself,

and again renew thyself."


the lodge
shoes.
is

The masonic apprentice who enters


properly, he should take off both his

obliged to

wear

his left shoe slipshod,

or
re-

By
as

thus taking

off his

shoes symbolically, he

is

minded

that

he

ought to approach pure and humbly ths sacred place.

Therefore he
to
(-)

is,

also,

dressed with a white apron

and gloves,

symbol

tliat

he

ought
God.

come with pure


and even in

hands, pure bodj^,

and pure

clothes before the temple

and

altar of

Likewise the

new Hung-member

appears before the altar dressed in white


for

(^),

li-

nen or cotton clothes, and not in woolen,

wool

is

made

of animals whicli are

impure^ and

whose
Tlie

spoils priests are not

allowed to wear.
in

colour

of
is

mourning

China

is

white: instead of the gaudy red, blue or black

silk,

white thread

plaited into the cue.

Scrolls

upon doors and

visiting cards are of

white paper,

and the mourners wear shoes made of white cloth or grass; whilst their head is envelopped iu a white kerchief or bonnet. The corpse of the deceased is shrouded in a white cloth, and the
tablet on

which the name

of the deceased

is

written,

is

covered, immediately after the

corpse

has been coffined, with white cloth.


as the colour of mourning, but
it is

The Chinese do not explain wh;f they have taken white more than probable that it's symbolical meaning is that
masonic
all

the deceased has gone to

Heaven,
//the
fire

to the eternal light.

Dr.

Schauberg says:

light-seeking

apprentice

is

symbolically
evil;

purified,
after this

by
pu-

his three passages

through the

and water, of
is

impurity and
to

and only

rification, expiation

and consecration, he
is

allowed

put on the white dress, the white apron


of light."
("')

and the white gloves and, armed with the sword, enter among the knights
Likewise the

new Hung-member
At the reception
in

only

allowed

to

enter the league after the purification


is

by

Avater.

(')

some masonic

lodges the water


also

given to the novice with

these

words:

//As

the water

purifies

your body, purify ye


(^)

your soul from perverted

desires

and your

life

from impure blots".


temple of Ming."
is

To

dust of Tsing and the colour of your face will


perversity to
sit

Hung-member is said: //Wash clean the appear; do away with your corruptness and
the

in the

(')

One in Masonry
self,

of the greatest

symbols
in

the lighting of lamps.

Light

is

the most

important symbol

as well as

the Hung-league; for


evils will

and

so perversity

and

disappear

when light was born, darkness dispersed itwhen the light of humanity appears. Therefore
//What
is

the novice answers on the 391th question which runs:

held to be the highest iu the

lodge?"

//The Hung-lamp is held to be the highest;" and in the quatrain it it said: //The Hung-lamp shines high and the world is equalised" (^); and when the lamp is lighted it is The Hung-iuembec anssaid again: //The Hung-lamp once lighted, illuminates the faithful." f)

0)
(5)
(|

"^
Symb.

^
d.

the Great Learning.


f

(2)

Symb.
I,

d.

Freim., I, 453.
[')

See pag. 117.


Freim., I, 46S.

C)

Symb.

d.

Freim.,
(')

460.

See pag. 113.

See pag. 115.

(5)

See p. 105.

See

p.

12S.

XXXIV
ivers

i:STRODUCTION.

on the question

,/

whence the
//.,

light

came?", by: //The light came from the holy temple."


is

(i)

In Question 17~ and


in

of

tlie

Catechism of the Hung-league


firs

spoken of peach-trees, whilst


(-)

Answer 276

peaches, willows,

and cedars are mentioned.


still,

These trees are sacred


life

with the Chinese.


mortalit}'.

Peaches have been, and are

in

China the symbol of long

or im-

Therefore the peach-fruit enters into


in

all the

ornaments in paint and sculpture which

are

made

rooms, on furniture
one's

etc.,

and,

especially, in the presents of congratulation

and
and,

J'elicitation

offered to

superiors or equals.

They

are

preserved as Newyears-gifts ;

by want
to eat of

of genuine ones, porcelain,

jade or coloured-stone peaches are offered.


life.

According to

the Shin-niing-linj: //the peach


it

Ya prevents death and eternizes


it

If
till

one has not been able

early enough,
,/

yet

preserves the body incorruptible

the end of the world."

According

to the SIm-y-ki:

whosoever
frees

eats of the fruits of the I'w-peach


:

on the mountain Ewoh


This fruit
//iTao

Uu, gets eternal life."

According to the Shin-Jdan-kan


but
it

//the

peach of immortality produces only

one

fruit in

1000 years,

man

for

ever from

hunger

is

of a

beauty and odour which are not of


eaten of the

this

world."

According to the SJdn-Jnan-tJmen :


(5)

having

gum

of this

peach became immortal."

According

to the Taoist tradition the peach-tree Avas

planted

by a

certain

Wang-mu

{^);

3000
set

years elapsed before the


fruit.
(5)

tree

blossomed, and again

3000 years passed before the flowers

Another species of peach had some resemblance with the tree of the knowledge of good and

Some peaches could not mond was mortal. According


evil.

enter in the
to

ancient
//it

Fhi-y-ln:

then should the sage not fear it?" According to


of death; as soon as he approached
,/the
it

Every peach with a double alfeared, how is death which makes the peach the S'ln-hm: //In the I'lj^/^^-garden was the peach
sacrifices.

he

felt

that

he

would
it

die."

According to Sun-lau-isz
death."
of

peach-plum has a ravishing beauty, but


:

afterwards
of

gives

According

to the

Fong-sn-tong

//In

the

book of Roang-ii

is

spoken

two brethern
is

the remotest antiquity


,

who

found on a mountain a peach-tree under which were some hundreds of demons

to cause the

death of

man and

ruin

him

for ever."

In the Lieh-chien

said about the evils


(")

which

afflict

earth: //the tree of knowledge has been the cause and occasion of sin."

In accordance with the above,

Answer 190
who

of the Catechism runs:

On

the faithful and loyal


traitors

eat of

them Heaven bestows blessings;


(")

But the

and wicked
since
their

will see their bones rot.

The pine and


all

C3'pre3s are

the remotest antiquity the


leaves,

symbols of eternal

life.

When
There-

other trees fade

and
(*)
:

lose

both these trees remain green and strong.

fore Confucius said

//Yv'hen the j'ear

becomes cold, then Ave

know how

the pine

and the cy-

P)
(S)

See pag. 1S3.

(-)

See pag. S2, seq., and pag. 102.


(*)

Me'moires

c.

1.

Chinois, T. XI, 293.


(''l

-^
sxvji.

() (i)

Memoires, T. Ill, 75.


See pag. S4.

Me'moires, T. XI, 293.


Lun-yii,

(S)

Book IX, Chapt.

INTEODUCTION.
press do not wither."

XXXV
other trees
plants lose
like

and plants"; says a their leaves and fade, whilst the


the
other trees
{})
,

sammer the fir and cedar are not different from commentary, //but when the cold season has come all trees and
,/Ia

spring and

lir

and cedar alone remain beantiful and do not wither


Avas also anciently the
all

and plants."
author
of the

The pine
,/

symbol of eternal
("),

friendsliip

Liu-hiao-phiao

Discourse on

broken friendships"
as a

says that anciently


friendship, pointing

one broke a green branch of a pine-tree,


at the

in order to confirm the oath of

same time towards the transparent waters


cypresses

symbol
girded

of faith

{^).

Pines,

and chestnuts were planted in antiquity on the public places of towns


the

(*)
(^).

just as the

Ed-ehieh, the great public place in Cairo,


is

The cedar
plMwj,

also

emblem

of the

by enormous love between husband and wife, as


is

oriental acazias
it

is

according

to

the Persian mythus.

Chinese tradition speaks of a beautiful


(960

woman named

IIo,

wife of Han-

secretary to the king KJiang of the Sung-dynasty

the Avoman, put her husband in

ing one day

to

offer violence

to

The king who desired prison where he killed himself from despair. The king \vishhis wife, she threw herself down from the terrace on which
S).

137

they were standing, and perished.

In her girdle was found a letter adressed

to the

king

in

which she expressed the wish that she might be buried in one grave with her husband; but
the king, revengeful even after her death, buried them opposite each other in different graves.

During the night,


so

however,

large that their branches interlaced;

two cypresses grew on these graves, which were in ten days tlie trunks bowed to each other and their roots grew
//Love-trees."
(")

together.

The people
fir,

called these trees

So the
masonry.
ro man
fore,

pine, cedar and cypress are in the Hung-league the symbols


life,

of the never-djdng
at the acazia is in

and ever regenerating


(")

the symbol of force and indestructibility,

just

According

to

Layard

('*)

the cypress

was sacred

in Iran, China, Babylonia, Assy-

ria, Phoenicia,

Arabia, Egypt and in whole Asia minor, in Greece,


as the

Rome and

in the

whole

Empire

symbol of

life, as

the

symbol

of immortality, of eternal
is

life,

and, there()

used every where on graves and tombs, just as this


flowers are also sacred with several nations.

the case with the masonic acazia.


of flowers, the rose

Some
brother.

As representative

is

sacred with the masons, and roses are strewn


(^)

by

the brotherhood on the

bier of the deceased


it is

It is especially the lotus

which

is

sacred in the Hung-league, because

a sym-

bol of the sun;


dives

the lotus rises to the surface of the


the sinking of the sun.
it's

water as soon

as tke

sun appears, and

down with

The

rose has been called the

queen of flowers, but

the lotus, sublime in

purity, grace, and exquisite beauty,

may

surely be called their god-

(1)

(*)
(')
(7)

M ^ u ^ t #
Lun-yii,

(')

ji

^
ic
r?o

ja

A!>.

^i ^,

1^
(s)
,

^ #
du cypres pyramidal.

Book

III, C'hapt. xxi.

Bruun, Gescliichte der Kunst, I, 313.


Eecords of Marvels.)

ffi

.S
d.

tM

<See the

^ij

^
(*)

Symb.

Freira., I,

157.

Eeclierclies sur le culte


(^)

byrab. d. Freim., 1,

159160.

Symb.

d.

Freim., II, 33.

XXXVI
(less.

IXTEODVCTION.

A
like

fine

slender

stem
inclies

about

iive

feet

long upholding a broad cup, most elegant in

it's

form,
soft

nearly eight
velvet,

broad

when
most

fnlly

expanded; the leaves of a pure alabaster white,


rose-coloured pencillings,

veined witli the

delicate

containing in their
anthers.
(i),

centre the fruit, an inverted cone of fair green encircled

by a

fringe of golden

Some
to

of the brethern in the Hung-league wear a Avreath of golden flowers on their heads
is

which wreath

lost if

they be disobedient.

(-)

Till the present

day a branch

of golden flowers

wear
There

in

the hair,

is

given in China to those


relation

who have

obtained the degree of doctor.


as the land of the blessed

may

be also some

between the Hose-garden,

where the

good go

after their decease,

riads of fragrant flowers

and

and the Pmig-lai {^) of the Budhists, the Paradise filled with mytrees, where the elected enjoy eternal blessings, knov.'ing neither
Hung-league the steel-yard, scales and foot-measure as instruments
it

hunger nor

thirst.

We
to

find

back

also in the

weigh and
is,

measure in a natural and symbolical sense, just as


found in both
saj'-s

is

in masonr3\
to

(*)

mirror

also,

societies
,,it

with the

same symbolical idea attached


man."
{})

it.

The The

quatrain
fore

on the mirror

that

reflects the heart of

The mason

is

brought be-

the mirror, that he

may know

liimself.

(^)

According to the old English ritual of reception of the mason-apprentice, he had a string or a rope around his neck, which /Or/ ?e explains by saying that probably the wearing of a string

was an
neophj'te

old oriental
is

custom.

The

fetter is in

masonry the symbol

of the

bond by which the

united to the brotherhood. C) In the Hung-league the red silk-thread is worn in In the Chinese marriage the sleeve as a sign of recognition, aird as a symbol of unity. (*) ritual the bride and bridegroom drink wine out of two cups, tied together by a red silk-thread.

In the
true

//Great

Mystery of the Freemasons discovered" (London,

172.5),

it

is

said

that a

mason may be recognised by this sign.- //One describes a right angle, by placing the heels too-ether, and the toes of both feet outwards at some distance, or hy aiiy other kind of triangle." (') The members of the Hung-league form the triangle in the inverted way, uniting According to Dr. Schauberg the triangle of the masons rethe toes and separating the heels. meaning the word Ilugiea or immorfalil//. (">) It means Y, character pythagoric presents the
something
every
else according to the explication of the

Hung-league,

viz., the eight salutations

which

member

has

made

before

being admitted. (")


exist

We

note only this resemblance without

discussing the relation

which may

between both

signs.
of

So

we

mention, also, the resemblance between the abbreviations

words

in both societies.

The masons following the Egyptian Hieroglyphical system, which


Oath,
19, page 140.

consists in

abbreviating the

(1)

art.

(-)
(*)

Laws,
Symb.

art.

64, page 160.

d. d.

Freim.

Compare

also pp.

43

45.
on pag. 219.

(5)
I')
(''I

Pag. 43.

0)
Freiin.
,

Symb.

Freim., I, 104

& /.

Symb.

d.

I, 336.

(^)
(10)

Compare the
Symb.
d.

last line of the second quatrain

Krause, I, 2, pag. 47.


See pp. 134

Freim., II, 77.

1)

k 169.

INTRODUCTION".

XXXVII
first

word with

3 points, as:

Rec.
for

1st Deg.-., for:

Reception in the

Degree,

(i)

The

sectarians

ol'

the Hung-league also abbreviate the characters, and put


ters together,

two

or tiiree of these mutilated charac

as yjll

^^

)|]|

^
and

Jlnmj-shun-tliavrj ,

Hall of obedience to Hung."

(^)

With
i,

the masons of the middle-ages the secret writing consisted in writing the vowels ,
Avith the ciphers 1, 2, 3, 4
e.

and u,

5,

and by always placing the


for

first letter

before

the last letter of the Avord, as

g.,

213

2vb2

I believe."

(S)

In the Hung-league some characters are formed nearly in the same Avay, as
of the league //?;^
is

also

('^j Avhich is Avritten pronounced pa//, 20 and 1), being

y the

/\

-\j^

e.

-^

(3,

g.,

the

name
of

jja/t

for
(*)

100 which
This
there

component parts of

this character.

way

writing
as
in

is

the nearest approach to the

Hebrew manner
letters:

of secret writing. ,/In

Hebrew
books,

were,
Tliere-

Greek, no ciphers distinct from the


starting

each letter representing a number.


of

fore,

from a superstitious idea of the inspiration

the

sacred

the

rabbins

word had a mysteword another Avord giving the same sum. In this way they corrected some passages scandalous in the narrow .Tudaic view of the time. E. g., being shocked by the literal sense of a certain passage (Numb. XII, 1), Avhere it is said that Moses had married an Ethiopean woman, a coushith (word equivalent to the number 736), they substituted for this ill-sounding term the Avord Jephatk marekeh (good looking) the letters of which, added together, gave, also, the sum 736; so that it then meant that the Hebrew legislator had married i,a good looking AA'oman," which phrase no
letters

imagined that the sum obtained by the addition of the

of a certain

rious signification,

which permitted,

in case of need, to substitute

for this

longer scandalized them."

(")

Another method of secret writing


of the intended one.

in the

Hung-league

is to

add a character

to

the real one.

Ge-

nerally they use the characters Tian, lightning, and IIou, tiger: these characters are added to the
left side

Examples

of this

kind of secret writing


seq., in the

are

found on page 22

in the Genealogical table of the founders,

and on pages 28

Lodge-marks.

This method

is

Taoistical,

and characters, combined in such a Avay, are often found on Taoist

charms. So Ave saAV on a Taoist print, representing a tiger or leopard, the characters

j^ !^,
and

Properly Avritten these characters are

-^

R^

^la

-^

Kwang-ming protects the house."


of Apprentice , Fellowcraft

Lasty

we might

also , perhaps ,

compare the three degrees in masonry

J/asfer to the terms of the

Hung-league

^
old

f^

m-orii

Irotlier

^j

adopted

hrofJier

and

'fS)

righteous uncle, Avhich


{^)

mean

the

younger brethern, those of the same degree, and

the elder brethern.

In conclusion Ave do not think

it

improbable that the Hung-league

is

the depositary of the

religion of the Chinese; consisting in the belief in a single

and undivided God Avorshipped,

(^) {*)

Symb.

d. Freim.,
p.

I,
1.

9495.
(=)

{-)

Comp.

p.

51.
1

(")

Symb.

d.

Freim., II, 257.

Comp.

86,
et

note

Eevue des Deux Mondes,

Oct. 1S63.
()

La

Litteratiire

apocalyptique chez

les Juifs

les

Chretiens,

par Albert Eeville.

See p. 233,

XXXVin
'symbolically,
essence.

IM'EODCCTION.

by

the adoration of light which,

in all religions,

Las

been

considered as His

The members of
racter

tliis

league use the character

"^

(inundation) indiscriminately for

the cha-

^X

(i"e<i)=

tlie

words Ejing-Ea (^

^|

could, therefore, be rendered

by

the expression

the

,/

Red-fellows"; and red heing the colour of the sun

the light

by the

Light-fellows."

We
to

think that the characters

HJ^
,

^
'^']
tilled

occurring so

oft in tliis

league
Liff/it

ought, perliaps, not


(Ming).

be translated by the

Miiiff-dynasfjf

but by the

Re/pt. (dynasty) of

The following

legend would seem to go far to prove this supposition.


Tradition saj-s that Shtn-ii
(jljl

or Tohwan-Timur , last emperor of the

Mongol-dynasty,

dreamt one night that ants and wasps


the Hall,

the harem.

Having ordered
dressed in purple,

his attendants to

sweep
left

there started forth from the South a

man

who

bore on his

shoulder the sign of the Sun, and on lus right, the Moon. The Emperor hastily asked, who are you? The stranger did not answer, but drew his sword and made towards the Emperor.
"^^ishing to avoid

him, he endeavoured

to

run out of the palace, the door of which the


called out for assistance

man

clad in purple immediately shut.

The frightened monarch

and awoke.

About the same time the abbot of a temple in the province of Kianj-sii , near Tung-yang-fn had a vision, in Avhich he saw the council of Gods deliberating who should settle again the Middle Kingdom. Two star-genii, in the neighborhood of the constellation Ursa-major, took
the Sun
|

ting

by

tliis

When the priest woke from his trance a poor man with his pregnant wife requested admittance to his temple, being driven from their home by the Mongol soldiery. Here the motlier was delivered of the babe, who should, afterwards, become the first monarch of the glorious dynasty of Ming, Eung-icn. (-) His father going to bathe, saw a beautiful piece of
righteousness.
red,

hands and put them together (0^ Ming), iatimathat the principles of Dualism in nature, Yin and Tang ('), should rule the world
j

and the Moon

{^\'m

their

satin floating

became afterwards a cow-boyj but,


ployer.
culour,

it up and made a dress of it for the babe. The child some misdemeanour, he was turned away by his emHe just laid down on mother earth to sleep and di-eamt that he saw a throne of scarlet on which two images (s) were seated; and then again came some persons wlio presen-

down

the river.

He

picked

for

ted

him
(*)

Avith a purple robe.

Hung-wu

carried in all his battles a red flag as his principal stan-

dard.
"V^

see here that red, purple, scarlet,

are

mentioned

at

every important phase


,/

of
('),

Hungmust,

Avu

s life.

His name, Avhich has been translated sometimes by

Knight of inundation"

we

think,

be rendered

by

the

//Red knight"

{^)

which

is,

must surely, intended by the two

Q)
I*)

See p. sra.

(2)

Comp.

p.

3.

(S)

Yin and Yang or Sun and Moon.

Chinese Eepository, Vol. VII, p, S53, seq., translated from the

History of Hung-wu."

^ ^

-^

'^

Complete

INTKODTJCTIOX.

XXXIX

characters Ihmg-iou.
in relation

Tied

is

the colour of the sim or of the light, and


Lujlit

,/

Knight of light" \YOuld,


perhaps,
still

with

his

being the founder of the

(Ming)
of

ili/nasf)/

be,
of

a better

interpretation.

Symbolically

he

is

then the defender

the light
of

humanity against the


Mongol barbarians,
civil

encroachments of the

darkness of vice

incorporated in the shape

the

bred in the dark wastes of Mongolia.


It

may seem
this is

strange that the Hung-league tries to attain

it's

object

by revolt and

war;

but

sanctioned

by Chinese philosophy,

especially

that

taught by Mencius.

According

to his principles, the people

may

dethrone, nay, even kill a bad prince.

He

hopes, however,
to help

that a //Minister of

Heaven"

will do this; hoping that


shall so

Heaven will

raise

up some one
as to

the people;
all

some one who

occupy in

his

original subordinate position

draw

eyes and hearts

to liimself.

Let him then raise the standard, not of rebellion, but of right-

eousness, (1) and he cannot help attaining to the highest dignity. He continues to say: //There was one man (the tyrant Chow) pursuing a violent and disorderly course in the empire, and King Jroo was ashamed of it. By one display of his anger, he gave repose to all people. Let your Majesty" said he to King Siaen, //in like manner, by one burst of anger, give repose to
all

the people

of the

empire."

Although Mencius advises here


forfeited
it's
it's

rebellion

he does

not consider
(-)

that as unjust, because the

House of Chow had

title to

the Empire.

Likewise,

in Sung-wu's eyes, the Mongol-dynasty had forfeited

claims

and, therefore, he drove them


forfeited

from the throne. In the eyes of the present members of the Eung-league the Tartars have
their claims

and must, therefore, be exterminated.


of

Their's
vice.

is

a sacred

war

of righteousness against

tyranny

humanity against oppression and


is

If our supposition

that the Hung-league

has existed since antiquity


fence of righteous

correct,

principles.

they must have waged continually a war for the deFor the same reason they will consider such a war righteous
or

against

whose government they think hurtful to the people, be they Tartars, Mongols, Chinese or Europeans. They mean to represent in the world the combat of light against darkness, which they see accomplished day by day in the Heavenly spheres; and the means they use thereto are not considered unlawful by them, as
every one
oppresses them,

who

we have

observed above.

The Chinese are not a savage or unruly people; they are fully alive to the horrors of anarchy, and to the benefits of order. They will suffer hardships and misfortunes if they are in the natural course of things; but they will submit less to tyranny than any other
Eastern nation.
This
is

not better illustrated

than

by

the following incident related in the


Thsi:

//Family Sayings," occurring during the voj'age


Thai he

of Confucius to

passing the mountain

saw a woman weeping by a grave. The sage having asked her why she wept so, she answered: //My husband's father was killed here by a tiger, and my husband also; my son now has shared the same fate." Confucius then asked her why she did not remove to another place, and as she replied: //There
is

here no oppressive government,"

he turned himseli'

'^'

7^

^ ^

(')

James Legge, Chinese

classics,

Vol. II, Prolegomena, pag. 48, stq.

XL
to his disciples

INTKODUCTIOX.

and

said:

//My children, mark


of governing

j'e!

Oppressive government

is

fiercer

than a tiger."

Wherever a
troublesome.
lier

just

mode
to

Singapore,

always

cited

Chinese population

the defects

them has been adopted the Chinese have never been a refutation to this fact, owes the unruliness of in her own Government.
as

We fully
language.

acquiesce Avith Mr. Oliphant's judgment

when

he says:

//At present there

is

a potheir

pulation of 70,000 Chinamen in Singapore, and not a

single

European who understands


themselves
still

The consequense
are
their

is,

that,

in

the

absense of any couipetent interpreter,


regarding

they are

generally ignorant of the designs of Government, and,


subjects,

as jChinese

apt

to place

themselves in an antagonistic attitude whenever laws are passed

affecting

peculiar customs.
this
is

No
by

effort

is

made

to

overcome a certain exclusiveness

ari-

sing hence;
influence

and

fostered

the

secret societies,

which

exercise

an important moral
of the

upon the minds

of all, but

more particularly the ignorant portion

population.
their

We
empire a perpetual proof before our eyes of that reverence
for

have fortunately in

own

authority lohen judiciously enforced,

which

is

one of their chief characteristics,

and which has


it's

for so

many

centuries been the preserva-

tion of

it's

union and one

great source of

prosperity."

{^)

Whenever due regard is paid to the prejudices of the nation, and when explain to them the necessity or expediency of a new law or regulation,
most reasonable and cool
to eradicate

care

is

taken

to

the

Chinese,

the

of all Eastern races,

will remain at
quietness.

ease,
It
is

and the existence

of their

secret society Avill not endanger

in the least
it

this

a sheer impossibility to try

the Hung-league
to

where
free

exists.
still

Notwithstanding the military expeditions of the


flourishes there.
is

N.I. Government
Java,

Borneo, the league


to

It

exists

at

Sumatra, and even

members. Only in 185:2 mJapara, namely when, probably once in the latter time they declared themselves, on account of some unreasonable or vexacious regulation, great uneasiness prevailed amongst the Chinese population. A small military demonstration was sufficient, however, to restore the
always thought
be
of this

brotherhood,

not without

it's

peace,

and researches being made,


of the
place.
to

it

was found

that

this

uneasiness Avas created

by

the

workings of a lodge

Hung-league, whose handbook was afterwards discovered.


of the

Since,

no manifestation has taken

We
excite

leave to those in
of a

power

judge
or

if

the existence

Hung-league
as
the}'

is

dangerous

for

the tranquillity

colony or

state

not.

Societies, as long

are secret,

always

the

mistrust of the governing powers.

Freemasonry, persecuted formerly as a most


recognition,
to

dangerous institution,

has proved

itself,

after it's

be not only innoxious, but


is

even highly
cleared

beneficial.
to

Now,

that

we

trust that the secret of the Hung-league

sufficiently

up
to

be

well understood,

a similar forbearance might, perhaps, without danger, be

shown

this

sister-society

the Heavem-Eaeth-league.

(1)

Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's mission to China and Japan,

Yol

I,

20.

PART

I,

HISTORY OF THE HUNGLEAGUE.


The Chinese annals do not throw any
to

light

on the origin

of the

Hungleague: neither seems


for

it

have

much

occupied the attention of the

members themselves,

we

find

nothing in the

books of

this league, except the

vague allusions

we have mentioned
which, as a

in our introduction.

The same may be

said of the

society of freemasons;

known body, commenced

only with the Greek- and


,/In antiquity," says

Roman

building corporations.

Dr. Schauberg,

//masonry was most surely

that its principles

were never

inown
it

ver influenced the popular


thing similar
tion
is

life.

to

masonry, but
to in

and practised by a large Some philosophers or religious sects may have taught somewas just only philosophy or mysticism, by which this rela(^)

unknown, that is to say, number of men. Masoniy ne-

sufficiently characterized."

Covenants sworn
shedding blood,

the

same manner

as

is

done

now by

the Hung-brotherhood, viz:

(B. C. 1122). Officers by were appointed at that time, in whose hands the oaths were taken, whilst private sworn covenants were forbidden by law. (-) Parties who had sworn such an oath, considered each other as brothers and had the same obligations to fulfil towards each other, as if they were real brothers.

existed already at the time of the

Chau-dynasty.

The people
altar:

of the

state of

Yueh
it

{^)

pronounced the following oath, when swearing friendship


the sacrifice of a white dog and a red cock, on an earthen

together, after having consecrated

by

You

in

a cliariot

may

be seated, whilst I a
we'll

bamboo

hat do wear;

But when some other day

meet, your chariot leave and to

me

bend.

You may

afoot your steps be bending, whilst


we'll meet, then

me

a prancing steed doth bear;

But when some other day

from

my

horse will I descend.

(1) (=)

Symbolic
Chun-tsiu

d.

Freim. I, 294.
Tol.
I.

|^ ^)

Pars

I.

Chapt. rw-.^7(^.

[^ y^j
Vol. 11,
\-i.

Histoire Generale de la Chine.


(')

Vol. I, 310, at the note.

22S.

(^)

An

ancient state during the civil wars B. C.

481255.

If the

Hungleague proceeded from these clans,

it is

certain that

Budhism
first

influenced

it

largely,

as will be easily recognized in


It is

many

of

its

rites.

probable,
tlie

in

this

case,

that the

Budhists were also the

who made
Wu-tsung

a political
(i)

league of

fraternal clans.

Admitted

at first

with open arms by the Chinese government, they

were afterwards severely persecuted by some of the most cruel pei'secutors.


small wayside temples to be destroyed.

of the Emperors.

Of

these,

was
all

oxie

In the year 845 of our era he issued a rescript against the Budhist religion, ordering

the
for-

He

destroyed about forty

thousand temples and

ced over two hundred thousand priests and nuns to return to the lay-state.

The

officers

charged with the execution of this mandate, confiscated the properties of these

monks
als

for the benefit of the state,

and restored the governmental buildings with the materiThose


of

from the destroj'ed temples.

This cruel persecution incensed the priests highly.


(-)

the convent on the ,/five-ierrace-mountam"


cers of the

joined immediately the


to

army

of Yen-cliau: the

offi-

army, however, were forbidden


("')

receive them,

and they were ordered back

to

their respective domiciles.


It is also a
l-mglit (*)

remarkable

fact,

that the founder of the J/w<7-dynasty called himself the

Rung-

and had been in his youth a Budhist priest. The Hungleague, however, did not appear as a regular
the

political

body, before the Tartar sway.

Barbarians as the Tartars were in comparison with the Chinese, they trampled upon the Chinese nationality in
dress
of their

//Many are
the notice or

They forced the whole nation to adopt the grow long and plaited into a cue. the changes," remarks Davis, which may be made in despotic countries, Avithout even the knowledge of the lower portion of the community; but an entire altemost insulting manner.
conquerors,

and

to

let their hair


//

ration in the national costume affects every individual equally, from the highest to the lowest,

mark of conquest." was the fearful immorality they brought into China, especially the vice for which, once, two cities were destroj'ed, and which is common amongst the Mongols and Tartars, as it is with most nomad tribes. Amongst them, sensuality is sanctified by religion C^), a feature never observed in the old religion of the Chiand
is,

perhaps, of all others, the most open and degrading


for the resistance

Another reason

against the Tartar sway,

(")

i.

^t

lil

'^'^'^

temple
I

lies

40

cliinese miles

NE

from the Wu-tai-hien

(^

^^ lEj

in the

prefecture of Thai-yuen
(3)

-\^

j^

|^

Hist. Gen. de la Chine. T. VI, pp.

489490.

n
(5)

^^ We

Hung-wu.
figures,

have seen a representation of two


a

accomplishing the mystery of copulation, cut in wood


Peldiuj.

taken

away from

Lama

temple in the

neighbourhood of

Compare

also;

E. Swinhoe,

Narrative of the

North-China Campaign of 1860, pag. 363.

nese.

(')

This vice infested, gradually, the whole empire.

It is least

found in the Southern proits

vinces, but increases towards the Northern provinces, showing clearly

origin.

(-)

The Hungleague rightly considers tliis degrading corruption as the principal cause generation of the Chinese empire and therefore punishes it with DEATH. (Code of
art, 21

of the derl

Laws,
which

&

70).

The two

cradles of the

Hungleague, the provinces of Canton and FuMien, were


till

also those

most resisted the Tartar sway and


those nomadic usurpers.
their head, in order to

the present day

it

are these provinces, which most hate


still

The' natives of the latter province,


conceal the badge of subjection

the

cue.

provinces were masters of the coast,

they equipped large

fleets,

wear a kerchief wound around As the inhabitants of these wherewith tiiey made inroads
Chhig-chi-lmiy

on the
(16-iO)

coastplaces.

Two

of the

most famous leaders of those expeditions, were

known by the wanting a stronghold to repair and equip his fleets, attacked the isle of Formosa, drove the Dutch out of their settlements, and founded a regular kingdom. Since that time the Hungleague became better known. The sacred edict of the Emperor Yung-ching, speaks of it under the names Incenseliirners ('^j and Wh'de-lolns-sect ('), names which
and
Koio-slilng his son, better

name

of Koxhuja.

The

latter,

the people, probably, gave to this league, as


gue.
It

it

calls itself Hungleague, or


(5)

Heaven and Earth-leais

takes also the

name

of

Tkrce-nnited-league ,

because the league

based upon

tlie

bonds existing between Heaven, Earth and Man. These three names are the only ones, that may be applied

to the

league:

all

the

other

names are only -watchwords.


to these

The

statutes of S/iantmig, found in Japara,

have given us the clue on

names.
chiefs

The
the

first

of the lodge

there,

were
(7)

six

men

living in the district of Lung-chau


called:
(S)

('^)

ridges

of
,

the

Hau-hwui montains.
,

They were
I-hlng
i}^),

Ilung-hhi-hai,

Ilioavg-k/ii-tsing

CJiau-ijuen-tsing

Cldn-li-cliang

Su-ynen-h\nn

and

Clnvg-cJd-lun^.

Each
Ta-tao

of

them took a

different

watchword.
Chin, the

{^)

the watchwoi'd

i7?-^a?j (ii).

Hung took the watchword Sea and Land.


Siao-tao
Cliing,
{}^),

patriotic

rise, or rise of justice.


(^-),

Hwang,

Chau, the

watchword
Q'-),

large knife or sword.

watchword

the small knife or poniard.

Sti,

the

watchword

Ping-yen Q*),

Handle and eaves; and


(1)

the

watchword
II,

Tmig-tsze

the boy.

('")

W.

Williams, Middle Kingdom.


tliis

224.

(2)

For further particulars on

subject,

my

article

on Prostitution

in

China,

printed in the

XXXIII Vo-

lume
(')

of the Transactions of the Batavian Society of arts

&

sciences,

may

be consulted.

^ #
6
^^

Wan-hiang.
-^''^

(')

M ^ # M
7}
also,

''^"^

'^^''''

(')

r'

San-hoh-hwu).

(')

Q')

yj>

0')

t^

1^

Ci

^ ^

i"^)

The

statutes

of Shan-

tung mention

that the four last brethern died on the EamJtead-Idancl

13^

|^|

These watchwords were probably adopted, because the three above mentioned gemiine names

were

too

well

known hy

the Tartar

government,

to

be

openly adopted.

Concealed

under

those watchwords, they might be confounded with the


help, existing in all parts of

numerous

//friendly societies" for

mutual
secret

C/una

^nd

the islands of the

Indian Archipelago.

At

'Palenihuiuj,

only, on the westcoast of

Sumatra, there

exists seven of these societies,

which have neither

bound by oath. (') The criminal prosecutions directed against the Hungleague, brought to light some of its symIt was found, that the members of tliis league called each other brcthern, bols and usages. that they wore distinctive badges, etc. etc. The Tartar government immediately perceived the resemblance between the sectarians of the Hungleague and the Christians. The missionaries of the order of Loyola, at that time in great number in China and much honoured at court for their sciences, assumed to worship the Supreme God, Shangti, though they called Him //Thian-chii", The lord of heaven, in order to save the susceptibility of the monarch; as he reserves himself alone the right to worship Shang-ti. The Hung-league also worships the One-God, a crime of high-treason, therefore, in the eyes of the Government. The Hungleague makes lists of the rnen it has enrolled and it was known, too, that the i2ii.^The sionaries made lists of the persons they had converted, which lists were sent to Europe. Government considered tliese people as enlisted in the service of the Europeans, to aid them The example set by Japan fortilied the Tartar government in this idea, in any plan of revolt. (-) for as long as the Catholics remained in Japan, nothing but intrigue, schism and civil war v,as heard of, which calamities might, sooner or later, befall China too, if tlie crjnrinal eagerness of the missionaries in enlisting people of all classes, was not checked. (5) The emperor Yung-ching felt more and more aversion to both doctrines, which he confounsigns nor are

ded together.

In an audience given to three missionaries in the year

1721.,

he said: //The false

laws are those, which, under pretext

of teaching virtue, incite the people to rebeUion, like the

law of the White-lily-sect." (*) Not only the Government thought both doctrines to be similar; but the persons belonging to the Hungleague did so too: () showing plainly enough the fraternal and spiritual connection existing between the doctrines of the Hungleague and of Christ. The league, however, degenerated into a band of rebels and robbers, that seemed to haVe lost
every notion of the proper spirit of
its

association.

In 1S49, however, a kind of revival took place through the exertions of a certain Hung-siu-

(1)

Notice on the fraternal societies existing at Piilembang. (Governm. Archiv.)


Histoire ge'nerale de la Chine,

(~) (3) {*) l')

T.

XI, 526.

W.

Williams, Middle Kingdom. II, 306.

Hist. Geu. de la Chine, T. XI, p. 400.

W.

Williams, Middle Kingdom. II. 320.

tsiuen

(')

who,

as his

name

already indicates,

was a member
tracts

of the
to

Hungleague.
in

This

man

obtained some knowledge of Christiaaity


evangelist Llavg-Afah, and increased

from

given

him

1S33

by

the native

it by studying a few months in 18i6 with Rev. I. J. Roan American missionary in Canton. The result of tiiis study was, that he changed the name of the Hungleague in that of Shangti-hwui, (-) //The league of God" or //The AssociaHe himself took the name of Thai-phing-thian-kwoh-wang (^) or tion of the Supreme Ruler." King of the heavenly kingdom of universal peace." Government, however, did not leave him in peace, and was the first to attack the association, because it dared to worship Shangti. Trea-

berts,

//

ted as rebels guilty of high-treason, they were obliged to defend themselves,

and they did

so

more

forcibly than ever before, bringing,


(*)

within a few years, the old Chinese empire to the


the league lost also
its

brink of destruction.

But by

this

war

purity again.
the

One
Not

of the grandmasters.

Tang, called the Eastern king,

named himself

younger brother

of Jesus and pretended that the holy Ghost


all

the horrors,
its acts.

be considered as

made known the Divdne will through his medium. however, committed in name of the Heaven & Earth-league, ought to There are lots of pirates, who assume the name because it is feared;
not at
all

but who do,

in

fact,

belong

to the
knife,
.

Hungleague.
did not, the

So

the robbers,

who

desolated
to
tliis

Amoy
the

in 1853,

took the

name

of small

They
from

however, belong at

all
{')

branch, but were only scavengers and

coolies
or,

village of Peh-shwui-ying,

under
sel-

command

of a certain Hwang-icei

[^)

according to the local pronunciation, Ooe-Ooe, a


as
it

ler of cowhides.
fled to

This band

was

dispersed as soon

spi-ang up,

and most

of its

members
it

Singapore and the Islands of the Indian Archipelago.


the genuine

What distinguishes
up again
witli

Hungleague

is its

indestructibility.

Defeated at times,

springs

renewed

force, whilst the

bands of robbers that desolate, sometimes, the country,

are extirpated

generally in a very short time.

We

cite,

williugl}-, the Avords of

Williams in
of the insui*-

his preface to his

work

,/The middle Kingdom": //The cohesion of the

main body

and energy of principle among them , which shows that their leaders have a following they can depend on to some degree." The present work may serve to throw some more light on this following and show that, whatever may be nov: fraternity and the condition of the Hungleague, it had once and has still, sure and trusty bases
gents for so
years, indicates a vitality

many

morality.

We

do not doubt that,

when

peace will be restored in China,

either

by

the over-

throw of the Manchoo-dynasty or by the people gradually submitting peaceably" to its rule, the Hungleague will be able to purify itself from all political and criminal elements and be-

come again what it most surely was formerly, a bond of brethern following the great precept taught by Christ and Confucius: ,/As jq would that man should do to you, do ye also to them
likewise."

(^)

^^
J:
W.

^^
i^*

-^

11^

^^

accomplishes the glory of the Hungleague.

(^)

a
(")

:*:

(')
i')

Williams, Middle Kingdom.

Preface, pp.

^ #

^ ^ ^ ^
5

li
ff.

S
Ed.

4th.

POLITICAL HISTOIIY OF THE HtTNGLEAGUE.

In two

copies of the

handbook

of the

Hungleague

in

our posession,

we

find

a history of
(i),

the origin of the political Hungleague.

As

it

is

somewhat

different

and more complete than the History given by Dr. Hoffmann

we

give an entire translation of the original text.

In the year Kal-iou

{-)

of the reign of
()

Emperor
to

Kliaiuj-ld

(3)

there lived in the state 8i-lu

(')

a great general called Fliang-lung-tUan.

The prince
and a hundred
tierplace

of the Eleuths ordered


officers,

him

take the

command

over an

army

of 200,000

men

The governor ofthefronman, who had not the least notion of warfare. As soon as he saw that the Eleuth-troops commenced the attack, he left the frontierplace and marched against them; but the battle had scarcely commenced, Avhen he was pierced by the lance of an offito

and

make, with them, an inroad into China.

was an

effeminate

cer of Phang-lung-thian.

His
(")

troops
lost.

having

lost their

leader,

were routed immediately, and

the frontierplace Si-liang

was

The Eleuthian troops entered the

fortress that

same

night.

(1)

Tijdsclirift

van het Kon.

Instit.

voor de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandscli-Indie.

Deelll, ISoJ.
of our era.

(")

^
]^
This

-^

A. D. 1714.
called

(3)

J^
part

Ea
of

Heoccupiedthetlirone from the year

1661 1722

()

^
people

by the Western nations


the

Eleiillis.

occupied

N.W.
I

China and was

divided into

four

hordes,
of the

viz.

The Mongol
(the "Wes-

Eleuths of the Yellow-river.


tern lake

^p]*

Hwang-ho)
,

the

Mongol Eleuths

Kokonor

>^
I

the Northern Eleuths

who

occupied the North of the mountains Altai

(The Hea-

venly mountains

^
this

MJ

Tse-wanrj-raMan was

chief of

the fourth

and smallest horde.

KaUan, king

of the

Northern Eleuths,

subjugated gradually the other hordes to his authority and made one state of them under the name Olot. (Eleuth).

The Chinese

write

word
for his

Ngo-lo-teh.
>

^g '^ tej

Khang-hi, apprehending that

this

neigbour

would become dangerous

own kingdom which was

onlj' just settled

again after a most dangerous revolt in

the Southern and Western provinces of China, sent several embassies to Kaldan, enjoining

him

to live in

peace with his neighbours


himself thrice took the

but as this proved to be of no avail

he at

last

declared

war against him.

He

field,

but after having fought more than ten years with alternate succes and defeat,

peace was only restored by the death of Kaldan in 1699.


Eleuths,
China.
(')

Khang-hi was, however, not able

to

subdue the

and

it

was

only in the year

1757, that the Emperor Kieudung subjected them


k,

to the rule of

(Hist. gdu. de la Chine, T.

XI 79

ff.

Memoires concernant

les

Chiuois, T.

I.

323

k,

ff.)

^ m %
1
)!^

C')

now Yung-chang-wei
J

(-^^

^j|

in the

prefecture

Liaug-chau

||^

>|>jvj

jfl^j

of the province

Kan-su

("^

^)

3820' Lat. OQ^SO' Longitude.

The next froiitierplaces fell before them, as if they were felling bamboo. They pushed on (i), where they halted and pitched their camp. till the}' came to Tung Icwan The population fled from all places for the soldiers of Lung-thian were strong, and his officers brave, so that nobody could resist them in battle. The military commanders of the town, Tiuig-hean was now in a very precarious position. Liu-king (-) and Ilwaiig-sze-isiiien, (^) conscious that they would lose it against them in a pitched battle, barricaded the gates of"the fortress, and mounted the walls in order to defend the place. The two commanders held council throughout the whole night and wrote urgent despatches
,

to

the court.

\Vheu the emperor Khang-hi had read these despatches, he started back and, turning extremely pale, asked all his civil and military officers, Avho would go and fight the robbers.

Nobody however
to issue

dai-ed to
to

go and, forced by necessity,

it

was agreed
all

to

propose His

a ukase

convoke an army and make an appeal upon

the valiant

Majesty and brave


of

of the empire.

This

ukase

having been proclaimed,

it

was

sent to

all

the provinces,

and copies

it

were

posted up everywhere.

a certain day such a ukase also reached the provinces of Canton and Fuh-kieu, and copies were posted up in every place. A monk of the convent Shao-lin, {') situated on one ol the mountains of the Kiu-lian chain in the prefecture Fuh-chau, {=) in the province of Fuhof
it

On

Iden, having perused attentively the imperial proclamation, related


after his return to the convent.

it

to the

abbot Tah-tsung,

('')

//Are there in

whole China not even one or two able


//It

officers,

who

can

command an army

to fight

them?", exclaimed the abbot.


is

is

said so in the pro-

clamation," replied the

monk, //which
1:2S

sent round in

all

the provinces of the whole empire;


to

0 I suppose, that at that time, there

had not yet been sent an expedition


is

chastise them."

//Our convent numbers


in the military art
ail

brethern," said the abbot, //and each of us


to destroy the

sufficiently versed
I will call

and magics,

Eleuthian soldiers.

To morrow

upon
the

the brethern to go

with me

to the capital, to lake

field, in

order to repulse these Western barbarians.

In

down the proclamation and take this way (he heroes of our convent

will

become renowned. Besides, by driving back the Eleuths, we shall have averted a calamity from the people, and saved thousands of lives and, in the second place, the empire of our Emperor shall be preserved. The fame of our convent will also spread itself beyond the seas and will be propagated for thousands of ages. Our merits will be very great, and our fame Does that please you?" will be established for ever. All the monks answered with one voice: //"We shall obey your commands!"

l^)

ffl^

"

fortress

at a brancli of the

yellow-river in

the province of Shen-si,

106025' Lougitude,

35S' latitude.
r-)

m ^
IPS

(')

i^)

n m

1^)

M 'S M ^

^t<

(''

i'"

# #

the whole brotherhood of the convent armed itself and marched to the capital: and marching during the day, they reached it in a few daj'-s. They then took down the proclamation, went to the ministry and presented then- memorial to the Emperor. His Majesty', having read the memorial, was very much pleased: he immediately ordered the

The ne\t day

resting at night

ofiicials

of the

board of war
all

to

furnish provisions, arms, dresses,


to Plim,

cuirasses

and horses, and he

gave orders that

the

monks should be introduced


The abbot
to
all

self in military tactics.

said:

,/Your subject has

He might examine them Himbrought on purpose all the monks


that

of his convent hither, in order to drive

back the Eleuths."


the

The Emperor then gave


the rank of Major.

the abbot

rank

of Lieutenant-general,

and

to the

other

monks
,/Your

They

kneeled down,
tiie

expressing their thanks for this favour.


,/withoat
are 138

subjects

will go to battle,"

observed

abbot,

making use
to

of a single soldier of

Tour Majesty,
cerned about

for the people of

my

convent,

who
pray

men

strong, are sufficient to destroy

and exterminate the Eleuthian


it,

soldiers.

We

Your Majesty not

be anxious

or con-

for

it

is

our hearts desire to preserve the empire;

we

shall obtain the victory

by stratagems,
//Since 3'ou

in order to accomplish this."

have

found a

means

of

restoring peace
I

joyously, ,/my

anxiety has been dispersed, and

am

with Eleuth," replied the Emperor not under the least concern that your

fame

shall not

be commemorated on bamboo and


to

sillc."

Having pronounced

these

words.

He

accompanied them Himself

the door.
to the

Tiie monks, having had a partnig audience with the Emperor, marched where they drew themselves up and set out for their journev.

drill-ground,

They As

rode without stopping, displaying their

power and military pomp

fiu-

and wide, and, in

a few days, they reached Tung-kwan.


thej'

were approaching the

place, the

had just mounted the walls

to reconnoitre.

two commanders, Liu-king and Hwang-sze-tsiuen, Suddenly they saw a fluttering of Hags and pennons
:

a great cloud of dust arose, and they saw, in the distance, a great division of troops approaching.

The two commanders, conceiving The two commanders, seing


that

it

to

be the relieving army, quickly ordered

the gate-kee-

per to open the gates, and they escorted the


it

monks within

the fortress.

was only a band


it.

of bald priests, -were

vejy much

asto-

nished, but they dared not speak about

The common

civilities

being performed and tea over, the two commanders

been guilty of a great offence that

we

did not go to meet

said: ,/We have your Excellency when you approached:

we pray
//Don

you, however,
't

to excuse us."

mention

it," replied the alibot.


;

,/Your Excellency," said Liu-king, ,/has come here


that no civil

to chastise the

Eleuths

but what

is

the reason

and military

officers

have taken

the

field?"'

//When your despatches arrived," replied the abbot:


to ask the civil

//His imperial

Majesty had the kindness


of

and military
l)ut,

oflicers,

which

dared

to

do so;

after ripe
to

deliberation,

them could repulse the Eleuths. None they made to His Majesty the proposal to
of

them

issue a

ukase

for

convoking the people

take arms: that everj' body, of whatever rank or condition, either

10
officer or

burgher,

priest or sorcerer,

if

he possessed

the
I

required

abilities,

could

take

(he

command
tion

over an armj^ to fight the Eleutlis.


to
tlie

When

heard
this

this, I toolc do\"\'n the

proclama-

and went
this

capital to see His Majesty;

and in

way

I liave

come

here."
in

After

explanation
sat

they

talked

about

ordinary things:

supper

was prepared

the

meantime, and they

down

to a substantial dinner.

some questions respecting the Eleutlis: how it fared with them lately, and where they had pitched their camp. The two commanders tlien gave hini an account of it. He asked also: ^At the time you fought with them, did you lose or gain?" ,/The Eleuthian soldiers are ferocious and fierce," replied Liu-king; ,/l once left the frontierplace to fight them, but dared not commence a gene-

The

repast being iinished,

the abbot asked

ral

engagement, and drew

my

troops back again.

Yesterday they have been shouting

all

day

more care and kept rigorous Avatch. Fortunately, the walls and maintainable, so that we have been able to preserve Excellency has arrived to save and protect us by some excellent straday your But to it. tagem; you excell in militarj^ tactics above all other generals, and, to be sure, you will gain
long,
still

and therefore we took

and moats

of the fortress are strong

the victory.

But

it

is

proper that

we

arrange

now

our
If

plan of attack,

and plot some good


Phang-lung-thian

stratagem,

that w'e

may

obtain a complete victory.

we don

't

do

that,

will not be casely vanquished."

//You have been long resident here," replied the abbot, //and
of

arc surely fully acquainted

with the topography and condition


of the

the place, as you,


to explain
all

probato

bly,

also

know
//I

the

movements

ennemy.

Be kind enough

this

me

distinctly."

ordered, some time ago, Hwang-sze-tsiuen to


//the

make

map

from the 4th


is

to the

Sth degree,"

replied Liu-king;

important

passes,
it

where a passage

to

be

found, are

distinctly noted

make your

plans on

and drawn upon it and it and study it."

I will give

now

to

your Excellency, that you


fixed
to

may

The abbot, having looked carefully over the map, and having said: //To morrow, when they commence the attack, we shall look

it

in

his

memory,

their

movements, and

most surely obtain the victory." The next morning the abbot choose his men one by one, and communicated his stratagem He placed the one here and the other there, in an ambush, in all sorts of ways. He to them.
then drew his sword and, making some magic passes, muttered an exorcism. He adresscd Heaven and the spirits Luh-ting (^) and Luh-kah (-), to come to his assistance and decide the
battle.

When

the battle

was

at its height these spirits,

indeed, poured

down

a rain of sand and

stones: a violent storm arose, and the dust and earth obscured
soldiers crushed each other and,

heaven, so that the Eleuthian

thoroughly routed, took to


{^)

flight.

Having reached
every place
diers

the ravine Hil-hu-chuh,

fire-darts

came whistling.
Phang-lung-thian

bombs and mines burst every \\here, and from The \A'hole pass was obscured by smoke, and the solperished.

and

officers of

all

The abbot then

recalled his troops,

and

y^

(=)

>^

(^)

wY

jm.

^n

^ji

11

every one acknowledged his


his leave of the

abilities.

Pie

remained
to

still

two days

in

the place

and then took

two commanders, exhorting them

maintain and defend the fortress faithfully.

Having despatched the report of his victory to the court, he set out himself for Peking, and having reached the residence, they threw themselves at the feet of the emperor and related

the circumstances of the extermination of the

Eleuths.

make them officers and ennoble them: according to commands they were paraded three consecutive days through the town, and a repast was given to them in the imperial palace. His Majesty Avished to retain the abbot at court as his councellor, and to appoint the other monks to high posts. The abbot and his monks, however, kneeling down, refused the favour, saj'ing: Your subjects lead a pure life, and are priests who follow the doctrine of the divine Budha. "We would not have dared to transgress His pure precepts, if it had not been that the country was ruined by the soldiers of Eleuth: so
His Majesty, greatly delighted, wished to His

we

have destroyed and exterminated them; but


forbidding us to

now we
and
there

ought again

to

obey those pure presay

cepts,

desire worldly happiness,

accept, inconsiderately, of high posts.

We

all

wish

to

return to our convent Sliao-Iin,

again

to

worship Budlia,

to

our

praj'crs, to sanctify our life,

and

to correct

our minds, that

we may

reach perfection and enter


us,
in

Niglan.

We

only accept of the presents which

Your Majesty bestows upon


emperor,

order

to

requite

Your divine favour."


,/is already proof enough that 3'ou have a jade ring of three links and an imperial seal of one pound ounces weight: these I wish to present to your Excellencies, as a reward for your

,/That

you do not accept


I

nobilitj',"

said

the

are

virtuous men; but


five

and

merits: besides

I will

proclaim the

affair

throughout

all

the

in-ovinces,

in

order

to

glorify

your exalted merits and virtues, and


All the

to

monks then kneeled


left

joyfully

make your names known." down, and lisped their thanks


to their convent.

for the imperial favour;

thereupon they

court, and returned

In the 61st year of

his reign, the

emperor Khang-hi

died,

and Yung-ching

(')

succeeded

Him

(A. D. 1723). in the government of the empire. The seasons had always been favorable, the stat was
in the 11th year of the reign of Yung-ching, a certain

flourishing,
(3)

and the people happj^ But

Tang-shing

was appointed

provincial

judge in the

capital

Fuh-chau.

This Tang-shing
a
cruel

was a man Avho had

was

a thorough villain.

He had
office,

and barbarous heart,

and and he was avaricious, greedy


false propensities,
to

and merciless. Having entered upon


worship Budha.

he came very often to the Shao-lin convent


gifts,

burn incense and


jade

Seeing there this quantity of imperial

as the

threelinked

and the

(^)

lH

IE

He

reigned from the year

17231736.

(2j

u
precious seal,
liis

avidity

continually prayed the

awoke and he sought for a scheme by whicli he could abbot to give him the threelinked ring and the imperial
and
said:

get them.
seal;

He
the

but the

monks knew
late

liim too well

//These are precious


seal has
full

gifts,
it

bestowed
has
the

upon

us
to

by

Emperor:
Avicked

besides,

the

imperial

powers;

power
it

bastinade

the
tely

and

to decapitate the traitors.

How

should

we

dare then to give

inconsidera-

away?"
his heart

Tang-shing cherished hate and revenge in


ge against the Shao-lin convent.
of the jade seal and precious gifts

on account of
think

this refusal,

and had a grud-

He began now
treachery,
of the

to

how he

could

ror wherein he said that the

by monks

and therefore he sent a

make himself master memorial to the Empethe

Shao-lin

convent daily seduced


given

hearts of the

people

by

witchcraft and bad proceedings.


besides, in

That they were,

possession
fall

with whicli they


actions

could

exercise

were reprehensible,

and that

them by the late emperor, power over all things. That he truly feared that their He remarked that if the3^ plotted treacherous schemes.
of a jade seal
to to the

they should revolt the disaster would be very great.

Such was the purport


true.

of his

memorial

Emperor.
he doubted
if

Although Yung-ching did not


,/that the affair

know

his treacherous plot, still


if this

everj' thing

was
The

Therefore he again asked Tang-shing

affair

was
do.

really so.

Tang-shing reported:
laithful subject."

was

true and proved,

and not

falsely represented

by His
Sliing

emperor Yung-ching, highly incensed, asked what he should


ding to

answered Him: //Accorgrass,

my

ideas,

we

ought, under pretense of

burning incense,
dry wood,

conceal secretly some thou-

sand

men with

salpetre, sull'ur

and gunpowder,

rushes,

and suchlike comthe lighting of the

bustible articles, near the convent and, pretending that the fire originated

by

incense, burn

it.

Soldiers ought to be posted in a circle

around

it,

so that not

even a mouse

may

escape.
I

In this

way

all

these treacherous
if this is

monks

shall be burned,

and further calamities

be averted:

don

't

know, however,

permitted."

The emperor Yung-ching gave his consent to this plan, and ordered Tang-shing to take some troops and execute it. The lire, in fact, broke out when the incense was lighted. The monks were, at the time, all in deep slumber. Suddenly they were frightened out of their dreams and, starting from their
beds,

they saw flames arise through the whole convent, and a cloud of smoke ascend the Hea-

They could neither quench the fire nor escape. They did not know then that it was an attempt of a treacherous functionary, -ji More than a hundred monks perished in the flames, and only a few of them escaped with life: several of them having, however, their hair singed and their heads scorched, and being severely burnt. It was a great shame that so many of the monks of the Shao-lin convent who had protected the state with the utmost fidelity, and who were sincere and desinterested, now lost their lives by the covetous thoughts of Tang-shing: for these burned monks being all men of a virtuous life, their injured ghosts were unappeased, and the wrongs done to them reached the Heaven and moved the Holy Dharma-Budha, who exclaimed: //That the
ven.

13
Shao-lin convent has been destroyed
are
still

by

fire,

v.-as

fixed

by
to

destiny:

but of these

men

there

a few

who have
to

not yet perished.

They

shall surely begin

something afterwards, and

I ought, therefore,

save them, and show them a

way

save their lives."

He then

chan-

and black cloud into a long sandroad, and saved the lives of the remaining monks by leading them along the highroad to a baj' near Shih-san-li at Ufan, where the white clouds joined Heaven. Q) They came there together, but only five of them were left, the remainder having perished on the road. At this place they were concealed by two boatmen, called Sieh and Wu. Tangged a yellow
shing having heard, however,
soldiers to

at

daybreak, that some of the monks had escaped,


in order to avert

ordered his
soldiers, ap-

pursue
sea,

and

seize

them,

further calamities.

These

proaching the
five

whom they quickly pursued. The some ten miles, looked round and saw, at once, their pursuers. Before them was the ocean which stopped their further proceeding and they did not see a single chance
suddenly saw some people before them,
fled

monks, having

of escape.

The

five

What was now to be done? men then deliberated together, and


Loudly they exclaimed:
,/

dropped on their knees before Heaven in order

to pray.

Great God! Great God! Budha! Budha!

We, monks

of the

Shao-lin convent, have

made

ourselves meritorious for the Gods of the land!

We

have served
not

the late prince with the utmost fidelity!

Now

a traitor has injured us! More than 120 people

have been burnt and perished, and there are


yet perished!

now
to

only
is

five

men remaining, who have

Having

fled

now

to

this place,

there

no escape before us, and behind us purgenii,

suing soldiers are approaching!

We

pray Thee

have compassion upon us and save us!"

Having prayed and worshipped, they suddenly saw two


sitting

Chu-kang

{-)

and Chu-khai,

(')

on the end of a cloud.

They pointed with

the finger and cried: ,/Make haste!"

Then they saw a yellow and black floating cloud which changed into a long sandroad, and also a bridge of two planks. The five men immediately fell upon their knees and looking upwards, they said a prayer of thanksgiving. After this prayer they fled on the highroad and went over the bridge. When the pursuing soldiers arrived, they saw nobody. Thej"^ looked around everjnvhere, but there was no shadow to be found of them so they returned and made a report of their encounter. The monks escaped the mouth of the tiger by the road which the two genii showed them. By good fortune Thai-te/t-cZ/nny (*) had the precious seal upon him during the night that the
:

(*)

^^

+ H M e
;S'
^'^^

5i

^
^^^

;^

^
(^ (^

^
I

^4

"^^'^^

^^^

^^^^'

Faug-tai-hung

^);Hu-teh-ti {^^

^)

and Li-sih-khai

^ ^

'^j; Ma-chao-hing
|i
)

u
convent was burned.
ted.

So thev reached the place Kao-khi

(i)

near Yun-siao,

(-)

where they

hal-

They saw

there a temple and, having got nearer, they


(^)

saw

that

it

was

the ancestral tem-

ple of L'lng-wang.

As they wanted water and then saw something


censer.
(^)

to

quench

their thirst,

they went to the brook in order to draw

it,

floating

on the surface of the water.


it

The
that

five
it

men

all

saw

it,

and

Avaded through the water and lifte4

out.

Looking narrowly
(^)

at

it,

they

Thej' then saw saw written on the

Avas a

white poi'celain
//Fan-

censer

four characters:
five

tsing, fuh-ming,"

overturn the Tsing, restore the Ming-dynasty.


is

The

monks then saying


censer

p'to each other:


their luggage.

//This

the

will

of

God!"

concealed the

Avhite

porcelain

amongst

Being pursued again by a troop of horse, they


ly of a certain Ching-kiun-tah,
sed treachery.
the hillock.

fled to

a hillock where they found the fami-

who had been

decapitated and thrown into the river, for suppoit

His family had found his corpse floating on the water, and had buried

on

The five men saw there, suddenly, apeachwood sword shoot out of the ground. On the sword was written in characters: //Two dragons dispute about a pearl," () whilst on the point of the sword was engraved again the words: //Overturn Tsing, restore Ming."
(

Two women

took up this sword, and routed the pursuing soldiers with


five

it.

That night the

men remained with

the

family of Ching-kiun-tah, and they returned the

next day to the Ling-wang temple.

There they found


Yao-pieh-tah (W)

five

horse dealers, named: Wu-thian-ching


("),

("),

Li-sih-chi

(*),

Hung-thai-sui
to

(*),

and Lin-yung-chao

who, having heard of the wrongs done

them, united
the board

themselves with the five monks.

Some time afterwards there came also a certain Chin-kin-nan, {}-) an of war and member of the Han-lin college, (i^) avIio had lost his charge by
enemies.

officer of

the intrigues of his


of

He had
monks

since

been

roaming over the world

under

pretence

teaching

pMlo-

sophic doctrines, bat wishing, in his heart, to gather valiant men.

done

to the

of the Sliao lin-convent, he

They went

together to

Having heard of the wrongs came to join them. the temple of a Bodhisatwa, where they remained some days, and where

')

"^

'*)

^ S ^ ^
^1
/hf
)

(-)

P W
district

115"i' L. 2407' Lat.

(')

3E

'M
5^

The

Peh-ting

/Q
(6)

^
H
(')

^)

in the prefecture of Jao-chao

(^

/ rl
(''

'" '''^ province of Kiangsi, is

renowned
fig. 1.

for the fabrication of porcelain, especially of the white sorts.

^^

K ft % %
The

IS

See Tab. II,


(')

f|
^^

)^

^ ^

ig

^ ^ i: a

\}^\

imperial academy of sciences at Peking.

15

they

met Wan-hiung

(i)

and I-hiung

(=),

to

-whom they

told their history

and they

all

passed

the night in the ancestral temple Kao-khi.

During that same


of lightning.

night, they

saw a

red flame flash out of the porcelain censer, like a flash

All said: //Hoav astonishing!"


to unite

They then agreed


Kwan-yii
{*)

themselves at
(^),

this place before

Heaven and Earth,


forces,

just like Liu-pi

{^),

and Chang-fi

who had sworn


avenge,

together an oath in the peach-garden, to remain

friends for life

and death;

to

with one heart and united

ted on the 120 brethern, and to imitate

Han-phang

(")

Having no incense, they pulled out some grass, candles. As they had no divining blocks, they took two flowered cups (*) and, saying the following prayer: ,/If it be true, that the day shall come that we can avenge the injury done to the Shao-lin convent, that we shall overturn the dynasty of Tsing and restore that of Ming, these cups, in falling, may not break!" they threw the cups in the air which, faUing down, indeed did not break. All pricked themselves in the fingers and, having mixed their blood with wine, all drank of it and swore an oath, that they would be like brethern, and go over all the world to raise troops buy horses, and convoke all the braves of the empire. This happened on the 21st day of the third mouth of the year Kah-yin (') (1731) on the
stead of

murder perpetraand Li-chang-kwoh. {") and lighted two stakes of dry wood, inthe

hour Sze.
of a cap,

(lo)

Suddenly

and

and

his face

came a boy scarcely thirteen years of age: his face Avas like the jade-stone were like red pearls. His countenance and attitude were very uncommon, was naturally fine and beautiful. He was, besides, of high stature and was, indeed,
there
his lips

very nobly formed, being quite

different

from other people.

He wished

to enlist in the

army

of the

monks.

All said, however:

//You are

still

very young;

what The boy answered:

are your abilities, that


//I

you dare

to enlist yourself?"

wang

(11)

of the great

am no one else than the great-grandson of the Emperor Tsung-chingdynasty of Ming; the grandson of the prince imperial, born by the concu-

bine Li-shin Q"), from the hareem of Tsung-ching-wang.

My name
(i^),

is

Chu

('''),

my

surname,

Hung-chuh.
I

('^)

remember
and
I

that

my

ancestor, the great

emperor Hung-Avu

was

lord over the great

em-

pire and the glorious possessions of China.

Now
If I

the country

is

usurped by those dogs of barempire back again,

barians;
I

am

the only one remaining.

do not

get

my

how can

show

my

face before

my

ancestors in the next world?"

{']

^ ^
See Tab. II,

See p,
fig.

2.

()

^
^
#^

ji
|^

(7)

^
^

^
B#
(")

(8)

2.

(lO)

(9)

0')
l^*)

M
'^

It
Ji^

-''

I62S-]G-t+.

j^

^
A. D.

l^)

'^

'^^'^

founder of the Ming^dynasty.

136S 139S.

IG

Ha\"ing said this,


lie

wept.
fervently hope

Again, said he:

//I

then heard that j-ou had liseu to avenge yourselves and, therefore, I came
I

on purpose
single arm.

to

join you.

that .you,

my

brethern, will help the force of

my

"When

have regained

my

empire and have

settled the foundations of the

house of Ming,

in order to revere the temple of


I shall build

my

ancestors, I shall requite the


of
all

monks

of the Shao-lin convent.


as

anew
I

the

convent
shall

the divine help.

then

and restore the statue enjoy glory and fame with


will

Budha,

a thanksoffering for

the patriotic brethern,

and w^e

shall obtain perfection.

Our irame

be

known

all

over the world and be propagated for

myriads of ages.

Is this not excellent?"

was soaked hy his tears, and he lamented and moaned in such a Avay, that all were moved by his grief. They then asked him to give some proof of his origin. The prince produced a precious purse (i), in order to prove his assertion. All were moved to a:id a perfume-bag of imperial make they lifted him upon a higli seat, and kneeled down before him on the this: tea;;s in seing ground; but the prince raised the brethern from the ground and said: ^You don 't want to show me so much honour. How should I dare to accept of it?" They all exclaimed: Heaven has sent the prince imperial, that his name may be renowned!
Having
said this, his breast
,/

This

is

according to the will of God!

Let us obey Heaven, and act righteously, and go to

all

the regions of the world!"

They immediately made him

their leader and,

having engaged some troops and bought horses


affair.

and victuals, they looked about for a good opportunity to begin the great

One day
vince of
a

came to the town Shih-ching (-), in the prefecture of Hwui-chao (s), in the proCanton, where they saw in the white-heronwood ('), in the camp of universal peace (^),
thej(^),

new

built convent.

In this convent lived an abbot, called Wan-yun-lung

who

passed his

life

Budha.
\viili

Hearing the noise of men and horses, he came


hand.
all

out of his convent,

iu worshipping and made signs

his

Suddenly

these

men
all

approached him.
these troops?

whither do you go with

All the brethern then entered the

Wan-yun-lung said then to them: //Gentlemen! Be pleased to enter my convent and rest awhile." convent, and Avhilst they were partaking of some tea, 'Wanof the destruction of the Shao-lin convent.

yun-lung asked them the circumstances

They having

detailed everything to him, he exclaimed with a loud voice:

linish, linish!"

The brethern hearing Wan-yun-lung pronounce

these compassionate words,

and seing, that he

i')

w M ^ M % m
M>
Jii

^')

5 ^
(')

(')

if^

2302'24" Lat. IIPBZ'SO" Lon.


{')

(')

'H

iK

^ B

M #

it

17

was twelve feet tall and eight feet in circumference, with a head as big as a bushel, red hairs, and arms like branches of trees, and possessing the strenght of a myriad of men they immediately acknowledged him as their elder brother. (President, grand-master national). This happened on the 25th day of the 7th month of the year Kah-yin Q), of the reign of
,

Yung-ching, during the hour Chao.

(")

Having mixed their blood with wine, they swore that they would restoi-e the dynasty of Ming, after having destroyed that of Tsing: tliat they would go to Chang-ngan {^) and kill the
benighted prince.
(*)

Wan-yun-lung was made


a certain Hwang-ching-yin

chief,
,

and Chin-kin-nan master,

of the league; whilst the bravest of all,

(")

was made
Hung,
(^)

leader of the vanguard, and his

name changed

into

Thiau-yu-hung.

(")

AA'ord Patriotism" (**) as their watchword. Wan-yun-lung brought his troops in the field against a Tartar army, and the battle lasted till the 9th day of the 9th month (Oct. 5.) all at once, the hand of Wan-yun-luiag lowered, he left off fighting and fell dead on a sharp paving stone. A private brought the news to the five brethern Avho were looking on from the ramparts; they marched immediately to the rescue and beat the government troops, leaving countless numbers killed on the field which was covered with corpses, whilst the blood flowed like
all

They

adopted the

name

of

and took the

//

On

the 20th day of the Sth month, (Sept. 17.)

a river

the

victorious brethern then took the

head

and corpse of Wan-yun-lung along and

went

Noi'th-east-wa,rds.

Just at this

moment a

five-coloured floating-cloud appeared in the N. E.

The

five

monks saw
order

by

it

that,

though Wan-yun-lung had perished, Heaven yet showed variegated clouds in


the

to appoint

him as grand-master. The}' buried him on the leftside behind


('i)

,/

Five-phoenix-hill,"

(^)

near the lake


is

Chu
,/

(^'')

at

Pah-

koh-tun;

the grave
It lies

is

30

feet

high and 218 feet 3 inches long, and

called the

Octagonal
is
*

camp."

(1-)

at the

Southeast and fronts the Northwest,

and

its

geomantic situation

Yiu-shiu-fan-kin. C^)

There

is

an obelisk on the grave of a triangular form, nine

feet

high and three

feet six inches

(1)

^ ^

Aug. 23. 1734.

(2)

-g.

p^

tVom

1 A.

M.

till.

3 P.

M.

C^)

(^)

^ ^ ^ m
S.

'^
iJj

Peking.
(^)

(*)

-^
I')

m
:^
f^J^

# m
('')

(=)

M ^

^>
this lake is

(")

^
i#
:i

1^**)

According to another version, the name of

Fan-tui-wu

(^
1")

f^)

^'l^e

dunghill-lake.

('')

A
it

"^

'W/,

"M

^ ^

'^^^

''

'"^

geo'^^itic

expression.

Litterally translated

meansr

The element metal divided by

the branch Fin

and the stem Skin.

18
broad.
It
is

named

the //Ten-millenuial stone."

(^)

On

the

front-side

are

written

sixteen

together 48 drops of characters, t(> each of which three drops of water (^) have been added (See Tab. IX, fig. 3). water, and bclore the i^vavc stands a pagoda with nine stories.

Theconfederat-js
troops and money.

now

dispersed themselves over

ail

the provinces of China, in order to gather

The

live

monl;s of the
,

Shao-lin-convent were

the five horsedealers

of the o

minor

lodges.

Thsai-teh-clmng

made heads of the went to


of

five principal lodges,

and

the province ofFuli-kien


(*)

where he erected the first lodge, (S) which he named: The horsedealer Lin-yung-chao went to the province
'nix--d'ialrlct."

nTlie Ihie-lotns Hall."

Kan-su and grounded the lodge


lodge,
to the

f,PJtoe-

()

Fang-ta-hung

went

to the province of
to

Canton where he erected the second


(')

(")

\^liich

he named

the ullall of obedience

Ihing."

The horsedealer

Li-sih-chi

went

province

of Kwang-si,

and grounded the lodge


to

t,Golden-orcIii(l-elislrict." (*)

Ma-chao-hing went
the

the

province of Yun-nan where he erected the


('")

tliird lodge,

(")

which

named

//27^e

Hall of

our qjteen."

The

horsedealer Wu-thian-ching

went

to the

j)rovince

of Sze-chucn Avhere he grounded the lodge n Estallished-law-district." (")

Hu-teh-ti

went

to

the province of

named
('^

the i,Blended-icith-Ilcai-eu Hall.

Hu-nan where he erected the fourth lodge, ('-) which he The horse dealer Yao-pieh-tah went to the province (")

M
and
y
If

.^
villi

Tlie expression:

^ A
m ^

^^^

'^'^^-

^
May your
King!"
therefore
:

myriad of years" means:


;

Jlajesty live for ever!" and


it

is

therefore synotlie

nymous
tlie

our expression
tlie

Long

live the
is

In a tropical sense

is

also used for

Emperor,

meaning of
take

words AVau-sui-pi

the imperial or Emperor's gravestone."


left,

(-)

we

away the

three drops of water"

on the

the sixteen characters are:

^
Eeccived

^y
Sliao-

#
liu-

an

office

convent

^
tsung-

^
is
I

t^
the
first

^ M

PjtI

lU

w^ ^
the
first

^
is is

m
Tail-

buried

kung

I'riest s

place
priest of the Shao-lin-convent

Place where Tah-tsung-kuiig,

wlio

had got a
the

title,

buried.
encircled

The form

of

tlie

obelisk

that of the

imperial gravestones,

representing
the

gnomon

^;
its

by the imperial dragon,


nature.

^e

or the
is

union of the Tin and Yang,


the pearl
(

male

and female
holds in

dualism in

In

the triangle at the top


are without

^^

which the

dragon

mouth: the

other ornaments

anv meanincr, and

oiilv

added for embellishment.

ei

o
0^)

w^

C')

Q)

lu another copy we

find

the

ordinal

m ^ ^ ;s ^ # ^ ^

19
of Hu-peli,

where he grounded the lodge IIapp)/-lorJer dislnct." (') Li-sih-khai went to the province of Cheh-kiang where he erected the
,:

fifth

lodge
to

(-)

whicli

he named the

t,

Extensive-conversion Hall.

{^)

The horscdealer Hung-thai-sui went


the lodge

the province
(')

of Kiang-si, in the i/JJ7iite-dog'grotto,"

{*)

where he grounded

uBike-ivest-district."

(M
(*)

Is

7f
^^

fl^

(')

iE-

^^ S

(^)

^ ^ ^

S^^

Catechism,

Q. 236. V. IV.

S. I.

(')

PAR.T

II.

DESCRIPTION OF THE LODGE AND ITS APPURTENANCES.


The lodges
surroiinded
of

the

Ti-iadsociety

form quite a camp:


at

the

lodge,

properly
(i)

said,

is

a square

by

four

walls

having,

the

four

points,

four gates,

These

Avails, as
/\,,

may
and

be

seen on Tab. VII

& VIII,
,/

are covered with

the mysterious symbol of //Union"


these

with
a

the old sj^mbol for

State"

so that, probably,

symbols mean:

united state:"

state enjoying universal peace, on account of its being harmonious.

On
the

the top of each gate


flags is the

is

hoisted the

flag of

the

general

who

guards
to

it;

the inscription

on these

same, differing only in the names of the


near
the
flagstaff
,/

generals

whom
ii^

they belong:
is

two

characters

Kin-Ian"

(^)

signify the Golden


it

orchi(f,

which name

derived from the Yih-king, or Book of changes, where

is

said:

)^

^ ^ ^
the

^[H

IB

Si/mpatJieUc

words

smell

Hie

the

Clorantlms.

reign of Siuen-v.m

tells us that when Tai-lmng-ching (^) his (') to liis burning incense and praying ancestors which book; book he had in a down name named //The book of the golden orchid," (=) meaning the book of friendship or fraternitj'. The

The book Glormis tilings of had got a new friend, he noted

expression

fe

-^
by

-^

//Covenant

of

the

golden

orchid,"

means nothing
C')

else

but
the

the swearing fraternal friendship together: so the

book

//Tales of the age"

says of three friends

who were

united

fraternal bonds of friendship:


(")

//Shan-kung, Hi and

Yuen had made

covenant of the golden orchid."

(')

The engraving on Tab. VII,


YIII

represents the West-gate (to the


left)

left)

and the East-gate

(to the right).

Tab.

represents the North-gate (to the

and Soath-gate

(to the right).

t")

4^

ffi

Chloranthus inconspicuus. (Swartz.)

(^)

C)
(^)

^ ^ ^ ^ M ^ IE ^ M ^
iH:
111

(^)

19:

\')

4^

5f^

grt;

^ ^

31

Between these two characters is the name of the general to whom the flag belongs thus Han-phang (^) on the flag of the Eastgate; Han-fuh (") on the flag of the Westgate; Chingthian {') on the flag of the Southgate; and Li-chang-kwoh (*) on the flag of the Northgate.
:

Along the upper border of the

flags ai-e

written the characters: Shao-mieh-thsing-mwan

(^)

//Ex-

terminate the Mantchoo's of the Tsing-dynasty."

In the middle of the flags are


rishing

written the

characters: Hing-wang-hwui-shing

C')

//The

flou-

League

is

victorious."
is

On

the Eastgate of the lodge

written the verse:

To the East on the TFood (^) it is difficult to go; Sun, moon, mountains and streams come from the Eastern-sea.

On

the Westgate

is

written the verse:

On the narrow road of the Metal {^) you ought to be careful: Of the two roads it is manifest that to the west there is no impediment.
On
the Southgate
is

written the verse:


is

The

fiery

road to the Fire f)


is

very hot:
it

In the districts Chang, Ts'iuen and Phing and in Nanking,

is

cold.

On

the Northgate

written the verse:

At Yin-kui (^'^) the Wafer is deep and, indeed, difficult to escape; in Yun-nan and Sze-chuen there is a road to go. Tab. VI gives a drawing of the great gate of the lodge, as is proved by
But
above the gate, signifying //The city of willows."
('i)

the superscription

The walls are surmounted by different weapons, such as axes and swords; whilst a flag is hoisted on them with the words Chao-kiun (i-) //convoke troops" meaning, perhaps, simply a
rendez-vous-flag.

The pavilion on

the top of the wall

is

surmounted by the celebrated gourd or calabash with


('^)

the twig of Li-tieh-kwai, one of the eight genii.

The stones
swords and a

of the underwall are in the


is

form of dragonscales.

Within the lodge


flag,

the Hall of Fidelity

and Loyalty,
i^'")

('^)

also

surmounted with

axes, lances,

with the inscription Ling:


is

//command, warrant."

Within
Kao-khi.

this

Hall

the genealogical table of the founders of the league, set up in the shrine

(^}

^
:^
(^)

i @
B
(^"1

(^)

)\%

(^)

n
(")
(13)
(i)

# #
[i^
(i=)
.

^ m
^)

vi
L

C)

See Catechism, note on A. 363. P. IV, S.

Muh-yang-ching
See Catechism,
See Tab. V.

^
^

tS

note on A. 56.

GIIXEALOGICAL TABLE.

m
m. ^^

1^

%
5

IE

iff

5^4
ill

^
^

m
l<u>

:^ yv '^

31 -^
1^

;^

f"

M %
^>

^^

;^

ra

>ns

09

23

KAO-KHI-TEMPLE.

YIN

THE FIKST GREAT FOUNDERS.


Chu-luuig-j-iiig
(-)

DRAGONS.
(s)

Himg-khi-shing

YANG
Master Kin-nan

THE GREAT FOUNDERS.


(')

TIGERS
traitors.

The vanguard Thian-yu-hung


tlie

UNITED

Wan-yun-lung

(=)

maintains

right,

and extirpates the

TORTOISES

FOUNDRESSES.

BY CHANGE
ACC03IPLISH.
Kin-Ian
Hall.
(1)

Lady

Pi, lady

Kin, lady Choh.

SNAKES
ASSEMBLE.
Mwan-thao
Hall.

THE FIVE FOUNDERS.


Thsai-teh-chung
IIli

teh

ti

Fang-ta-hung
Li-sih-khai

Ma-chao-hing

The
spirit-seats

The
ancestral-seats

of the

THE FIVE TIGER-GENERALS.

of the

successive

Wu-thian-ching
Li-sih-clii

successive

generations
of
all

Ilung-thai-sui
tali

generations
of all our

our

Yao-pieh

Lin-yung-chao

kindred.

THE FOUR GREAT FAITHFUL EXCELLENT ONES.

kindred.

Han-phang
Han-full

Ching-thian

Chaug-kwoh.

(')

Dragons,
duce
all

tigers, tortoises

and snakes are assembled.

If the dual principles in nature are united,

tliey

pro-

things

by metamorphosis.

The character
C-)

(lightning),
is

on the side of each character,

is

only put to
called

make

the

meaning obscure.

;3^

his

posthumous name

Hung-yiug

pHt
j

^)-

his

wife

was

Choh.
in

l/j^)

They

are

bu-

ried at
in

San-hoh-khao

|^
is

-^
{"/Jl

in the district Tlisiao,

(i^)
I

the state of I'hci

jfjj

the province of Kiang-nan.


liis

1^) He was the


[Mjt
(

great founder.

H[j^

jjf||_

"^

posthumous name
of

Khi-shing.

^^)
),

His wife was called Kin.


the district

(^]
|

1'liey

are
is

bu-

ried at

the foot

the
I

mountain

Ting

T
j

in

Tun-hwang.

fe]^

i\'^\

He

called

the great ancestor.

~t^
(

~i
j

(0

The The

leader C'hin-kin-nan,

[J3f

'^

Master of the lodge,


camp.
|

i-4^

great brother (piesidcnt) AYan-yun-lung, master of the

^^

^j See pag. 14. ^1 See pag. 16,

24

On an
on the

altar

is

i)laced the tablet of

which we have given an engraving on Tab. IX,

fig.

1.

In the upper triangle are the characters


great

-^

ij^,

-^

|Jj

//The lengtliening sun shines

mountains;"

and the characters

^^-^5(^1^
the

//Three

generations

united together in peace."

On On

the second panel

is is

written the woi'ds: //The faithful incense goes before."


written, in the middle,

(')

the

third

panel

name

Li-chu-hung,

(-)

and on both
(^)

sides

the words: ,/In peace united together, the pledged myriads

make

it

their signal."
//

Then follows a panel with the character Chii, (') meaning Shin-chii (^) the place where it is supposed that the spirit of the departed dwells.

the Lord of the spirit"

On
order:

the fifth panel are written nine characters which,

we
{^)

believe,
//If

ought

to

be read in

this

Lung hien puh


to a veritable

ching, pien

puh khai hung kwan.


Dynasty of Ming.
(")

no veritable dragon appears,

the

Hungpasses will not be opened."

Meaning, probably,

that the

Hungpasses

will

only

be

opened

Emperor
is

of the

On On

the sixth panel

written the character Tsung


characters:
tlie

All.

the right side are the


(^)

WooJ,
side

cstahlUh,

lushel,

world

{the dynaslii

of)

Tsing
liar-

ought to he extermhiateJ;

and on

left

the characters: Ocev myriads of miles we are

*')

i')

in
^)

^ ^ ^ ^ i^M % la ^ ^ ^ ft i^ T- IE H^ T^ !^ ^^ 1 m % . '^ w m % ^ m
y-

'%>

i.

e.

The

faithful brethern.

(=)

i
(")

(')

y')

At

the

beginning of the

dynasty of Ming

there

was

c'l

man named Liu-peh-wan,


^V hen

^j ]^
turned

vfi
|

geueral of the emperor Ilung-wu

y^

'^A

('^^^ ^
a

^""^ ^'^^-

Hung- wu became Emperor,


whole
empire,

Liii-

peh-wan took

his dismission

and,

having

made

voyage through the

monk.

This Liu-peh-wan passed for a learned diviner.


tiny of

Oue day somebody asked him what would be the desof

the dynasty

which

would follow that

Muig.

He

answered;

/,The secrets of the gods ought

not to be divulged."

(f^j
pencil

^^
his

^
a

He

took,

however, a

and drew

pf man

'^

g^)
cuirass

with a

and

lighting together,

and explained

drawing by the

following words:

man

dressed

in

t^

J^
Wood,

short

coat,

'

^3

^
bus-

One

cuirassed

waiTior

and one shortcoat

both men perish on the green


this
is

turf.

establish,

hel,

world, Heaveus-under know."


at the time,

He

added:

the prophecy regarding the dynasty.''


it
is

Nobody,

understood the meaning of this obscure saying;


the Tartars,

explained, however, thus:

The The

cuirassed

man means

who wear

cuirasses

the shortcoats are the British,

who wear

short-

coats.

They

will destroy each other,

and then China will begin a new era of glory.

last line of the

prophecy

is

a concealed

meaning of the lenght of reign of the emperors of the Tar-

tar dynasty, as

2b
moniously united

}"

{the

dynasty of)

Ming

shall flourish again.

(')

The character
ters

j||
(^)

in the middle of the panel,

is

a mutilation of the

three charac-

Hung-shun-tang

,/The Hall of obedience to

Hung", the name


they

of the second lodge in the

two provinces Kwang-tung and Kwang-si. The brethern worship before these tablets
their

as

would worship before the

tablets of

own

ancestors.

In the middle of the lodge stands the //precious nine-storied pagoda," wherein the images of
the live founders are placed.
(^)

There, too,
wliere the oath the character

is is

the

//redflower-pavilion"

or the

//pavilion

of the Hibuscus rosa-sinensis"

(*),

sworn.
(^),

This pavilion
//king."
is

is

adorned with four dragons having on their forehead.^


in the form of snake, or dragon-scales,

Wang

The eaves are made


all

and the name of the pavilion

written on the outside of the cupola of that pavilion.


things necessary,
as

The
257

city of

willows contains

appears from the enumeration in Q.

&//

of the Catechism.
is

The Budha Kia-lan


There
is, also,
fig.

much

revered, and has his

own
(^),

shrine.

the shrine of the //Earth and land"


2.

of

which we have given an engraving

on Tab. IX,

On

the outside of the shrine are written the

words

-^

is

composed of

-J-"

&
61.

^ =18.

Shun-ti, the

first

emperor of the Tsing-dyoasty

reigned IS

years

(16441662).

-^
.ii-

is:

& &

is:

-4-

= The ^ = 13. The


and three

reign of A'/wK^-^jlasted 61 years (1662

1723).
60 years;
the length of

length of reigu of Yung-clang

(17231736).
.j.

"Hf-

is:

three horizontal,

vertical strokes

'^_

J||

or

30

30

=;;:::

reign of Kien-lmtg

(17361796).

^
"TC

is:

25; as the Book of Changes (Yih-king) has the phrase:


is

of

Heaven

twenty and

five.

(Compare pag.

xix).

Kia-klruj reigned 25 years (1796


||jt

is:

30; as the book of Changes has the phrase:


xix).

(Compare pag.

j^

Tao-kwang reigned 30 years (1831


sufficiently explained.

1851).
however,
generally

^ ^

^^
~f^

-M*

/h"

^, The number 1821).


is

The number

of Eartli

thirty.

^31 This character has not yet been


the commercial
eleven years."

It is,

analyzed

in

A^

number

for

11,

and

pj

one mouth or man, and explained:

"One man

will reig'i

Ham-fung reigned indeed


but
till

this

time (1851

1862).
seems

With him

the Tartar-dynasty

ought to have

finislied;

now

the

lucky star

of this dynasty

not yet to wane before the Chinese


to this last

rebellion.

The

future will show,

however,

if

the

meaning attached

character,

is

the

correct

one.

(')

M M
'^
1^
JlM

PRI

BJ
(^)

#
i

:^

(")

(^J

^ ^ ^

^^^ "^^^^ l-^> ^o- 3; and compare Catechism, A. 270.


(')

^ ^

26

If there is dust in a

happy

place, the

wind

itself

sweeps

it

away.
it.

virtuous house

is

without cares, aud the sun always shines in


it

We
On

abstain here from a further description of the lodge, as

is

given very minutely in the

Catechism of the Vanguard in Q. 227 and following.


Tab.

IV we have given an engraving

of the celebrated Hung-gate.


of the buildings

We
of the

finish this description

with a few remarks on the style and architecture


only the

Hung-league. underpart of the buildings seems to be made


pillars,

According to the original drawings,

of stone or brick; the upperpart seems to be made of a frame of wooden


led

probably

fil-

up with stamped mud, or plaited bamboo daubed with plaster. The tops of the roofs are always surmounted by the pear-shaped gourd,
is

or censer of Li-tieh-

kwai, one of the eight genii; a twig or tendril

sticking out on both sides of the gourd.

The

Avails are all

surmounted with
not

different kinds of

weapons and

flags

indicating the

war-

like spirit of the brotherhood.

Of course occasion or money


sites.

is

always found

to erect the lodge according to it's requi-

In that case the buildings are made of bamboo,

or of

trunks of trees,

in the style of

the American blockhouses;

instead of watchtowers (Q. 284 of the Catechism),


tree,

a seat

is

made
it.

between the branches of some high


to the brotherhood; there the

a ladder of rattan allowing the //look-out" to mount


their lodges in
it's

In the Indian Archipelago the Chinese build


on their lofty seats,
keep
a

deep forests, in places only

known
ap-

feared Hung-family holds

reunions, whilst the guards , perched


or

sharp

look-out
place.

for

the strangers

policemen

who might
hills,

proach and detect their secret meeting

The approaches

to the places of

reunion are horrible:

the road leading over


the track

streams,

marshes, and swamps.

The

initiated,

however,

know

which they have

to go;

but
(')

the pursuers, generally, are not able to follow them, as they remain sticking in the bogs.

In the book found at Japara

is

a descriptioi^ with drawings of the approaches to the Shan -tung


first
,/

lodge: a stone road leads to the


ff

pass, called the

,/

Heaven-screen-pass."

(-)

Past this

is

the

Next comes the Sun-moon-pass" (*), at which pass each bi-other is obliged (^) pay one Mace and two Candareen (or one gi-am and two decigrams of silver, about one shilling). After this pass comes a stone bridge, over a river, which leads to the Hall of fidelify and loyally (^) where are the shrines of the five ancestors, flanked to the right by the Councilroom {^),
Earth-net-pass."
to

and

to the left

by

the Court

('');

here the brother must produce his Capital

(3

Hung-cash) and

Diploma.
Q)

W.

A. van Eees, Montrado.

Geschied- en krijgskundige bijdrage,

betreffende de ondeiwerping der

Chi-

nezen op Borneo.

Some account
del.

of the

Heaven- Earth-league, by Abdallah ibn Abdel-kader Moensji, translated by T. Brad


Archipelago and Eastern
(^)

(Journal of the Indian


P>5r

Asia. September, 1852.)


(*)

(^)

^
JS.

1
1:

itb

i^)

(=)

il

M 1 *^ ^

.g

n 3i

^ ^

27

From
by
is

this

goes a long road along the

mountain-chain Hwui-l'mg
sea.

('),

girded on the one side

this

mountain, and on the other side by the


(^),

At the end of
(').

this

road

is

the

,/

Outside-

moss-pass"

called also the ,/Pavilion of the black-river"


(*),

Thirteen Chinese miles farther


at

the //Golden-sparrow-frontier"

so called

on account of the name of the mountain

whose
//Pa(*),

foot it lies.
triotic rise

Past this pass are four buildings: over the front one are written the words:

which enlarges the empire."


(^)

{')

The second one


farther
('")

is

called
(*)

the Palace of justice

with the Civil entrance

to the left,

and the Military entrance


is

to the right.
('),

The Lodge follows immediately.


which
is

24 miles

the

//Look-up-and- fathom pavilion

at the foot of the

Tin-yang-mountain
(^'),

near the sea.

From
sail

here,

if

the

brother
island

wants
is

to see the Goat-head-island


('-),

he must go in a boat and


stored.

one day.

On

this

the Rock-grotto-cavern
If the

where ammunitions are

brotherhood

is

in the midst of a populous place,

where

the greatest secrecy is to


is

be
al-

observed, and where no large woods are in the neighbourhood, the lodge
together,

dispensed with

and the meetings are held


are,
of course,

at the

house of the President.


is

replaced

The ceremonies by a red

then also shortened; as, for example, the //arch of steel"

piece of cloth, under

which the new members

pass.

SECTION

II.

INSTRUMENTS OF THE LODGE.

We
etc.,

come now

to

the

most important instruments of the lodge: the seals,


to

flags,

banners,

which give the power and prestige


is

the heads of the league; as an order

stamped with
to

the seal of the lodge

to

be obeyed blindly,
raised.

and the

whole brotherhood being obliged


of course,

follow

when

the

flags

are

Amongst

the

instruments of the Lodge,


of this

the

Diploma occupies,

the

first

place.

We
to

have seen nine copies

instrument printed on linen and on paper.

They ought

The latter, being given to each of the members of the society, is much abbreviated, and some of the characters are even omitted, and a black dot is put in their place. They do not differ notably amongst
grand and small diploma.
each other, as will be explained hereafter.

be divided into two classes: the

The grand diploma,

as

is

shown on

the engraving,

is

square, having

the inner margins are octagonal; the middle of the seal being again occupied

two square margins, whilst by two squares.

'>

(')

(')

(")

1 ^ ^ M ^ A ^ #^ H
llH

(=>

ai
(^)

^ 1
P
5|f

e)

H ^ ^
(')
(i^)

M m ^
C)
fiL^
.^j^

^ ^
('")

()

W
;g

^
p^

ft

lli

See pag. 4, note 16.

28

^:w.

V;

^iS^^^^S) ^

Ir "^J

^ m~m:
and
{Ean)-chuvg-li above;
to

In

tlie

outer rim are the

names

of the eight genii:


{Lan)-thsai-Jio

Li-{t.ie}i)-hvai

('hang-km-{lao)

and

[Lu)-1ung-prn to the right;

and

{Han)-siang-isze

the

left;

(//o)-

siah-ku

and

{Tsao)-kwoh-kin below.

On

another copy are found the following characters written on the outer rim:

a precious fan; Li-kwai holds

n
pui

the left:

:^

:^

^ _ ^
his

a pear-shaped censer in which

is
^Ji],

burning the wonderful

elixir.

^.

^J

has

a precious

J^

:|^

.^

.;|^

Tin.g-

sword slung over

back; Thsai-ho holds

a flowcr-ljasket in

his

hand.

29
Below:
is

^#
in
is

an old priest; Siang-tsze plays on a


To the right:

e^if-^Vf0.^-^:;^A^^5i Chan-kao-lao ^ ^f jt jt ^R ^ i^, \K '^ ^ ^ W @


flute.

The
This

lord

Kwoh-kiu-tsau holds two castanets


his

of jade;

Sian-ku stands on a floating bridge

with a sceptre
stanza

hands.

the

same

as

the

answer on Q.
to

56.,

in

the

Catechism, and

is

called the

stanza on the eight genii.

In the second rim


the

we

find

above, below,

the right

and

left,

in the middle of Ihe rim,

characters Heaven,

Earth, Sun,
to

and Moon.
In ihe uiiderconier
P5
'

The other characters are


In

be read in the following order


to

the nppercorner to ihe left

the

r'li/hl

i A
Five

^^

ii

to

-f

1.
About

'^.

^ U K ^
Hung-heroes nn-liody knows.

men

distributed one piece (ofj poetry.

one's self the

//The five

men
the

(founders) divided

a piece of poetry amongst themselves;

and noliody
right

know.*!

that the heroes

of

Hung have

it

about them."
In
the nppercorner to the

In
itfc

nndercorner

the left

S
this

# # ^
(piece of poetry)

it
all

1^

^^

^ M u m
all

ii

H#
re-

Since this was perpetuated (amongst)

the brethcrn.

Afterwards mutually (can) recognize at reunion's time.

//Since

has been perpetuated amongst


again."
secret signs,
cites

the brethern, tliey can

cognize each other,

when meeting
way,

We

Avill

see,

afterwards, in the chapter on


that
if

that brethern

who meet
ilo

eacli other

make use

of verses, in such

one

part of a verse the other answers with


ii<)t

the next part.

Brethern can recognize each other by this; whilst the uninitiated


it.

under-

stand a Avord of

Q)

In the four corner-triangles are four mysterious forms for the characters

j^

(-1)

j^

('5)

^
To

(1)

(4),

Faith

&

Righteousness, or

//faithful

&

righteous" as

we

found out iVom other

copies

on whicli these characters were written in the common form.


are written the

Above

characters

^[^

Below are
the
to

the characters

^
EB

M ^
""^^ *^^^

//At

the
is

North

is

Li-chaiig-kwoh."

^[5

South

Ching-thian."
is

right

are

the characters
are

And

the left

the characters
of the

^ ^ ^^ ^ ^

z/To
jjjg

the East

Han-phang."
is

To

the

West
("),

Han-fiih."
iiiinrd

These are

the

names

four

great faithful

excellent-ones

Avho keep

at

the

four gates of the lodge.

In the same rim are, also, written the characters


are excellent and happy."

'fll]

jjiS

The iieavenly

genii

(})
(-)

See

P.

VI,

s.

VII,

Eoundelay on smoking tobacco; and comp. pag. 148.


243.

See p.

2223, and Catechism Q.

30

In the fourth rim ,

above

are the

characters

-^ -^

75"

^
^^

"

'^^^ changes
etc.).

are

thousands and ten-thousands" or:

there
five

are innumerable changes (in nature,

In the same rim,

below,
(i)

are

the

mystic

lodge-marks,

meaning:

Three generations

united together in peace."

On
is

both sides are the characters

h|

!^

IE
(-)

'
(If

li
is

"If

^-^^

dragon

not genuine, the Hung-passes will not be opened";


the passes
fifth

there

no true emperor coming

forth,

In the
the

Hung will rim we have, in


of

not be opened).

the uppermargin, the characters ,/Kiahao the provinces of

(^

jgfj

which

is

name

of the third lodge in

racters

ought,

we
the

believe, to

Tun-nan and Sze-chuen. (^) be connected with the words #Hung-phiao."

These two cha-

To

the left
the sides

and right are the characters Sun and Moon.


distich:

On

^>

^ n
it

-^

m
(*),

All, together, harmoniously united;

The pledged myriads make

their signal.

In the midst of the diploma are the characters Hmg-pldao


suppose, however, that the last character
signifies
is

,/The

Hung

swerve."
(=),

"We

written instead of

tlie

character Phiao

which

a warrant or passport.

In that case the character would


seal

mean //Warrant
(or

of

Hung",

which interpretation agrees with the style of a


racters
Kia-Jiao
it

or

diploma.

Connected with the cha3d)

may

mean: Passport of Hung, (given by)


slightly

the Kia-hao

Lodge.

The small diploma


first

differs

and

third

rim being omitted, and the characters


in

from the grand one, as the annexed cut shows. The at the undermargin of the fourth rim
placed in the mystic triangle; and in
'o' '/with

being daubed black.

The character Hung,


the distich in the
fifth

the midst

rim stands:
|^

of the

seal,

is

'^

5^
which

Hung harmoniously
linen or
silk,

united:"

"^
In
the

having taken the place of


the

slang of the society this

diploma,

is

printed on

is

called

Purse

(0
SO

^).

have said above that the diplomas differ a little. Besides the diploma of the instead of those characters, Zia-Ziflo-lodge , we found also diplomas whereon are found,
characters

We

^ ^
the

Holy will,

or Imperial order.

On
kwan,

these

diplomas

we

find

instead of the distich:

Lung puh

clung,

pieii

puh khai hung

the distich:

^ m n 24.
(5)

^^
)

(1)

&

(=)

Corap.

p.

See

p.

18.

31

The heroes

are the first; the braves join

them &

rise,

Instead of

the

four

characters

in

the second

rim:

Moon

Heaven Sun,
Earth

stand the characters

^
ced

with the same meaning Q); whilst the two characters

/jj. Chinges are repla-

by

the complicated form of character for Heaven-Earth

Ui
Under the
characters
tAvo

middlemost characters

'^

^j

stand the characters


the undermost

...

^
are

the upper

two
for

meaning; Mountain,

Sun;

whilst

characters

abbreviated

1^ JiM ^)'/Hall of Obedience to Hung," the name of the second lodge in Canton. On other copies the 3 Hung-cash are printed on the outside of the seal. (-)
In the province of Shan-tung the brotherhood has the following diploma,
red
bill."
(3)

which

is

called

//the

(1)

See the additions and exegetical notes.

t')

%L

Hung-tan, or

^ ^

(^

See Part VI,

s.

ix.

The Hung-bill.

(See the cut

on next page).

32

It is

square piece of white

linen,

the

middle of which

is

occupied
Fuh-hi,

by an octagonal
Within
rest
this

fi-

gure, in whicli are


Is

drawn

the celebrated diagrams of the


of the struggle

Emperor
light

figure

the

symbol of eternal change,


Yin and Yang. Q)

between

and darkness,

and motion,

called

Tlie cliaraeters

on the uppermargin of the diploma are the watchword of the


{-)

I-Jiing-hntff-gze

//Tlie patriotic-rise-society."

To
left

the right

is

written the

name

of the

member

to

whom

the

diploma

is

given, and to the

are the characters Ki-liao, //Mark."


are

Circulars, diplomas,
society.

receipts, etc.,

stamped in vermilion with

tlie

common

seal of the

On
tlie

the greater one,

which
,

is

square, each side being one inch and a half long, are
(')

engraved
large,

characters l-ldng-hcan

/.Hall of I-hing."

On

the smaller one, a


of I-hing."
first

square inch

are engraved the characters


lodges have,
besides,

I-hhig-haig-sze

(*),

//Society

The

each their

own

seal.

On

the seal of the

lodge,

in

Fuh-kien and

(')

See

Introduction, pag.

xlll.
I')

(=)

See p. 4.

(*)

^ ^ ^

3.3

Kau-su, are engraved the characters //Kiang-kung", Duke of the river. (^) On that of the second lodge, in Kwang-tung and Kwang-si, are engraved the characters

//

Hung-

hau

,''

Marquis of Hung.

(-)

On On
On

that of the third lodge, in


{')

Tun-nan and Sze-chuen,

are engraved the characters //Lui-peh,"

Earl of Ltd.

that of the fourth lodge, in

Hu-nan and Hu-peh, are engraved


(*)

the characters

vKhi-tze",

Viscount of

KJd (name of a branch of the Yellow-river).

that of the fifth lodge, in Cheh-kiang


() C')

and Kiang-si, are engraved the characters


are also

,/

Thai-nan,"

Baronet of Thai.

The Yellow-state-canopy
the
first
is

and Army-standard
:

(')

very important things in the lodge;

made

of yellow silk

it

consists of five flounces,


genii.

and

is

surmounted by the gourd

with tendril of

Li-tieh-kwai ,

one of the eight

On two

streamers,

attached to the covering of the canopy, are written the words


arc bright,

Heaven and Earth

and

in

the world
stars

is

universal peace.
brilliantly.
(^)

Sun and moon


It
is

are unveiled,

and the

and constellations glisten

held above the head of the prince hereditary, the last offspring of the

House of Ming.

Quatrain on the state canopy:


The
cool state-capony has, properly, five flounces;
it is

With both hands

raised to screen the person of the prince hereditarj".

From antiquity When we have

till

the present day there has always been abundance;

aided oar Lord to

mount

his

throne, he will reward the meritorious.

n n *

^ ^ 4

^ m
5^

%
This canopy
is

^A

m T m

^ ^
'M

m.

m
^

^ A
^
(s)

^
A
the
it:

called

,/The precious parasol of yellow silk."

The Army-standard, consisting of a board surrounded by ornamental carved work, bears inscription: Warrant of the commander of the army." (i) We find these two quatrains on
,/

{*)

y^

^,
X,
fig.

C)
2.

5^
(')

^^
:fe

Ccmpare

Tart,
1.

VI,

s,

x.

The

five

great Bases,

("'j

See Tab.

See Tab.

X,

fig.

sg

:Hb

BJ

^ T

M B ^ ^

n ^ M n ^

3J.

The Army-standard
It

is

placed in the Flower-pavilion;

follows our lord and chief Avhen he goes to tight the Tartars.

AVhen the victorious army has returned.

We

will build our

camps and, surely, have a universal

peace.

35
Tlie flag of benevolence

and justice of the leader was the

iirst;

The

five lodges separated and began to lay the foundation.

The eighteen provinces


It (the flag)
is

shall return to the lord of

Ming.

left

in the flower-pavilion to teach the sons of

Hung (how

to act).

i^
m.

m
M A

^
111

m m
m

^
i^

^ m

u ^
^
of the

n ^
We next
is

^
(^) it.

1^
of

^
find

have the Great-red-flag

which we

no drawing: in Q. 134

Catechism

given, laowever, a quatrain on

So, also, the flag of the great ancestor

We

next have the


is

flag

of

Chu-hung {"), of which no description is found. the great Ming {^), of which, also, no drawing is given.
it:
(flag)
[')

Tlie

following quatrain

found on

The sun-moon

is

the

first

amongst the

flags.
(^)

The united

heroes of

Hung

laid the first foundation.

Man ought to preserve his fidelity and piety; He shall not be allowed to talk abroad of our

rights

and wrongs.

M
-^

m
'^
^I ^^
ij)

# ^
-r-

A m
(),

^ ^ m

n m ^
m,
(*}.

i^

^ #
f^

All the other flags are triangular, liaving a pennon above the flag.

There are

flags for

Sun

Moon

and the seven Stars

On

this last flag

we

find this quatrain

The

flag of the seven stars of

Ursa-major

Calls the heroes of

Hung

to enter the city.

We

have pledged ourselves in the

blue lotus," (this

name

being) given to

it

by the Ming.

(')

The eighteen provinces

are the patrimony of the Lord of Ming.

(')

A ^ ^
3^

(=)

^
'

'^^

% %
tins
fig.

m.

m
being

(")

^
,

j^

(*)

e.

Ming (B)3)>
{^)

character

composed

of

the

characters

Q
()
C"*)

Sun and
fig.

^
1.

Moon.
(7)

For the restoration of the Ming-dynasty.


3.

See Tab. .\u,

See Tab. xii,


fig.

-tt

^,

See Tab. XII,

3.

(?)

See pag. IS.

36

:\t

37

^
^
II.

M
m
:fL

m
^
\h

^ m
m
victorious."

^
m
^t

i^

^
"^

^ m
m^

The great flag of the second lodge in the province of Canton, on Tab. xiii, fig. 4, is red. Near the flagstaff are written the characters Kin-Jiung-siaiiy, ,/the silken (flag with the) mark Hung." Then the words: ,/The leader Fang-(ta-hung) of Canton"; the mark ,/Ages;" and
the words;
tal-kii-jif,

//The flourishing league

is

On

the

uppermargin the characters


of)

CJmen-

or Shun tldan cliuen-mhuj ,

//Obey Heaven and restore (the dynasty written the words:


//The red flag

Ming."
the heroes

On

the

pennon above the


convoked!

flag are

flutters!

are all

the -Heaven-destined
plate

Emperor
for

shall again restore

the

dynasty of Ming!"
fig.

Fig. 5 on the

same

shows the small

flag of the secret

character for //Age;" whilst

shows the

flag of the

secret character

//Marquis."

On

this

flag

we

find the following quatrain

Tiaveling in an easterly direction, near to Kwang-si,

Hwui-ciiao has raised the patriotic

(flags)

in (the teuiplf)

Kao-khi.
over
all

The mark

Age"

is

known amongst

the heroes of
all

Hung

the workl.

In the twelve arsenals the Bases are

similar.

(')

:^

#
n

tr

m,

#
'^

ji

ffi
'Sk

^
+
III.

1^
^^

'%
PI

^
zi

m
is

^ ^

M
IS

y$

^
,

^
xiii,
fig.

The great
red.

flag of the third lodge in the flagstaff are

province of Tun-nan, on Tab.


Kin-lni-sianrj

1, is

carnation-

Near the
Lui."

written the characters:

//the silken (flag

with

the)

mark

Then

the words:

//The leader Ma-(chao-hing) of


victorious."

Yun-nan; the mark


of)

//United;"

and the words: //The flourishing league


Cli uen-tai-H-jlt

On

the

uppermargin the characters:


Ming."
flutters!
flag

or Shun tldan clmen-mlng,


flag are

//Obey Heaven and restore (the dynasty

On

the

pennon above the

written the words: //The carnation-coloured

the heroes are all convoked!

the

Heaven-destined

Emperor

shall

again

restore the dynasty

of Ming!"
Fig. S

shows the small


flag

flag of the

secret character for

//United;" whilst

fig.

shows

the

flag of the secret character for

//Earl."

On

this

we

find the following quatrain

Q) See the 13 Bases of Canton, P, VI,

s.

x.

33
The carnation-coloured
Kia-hao
fine flag is the third

Sze-chuen has assembled and


(^)

United" with Yun-naii.


(base).

has ai-ranged the


of the 4 X- 7

4x9

The changes

(bases) are daily different.

^^

On

the

pennon above the

flag are

written the words:

,/The green

flag flutters!

the heroes

are all convoked! the Heaven-destined


Fig. 2 on the
lig.

Emperor

shall again restore the

dynasty of Ming!^'
//Together;" whilst

same plate shows the small

flag of the secret character for

shows the

flag of the secret character for

//Baronet".

On

this flag

we
To

find the following quatrain


the
fifth

lodge

is

allotted the green-coloured banner;

We

have sworn an oath together to exterminate the !Maiitchoos.


we'll

Unanimously
If prosperity

stand by, and be ,/Togetlier"

faitliful

and

trusty;

comes down the lord of Ming

shall early

mount

the throne.

^ ^ m ^
1.

m
^t;^

m
m ^
BJ

^ M ^

fig.
{})

-^

M
^
4,

i^

m
^^

^
,/the

m ^ ^ s

THE FLAGS OF THE FIVE TIGER-GENERALS.

The

first flag

of Lin-yung-chao, on Tab. xiv,

the characters Kin-nan,

golden
is

orchid".

is black. Near the flagstaff are written Then the words: General Lin; and the

words: //The flourishing league

victorious."
Chuen-tai-kii-jit,

On
The The
the
3.

the uppermargin the


,

characters:

which are the mutilated characters


of)

for

Shin-thian-cltiien-ming

//Obey Heaven and restore (the dynasty

Ming."
first

inscription on the
flag of the

pennon

is

the
is
it

2.

general Li-sih-chi

same as that on the pennon of the flag of the The inscription the same as on the first red.
That
the

lodge.

flag;

but

instead of the words General Lin

bears the inscription //General Li."


(Tab. xiv,
fig.

of the

pennon
the

same
flag;

as on the

pennon

of the second lodge.


is

5.)

The
first

flag of the

general Wu-thian-ching

carnation.
it

The

inscription

same

as on

instead of the words General Lin


as on the

bears the inscription //General ^Vn."


(fig.

That on

the
'l.

pennon the same

pennon
is

of the third lodge,

6.)

The
non The

flag of the general

Yao-pieh-tah
it

white.

The
lodge,

inscription the
//

same

as on the first flag;

instead of the words General Lin


the

bears the inscription


(fig.

General Yao."
7.)

That on the pen-

same
of the

as on the

pennon of the fourth


is

3,

flag of the general

Hung-thai-sui
General Lin
it

green.

The

inscription the

instead

words

bears the

inscription
(fig.

//General
8.)

same as on the first flag; Hung." That on the

pennon the same

is on the

pennon

of the fifth lodge,

FLAG OF HEAVEN AND EARTH.


Fig. 9 on

Tab.

xiv

shows the

flag of

Heaven;

and

fig.

on Tab.

xv

that

of Earth.

On

(M

See

p.

20.

40

both

flags are

written, near the tlagstaff, the words:


is

,/

Golden orchid;" in the middle the words:


Chuen-tai-M-jit,

//The flourishing league

victorious;"

or Shin-thian-chuen-ming; //Obey

In the middle of the


the flag of Earth the

flag
/,

Heaven and restore of Heaven is written

and on the uppermargin the characters: (the dynasty of) Ming-"


the

word //Heaven;" and


Near the

in the middle

of

word
orcliid

Earth."
flagstaff
for

Tab. XV,
the Avords:
T.nder
tion:
it

fig.
,,

2 gives us a representation of the Audience-iiag.

are written Three;

Golden

the
is

warrant of Hung;" then the secret character


whilst the middle of the flag
victorious."

and

the words:

//Introduce to audience;"

bears the inscrip-

//The flourishing league


the

On On

undermargin stands the inscription: //Abolish the Tsing, exterminate the Manchoos."
:

the uppermargin the characters

Chien-tai-ting-slian,

which are a mutilation


(i)

of the characters

Shm-tJdan-Jtaiig-tao,

//Obey Heaven and act righteously,

On

the

pennon are written the words:


same
plate
is

//The red flag flutters! the heroes are

all

convoked!
the

the Heaven-destined Emperor shall again restore the dynasty of Ming!"


Fig. 3 on the

the

flag of

Tun-thian-hwai.

Near the
the

flagstaff are

written

words
is

//Golden-orchid;"

the

name //Tun-thian-hwai;" and


Chnen-tai-ting-shau,

words

//the flourishing league

victorious."

On
and

the

uppermargin the characters

or

Shin-tlnan-ltang-tao ,

//Obey Heaven

act righteously";

and on the undermargin the inscription: //Abolish the Tsing, exterminate


the

the Manchoos."

On

the

pennon

is

same inscription
of the

as

on the pennon of the foregoing


"Willows.

flag.

Fig. \ gives

a drawing

great

flag in the city of

This

flag is red

with a

white jagged border: the upper border having

19,

and the under border 17 points.

Near the

flagstaff are

written the words: ,/In the golden-orchid

we have

pledged fraternity."
(the

In the middle of the flag stand the words: Leader and R'ner and Mountains
der the character Leader stands the inscription:
//The

empire);

un-

Hung
or

spring up in myriads to protect;"


is

and
and

in the middle stand

tlie

words: //The flourishing league


C!nien-tai-t'ing-sliav.

victorious."
,

On

the uppermargin the characters:

Shnn-thian-hang-tao

//Obey Heaven

act righteously";

and on the undermargin the inscription: //Abolish the Tsing, exterminate


of the

the Manchoos."

The next Near the


stands
heroes of

flag (Tab. xv,

fig.

5)

is

same Under

size,

form,

and colour as the foregoing


stands
the
inscription:"

flag.

flagstaff are

writfen the words: //Brave, valiant, vigorous, sturdy."


//Three."
this

In the middle

the secret character for

character

The

Hung

are convoked
is

and assembled"; and towards


Chuen-tai-fing-sJia" or

the point are written

the Avords:

//The flourishing league

victorious."
SJivn-tJilan-hang-tao
,

On

the

uppermargin the characters

//Obey Heaven and

act righteously";

and on the undermai'gin the words:

//In

the golden orchid

we have

pledged

fraternitv."

0)

;il

:^

-f

Ji

^ ^ ^

41Fig. 6
is

the flag

of revenge

bearing the inscription;


fig.

//Let us

avenge our
,/

griefs

and wash

out our injuries;'" whilst on the flag


the road appears."

are written the words:

the passes are opened

and

The

flagstafifs

are celebrated

by

this quatrain:
is

The

inside of the lodge

truly imposing

There are myriads of

ftagstafl's

which

are quite red,

The people

of the Tsing-dynasty shall return again to (allegiance of) the lord of Ming,
is

When

the great banner

risen all

must follow

it.

:^

p^

M.

4:2

The reno\^ned censer of white porcelain

is

celebrated

by
we

this

quatrain:

lump

of white porcelain

was the

original foundation;

Nobody knows

that, in the whole universe,

are pledged together.


[^)

We

wear a sword to defend us, though our mouths are sweet;


till

Let us take the censer,

Heaven

gives an opportunity.

43

The next quatrain


cut off:

sings the praise of the Scissors with

which the hair

of

the

neophytes

is

The clouds were heavy and we could not


But with one
clip of the

see the sky

metal scissors
,

all

around became

red.

When the clouds where rent open the pure moon appeared May on the dynasty of Ming quickly a true dragon (emperor)

descend.

mm m m
On
the Precious mirror

7;

m
^
(")

If

mm.
^
and

H
^

M
m

^^

n
[})

we
left

find this quatrain:

Nii-wa wrought stones to repair the blue Heaven;

She

her precious mirror to reflect the heart of men.


are pnre as ice
clear as

Sun and moon

diamond;

It breaks through millions of fiery soldiers.

m
M
Th.Q jade foot-measure
is

A
Mli
illustrated
high
is

by

the following quatrain:


!

How

Heaven

how
of

far does
(')

Earth extend
it.

The jade footmeasure


Sun and moon
(*)

Lupan

can measure

are

measured and given to the Hung-named;

The kingdom

of our lord shall flourish every where.

ii

On

the Balance

is

found the following quati-ain:


Heaven
is

high. Earth

is

broad! in former and present days alike;

But we
Let
lis

don't yet

know

it's

weight or lightness.

take the golden scales and weigh them


steelyard gives us back our lord and king.

The precious

"j^

itfe

if

^ m
i

9^

m M
is

m ^ m
(like)

m n
m
Balance":
the stars and constellations are merciful

The next quatrain sings


This thing

,/the placing of the

even and just

Within the

city of willows it

weighs clearly;

It adjusts the dynasty of

Tsing to return to the house of Ming;

And

the whole country then, surely, will have universal peace.

45

The

Steelyard

is

celebrated

by
is

this quatrain
p;lorious
(like)
tlie

This instrument

stars

and constellations

are bright

In the city of willows

we weigh

exactly'.

But what

are affairs' settled by, since antiquity


it

and present days?


and
'loyal hearts.

We

have weighed, and found that

is

by

faithful

lit

46
The
eight diagrams
(all)
(^)

of the sage are all exact

'When

know

the secret aud understand our aim, lay

them up

A
9^
The Pencil
is,

m
by
this quatrain:
left

m ^
us a hair-pencil,

m m

likewise, celebrated

The master
"Which
is

(Confucius) has

able to become a pillar of the world.

The

eight diagrams manifestly are all exact;


(all)

When

know

the secret and understand our aim,

it

can be laid up.

A
0)
Invented by the emperor Fuh-hi.

^
Compare Introduction,
p.

m
xxui.

PART
SECTION

III.

I.

GOVERNMENT OF THE
The
society
is

SOCIETY.

governed by the Grand-masters of the live principal lodges in Fuh-kien, KwangLeaders" or


//Incense-masof:

tung, Yun-nan, Hu-na<f and Cheh-kiang.

These Grand-masters are called


ters."

Sie,

(')

Chii-sze,

(-)

Hlanrj-cliii ,

(')

The government
President, ta-ko.

of each lodge,
(*) (')

throughout the whole Empire and the Colonies, consists

One

Two
Two
One

Vice-Presidents, kl-ko.
(^)

One Master, sien-sang.


Introducers,
Fiscal, HU^G-KWAN.

siEN-i'r>-G.
(^)

(7)

Thirteen Councellors,

i-sze,

(")

of

whom

one

is

Treasurer

(^'^),

one Receiver

(i^),

and one

Acting receiver,

(i-)

Agents, THSAO-HiAi

Q^);

and some minor

officials
,/

who wear

flowers in their hair.

('')

Some
lead

of the

brethern are

made

tai-ma,

horse-leaders-."

they search for

new members and

them

to the lodge, (i^)

(3)

()

ml

^*

Second brother.

(5)

(')

(^)

^ ^ fB ^
ij^
/f'j

^3^ % ^
^^

^^^

'H

(!)

% ^

First brother.

Vanguard.
of the

^^^

^t^ff-

('j

^1

there are thirteen in

commemoration

^^y

^ ^^^ strong-box.

thirteen provinces of old China.

('^)

Eeceiver of the strong-box.


Grass-shoes. Oath,
art,

Q')

f^

Jl^
s, ii

It
(")

C^)

;^

19 and 33. P. IV,

m ^

It

4S
There'are four Lrethern emploj'ed to do the
Sze-tai. {})

summons; they

are called the //four great (ones)",

The President

is,

also, called Hiang-chu, or

//Incense-lord" as

we

see in the second

article of the

Prohibitory laws, in the ISth article of the Oath, and in the

9th article of the

Regulation.

The President, Vice-Presidents, Master, Vanguards, Fiscal and Councellors form the Council which sits in the Councilroom, called Kung-tliang, (-) or the Lodge of universal peace. (^) These heads are chosen by public vote of the whole brotherhood. (*) Their names are hung up in the Council-room, and an advertisement of the following purport is pasted to the wall:

Q)
(^)

PH
disc

3^

See

art.

35 and G5 of the laws. P. V,


^-

s.

i.

{-)

4^

^
(*)

public hall.
art.

^"

^^

'

^'

''^"'^

Catechism, A. 282.

Oath,

19.

P.

IV,

s.

ii.

49
TRANSLATION.

,/List of the

Chiefs

whom

the I-hing-Society

wishes to elect for

the. j'ear (the

year expessed

by

the cyclical term) of the Heavenly motions, the


(the

month, the

day.

President

member) X.
(the

Vice-presidents

members) X. X.

Master

(the

member) X.

Introducers (the members) X. X.


Fiscal
(the

member) X.
members) X. X.
Treasurer (the member) X.
Receiver (the member) X.

Counsellors (the

Acting receiver (the member) X.

Agents (the members) X. X.

.as

The brotherhood of our society having now decided upon appointing the above mentioned men superiors and chiefs, it is right that we make their names public. If there are amongst those men some who offend the law or act unjustly, being unworthy of the rank conferred upon them, Ave pray all the brethern of the society, each in particular, They can then be changed and other men be to come forward and prevent later troubles.
appointed.

Advertisement."
described in the Catechism.
criminals are punished.
:

The functions of the Master and Vanguard are sufficiently The fiscal keeps in his hands a red staff, with which the The agents are, also, called Night-brethern (') or Iron-planlcs (*) and make reports to the brotherhood. They travel at the sides, are allowed a fee for the commissions with which
of the
league.

{^)

(-)

they are sent about every where,

expense of the
they
are

society

and,

be-

intrusted

by members

The Council appoints them, and


their
of the

nomination.

This paper

is

given to them as a warrant of and four inches broad; the colour about eight inches long
the

following diploma

is

paper

is

peach-red,

and of

this

form and purport

Q)
(-)

See part.

IV,

s.

I.

See Catechism. Q.

315316.

(*)

i^

Compare the 33d

article of the

Oath. P. IV,

s.

i.

50

TRANSLATION.

it

m It m ^ z
IE

;,

Ou

the twentieth

day of the ninth month


(1845)

of the
all

year

TiJi-sze

the brethern have publicly

nominated
of grass-shoe
affairs of

the

brother Hii-nang to the

ofl&ce

(agent).

In the management of the


ought

the

society he

to act fairly

and straight-forwardly, and not


falsely.

be

selfish

and act

We

give

him

this

paper as a warrant.

The
ploma."

society

Eise

of

the patr'iots's

red di-

On
ters

the

red seal are engi-aved the charac//

I-hing-hing-sze ,

Society of

tine

rise of the

patriots."

We
aiid

see in art. 18

of the Oath, art. 9 of

the
is

Regulation,

art. 1 of

the 10 Prohibitory laws,

art.

12 of the

Laws

that

the President
the

not allowed
of

to
it

hold a meeting without hav-

incT first

informed, ten days before,


of

Avhole brotherhood
the

by a
is

circulai-.

This circular, of the size form and purport

the

nomination-act of

agents,

Tcrmilion,

and of

this

51

Ite

m
f^

52
I

have prepared this note and, respectfully, invite you to move your precious

feet;

I expect

and pray that you will

instruct

me, when

am

sitting

on the General's

terrace.

This night the Hung-gate

wiU he widely opened;

You,
For

my
is

pledged brethern, come hither and mount the General's terrace.

This night I will myself


it

right

down and wait upon you: and proper that we pledge fraternity in
sit

the peach-garden.
is

As

a token

of his coraaiissiou,

a sword,

seal

and warrant

given to the President of the


(i)

lodge: the latter being a small triangular flag with the character Ling

written on

it.

By
bes.

art. 21 of the regulation the heads are enjoined to act strictly just, and not to take briCare also is taken that the counsellors do not take any weapons along with them, as

in the heat of the discussion they might perhaps

wound

each other.
in

The meetings are generally held on the 25th


the foundation of the league; therhood, as:
Tlie Lantern-festival
(-)

of

the month,

commemoration

of the

day of

besides the

common
first

Cliinese festivals are celebrated

by

the bro-

on the 15th of the

month, when each member contributes 360


Gods of the land

cash.

The grave-cleansing

festival

{^)

and the

festival of the

(^),

when

each

memcash.

ber contributes lOS cash.

The dragon-boat-festival The birthday of the God

('')

in the fifth

month,

to

which each member contributes 36

Kwan

(), to wiiich

each

member

contributes 72 cash.

On On
cash.

the 15th of the 7th

month each member

contributes 72 cash.

the 25th of the 7th month,

the anniversary of the society,

each

member

contributes 36

On

the 15th of the


(7)

Sth month

each

member
(')

contributes

21

cash for fruits,

and sun and

moon-cakes

for

the

autumnal

festival.

(M

^
^ ^
H
throw

(=)

t^
j!^

^
ft
sacrifice

'M

(')

W
^^

1^

(=>

^
in

C)

^ ^
These cakes, of about a foot

(^)

M
off the

^^

formerly a

honour of the

Sun and Moon.

diameter, are stamped with the symbols of the sun and


the moon-cakes,

moon;

a hare piling something in a mortar

on

and a golden crow on the sun-cakes.


of the Mongols.

In the year A. D. 136S the Chinese thought to

dominion
Sth

They made

a conspiration to kill all the

Mongol guards on
ch-cular

the.

loth of the

Month on

the

Sun-moon-cake-festival.

The

signal

was given by a

baked in

these cakes, which were sent every where to all families

on

this day.

The massacre began,

in fact,

on the

13th of the Sth month

of the year 1368,


la

and

all

the

mougol

soldiers were exterminated.

fHuc. Souvenirs d'un voyage dans


(8)

Tartaric et le Thibet. V. I, p. 84. od Edition. Paris, 1857.)

*j|^

-IS

The cash

is

the copper

money

of China.

Generally

900 are counted

to

a dollar,

though

the currency varies much. 15 cash are about the worth of a penny.

53

The
the
receipts

society gives

receipts

for

these

contributions,

which are

entered in a book kept


registered.

for

purpose,
are

wherein the revenues and expenses of the league are carefally


printed on orange-coloured paper,

These

about eight inches long and 3i inches broad,

and

of the

following form

and purport:

TEANSLATION.

IHING-HALL.
Settled at (the

name

of

tlie

place)

receipt

received

from (the name of the member)


the

sum

of (quantity
this

of

money

expressed), paid.

The

society gives
as
ses

ticket

a proof.
are

Obey Heaven and


is

act righteously
(^)

The pas-

open the road


that

clear!

The year (expressed by


ding to

the cyclical characters correspon-

year) of the

Heavenly motions, the

month,
(the
seal

day.
seal.

Given under our


of the

society)

I-ldng-hoan

vl-hing-hall."

\})

Here again we have mutilated


ili

characters:

these

eight characters being abbreviated from the

characters

^
7.

tr

^< ^

5S

Compare

p.

40, note 1, and

p.

41, description of the

flag fig.

54

SECTION
As an appendix
to this

II.
for those

chapter
to

to be afliiiatedj or

who wish

we -will give a translation of the Directions make a visit in a lodge of another place,
TKAKSLATION.

who wish

If

vou

desire to

with disheveled
to

hair,

come before the tribunal of the and with the lappet of your

five founders,

you ought
it

to

come barefooted,

coat hanging open:

will then be allowed

you

to see the five founders.

When you come


and say
this

before the five founders you ought to take five incense-sticks in youi- hands,

quatrain:
Since tbat I have entered the Hung-gate and sworn the oath,

My
And

failh

and loyalty has spread

itself

over the world.

With a sincere heart we have pledged fraternity together,


held incense-sticks iu our hands in the city of willows.

55

Say

also

this

quatrain:

The heroes

are assembled together this night

To

assist the

dynasty of Ming with sincere and faithful hearts.


seeing the face of the master,

To

night I have succeeded in


is

This

better

than to approach the Emperor in his imperial palace.

56'

:^

^ M

m T
Wi
ts

^ m
4^

^
n

m
yt

^
My
I

^
late (')

m m
own
ignorance:

After having said this, you pronounce the following quatrain on your
hairs are not yet dry
,

and 1 was born


affairs

do not yet quite know the


(-)

of the flower-pavilion.

The youngster

hopes that his elder brother will instruct him


in the flower-pavilion.

For he remembers the time when he pledged himself

^t

\n

w
# m

m
^

^
yt

^
At
//I

* ^ ^
To night X,

m
^
town X,
in the district
gate."

m
of the

the Huug-gate

you ought

to

take an incense-stick in both your hands, and say:

salute the

two Generals

at the Hung-gate!

X,

of the prefecture

X, has arrived here and wishes

to enter the

The Generals go then to the master to request his permission. This being granted, you ought to kneel thrice when entering the Hung-gate.
Hall of Fidelity and Loyalty you
kneel twice.

Entering the

ought to kneel four times. Entering the City of A^illows you

Ha\dng come before the Red-flower-pa\'ilion you


flowers" and the
,/

recite
(')

the

two quatrains

of the

//

peach-

united waters of the three rivers."

PAI^T
AFFILIATION OF

IV.

NEW MEMBERS.
I.

SECTION
THE

CATECHISM.

New members
the Tartar

for

the

Heaven and Earth-society are got in several


the league
this

vv'ays.

If the initiated

are not able to seduce the people to enter

by an enumeration

of the griefs against

sway and,
had
to

in

way,

excite

them

to

ers, recourse is

threats.

person

may

find

throw off the dominion of the hated usurpsome day in his house a chit of paper,

stamped with the seal of the society, by which he is ordered to betake himself, at a certain hour, to such and such a place; under menace that if he dares to disobey, or breathe a word of it to the authorities, he and his whole family will be murdered, and his house or possessions burned down. Sometimes, too, he is stopped on the road by an unknown who gives him a similar
order.

Violence

is

also used.

One

of the affiliated insults a person on the road


offender,

by

giving him a slap

on his

face.

Of course the insulted pursues the


Here, at
last,

isolated spot or suburb.

he stands at bay, but the

on a signal or

whistle
is

given by the initiated,

to an begun when, several brethern appear who knock the man

who

leads

him,

in this

way,

scuffle has scarcely

down.
Those

The victim

then thrown into a bag, and can-ied


the mysterious
life,

away

to

the place

where lodge

is

held.

who have
it

got

warning

to the

appointed rendezvous are, in the meanis

time, trembling for their

for

already they doubt the fate which


it;

awaiting them, and they


is

know,
So,

too, that

would be

useless to try to escape

as the justice of the feared society

relentless

and speedy.
the

on

appointed day,

the

Avarned goes to

the

place

Avhich

is

indicated to him.
trees

He

does not,
old

however, see anybody there, as the


to

affiliated

are hidden

amongst

or

behind

walls

see

that he

is

not followed by either policemen or soldiers.


to

Already the

man

begins

breathe

more

freely

and thinks

that

all

danger has 'passed,


8

58
so that he prepares himself to return

home, when,

all at

once,

ail affiliated

appears and beckons

him to follow. At last they reach rious encampment of

the place

where the whole brotherhood

is

waiting

for

them: the myste-

the City of willows.


called for that night,

When
the
first

all

the

new members, who have been

are together, they enter

gate of the camp, where they find themselves

before the

Vanguard,

w^ho asks

them

their

names and surnames,

age and time of birth,

all

which

is

entered carefully in a book

kept for the purpose.

The Vanguard then gives order to form the //bridge of swords." The brethern draw themselves up into a double row and, drawing their swords, which are made of steel on the right wing, and copper on the left wing, they cross tliem in the air, forming a bridge or arch, (i) The new members are then led by the affiliated underneath this arch, which ceremony is called Passing the bridge." (-)
,/

After the

passing of the bridge,

they have to pay a

sum
("),

of 21 cash as

first

entry,

which

money

is

received

by

the old Sieli-pang-lang. (Q. ISO).

nerals Wan-tao-lung

The members now find themselves before the Hung-gate and Wan-tao-fang
These generals ask the Vanguard the names of the Neio

which

is

guarded by the two ge-

Jwrses.

The Vanguard having

satisfied

their

demand, the generals enter

to

ask the Master's permission to introduce these members.

The Master having granted

and are brought to the Hall of Fidelity and Loyality (*), where again two generals, named CMng-ki-thian and Ckin-yun-ching keep guard, and ask the names of the members to be introduced.
the request", they are allowed to pass,

There, at
to

last, the

members
the

are instructed in the tendency of the society; they are exhorted


affiliated.

be faithful and loyal to the league to which they are about to be

The

griefs against

Tartar dominion
faithfully;

are

enumerated, and promises given

for those

who

shall accomplish

their

duties

whilst fearful threats


(")

are pronounced against those

who

should dare to refuse to enter the league.

The recruits now reach the Heaven and Earth circle: the last enclosure before the lodge, and guarded by the two generals Wn-han-rl and Wu-kin-lai. (Q. 222.) After having passed through, and gone across the surrounding moat or ditch (Q. 255), they reach the East-gate of the City of willows, guarded by Ean-'pliang He leads them to the councilroom.
.

(^)

Sometimes

this- //arch of steel"

is

replaced by a piece of red cloth, under which the

new members

pass.

We

have not

been able to find out the meaning of the three stones which the initiated have in their

hands during this ceremony.


of these stones, as

(Compare Q. 202 h

ff.)

On

Tab. II,

fig.

we have given the engraving

we

find it in the original drawing.

(8)

See Tab. IV.

(*)

See Tab. V.

(5)

Compare A. 214

&/.

59
called the //lodge of universal peace"
(i),

where the whole


to the generals

of the council

is

ass embled.

Two
ask

ge-

nerals keep

guard at the door of

this

room.

The Vanguard then wishes good day


his desire.

who, returning

his

salute,

him

the five Founders;"

The Vanguard then says: Thian-yw-huny has a request to present, and should wish to see whereupon the generals answer: //Wait a moment till we have transmitThe generals then enter the councilroom and say: //Venerable
five

ted your request to the five Founders."

Founders!

TMan-yu-hung

has a request to present and should wish to see you."

The Master

(^)

then answers: //Call Thiaii'i/u-himj hither to appear before me."


is

The generals return then to the door and say: //Your request you to appear before him." The Vanguard then is ushered into the councilroom and says:
of years
!"
{^)

granted, the Master orders

//May

my

lord live myriads

The master now


Q.
1.

adresses the following questions to the Vanguard:

(*)

//Who

is

there before

me

on the ground?" whereupon the Vanguard answers:

A.
Q.
2.

It is

Thian-yu-hung

How
I can

can you prove that you are Thian-yu-hung?

A.
Q. 3.

prove

it

by a
I

verse.

How

does this verse run?

A.

am, indeed, Thian-yu-hung,


(^)

Bringing novices into the city;

'

Coming

in the peach-garden to unite in fraternity,

And

fervently wishing to adopt the

name

of

Hung.

^
% m
A!>

m
^i

% A

0)
(=)
(*)

% n
^.

m ^ ^
^

1^

m
'^

Compare A. 282, and

p. 43.
(')

% ^
The
letters

II

m
name

and

are the Questions of the Master

and the Answers of the Vanguard.

and Answers

bear, in the original, the

of Secret examination of the

Vanguard"

( -4fc-

^ ^

These Questions
Hfl
]

which we

translate,

on account of

their affinity to the Questions

& Answers

in the

Masonic lodge, by the

word Catechism.
(^)
i.

e.

the lodge.

60
4.

ft.

What
I

business have

you here?

A.

am

bringing you numberless fresh soldiers, iron-hearted and valiant,


to the

who wish

to

be admitted

Heaven and
(>) (-) (')
is

Earth-society.

a
A.
ft.

5.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

can prove

by a

verse.

6.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The course The

of events

clear again,

and sun and moon harmonious


and receives the three
rivers.

earth extends to the four seas,

We
And

have sworn together to protect the throne of Chu


to help

him with

all

the power of man.

m # A
ft.

m m m
;^

m
m

^ m
-0^

^
m

^ ^

^ ^
w

^ ^

t*

^ ^

7.

Why
How
I can

do they wish to be admitted to the Heaven and Earth-society?

A,
ft.

Because they wish to overturn the house of Tsing, and re-establish the house of Ming.
8.

can you prove that?

A.
ft.

prove

it

by

a verse.

9.

How

does this verse run?

A.

We

have restored the origin, searched the sources, and examined the ancient poetry;
of Tsing usurped our patrimony;

[*)

The people

We'll restore

now

the empire, followiug the instructions of the leader,

We'll rise by this clear moon, and raise the banner of patriotism.

63
A.

The master taught me

the three bonds

{^)

and

five virtues;

(-)

We

were congegrated in the red-flower-pavilion, and made an essay.


leads straight to the golden tablets;
(*)

(')

Our road

Afterwards our names will be

known and

extolled.

65
Since the time that the foundation of the world was laid,

we

all

bear the

name

of

Hung.

The
The

five
five

founders from the Kao-khi-temple are

all

of one family
;

founders are distributed over the five provinces


at (the five

Look only

lodge-marks)

Three ages united peaceably together.

H M J^ ^ # IS H > ^ A * H
^t>
;@.

A
fiijj

fL

# ^
n
^^
ft

^
II

2ts:

M
m # m

^
s.

n
0- 33.

m m t ^ m ^ # - ^ A \h m 1^ ^ a m a s: il ^ ^ m. ^ m s. %' j^ M^ M
'%
you obtain your knowledge
it

How
I

did

of military art?

A,
ft,

learned
did

at the convent Shao-lin.


firstly?

34.

What

you learn

A.
ft.

I firstly

learned the art of boxing of the Hung-brethern.

35.

How
I can

can you prove that?

A.
ft.

prove

it

by a

verse.

36.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The

fists

of the brave

and valiant Hungs are known through


it

all

the world;

Since the Shao-lin-convent

has been transmitted.


all are called

Under the whole expanse of heaven we

Hung;

Afterwards we will assist the prince of the house of Ming.

67

A
Q
A.

49

M.

a. 50.

A.
a. 51.

A.
a. 52. A.

a
A.

53.

a. 54.

A.
ft

55.

A.
ft.

58.

A.

68
Siang-tsze played on a flute;

The lord Kwoh-kiu-tsau held two

castanets of jade;
(')

Sian-ku stood on a floating bridge, with a sceptre in his hands.

Whom

did

j'oii
(-)

pass besides?

woman.

How was

she dressed?

She had on
a sceptre.

her

head a
In her

myriad-bamboo-hat.
left

on a Avhite horse.
(^)

She wore a white dress, and rode hand she held a flower-basket and, in her right hand,

Whither did she go?


She entered a groove of
lirs

and cypresses.

(*)

How
I

can you prove that?


it

can prove

by a

verse.

How

does this verse run?

When When
The

a withered tree meets spring

it

sprouts again.

the eight genii pass the sea they put golden flowers in their hair.

princess rides on horseback along the roads,


fir-and cypress-grooves
is

The

our home.

^ A ^ m
Q. 62.

^ m
BE

'^

i^

m ^ ^

m m
'^
f

^7j

m M

^ ^ ^

w
1^
AL

A.

Which temples have you seen on your passage? The ancestral temple lAng-wang. C*)

09
Q. 63.

A.
Q.

64

A.
Q. 65.

A.

a. 66.

A.
Q. 67.

A.
a. 68.

A.
a. 69.

A.

a.

70

A.
Q,

73.

The mountains were high, What did jou find there?

so that I could not see the cores.

A.
Q,.

An
74.

antithetical couplet.

How

does

it

run?
tlie

A.

Heaven, earth,

productive stimulus of nature,


,

(')

Drizzling rain, summer-shower, ho.irfrost

snow, mist, snowy and


t4^

sleety rain.

M ^
el^

sh

aa

^&

Q,

75.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

76.

How

does this verse run?


Hian-chu
I
in the LiDg-(wang) temple gathers flowers.

A.

saw that the Black-dragon (mountain) was m-eproachably


shall

pure.

When we
T\'e

have

filled

the world under another dynasty,

shall destroy the barbarians

and replace our lord on

(the throne of) China.

B
n.

^ M
19

m
M

#.

#
"^

m m ^

(-)

m m
^ ^

^.

m
i*

^ M
ii

u
ft.

m
lind there?

In which place were you

when you had

passed the Black-dragon?

At

the foot of the Nail-mountain.

What

did

you

A ferry-boat for the valiant How manj' people were in


Three men.

Hungs.
this

{^)

ferry-boat?

Who was

on the forepart of the boat?


(*)

The skipper

was on

the forepart.

(1)

We

have not been able to iiud out the meaning of these three
I possess, contain the

last characters.

All the copies of the handtheir accuracy.

book

same characters, so that there

is

no doubt about

They must

mean some
(")

of the agencies of nature, as the rest of the distich does. ^

"V
feeture

LU

mountain

in the

Kwau-yin-chain, in the

district of

Shih-ching

i^

^Lif

"'^

P""^*

Hwui-chao,

in the province of Canton.

(')

^^

/^

Vari:

^X

^.

"S ship with a red bow," or a ship for the Hung-chiefs."

71
81.

ft

A.
ft.

What is his name and surname? His name is Thao, Q) his surname
where does he
live?

Teh-ta.

(-)

82.

In which year, on what day, in which month and in which hour was he born, and

A.

He was born on
83.

the 15th day of the

first

month,

in the

hour Tsz

('),

and he dwells
Fidelity.
(^)

in the province of Fuh-liian, in the


ft.

town Amoy,

in the Hall of great

Who
The

stood on the behind-part of the boat?


skipper's wife
(^)

A.
ft.

stood on the behind-part.

84.

A.
ft.

What is her name and surname? Her name is Tsiang (") from Lu C),
In

her surname Liu-thsing.

(^)

85.

which month,

on what day and in which hour was she born, and where does
1.5th

she live?
A.

She was born on the

day of the eight month,


to

in the
('"),

hour

Jl'/f.

{^)

She dwells
(i^)

in the province of Canton, in the prefecture Hwui-cJiao


ft.

in the temple Ilai-thamj.

86.

The hours

Tsz

and
good

Wii are opposite

each other;

how

do they come then together

in one ship? A.
ft,

('-)

On
87.

board

it

is

if

Taz

and

Wu

stand opposite to each other.

Who was

in the great shiphold? (")

A.
ft.

88.

The Hung-brethern were in it. How many compartments were there


Five compartments,
(i*)

in the ship?

A.
ft.

89.

What was
In the
first

laden in these five compartments?

A.

was laden red wood;

(i^)

in the second red rice;


('*)

("5)

in the third the son

of the lord; (") in the fourth

weapons;

and

in

the

fifth

the brethern of the

Hung-

family. (")

I')

72

a
A.

90

How
I

cau you prove that?


it

can prove

by a

verse.

a A

91.

How

does this verse run?

The The The

true seat of the son of the lord

is

in the

middle of the ship.

military and civilians assist

him

to preserve sun

and moon.
favorable.

(^)

silken sails are hoisted high,

and the winds are


and
earth.

We

roam about the

-world to settle heaven

a
A.

92.

a
A.

93.

a
A.

94.

a. 95.

A
ft.

96.

A.
ft

97

A.
ft,

98.

A
ft.

99.

A.
ft

100.

A.

7J

Place your officers and privates on the road, divided to the right and

left;

Assemble

all

the valiant Hung-officers in the

universe,

To help the dynasty of Ming and kill the benighted prince. (') When, afterwards, we shall be reunited we will be ennobled;

And lucky stars will, effulgently encircle prince and Eoam about the world according to your wishes; And every where establish all our people.
,

vassal.

If

Heaven and Earth

will grant that

the dynasty of

Ming

returns;
(-)

Pitch then your camps and plant palisades, to settle Heaveu and earth.

ill

id^

Pi

m
m m
dfcf

:&

m m
m
IS

^ ^ a

m
^-

m
ii

n
^ T
Q
A.
ft.

m
(')

m
in

101.

How many How much How many


Which
To

seams

were
(*)

the

ship?

Seventy two seams.


102-

caulking-stuff

(5)

was used
iu the

to

fill

the seams?

A.
ft.

One and twenty pounds.


103'

nails

(*")

were used

ship?

A.
ft.

104.

One hundred and eight nails. deity was on the bow


kill

of the ship?

(^)

(1)
(-;

Vari:
i.

these doggish Tsings


(See the
('*)

(^

^^

'^)
s.

e.

the empire.

13 Eases of Canton, P. VI,


"^'"'''

x)

(^)

jHHH.

"'"'^

seams.

()

'^^^ seams of Chinese

ships are caulked with


oil

bamboo
(**)

or rattan sliavings
C')

mixed
flW

witli

wood- oil, and

smeared over with a cement of

and gypsum.

"J"

j|{Jf

10

74
A-

On

the

bow

of the

ship

was

the
ear,"

image
(-)

of the
to

God
the

of

Fire.

(^)

To

the

left

was

the idol

,/The

clear percepting
{^)

and

right the idol //The thousand-

mile-seeing
Q,.

eye."
it

There was,

also,

an antithetical couplet.

105.

How

does

run

A.

Favorable currents and winds please men;

A
ill

genial sun and

moon

suit Uie weather.

(*)

;!|c

Hi

M.

Ji

^
0,.

^
ship stood
C),

M
the

^
of the

A ^

M ^
(^)

106.

Which

deity stood in the middle of the ship?

A.

In the middle of the


stood the prince

image

Holy prince Kwan.

To
(')

it's

left

Kwan-phing

and

to it's right

the general Chau-choang.

There w"as, also, an antithetical couplet.


a. 107.

How

does

is

run?
the
first

A.

In the time of Ziu there were no two loyal and valiant warriors

He was

among

the

men

of the cuirass

and casque of the Han-dynasty.

(*)

B\

^
i^
stood our
right in

m
^
and
left,

m
ft.

M
()

u
^r
Queen
of

m -

A
(")

108.

Which

deity stood on the stern of the ship?

A.

On
kJd.

the stern
(^'')

Holy mother the


at

Heaven, from the temple Kao-

ft.

109.

To her Which deity was


In
the

her feet,

stood the generals Hiavg and Hoh.

the hold of the ship?

A.

hold

stood

our Holy mother


Lo-ltan

Kwanyin.
were,

(i-)

The Hung-brethern stood on

both sides,

and the eighteen

i^^)

also, present.

0)
(^')

^ ^ A
Hi
Yari
:

"i^)

'^^'^

Chinese Pluto.
(^)

M.

:^
Amoy,

(*)

In Fuh-kian, at

is

the Hall of great

ti-ngi^)

[m
^^'

M MgH

'^^

^ M ^
-Ir.

>i
]

^ M A .s
first

m.
fidelity.

In Canton,

at

Hwui-chao,

is

the temple Hai-

^.

m"

m 1 n m ^
tlie

^)
T>.

25'

"Z.

(
(

^'""^""s

generals from the time of the three states, (A.


is

168

256).

'"*

'

The

worshipped as

Chinese Mars,

(')

m ^
one man
,

]
,

(*)

Liu or Liu-pi,

famous

general

from

the

period

of the

three states.

(Corap. p.

2.)

,,

There was only

and that man was Kican-ti''


(">

(n
(")
(15)

m m ^ ^
B^
"J^
I

-m

m %
ii

)m

C')
*1'6

M #

m n

principal disciples of

Budha, the Arlutn.

75
Q. 110.

How many

masts

{^)

were in the ship?

A.
ft.

Three masts.
111.

A.
Q,.

112.

A.
ft.

Which mast was the biggest? The main-mast (-) was the biggest. How can you prove that? I can prove it by a verse.

113.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The masts stand high

in the ship
five lakes
;

We We We

roam over
go through

the four seas and

(^)

connect the two capitals and thirteen provinces


all

the universe, and are

all

called

Hung.

m s

m^

76

77
a. 125.

A.
a. 126.

Which goods (i) were Eed Avood (-) and red

in the ship?
rice.
(')

How many

holds were

filled Avith it?

A.
ft.

Thousands and myriads of holds,


127.

countless numbers!

A.
ft.

For what use are they? They are for the use of

the army.
since
it

128.

How
"VVe
float.

could the ship


at a place

float,

was laden

so hea\aly?

A.

were

where three rivers unite

their waters

(*)

therefore the ship could

ft.

129.

A.
ft.

Whence do these three rivers, Avhich unite their waters, They issue from the foot of the Nail-mountain. {^)
Whither do their waters flow? They flow from the united waters lakes and four seas. .How can you prove that? I can prove it by a verse.
of three rivers,
till

issue?

130.

A,

they lose themselves in the five

ft.

131.

A.
ft.

132.

How

docs this verse run?

A.

The

tUvee rivers flow through the five lakes;

I have taken a look into the gates of the temple Kao-khi.

AVe remember the past events with the

five

founders in a certain year.

And

we're coming, specially, to thank Wan-yun-lung.

^ m
m.

m
M. "W

n\

m
m.

m
m.

^ ^ ^

m
f^

m
^

m
ft.

M
tlie

m
(")

^ m

^ m

133.

Whither went
It

ship?

A.
ft.

went

to the Fair of great peace.

134.

When
It

did the ship leave?

A.

heaved anchor on the 21th of the 12th month, and reached harbour on the 4th of

the 1st month, after ten days passage.


ft.

135.

Along which places did you come?

(*)

H
dk

^rT

-O

TK
'

(')

See p. 70, note


held.

2.

C')

^^

'

'^'^^

^^'^'^^

where lodge was

78
A.

We
136.

came along

the prefecture Hwui-chao,


(*)

(i)

the

town

Shih-cliing,

(-)

the

Kwan-yin

ft.

mountains (') and the ravine Khu-chu. Did you go ashore there for a ramble?
Yes, I took a Avalk there.

A.
ft.

137.

What
I

did

you

see

on your walk?
(^)

A.
ft.

138.

saw two Do you know how many

pots with red bamboo.

plants there were?

A.
ft.

In one pot were 36, and in the other 73 plants; together 108.
139.

Did you take home some of them


Yes,
I took home 108 What were you going

for

your use?

A.
ft.

plants.
to do

140.

with

so

many?

A.
ft.

I
141.

wanted a

sufficient

quantity for the use of

my

thousands and

myriads of brethern.

How many

A.
ft.

142.

were left? I did not pluck them all, and How can you prove that?
I

there

were

still

left

sufficient for use.

A.
ft

can prove

it

by a

verse.

143.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The red bamboo from Canton


In the groves are 86 and 72.

is

rare in the

world

Who
AT hen

in the

world knows the meaning of


set to

this

we have

work we

will

know

the secret.

M
^

^
Ifi:
ft.

m ^
li

1^

^
^

m
lit

^
1

144.

A.
ft.

145.

How many shallows {^) did you see on your passage? The water was deep, so that we saw no shallows. Which Avaters did you pass?

A.
ft.

We
146.

passed the united waters of the three rivers.


are the three rivers

Which
The

which unite
(^)

their

waters?
(^)

A.

river

Hoang, C) the river King

and the river Heh.

These three form the

united waters of the three rivers.

79
147.

ft.

A.
ft.

Whence do They issue

they issue, and

where do they discharge themselves?

at the foot of the Nail-mountain, and flow to the five lakes and four seas.

148-

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

149.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The united waters

of the three rivers flow since myriads of years;

Travellers are not allowed to stand at the head of the bridge;

But he who has entered and drunk of

the water of the three rivers'.

Is allowed to roam about the world according to his wishes.


*

;!K

m
^ ^
ii

:^

m
)^

^
m
i^^

^ M
:^

m
m
ft.

m
it.

150.

Bid you

cross the
it.

water?

A.
ft.

Yes, I crossed
151.

How many

of

you crossed

it?

A.
ft.

One and twenty


152.

of us ci'ossed

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

153.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The sworn brethern brought me on board;


Twenty one persons were together
in one ship.
(~)

The Lo-han

(i)

and Diamond-ones

assisted to the right

and

left

Favorable winds were with us and, so,

we

sailed across.

(^]

^
=1

)t
-^

^ -

^ A

-^

m -

m m

80

m
)i
Q,.

M
SI

^
ffi

n\\

5t

^ *
(')

&

^ ^
1

154.

Where

did the ship arrive? the Fair of great peace.


(')

A.
Q. 155-

It arrived at

Who
His

Avas master

of the Fair of great peace?


{^)

A,
a. 156.

name was Ching

his

surname Teh-hui.

How many

markets were on the Fair of great peace?

A.
Q. 157.

There were three markets.

Which markets?
Succour-Ming, and Destroy-Tsing.
(*)

A.
Q.

158.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

159.

How

does this

verse run?
of the market Ching-hui has
(^j

A.

The master

first

opened the market;

All the Tai-plng

in the

world are assembled.

They'll destroy the Tsing-dynasty, exterminate the Manchoos, and restore the Imperial seat;

And

shall help the true

Lotd of the house

of

Ming

to the imperial throne.

m
is:

^
m
^Jl

m
^

m
T m

m
m ^

it^

m
^

^
n M m m
(*)

^ M
A ^ m

^ ^

+
'Ss

A
ii

m
m
'^^^

M m

^ ^ ^ a
whose

m U

m H
^

n
aim
is

m
Manchoo-dynasty,

'^ ^fe and place the Chinese dynasty again on the throne.
-He
Vari: A. 137.

watchword of the society

to destroy the

The market

of universal peace

2p j^

The Succour-;Mlng market

j^ B^

^|

The
()

Destroy-Tsing market

Great or universal peace.

^
As

f^

i^.
It

the league aims to restore universal peace on eartli.

could be render-

ed by the word:

Peacealists."

SI
160.

Ql

What
I

else did

you

see?
(')

A.
ft.

saw

small

inlet.

161.

V>'liat

was

in this inlet?
(^)

ij.
ft.

There was a bridge of two planks.


162.

A.
ft.

163-

A.
ft.

Of which materials was it made? The left plank was made of copper, and How can you prove that? I can prove it by a verse.

the right plank of iron.

164-

How

does this verse run?


Myriads of soldiers
luive

A.

passed the biidge of two plunks;


riglit

The

left

one (was made) of copper, and the


laid thetn
to let the

cue of iron, no difference diseernible.

The Chu-people have

Hiing-people pass
at the side of the bridge,
(^]

Those who don't enter the Hung-gate, go

=^
:ic.

^
z^
ft.

M m m
A
saj'

^1

^ m m
that
it

M m m
was

}^
r^

W-

165.

have

heard people

f^ was not copper

m m

^ m
^ilire,

^
m,

n
Do you know
the
the origin

or iron.

of it?

A.

On
tlve

the day that the Shao-lin-convent

destroj^ed

by

Gods brought the

founders across those planks to Shih-san-li at Ufan


(*)

where

the Avhite clouds join

the heavens.
ft.

166.

How
I

can j'ou prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by

a verse.

167.

How

does this verse run?

A.

yellow and black clond condensated into this bridge;


five

The

men could

reach Yun-siao over


first

it.

(')

The white

porcelain censer was the

inducement

To

help, loyally

and

faithfully,

the dynasty of Ming.

1')

yJ->

y^'j

vari:

a small
i.

creek,

yj>

|H]

i.

e.

the

row

of bretheru.

i')

m^

^
the 2

^^j

e.

two swords:

The arch

of steel."

(t'omp. pp. 13

&

58.)

(')

Vari: 1": Budiia has changed himself into two bridge-planks

the 4"

& 30 lines are He who does

the same.

not pass this bridge

is

a stranger.

''

:^

''
(*)

z^
p.

Compare

m m M n M 1^ m m
(S)

vc
^i'
p.

^ A
14.

13.

Compare

11

83

lit

m
i^

A
'i^'

n
^!S.

m m
m
it.

Q
A.
Q,

168.

Who made this bridge? Chu-kwang and Chu-khai made How


I

169.

can you prove that?


it

A.
Q. iro.

can prove
does

by a

verse.

How

tills

verse run?

A.

Clui-kwaiig and Clui-kluu

made

tins bridge;

The Hung-heroes
Having passed

availed tliemseh'es of this expedient, and readied Yun-siao.

this bridge they slew mj-riads of troops

They destroy

the dynasty of Tsing, extirpate the

Mauchoos, and saunter, joyously, about.

Tfe

84

^
=:^
'

^ii

m m

^ ^

m m 3
w.

\u

m
ff

m
M
&

^ ^ m
m

^ m
"f-

Q. 183.

Aa. 184.

What kind of fruits did he sell? He sold peaches of five colours. Q)


To

whom
sold

A.
Q. 185.

He
I

How

did he sell them? them to the faithful and can you prove that?
it

loyal Hung-hrethern.

A.
Q,.

can prove

by a

verse.

186-

How

does this verse run?


Fruits of five colours stand at the wa\'side

A.

Thousands

eat

of

them
eats

myriads taste of them

If a faithful

man

them he becomes a brother


he dies half
v^'a^^

But

if

a traitor eats them

at

M:
1^

1^ 1^

T M m
'^

n
-^
^4-

m A
}i

^ w
f^
ti

So

=1

-^

86
ft.

197.

A.

G
A.
ft.

198.

Do you know how many cents I know how many there are. How can you prove that?
I

there are iu each bundle?

can prove

it

by a

verse.

199.

How

does this verse run?

A.

On

the bridge of two jjlank?

are banging papcr-eent-buntlles;

It is, manifestly, the fiuuily If the


It
is

Hung

connected together,
is

[^j

amount

of the paper-cent-bundles 8

asked

3 myriads,

hundred, and 21 thousand.

(-)

r.

m ^ H
ft.

m u
m

m ^
m

m ^
^
-H-

m
i^

m
m

^
stood
the

A
venerable

m W
images

^y

m
-1^

200.

Did you go over the bridge?


No, I passed under the bridge. Wliy did you not pass over the bridge?

A.
ft.

201.

A.

On
202.

the

bridge

of the five founder.-*,

whom

dared not

pass; therefore I passed underneath.


ft.

A.

The water underneath the bridge is so deep; how could you cross it? The Hungwater flowed athwart 3G and 72 ('j; but when the myriads

of adoptive

long: twenty four of these slips


(

are

bound together

in a bundle

and

form then the so-called Long-cash

^S)'

^" religious ceremonies these bundles are burned; popular superstition believing them to be
for the

changed into copper money


Fig. 1.

use of the Gods.


the notches
striji.

The paper-money-leaf with

representing cash, of yellow paper.

Fig. 2, Fig. 3.

The

paper-leaf torn to form a

The long-cash,

consisting

of 2-t of

the

strips

represented

in

fig.

2,

tied together in a

bundle

with peach-red paper-rings.

(')

Yari: If the character


viz:

Hung
(for

is

joiued

it

is

manifest."
-|-|'

"Ht

t^

;j-,g

three;

j\,
,

eight
is

"g"

hundred);

twent}';

and

j^
out of

:^

5^

one;

which characters the

character
(2)
i.

'>^

hung,

composed.

e.

3, 8,

21, with the meaning as explained in the above note.

(')

^^

tK

ii
is

^ ^ H
We

>^

-b. =i>
most of the former answers of this catechism, be resolved

This answer

quite unintelligible; and can, as

oaly by an initiated.

suppose that the numbers 36 and 72 are the component parts of some charac-

87

brethern

saw

that I

was

faithful
{^)

and loyal, they gave me three red stones


PaJi.
(^)

(-)

in the
'i'll

shape of the character Pin


Ijaces.
it
(*)

and the form of the character


(=)

There were

The president

JFan

went ahead and made ns

pass.

The slow ones did

in 21, the quick ones in 3 paces.

a
A.

203.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

can prove

by a

verse.

Q. 204.

How

does this verse run?


I

A.

saw

at the

head of the bridge the pledged ones


three stones in Iheir hands.
IJ)
(")
('|

Who

came along with

The adopted brethern


Copper
to the left,

went ahead and showed us the road;


right,

and iron to the

no diifcvence

(bi?eernible. ()

n.

m ^

1^
iM

m
^

X
ff

83

m m
M

f^

M
>^'

m
1^

M
1
m-

^ n
^^

m m
PI

m
Q
Aa. 209.

\^

^ # A m

208.

A
1

mouuted guard at the Hung-gate? Tlie two generals Wan-tao-lung aud Van-tao-fang mounted guard. How can you prove that? I can prove it by a verse.

Who

210

How

doe? this verse run?


Wan-tao-lung mounts guard
at

the Hung-gate;

He
The

stands

to

the

left

and interrogates the heroes.


;

faithful

and loyal enter the high temple


return (to the liouse

The

universe must

of Ming),

and

all

be called Hung.

Wang-tao-fang keeps watch

at

tlie

Hung-gate
faithful

He
The

stands to
five

the

right

and interrogates the

aud good.
(')

founders transmitted the peach-plum-wooden sword


kill

To
ffi

exterminate the Tsing-dyuasty aud to

Tao-kwang.

(^j

p^

m
'^

i;

ft

M
n.

A
'^^

89

til

^
-^
aJL

-m
Wi

n
^

ij

m
Q,.

^
(i)

m ^
26rL

m
M,

^ m ^

211.

Where

did

you come

to

when you had

passed the Hung-gate?

A.
a. 212.

To the Hall of Fidelity and Loyalty, Did you enter that hall?
Yes,
I

A. Q. 213.

entered

it.

What was

there?

A.
ft.

There was a quatrain.


214.

How

does

it

run?
(-)

A.

Before the Hall of Fidelity and Loyalty there are no great or small;

Don't desire riches and distinction

and do not oppress the poor

If a traitor violates his blood-sworn oath

He

shall be led out the gate,

and be

slain,

(^j

^ m
^f
Q)
(^)
i.

A-

m^

#
'ik

%
respect

^
There
is

See the engravino- on Tab. V.


folks.

e.

no difference between noble people and poor

Var:

Though he

is

not of your family, but a loyal

mau, you must


heart.

him;

But, decidedly, don't frequent friends without

1^

^
There was also a verse:

^
ti
The heroes

W %

^
'M

^I

^ ^

^
"^

are assembled together this night

To enter, with iron hearts, into this hall. The character Sltao is the seal of the Golden- orchid-district;
The red
flag of the

second lodge, steadily,

flutters

and waves.

4 ^
i

90
Q. 215.

Who

called out the

names?
(i)

A.
Q,.

216.

A.
Q. 217.

The two generals How can you prove that? I can prove it by a verse.

Ching-ki-thiau

and Chin-yun-ching

(^)

called

out the names.

How

does this verse run?


Before the Hall of Fidelitj' and Loyalty
is

A.

Ching-ki-thian

Who

calls together the brethern to take revenge.

Those who have sincere hearts

will enjoy longevity together;


five thunder-bolts.

But the

traitors will

be destroyed by

Before the Hall of Fidelity and Loj-alty

is

Chin-yun-ching;

The

lands of the dynasty of Tsing will be restored to Ming.

Respect the loyal ones amongst the sons of

Hung;
heart.

But, decidedly, don't frequent friends without

M m n ^ m m ^ ^
U. 218.

m m
i^^

'^

M
f^

^ K
"^

M n
n

)r

^
-^

^
u
"^

^ ^ ^ m

% m

^
j^

m
m
la

m
m ^
^

w M
circle.
(^)

^ ^
1^
tlie

^ ^

^
^

Where were you when you had passed


In the Heaven and Earth

Hall of Fidelity and Loyalty

A-

[})

fiR

^"
,

09

The

last character of this

name ought
officers
I

to be

written

ffl^

Me was governor

of the

department of Lu-ku, and one of the few faithful


tswig

Vho

shared the misfortunes of the Emperor Hi-

brought about by the rebellion of Hwang-tsao,


,

^^

^k.\> (^' ^'

^"^

^^)

Histoire geue'rale

de la Chine
(')

T.

VI

p.

549

passim.

I')

^ ^ IS s
i^*

91
Q. 219.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

220.

How

does this verse run?


Yin and Yang
(')

A.

united, Heaven and Earth accoupled,

First produced the sons of

Hung

in myriads united.

The

faithful

and good who pass along here,

Shall, afterwards,

accompany the prince of Ming.

It

t^

m m

^
-m

^
Q,.

m
tlie
it.

M
circle?

221.

Did you enter


Yes,
I entered

Heaven and Earth

A.
a. 222.

Who

kept watch there?


Ww-kin-lai kept watch.

A.
Q. 223.

The two generals Wu-kan-rl and How can you prove that?
I

A.
Q. 224. A.

can prove

it

by a

verse.

How

does this verse run?


Wu-kin-lai keeps watch at the Heaven and Earth
circle

He

is

the highest of all

who

enter the Hung-gate,

Father and son both come to keep watch;

They

carry the golden tablets (^),

and worship the

seat of the master.

92

^
^^
1^

i*

M
^

^
m
^^

^
0,.

^
jou
see?

M m ^
(}) (*)

^ ^ m m
it

^ ^
iu

M m ^

225.

What
I

else did

A.
Q,.

saw a

distich.

226.

How

does this distich run?


Settle

A.

heaven and earth

and reform

again.

Brighten sun and

moon

in order to obtain the empire.

^
m
A.
ft.

^
B

i*

M
circle of

m ^

^
f^
(^)

^
^

0- 227. "Which place was witliin the

Heaven and Earth?

228.

The City of willows, the Did you enter it?


Yes,
I entered
it.

seat of universal peace.

A.
ft.

229.

Who

founded the City of willoAvs and

who

restored it?
restored
it.

A.

prince of

Thang

(*)

has founded

it;

Wan-yun-lung has

The
^'^
{*)

universe.

{")

The dynasty

of

Ming.

Corap. p. 35, note 4.

:^ is: The Emperor Tai-tsung,

m n

^ m
of

the

great dynasty

of

Thang

(A. D.

627

649),

had to wage several wars

with the wild tribes which occupied

the North-western limits of China.


I

In the third year of his reign

he became involved in a war with


Northern-barbarians
I

C?dh-pih-pao-kliang-wang
'^^^^ '^'"S

^fe;

^^

^
|
,

J^
^^

king of the

:^[^

^)

^^^ general, named Tso-M-hm

^)

^^^

was the commander of


to chastise
it.

his vanguard.

Tai-tsung, having raised an army, entered the rebel state in order


the City of Willows."

He
to

advanced towards the royal residence, called MuJi-yang-cMng


this

The approaches
Khang-wang,
the king

place

were defended by

five passes

the last pass was held by the daughter of

the princess Thu-Iu


his

and

had already been


cess ordered
it

i^ \^t ^ i whilst the Muh-yang-ching was defended by general Lang-chn mS ^ Despairing of defending the pass as the four others taken by the Prince of Thang" [^ ^ as the rebels called Tai-tsung) the prin)}
)i

last

to be

abandoned, and the gates


hoping

left

widely opened.
the
,

Besides, she ordered the whole popu-

lation to

evacuate
therein
,

Muh-yang-ching,

to

entrap

Chinese

emperor into

the

empty

city,

to

besiege

him

and to starve him and his whole army


the advice of his war-council,

by cutting
fell

off all supplies.

^he Emperor, notwithstanding

into this

ambush, and entered theforsa-

93
ft.

230.

How
How

high

is

the City of

willows?

A.

As high
231.

as one's eyes can i-each.


is

a
A.
ft.

broad

it?

As broad
232.

as the

two

Capitals and 13 provinces.

(^)

How many
There are

double walls are there around the Willow-city?

A.
ft.

five

double walls.

233.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

234.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The Willow-city

lias

five

double walls:

Witliin are the brethern

who pledged

fraternity.

Shields and spears are piled as high as sun and

moon
name
of

"We have sworn before sun and

moon

to adopt all the

Hung.

:^

^
^ m
ken
off.

M m X
m,
,

1^
yt

Pi

^
-A

S.

M
r^

^
\L

^
n

&
^

n
with rice,

m ^
on which they

n
subsisted

m
all

city.

He was

immediately besieged and surrounded by the whole rebel army, and

supplies Tvcre cut

After three months, they were well nigh starved out; but, by means of a miraculous

swarm
time.

of bats,

they found a subterranean


last,

granary
to

filled

for

some

But,

at

the

Emperor resolved

send some one to the capital Chang-ngan, to get a relieving army.

certain Cldiig-yao-kini^f^

f^

presented himself for this dangerous errand.


lifted

He was
and
set

very nearly

arrested in

running

the

blockade,

but was

away by

a furious whirl-wind,

down

at the

frontiers of China.

Quite
his

bewildered by this incident he thought

himself at

the

gates
(

of Hades; but

was restored

to

senses

by an old

priest

who named

himself SUe-yang-tang

IflJ-

B^
general

>^

(perhaps Shie-pang-Jiang of Q. 180), and

continued his journey towards the capital to

fetch

the relieving
of

army.

In

the

mean time
out

the

princess

Thu-lu

fell

in

love

with Lo-tung

-g

^^

Tai-tsung; and,
ter

of love for him,

she

assisted the

Emperor

so effectually that

he gained victory afhis peace

victory over

her father,

whom

she induced, at

last, to lay

down

his

arms and make

with

the Emperor.
left

Khang-wang having submitted, was again


to China.

invested with the royal authority, and Tai-tsung

Muh-yang-ching, and returned

(See the

posterior records of Tliang, Vol. I

^
Z ^

jH"

or

Narrative

of

the

II.)

(')

The

text in the original stands thus:

Q. 230.

:^

Q231. 7^

^ m M "m^ m m^^-^ m M
^-

"M
-\^

'm'

"M

fM'

Q,

235.

A.
Q,.

236-

What was on these walls? Ou each wall were four large Which characters were on the

characters.
first

wall?
(^)

A.
ft.

Blending-Heaven's extensive conversion.


237-

A.
ft.

238-

Which characters were on the second wall? Obey Heaven, act righteously. (-) Which were the characters on the third wall?
Overturn (the dynasty
of)

A.
ft.

Tsing, restore (the dynasty

of)

Ming.

('')

239-

Which were

the characters

on the fourth wall?


the)
fifth

A.
ft.

Heaven's court (be the) pattern (of


240-

Empire.
wall?
(*)

(*)

Which were

the characters on the


(is)

A.
ft.

(The) friendly cloud


241.

widely

beneficial.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft-

can prove
does

by a

verse?

242

How

tlxis

verse run?
friendly cloud rises pure

A.

and white as a happy omen

The

old seat of the house of


of

Chu
and

shall be restored.

The sons

Hung

are, far

and wide, warned to come and destroy the usurper,


to restore the prince of

To

cross the (yellow) Kiver,

Ming

in the empire.

m M m

m
^ m
M

m ^ m
^

&

m ^

m
(')

m
the conversion

M ^ m

m ^
i^
^Ji

^
m

^
^

W^
Hi

^^

'ikd\
it

Mfi^iiig

t^li^t

of the Hung-league

is

so extensive that

it

blends

with Heaven,
(')

whom

makes propitious, so that the Triad-society


i')

flourishes.

(Comp.

p.

18

&

19).

'*^

^ ^ ^ ^^ H ^C
star

K m m
of the

0J
is

'

^^^ meaning

two

first

characters

obscure.

They may mean

the Lodge"

as well as the
(*)

Thian-ting.

^J

^^
had

^^ When
descended,
(Vide:

Ju-lai (Tathagata)
fertilized
all

came

into the world

it

was

as

if

a great cloud

charged

with rain,

which

the

plants

and

trees.

He was,
Ju-lai

therefore, called:
like

the

benevolent cloud."

'^ 3S ^).

The

charitable

heart

of

was

large

cloud

overshadowing the whole universe. (Vide;

^^

^|,

95
a. 243.

"Who kept guard

at the

Willow-city?
(')

A.
ft

The four
244-

great faithful excellent ones kept guard.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

245.

How

does this verse run?

A.

Han-phang keeps watch


Han-fuh
is

at the East-gate;

immoveable
is

like a

mountain at the West-gate;

At the south

Ching-thian like the ocean;


rulers.

At the North Chang-kwoh guards against the barbarian

m ^ ^
:\t
ft.

m
Is

m
B
^

^
PI

^ ^
im

M ^
-^

f^
llj

^
:^
you
see?

^ m

"^

m m

246.

What

else did

A.
ft.

Three large
247.

streets. (^)

A.
ft.

248-

A.
ft.

Which street was the largest? The middle street was the largest. How many shops were in it? One hundred and eight shops.

249.

What

are the

names

of all these shops?


{^);

A.

The shop

Peace-united

the shop Patriotism-united

(*);

the shop Monads-united (^);etc.

All these large shops are in countless quantity in the

two Capitals and 13

provinces.

P9
sworn
first,

"^

jfe

It

is

said

that
to

these four

men,

who

lived

during the dynasty of Thaug, had

fraternity

together

in

order
are

defend their country against the rebels.

The names

of the two

Han-phang and Han-fuh,

not mentioned iu History.


notice

The two
p.

last,
1.

however, are well known

officers.

Of Chiug-thian we have given, already, a

on

90, note

Of Chang-kwoh we

find

the following historical notice:

During the reign


China
with
all

of the

Emperor Hien-tsung,
and served
(

a certain Chu-ye-chih-nn

(^
in

315

^^

^Cl^)

'^'"^^

''^

his SJiato,

it

faithfully.
^^'^^

Having subdued,

in the seventh

month
\'l&

of the year A. D.

868, the rebel Pong-Mun

^@ Wl)^

^^^ made a rebellion

Kni-chao

^^^

^^^

Emperor Y-tsung gave him the name of Li-kwoh-chaiKj

(^

^ ^
Sect.

Li, the glory of the

state," to

show

that he judged

him worthy
of

of entering into the imperial family."

(See
fol.

i
(^)

M.

3, verso.

^il iPi Histoire gen. d.

^
1.

"^
(^)

^)

Compend

the History by

Wang-fung-chau,

44,

Chine, 1\ VI, pp. 537-538.)

(')

m m ^
i^

f^

(^)

m ^ m ^

}&
ifi

96
ft.

250.

What
lu the

is

sold in these shops?

A.

Peace-united shop

is

sold

five-coloured

stuffs

for

cotton jackets; in

tlie

Pashop

triotism-united
is

shop

is

sold all sorts of fruits


floss,

and eatables; in the


scissors,

Mi/riads-nnited

sold five-coloured silk-thread,

silk, satin,

sarcenet, lustring, golden flowers,


needles,

red silk haudkercliiefs, white fans, large and small

buttons,
is

foot-

measures, mirrors, paper and pencils,


there,
ft.

ink and

inkstones.

Everything

on

hand

and
is

all

the shops are opened at broad daylight.


of this street?

251.

"What
It is

the

name

A.
ft.

called the street of Fidelity

and Loyalty,
street?

(i)

252.

How many
Two How
I

families dwell in
families.

tliis

A.
ft.

and seventy

253.

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

254.

How

does this verse run?


If

A.

you don't know each other and meet together, what do


there has been a revolution in
is
,

j-ou think then?


sing.

When
If
it

Heaven and Earth the Tai-ping wUl

predestinated, people
is

come together from thousands of miles;

But

if it

not predestinated , one does not

know

his brother face to face.

*
m

#
i^

ffi

m.

^
u
ft.

^ m

^ m M m

^
i^

^ ^
;IS

i^

^
^-

% #

^
to

255.

A.
ft.

256.

else did you see? saw tlu-ee moats. (-) Of what use are they?
I

What

A.
ft.

Provisions and assistance are transported


257-

by them

the army.

Wliich

tilings are in the city?


is

A.
ft.

Everything
258.

there.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

Aft.

can prove

by a

verse.

259.

How

does this verse

run?
is

A.

In the

Willow-citj'

the

God Kwan;
it;

Flowers red, and

all

kinds of things are in

(')

m.

(=)

97:

The
Fii's,

four great faithful excellent ones assist to the ri2;ht

and

left

cedars, and paper-cents

(^)

are

hung

to tlie

West and East;


;

Eattan shields and precious swords are disposed for a thousand soldiers

The
The

steel-yards,
jaile

scales

and fans are most impressive;

foot-measure and smoking-pipe are


glitter dazzlingly

known
;

all

over the world

Festoons of damask
Five-coloured

and brightly

fine flags,

and the Army-standard,

(-)

With

the precious State-canopy of yellow silk stand in the middle;

(")

There are scissors, golden flowers and chop-sticks of jade;

To
The The The

the

right and

left

are peach-trees, giving the troops a valiant appearance;


(*)

three sacrificial animals


five

and the oblation wine

are offered

there
(^)

vegetables and five fruits are presented to the five dragons;


(^)

red food

is

heaped, plentiful, in the bushels;


,

The lamps and

candles buni bright and glorious

so that all the place

is

red.

4^

#
^

m m m m
cm

^
s.

m m
IE

(')
(*)

See p. 85

note 4.

(2)
\')

Sec Tab.

X,

fig.

1.

(3)

See Tab.
i.

X,

fig.

2.

The ox, goat and swine.

The

five

founders.

(^)

e.

rice."

(")

We

have here an example of the


the adjective red
force.

Inverse-Law"

[^\

^-l

occurring,

occasionally,

in

Chinese
give
it

style:

^X

l^s'"g placed after the substantive /(?;)

'f^

<

i"

order

to

more

1.3

98

3l

^
(^)

H ^ m
Kwan

^ M
m
all,

3L

ft

m
-m
0)

^
the

Var:

We

have sworn by drinking our blood to take,


is

name

of

Hung;

In the WiUow-city

the lord

The God K^van-yin, The white

the five Founders and Wan-jun-lung;

Flowers red, and precious candles are kept in the golden palace;
porcelain censer is the
,

omen

of universal peace;

Peaches , plums

firs

and cedars since ages grow luxuriantly


silk

There are kerchiefs and fans of coloured

remaining always red;

[^)

Chessboards and precious swords are placed on high and below


Scissors

and damask are disposed

in order;

There are steel-jards and scales accurate and just, and jade foot-measures

The paper-cent-bundles
In the study are

hung up high, giving the troops a valiant appearance; standing pencils and ink to the right and left;
are of state,

The

silk

Canopy

and the variegated

flags

are placed

exactly

in the

middle;

Onions and greens are placed,


Tobacco
,

at their time, in the

room

of the Founders;

betel, tea

and wine are

offered to the illustrious gentlemen


different colours;
five

Patriotic banners, clubs and

flags of five

All things are arranged completely at the

double walls;

By
The

the light of the lamp, placed on a bushel,

we

all

have sworn fraternity;

valiant heroes are assembled to see the great


sufficient

lord

The Willow-city contains a

quantity of provisions and rice;

And

the festoons and lamps redden the whole City.

m.

!k

^
^
e

% ^
3S.

^
ft

ii^

'^

m.

u
^ ^ M

m
fi

# m
f\i

n ^

^ M u
^Is

^
^

W ^
i:
-^

n ^

^ m

"^

Q)

i.

e.

Never fading.

99
ft,

260-

How many
Which

temples are there?

A.
Q,.

Three temples.
261.

are these temples?


of

A.

The temple

Kwan-yin

and the temple of Kao-khi. Quatrain on the temple of Kwan-yin.


('),
(-)
(*)

the temple of

Kwan-ti

(')

In the West the merciful one

rejoices extremely;

Ming

rises,

Tsiug disperses, and the barbarians are exterminated.


slain

When we
The sons

shall have

and destroyed the Manchoos and Western Tartars,


patrimony of Chu.

of

Hung

will restore the old

^
m

m
^

^
2fe

^
^

IE

jffi

^
-&

m
4

^
Mi

^ % m
ilS
(')
I>.

Tit

(*)

Kwan-yin

is

called

the Goddess of mercy."

100
Quatrain on the temple of K\van-ti.
Since
all

ages Yun-clian,^ Q) has

been the most loyal;


his
ticlflity

The
They

bretheni

of the Hung-family imitate

aiul loyalty;

wait with a sincere heart for the

emperor of the dynasty of Minsr,


tlieir

Antl come, purposely, to pledge themselves, and take incense-sticks in

hands

M
}^
fy

m
yt

M
f^ i^

^
^^

w
^^

m
^i^^

w
Of

m ^
firstly

^
-^^

n
made divining

^
blocks;
()

M r m

Quatrain on the temple of Kao-khi.


Five men were
united in Kao-khi:

They remained

in the temple to establish the Ilung-lcague;

tlowered cups they

They dispersed themselves over

the world, to restore the dynasty of Ming,

^ ^ ^

m
0,.

A ^ m n
(s)

^jj

^
it

M
ax

^
n

M
1M

iK
T-

m m
^
no Avater; no water;

^
are there?
Avells?

262.

How many
There are

"Wells

A.

five

Wells.

Q. 263. Is there

water in those

A.

At;

the East in the sign Kmhy'ih, element %coqd , there the South in the sign Pitig-ting, element fire, there the

is is is

At At At At

West

in the sign King-sin, element 7neial , there

no water;
water;
{*)

the North in the sign Yin-hri, element xcaier , there the Middle in the sign Wu-ki , element
eartJi
,

is

the water reaches unto heaven.

(1)

The surname of lywan-yu, pue of the

three

who swore
in

fraternity

in the peachgavden.
if

(See p.

2.)
it is

(-)

pair of

bamboo-root
(

splints
if

used

for divination;

throwing,
|

both plane surfaces come up,


if

called

Tin-kiao
Shing-kiao
?)

[f^

|)j

both are convex, Yang-kiao


p.

|f

|||

one of each (the most favorable),

[^

j),

(Comp.

15).
^"'h
'''"'^

^
King (^^)I Si"

ei

^^^^

(^);

(I,);

Ping (f^)' Ting


'""^

(T)pvu

(jjc^);

KI
-T-

(^);
j

(^l!

^'"^

(i)

^"'(^^1

*''

so-called

heavenly stems

(^

or ten

101
G. 264.

Did you drink of


I

tiic

water from these wells?


tliat?

A.
G. 265.

drank

of the

water from the middle well.

How
I

can j'ou prove


it

A.
Q. 266.

can prove
does

by a

verse.

How

tliis

verse run?
is

A.

E;astwarJs Kiali-yik, (element) wood,

the

first;

Southwiirds Thnj-thuj, (element)

fire,

are connected togetlier

AVest wards Kuuj-un, (element) metal, forms a

lump;

Northwards Yin-kid, (element)


In the Middle
is

^^'ater,
first

reaches heaven;
(')

JFit-Jci,

the

cause;

The

earth produces millions

and thousands of brethern.

-^

it

T
if
ij

^
it

ic

i^

102
^.

The

precious nine-storied

Pagoda stands middlemost:


(in it) since centuries;

The founders stand opposite each other

When the Ming-dynasty returns And the great dynasty of Ming

there will be naught but officers of the Hung-family


shall settle the social

bonds and virtues.

(})

^
m.

m m
m m

m
Q. 271.

i^ How many Ponds


Three Ponds.

^ ^ m -

m m m m

^
M

M
^^

^ m m

m n

are there?

A.
Q. 272.

Which

fish is

reared in them?

A.
Q. 273.

Stone carpers are reared in them.

How How

can you prove that?

I can prove it
ft.

by a

verse.

274.

does this verse run?


In the three ponds
are reared carpers,

A.

Whose two tails crossed form the character jiah. (^) The stone-carpers may be observed in the duckweed:

(')

Wheu

they have jumped into the di-agon-gate, they vomit pearls.

(*)

^
=1

^
{^E
ft.

m M m
A
{')

m
:^

^
m

m A
m
il

M
ft

^
PI

m ^ ^
Rt

^ m ^
and Willows
is

275.

How many Orchards


Five Orchards.

are there?

A.
ft.

276.

What
There

is

planted in them?
planted Peaches and Plums; to the
left

A.

is

Rushes

{^)

to the right.

In front are Firs, at the back are Cedars.

In the middle

grove of red bamboo.

(1)

See pag. 63, notes 1

S:

2.
(*)

(')

/V
vomit

(^ig'i')-

-^ species of Azolla
,

growing

in fishponds.

()

The Chinese
pearls.

believe that the carper changes

after a certain lapse of

time

into a dragon

and can

then

(^)

i & @

103
Q. 277.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

278.

How

does this verse run?

A.

transmitted peach and plum-branch are planted in the Willow-city


fine rain their flowers
,

Moistened by a

open;

The
If

flowers

fall

the fruit

set,

and

fill

the whole tree with jade; 0)

you wish

to be admitted

you must come under the peach and plum-trees.

#
3E

Quatrain on the Cypress.


It's

heart

is

strong, and does not fear the frost and

snow encroaching:

Since

many

ages

it

is

green in winter as at present.

Draw up yourself to right and left, the true lord to receive; To Heaven t'is agreeable if Tsing you overturn, and Ming again

restore.

104
A.

Each house has three divisions ('), whicli are each divided into Besides, there is the barn of great peace three rooms each. enough for them.
('')

tliree stories
(');

(-),

with

so there

is

room

Q..

283-

How many

Caserns

(=)

are there?

A.
ft.

Eiglit Caserns.

284-

And how many

AVatch-turrets?

C')

A.
ft.

One and twenty Watch-turrets.


285.

How many

Furnaces

(')

are there?
("")
^

A.
ft.

Three families have eighteen furnaces; viz: the great families Li


286. In

Chu

(")

and Hung.

('"}

how many

furnaces

was

fire

burning?

A.
ft.

Five furnaces were lighted.


287.

How many

Fields are there in the City


fields in

(^^)

A.
ft.

There are 72
288.

the City.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by

a verse.

289.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The seventy two

fields

arc

renowned

far

and wide:

They

yield two crops a year for


feed

the nourishment of the Ilimg-brethcrn.

One can

thonsands of soldiers and myriads of horses with their produce,

AVho may, afterwards, accompany the prince of the house of Ming.

106
This precious thing, entirely, returns to the sway of the lord of

Ming

And

the whole empire shall,

surely, have a universal peace.

m
it

ft.

^ w ^ m
by a
verse.

1^

^
'0
\U

*
m m

^
m

^ ^
:k

n ^ m ^

300.

What
The

is

the most respected?

A.
ft.

five

Founders are most respected?

301.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

302.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The

five

Founders are most respected, and are our lords;

They
If,

are divided over the five lodges,

and

are all called

Hung.

afterwards, the day of reunion shall have come;


of the

The brethern

Hung-family

will all get imperial

fiefs.

S.

^ ^
(')

ft.

303.

What

is

used as signal?

A.
ft.

Five differently-coloui-ed banners are used as signals.


304.

How
How

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

I can prove
305.

by a

verse.

does this verse run?

A.

The

five-coloured fine banners don't difier in the least


first
[-)

The

lodge

is

my

Hung-family;

Three ages peaceably together are at every place united;

To help and

assist the

Lord of Ming to

sit

on the throne of China,

^ m

^ m

^
-^

m ^

1^

B
"^^

M ^

107

m
^
ft.

M m m
n
m
(-)

M.

h
r^
'

306.

What

is

the evidence? Q)
is

A.
ft.

Mixing the blood


307.

the evidence.

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.
?
five

308.

How
We

does this verse run

A.

mixed the blood and, unanimously, worshipped the


at that time,

men
change;
of one flesh

Who,

made

a league under the peach-trees.

From
But

the present time that we've

sworn

this oath, we'll never

we'll be

more

cordial than

those born from the same

womb, and

and bone.

(')

^l

109

m
121

110
a. 322-

A.
a. 323.

A.

Where did you come to when you had gone (i) I came to a Volcano, What was in that Volcano? There was a red Furnace. C^)

out the West-gate?

a
A.
ft.

324-

How
I

can you prove that?


it

can prove

by a

verse.

325.

How

does this verse run?

A.

The red The


But the

furnace, though crooked, goes straight into the volcano;

faithful

and loyal will enjoy longevity on the Pao-lan-mountain

faithless

and

disloyal will perish in

it.

ix

m
M
this
{^)

M'

)M.

^M

'X

\U

r^
a.

^
volcano
it.

m
?

326

Who

guards

A.
ft.

Ilunghai-rl
327.

guards

How
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
G. 328.

can prove

by a

verse.

How

does this verse run?

A.

Heaven

sent

down

Hung-Jiai-rl

who devoured men;


(*)

But, thanks to a priest of Thang, we were saved.

When
They

faithful

and loyal men pass


later

this place.

shall

accompany, in

days, the prince of Ming.

l^)

i^

lij

'^'-^

^^

^*'*

(i^l
'^^

''^

appears from another copy.

i^)

^
^Y
When

'M

('>

M %
645),
a
to

(*)

E'men-thsang
India, in

l^

^]
i^
the

was the famons pilgrim who went, dm-ing the dynasty of Thang (629
law of Budha.

order to

fetch the pure

He was

accompanied by Sun-Ku-khung

|^
iin

^
fort-

Cku-wu-iimig

'|^

^\

&iid S/ia-icu-tsiiig
I

('^
IS
)>

j^

|p

j.

Having

passed

night's march beyond

Black-foicl-kmgdom
out

J^

^
a

tliey arrived at

the foot of

immense
issued.

mountain

whose top was depressed, and


spirits

of

which an enormous column of smoke and

fire

they approached, sixty

came
in

out of the mountain, w-aruing Hiuen-thsang and


that

his

compa-

nions not to

approach,
asking

as

there
this

lived

volcano

malicious sprite

who

kept them prisoners.

On Wu-khung
3p)^

who

sprite

was, they answered:

he

is

the
is

son of Niu-mo-icatig

1^

j^

nourished bj Lo-chah-niu

(^

^J

'^]\

l^is

milk-name

Eug-hai-rl

(^J|

^1

Ill

113
Q..

332. lio\v
I

can you prove that?


it

A.
ft.

can prove

by a

verse.

333.

How

does this verse run?


In the red-flower-pavihon
Before which
Fulfil
five
is

A.

censer witli incense,

men have pledged


of all

themselves,

and sworn an oath.

your duties in the temple in Kan-su,


the

(^)

The gathering-place

llung-heroes within the four seas.

^^

^
ii-

m
The Master now says:
I have a precious
//I

^ A m M

^ ^
^
m

--

'M

n
Pi

m
to give

^ m
yourself three
to you.

m ^ ^
times

# m ^
^m
is

have examined you in everything, and there


Rise and prostrate

no doubt about
our
true
lord.

yonr being Thian-yu-hung.


All the

before

sword and a warrant


ruifaithful

new members who themselves; but those who are


cut off their heads,

are, iu truth,

faithful

andloj'al, you

may
to

bring hither to pledge

and

disloyal, j'ou ought

bring without the gates,

aud expose them."


this distich:
w'arrant of the

Whereupon the Vanguard answers by


The sword and
Aud, now,
I can

commander

are

now

civen to Thian-vu-hnns;

go to

all

the lodges in the world, according to

my

wishes.

(-)

m
m
(')

^(U

^IJ

m
I

^ m

# ^

^
,

^ m
I

^^

Tiie lodge in

the province of Kan-su.

(-)

Var

am going, now, to all the societies of Hung To adopt brethern and gather great heroes. If a night-brother {^) meets me and asks what (I'll answer) I am the most important one in

wish

the Hung-lcaguc.

113

The new members who

refuse

now,

positively, to enter the league, are led


off at

by an executioner

without the West-gate, where their heads are cut


sion or fear of death, accept the adoption, are

once.

Those who, either by persua-

now handed

over to the Vanguard.

SECTION

II.

CEKEMONIES OF AFFILIATION.

The Vanguard now orders the new members to come into the //Red-flower-pavilion," in order by a bloody oath, that they all wish to adopt the name of Hung. The Vanguard at the head, and all the new members following, then enter this pavilion where the ceremonies of affiliation are to be accomplished.
to confirm,

These ceremonies begin with the cutting


the head-cue.
(i)

off of the

sign of subjection to the Tartar

sway

An
in the

affiliated

one

is

standing next to every

new member;
cue,
is

whilst one of the brethern answers

name

of those

new members.
of cutting
silken hair

During the ceremony


The black

off the

this
cut

brother recites the following quatrain:


off;

on

my

head

now

And
For

I
if

am clad in sackcloth and in mourning apparel before I am not clad in sackcloth and in mourning apparel,

the altar

of the lodge.

(How

can I then) exterminate the Tartar barbarians, and protect our lord to come?

m
1^
:^

m m
m

^ ^ m

M ^ m m

M ^ m ^

^ m ^
to

m ^ ^
the
old

This ceremony is called //Cutting off the cue." {-) The cue being cut off, the hair of tlie head is clipped according ion, (^) during which ceremony the following quatrains are recited:

Ciiinese fash-

(')

Of course

the

ceremony of cutting

off the cue

is

dispensed with
to the

if

the

members must remain dispersed


Sometimes the ceremony
the remaining tuft.
ia

amongst the Chinese who have continued


performed, however, in which case a
[-)

faithful

Tartar dominion.
to

false

cue is, afterwards, braided

flp

'^

(^)

IH

^''^'

^^

^^^^

^^^'^ shaved

on both sides,

and the hair

combed backwards and


their hair,

tied into a tuft,

nearly in the

way

iu

which the Japanese of the present day wear


15

lU
taken away that

The black
But, at

silk is

we may

serve the prince of

Ming-

first,

transmit

me your
restore

verbal instruction,

and save my body.

This evening

we come

before the face of the five founders

To

overturn Tsing and

Ming

is

agreable

to

God.

^
4 K
On

^
i
-^

B
ft

#
=^

^
RJ
II.

the seven-starred altar

mounted Ngo-lung;
stratagem.

In one morning auijust Heaven sent down an admirable man;


If Kin-nan

had not used an

excellent

How

could Ywi-lung then have been confident in his

own

abilities:

115

-b

M
M.

^ ^
'j^

g\

it

M
iip

^ A
m-

m
alTiUated covers
this

m m

^
is

m n
I.

m m
(^)

^
filled

m
with water; one of the

The new members are now brought before a washing-basin

basin with a towelj and pronounces these quatrains

Clear and resplendent

the blue dragon!

lotus-flower

(^)

is

laid

upon

it.

When

the black clouds are

dispersed,

we

see the

bright

moon;

Now

our faces will be washed clean.

&

m
Mi

m
^

m
A

^ w ^

m
M
t^

m
m
II.

u n
is

^ m ^

m
five

In the Hsr-^jw-basin the heart of


precious veil of dragon-beard
(')

man

reflected

covers the deep basin.

We'll wash clean our traitorous hearts in order to appear before the We'll help our lord
to

founders;

mount upon

the throne, and the days of

Ming

shall

come.

m w
m

Pi
"iJfl

^
M.

m
,

-^

i^'

A ^ ^
B

^'
'^

m
m

^
cap, or garments

^
in.

Without coat

You, always, can approach the porches of the Lord's temple.

Wash clean the dust Do away with your

of Tsing,

and the colour of your

face will appear;


sit

corruptness and perversity

to

iu the temple of

Ming.

(')

(1)

i.

e.

the washing-basin. character

(-)

&

(^)

i.

e.

a towel.

[*)

If

we change the

^.

r^'wy, the Tsing-dy nasty, into

Tu/ij,

bluish or dark;

and

it

we

116

Z-

if

m m
This ceremony
is

m
^

^ ^ m
itf

^
'^

'^-

i^

M m
(^)
(*|

^ m
^
and

m
^
^^

^ M ^ ^
(^) {-)

called //Covering the washing-basin

with a towel."

The towel

is

now
At

taken
first

away from

the washing-basin,

this quatrain recited:

remove the transverse clouds


will

of a thousand miles length.

And

the pure moon-disk

illuminate the City of willows.

The united waters

of the three rivers are disputed


(^')

by the people of Tsing;

Sixteen generals and soldiers

wrangle for universal peace.

^
--

m
m

m
M
:^

=f

M.

^
M

~
The
faces of the

^
M
are
dispersed,

=L new melnbers A
black

I.

m m m
the

m m
is:

m ^ ^

now washed

in the basin, whilst these quatrains are recited

cloud

covered the water

water covered the moon;

The black clouds were


The
But the
traitors

and the blue heaven appeared.


glistens

heart of the faithful and loyal

and malefactors

shall perish before the basin.

m m n
translate

W
m

^ m ^
J

:i^

:i^

m m m

M.

^'
i^

^ ^ m ^
last lines

M ^ m

0JJ

^^

Temple of Ming, by LigJiMemple, the two

could be read:

Wash clean the darkning dust, and the colour Do awav with your corruptness and perversity

of your face

wiU appear

to sit in the temple of Light.

Q)
(3)

^
i.

ril

^^
:

(")
(*)

Called the ceremony of //Uncovering the washing-basin"

(^

^j
earth,

e.

the towel.

The washing-water.

\^)

Variation

yV

%^

i^

^^^'i

^^^ ^^"^^ meaning.

As

these

two characters mean the superior

and

inferior principles or agencies; so heaven, father,

prince, general, etc., are all

whilst

pipther,

minister, soldier, etc.,

are all

JA

because they have each a correlative superior.

117
II.

The jade-dragon (^) spouts the water of the three rivers, To wash clean traitorous hearts, and (make them) wish to When, afterwards, we have assisted our lord to mount upon The
brethfcrn of the

restore Ming.'

the Emperor's throne;

Hung-famiiy

shall,

surelj^,

have a universal peace.

113
This ceremony
is

called

//Putting

on

the

white dress."

(i)

The heads
chiefs

of the

new members
the dynasty of

are

now wrapped
{-),

in a red kerchief of the fashion of kerrecited

worn during

Ming

and these quatrains


I.

A
Is

head-kerchitf of bran-new colour

wound arouud my
faithful

head-gear, and I go to call troops.

The

and loyal may come hither,

To

follow the prince of

Ming within

the City of willows.

m
it

119

H-

A
Is
I'll

head-kerchif of l)ran-Dew colour

wound around my
call

head-geav, and I

go to

call

troops;

together the heroes to


it

assemble aud unite

day,

Since the ancient times

has been
tlJ0

transmitted until this very

^
m

# M
-^

n
The

H m ^ m
till

\\^

m
"^
ni.

* ^ ^

^ m m
iii

ff

m ^

m
them
leak out:

^
;

red sun above our heads mounts the nine heavenly regions

Gradually he marches

within the City of willows;


let

Conceal the secrets and don't

For from the beginning

till

the end the brethern must

all

be called

Hung.

m ^ ^
(')

-^

^
M.

Ji

m
^

^
m

m n

c)

Variation:

A
Is

red kerchief of bran-new colour

wound around our heads

and we go to

call

troops.

When we

have raised numberless

men and

countless horses,

"We shall exterminate the Tsing-dynasty, and protect our king,

M m

-^

^ n
^
spiral

^ M
"^

r|i

M
19
2.

^
A A
Conceal
fo;:

m
is

* ^ ^ ^
heads, and

^ m

if
w. '^

M
^^
we

#
of being heroes.

of red

vapour pierces the nine heavenly regions;


are confident

kerchief

wound around our


and don't
till

the secrets

let

them

leak

out:
all

from the beginning

the end the brethern must

be called Hung.

120

The new members are now told to pull off their shoes, and a pair of straw-shoes, of the kind people in mourning wear, are given to them to put on. In the meantime these quatrains are recited:
I.

Our

feet tread

on straw-shoes, and step by step we go; oa the road.

For nobody
Albeit

interrogates the poor and miserable

my

brother

may know my
tell

intentions,

Tet, by no means, shall he

them to

others.

^
Tttr
.

M m
II.

Here

is

a pair of bran-new straw-shoes

AVe enjoin and recommand you to engage myriads of men.

We

warn you, brother, not to tread iu the ways of the dynasty of Tsing;
the red-pavilion and the City of wUlows.

You must remember

^ ^

M
Enwrapped
at the

}t
3.
left,

m n

^m
0)

envelopped at the right, and open on both sides


all

The

faithful

and loyal,

called,

come

together.

The (names

of the) noble and valiant heroes are perpetuated during several ages;

At that time they appeared clothed in white garments.

^
Jfe Aii>

m
jw
ii^'

-^

m M
to

^ m

n
C)
Describing

^ ^ ^

how

the kerchief

is

be wound around the head.

(1)

Var;

^^

^Ij

121

m
BT

-f-

P^

122

ft.

7.

Where
The

is

it,

and

who gave
gave
it

it

to

A.
ft,

president

Wan

to

me

you to stamp with to stamp with it.

it?

8.

How

heavy

is

the seal?
thirteen ounces. 0)

A.
ft.

Two pounds and


9.

Have you the sword?


I

A.
ft.

have.
are on
it ?
it.

10.

Which marks
Which

A.
ft.

There are four characters on


11.

characters?
a) pearl.
(-)

A.
ft.

Two
12.

dragons dispute (about

A.
ft.

Which marks are on the point of the sword? Also two characters. Which
characters
?

13.

A.

Overturn Tsing

Restore Ming.

('')

Each member

of the wliole brotherhood

now

takes nine blades of grass in his

hands, in-

stead of talcing incense; in

commemoration
This ceremony
is

of the

manner

in

wliich the

five

founders of their
(*)

league pledged fraternity.

called:

//Taking grass instead of incense."

The

following quatrains are recited during this ceremony.


I.

Nine blades

of green grass were

growing

at the way-side;

Five men pledged themselves before the pure Heaven.

This day we remember the

affair

of that ye.ir;
is

We

wish to take revenge as soon as occasion

offered.

ji

m.

m K
19

^
IS

M n
tt

B m
ir

^
^

}^

4 ^
4

^
-^

m
And move
The
leader gives

%
the great

%
II.
five

n
camps.

* ^

All ye brethern please enter the City of willows

army of the

you the order


in

to give, simultaneottsly, the signal:

Take green grass

your hands instead of fragrant incense.

(')
(-)

Meaning the two

of Chin.T.
<')

^ ^

^B
ft

(Comp.

^ ^ ^
Jj^
p.

capitals

and 13 provinces of old China.


meaning, probably, that the
Tartars and Chinese dispute about the possession

H).
(C-omp. p. 14).

^^

^ ^ ^

(Comp.

p.

15).

123

M
^

}t

A #
PI

m
The
formulary of the oath,
the censer,

^ M
large

written on

sheets

of

yellow paper,

is

now

laid

upon
ce-

and incense-sticks are


called the

distrilnited to

all
(^)

members

present, old and new.

This

remony

is

//Distribution of incense."

These verses are then recited:


I.

This

night

new

incense

is

blended with the old incense; pledged fruternity.


spirits:
(2)

In a peach-garden Liu,

Kwan and Chang


hearts

The brethern have


Since the ancient

faithful

and loyal

times their names are perpetuated and renowned in

the world.

4
it

T
II.

Since

we have
faithful

entered the llung-gate and seen the written oath,


are widely

The

and loyal brethern

renowned;
together,

With

a sincere heart they pledge fraternity


in

And

the

City

of willows they

take inceuse-sticks in their hands.

A n ^
>i^'

-^

IS
tA

^
the

#
their first
tlie

The incense is now which they stick in the ashes

offered to the Gods,


of the

members taking each

blade of grass,

censer.

This verse being recited in

meantime:

I')

(2)

See page 2.

124

We

stick the first

grass as incense;

Aud come
The word

to pledge ourselves in the peacligarden

of

command

is

linown

all

over the world,

m M
Then
the second blade of grass
is

m m ^
all to all

^ ^
^
come and pledge
our heart to

1^

^ T
;

^ m ^

stuck in the ashes, and this verse recited:

\fe stick the second grass as incense

And

swear

ourselves,

Wishing with

be named Hunt/.

=L

^ Now
they
all

m m
iO

M ^ ^
the

-^

)^
i^

# ^ m
is

stick the third blade of grass in the

censer, whilst this verse

recited:

We

stick this third grass as

incense;

And pledge ourselves before To take revenge as soon as

pure Heaven
presents
itself.

occasion

^ ^
This ceremonj', called

M m
ceremony

1^

^
^
three
sticks

//Offering incense" Q),

being terminated,

of fine incense
{^)

are stuck in the censer, constituting the

of //Presenting fine incense."

At the

first

stick this verse

is recited:

The

first

incense-stick of fine perfume is


first

stuck

in the censer,

Which we

offer to

the

Gods

that they

may

protect the faithful and good.

This evening the brelhern swear together an oath,

That thej wish to pledge themselves

to

worship, with one heart,

the lord

Kwan.

jfe

^k^

m
II yt

m
B^

m
-^

m
>s.

-4^

m
V)

m ^
(=)

f^
i^'

m.

w m
^^

mm

"J

125

At

the second stick this verse

is

recited
of fine perfume pierces the

The second

incense-stick

Heavens
oath
see

This night we come with a sincere heart to swear an


If there are false-hearted

amongst you, Heaven and Earth


,

them;

Pive tliunder-bolts shall destroy them

and

split

them

in

twain.

4 ^ i
At
The

iB.

it

1^

M
pierces the
Spirits.

m
Heavenly court;

the tliird incense-stick this verse is recited:


third incense-stick of fine perfume

The heroes swear an oath and worship the Gods and


Faithfully and loyally

we come

to swear

That, throughout the whole world, the heroes of

Hung

will be unileJ.

126

red candle

is

now

lighted,

and
is

this verse recited:


lighted aud shines
brightly;

The red candle

Millions of Hung-heroes stand on both sides.

This evening we come in the peach-garden to pledge fraternity

The glowing

light illuminates, brightly,

our king and prince.

127

The

third cup of fine

wine

is

now

put before the Shrine, and


wine
is

this

verse recited;

This

third cup
brethtrii

of fine

now put

before

tlie

Shrine;

The

pk-dge themselves to overturn Tsiiig and restore Ming.

'^

^
f^
offered

yt
The wine having been

^ ^
(i),

n
hair,

m m
lamp
mounted

m m
is

m
iM
(-),

m
and
this verse recited

the seven-starred

lighted

The

seven-starred altar was raised at the East;


early on

The master, with loosened The whole

the terrace.
[^),

Mang-thang having used the stratagem

of interlaced chains

of the land returned to Ming.

if

129
,/Tliis

night I have come with these bretheni before X, the

incense master of the lodge


prefecture

X,
and be

vat the place


,/Vince of

X,
All
(^)

near the village


the

X,

in

the district

X,

of the

X,

in

the pro-

X.

brethern

who have

been brought here to night, are

all iron-galled

//copper-livered.

i,We have come together to pledge fraternity before Heaven and Earth: we'll swear //all of one heart and mind, and we'll mix our blood to confirm this oath. //We pray and beseech the Gods of Heaven and Earth;
,/

to

L'm-pi, luoan-yil

and

Chang-fi

who

pledged

fraternity in a peach-garden.

(-)

//With one heart and mind


//Tsing

we

will obey Heaven, and act righteously; and

we

will overturn

and restore Ming. Our faithful hearts will not alter, and we will never change. //Unanimously, and with united forces, we will search together for the true lord. We will

//reconquer the empire, and restore the true throne, that the heirdom of the great dynasty of

//Ming

//We

may flourish again. now burn incense

here and

make
(s)

this
first

prayer:

we

pray that

it

may

reach

the

Su-

//preme Ruler of the August Heaven; the

heavenly venerable One; the


(*);

three lights sun,

//moon (and stars);

the five

planets

and seven rulers

the divine prince

Wu-tao
IP

{^);

4
idi

^
1

A A ^
^

^4

it

A
1m

A
#
JiiijJ

m
n
mo

m n

A
^.
lil.

m
n
St^\!>

IE

A
li
tt
'

0J

S m
i.

e.

Valiant and courageous.


p.

Compare

2.

Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Mercury and Saturn.


Sun, moon and the
five planets.

Name

of a constellation.

17

130
,ytlmt it

may

reach the Heavenly Ruler

who bestows

happiness, and the supreme iao-Zvi'B.

(')

We pray, also, to the Biulha of the western Heaven; to the perfect Biidlias Shili-kia. (-) and ii-Tu-Iai ('); to Am'ula Bmlha ; to the most merciful and most gracious ^qMqss Kivan-shi-yin {*); to and to the diamond-accomplished Budhas ('); to the //the four supreme Heavenly kings {'), We pray, also, to the Supreme Ruler //eighteen Lo-han (;); to the venerable Grst sage Tah-mo {^).
00

^
n

H m

i
Pt

^
#.
-k

-k

131
,/of the
,/

dark Heaven

of the Nortli-pole; to
(i);

the

master Kwel-l-uh of
faithful

tlie

cavern Kwel-kuh in the


{'^);

mountain Ynn-mang
the

to

the

Imperial-bestowed

and loyal holy prince Kivan

to

//the prince Kioan-phlng


//of

('');

and

to the general to

C/iav.-c7iwang (*); to

Him who
of

Gemmeous (Emperor);

Wu-lao-khnng-hing;

to

the

holy lord,
the

entered nighan by grace


leader
{^);

to

Hinx

//upon

whom
Ruler

is

bestowed,

by imperial preferment, the name

five-fold

effulgent Su-

,/preme
//ing

Queen
to

//ear C),

Wa-kicang ("); to the Supreme princess, enipire-protecting and people-assistHeaven, the golden-flowery, blessing-bestowing lady; to the clear -percepting the thousand-mile-seeing-eye (^), and to Chao-hian-lhan ('); to the mandarin Wang-liug (i),
of
all

//and

the

generals.
to the left

//We pray,
//to

especially,

Thian-fmg and the right Thlan-fimg

to the

thirty six hea(^i);

//venly generals
the

who guard

the gates of

Heaven;

to the
to

seventy two diamond stars of Earth


the

August Heaven and the Queen of Earth;


:1B

Lord

of the

winds, the Ruler of


ll]

if

S
<^

*:

5^

W)
i^

fji'.

^>

n
#. m-

%
m

%
:^
Jt

m #
m.
if

m ^ m
:i

m ^ ^
^ ^
M
)S
named
also

^> ^. ^.
'1^''
jiis

m ^
m
M
A. w. ^.
-^
ti

# ^
m> ^.

J^

#
^^*

1
31 wj

#
m
;rE

^ m
i^j-

m:
m.
tc

i<
1.

^' ^.

^ ^
5lf.

m ^ m
^
-1^

m
p.
:[a

7^
3^

^
.

m
^'iii.

m
(')

M
l_^
B.

iQ.

^ M ^ ^ ^ M
Wang
,

^
:^.

;g
--f

m
5^

Wo
PI

M m H
M.
^.rj.

ii
<^'

m
his

Kicd-hnJi,

Kwid-kiih-ts:

:;Ut

"^ ))

^'^^'^

during the reign of the Prince Phni-kvng

/2p
(i^)'
(2)
(^)
(*)
()

^j
^^^

of the state
^^'""^

Tsin

l^jj

C.

48 1-.

His name was


tlie
-Jlf*

(^),

surname

//

^ renowned conjurer and sorcerer. (See


2.)
(*)

ff^

Tales of the age.")

Kwan-yii.

(Compare pag.

Son

of K\van-_vu.

General of Kwan-jii.

The aid-dc-canip

of the Fader of the North-pole.

The God
(^)

of Fire.
genii at the feet of the
(

a) &
(Sj

Two

Holy mother, queen

of Heaven.

Or
246
See

Chao-yuen-sz

270).
p.

j^

^[|] j^

a sage living during the reign of the famous Emperor Tim, (B. C.
(See the Biographies of the Gods.)

(10)

Afterwards he was 14 and p. 08, note 5.


stars

deified.

(")

Or the malignant

of the Earth

[^

^ ^

j,

132

//

Mother of lightning, the earthly Snow-spii-it (i), and the Ruler pof the abundantly-descending clouds; to Luh-kah and Luh-ting; to all the Angels and Starprinces; to the Messengers of the ruling days (-); to the Judges charged with the affairs;
;/the rain, the

God

of thunder,

the

all the caverns; to the Gods and Budhas who swerve through the Void; to the Spirits of the rivers and mountains, of ,/the land and the grain, of the earth and the ground. //We pray all these Gods to descend on this altar. //As Ave are assembled this night to pledge, by an oath, fraternity with all the brethern,

to the eight Genii, the chiefs of the Taoists; to the Sprites of


t.

//SO

help us that

we

all

may

be enlightened, so that

we may

get the desire to

obey Heaven
from
Thaiof

//and act righteously.

//We pray, again,


//the
,1

the golden
the

Budha, and the porcelain Budha in feminine shape


Shui-khi
,

camp
,

SMli-hhi, in

village

in the

district

Thai-piling, of the

prefecture

piling

in

the pro\ance of Kati-su; the deities of our native place and the
place.

God

of wealth

//Our

own

//We pray,
,

also, the founder Clm-lmng-ying

and the foundress, lady Choh ; the ancestors


Cliu-lmng-chili ; the president
eifi.

Hung-lclii-

siting

and lady Kin; the hereditary prince

Wan-yun-lung ; the mas-

^
f.

^
m,

^
%
#
fiiji.

n ^ A M n
fs
ffl.

p.

P
\^

s M
m,
s*

Ft

#. ^'
-^.

# # ^
lU
"m.
sfy

>^

^
^. K'

>^
1^

T.

^
^
m.
;^

n
;ii

^ %
fi

^
"^

# m ^ n
e
-jj

^.
A^
^^'

m
yt

n
f^.

^o

Mo
ffi

^
#.

^ m
2^

% M
-^

m.

^ % ^
i^

m
:^

%'

w m ^

^
it

*
M

%'

^
M
r.
m.
"f-

s
:W

m'
ni

m
'^
(')

^ ^ ^ m
m.
The number
Days when

fi$o

^
"^

If
\h.

M
\h

m m
B'

m. ^.

m m
-n

r
!^

m
a.
iii

t^ ^.

m ^
or

m ^ m

\$

^
A'
'^

^
M'

^ m

^
^.

^
8:

it

6 is a female

Earthly number (Comp. Introd. pag.

xvin, six

xxv.

(-)

certain officers serve in rotation.

133
//ter
,

7/ ill-kin-nan;

the

five

founders

Tlisai-teh-clmng , Fanfj-ta-hmuj ,
,

Ma-cJiao-Jdng , Hu-teh-ti
,

sih-khai ;

the five valiant g&\\QV2i\s Lin-pmg-cliao


the

Li-sih-c7d,
Q-);

Wu-thian-clnng

Yao-pieh-tah

and Liz?aA Hungthe


foot
-ffw?^i-

iilhai-sui;

four

great

faithful

excellent-ones

all

which

generals
,

were

at

//Of

the mountain Ting, in the chain Kwan-yln, in the district Sldli-cldng


in the province of Kwang-tung
;

of the prefecture

iichao,

as, also, the dragon-gods of the earth, the water,

and the

,/land at the

head of the bridge; the Budha Kia-lan ; and the dead and deceased brethern, to
before
this

//Come

down

altar

to

assist

us,

that

we may

all

be enlightened.
all

//AH brethern
//

who

are brought

hither are faithful

and loyal: they

are

iron-galled

and

copper-livered.

//From the
//heart

unexhaustible

metamorphoses are born millions of men, who are

all

of one

and

of one mind.

//AH the benevolent in the two capitals


//to

and thirteen provinces have now come together

beseech Father Heaven and Mother Earth; the three lights: sun,
Saints, Genii and Budhas,

moon (and
them
all

stars);
to

all the

//Gods,
//Cned.
//in
,/

and

all

the Star-princes, to help

be enlight-

This night

we

pledge ourselves, and

born from one father, as if nourished by whole universe shall be as from one one mother; and as if they were of one stock and origin; that we'll obey Heaven and act
the

vow this womb; as if

promise before Heaven, that the brethern

3:

m
n^'

^.

^ ^
^^

M
-^

M' m^

-^

-k M.

'^'

m
%'
it
^v

^ %

m
^
M.

m^

-m

n
M.

M-

m m m m
/L

m> W'

^ m
#.

^
m.

m
n^

^ m
0j.

^
-^

t:
51

M
m'
Pi

^
jvr>

^
M

^ m ^ H

3s

^
^f.
^n^

M'
'^

m
A'
fi

m
n
I^

^^

n -

ir.

134
//righteously; that our faithful hearts shall not alter
//assists

and

shall never change.

If

U3

to restore

the dynasty of

Ming,

then

August Heaven

happiness will have a place to return."

^^

r-

m
for

m' m'

M m

n
is

M'
#:

m
n.

i^

all the brethern rise from their knees and make eight salutations Heaven, Earth, Sun, Moon, the five Foundei-s, Wan-yuu-lung, the Brethern and tiie Renowned amongst their companions. The salutation is done in the common Chinese way, by

This prayer being said,

kneeling
verse
is

down and throwing


recited:

the

body forwards on the ground.


worship Heaven as our father;

Daring

lliis

ceremony

this

We We We We We We We We
(')

firstly

secondly worship Earth as our mother


thirdly worship the

Sun

as our brother
as our sister-in-law
t^)

fourthly worship the


fifthly

Moon

worship the

five

Saints;

sixthly worship

Wan-yun-lung;
all

seventhly worship

the brethern
(^)

eighthly worship the ten-miUenuial fragrance.

The
Var:

five

founders.

(-)

We We We

firstly

worship the Heavenly Lord who


fire

is

fragrant since myriads of years;

secondly worship the earthly


thirdly worship

extending like Heaven


a peach-g.irden

those who, harmoniously, pledged fraternity in

AVe fourthly worship the red lamp widely renowned and displayed;

We We We We

fifthly

worship the

five

founders as our respected seniors;

sixthly worship the six ancestors

and the

six saints

and sages;

seventhly worship the seven planets which shine around on high


eighthly worship our companions

who

are

renowned since antiquity.

^
m
3L

:^ -t

A ^m
!^

n n n n n n m
"j^

m m u
3L

^ ^
m
>m

M m
^n

^
^
^1*

:k
-^^

M m
m.

m
1^ :k

i$

^
^^
mean
lirst

m
beginning.

m m

w m m
-^
viz:

m m w
m

m
an everlasting fame and
re-

^i

and

Bi

precisely the

same thing,

putation, which has existed from the

135

r.

H
m
s,

:k

-t

A
The written
nathj
is

n n n n n n n ^

%
^^

M
s.

n
^

% ^ % n m m
}t

1^

-n
yt

m w m ^

above ceremoni,es,

now

which has remained on the censer during the Avhole performance of the talcen down by one of the affiliated, and read aloud to the new
the reading.

members, who remain kneeling during

The thirty

six articles

of the oath.

(')

Art.

1.

From
duties,
first

the

moment
to

that

you have entered

the
It

Hung-league

(-),

you must
said

"quietly fulfil
filial

your
the

and keep

your

own

business.

has, always,

been

that

love

is

of all virtues; therefore you must respect and obey both your parents, and obey and venerate your superiors. Do not resist your father and mother and, so, violate the laws of the

Hung-league.
does

He who

not keep this

EARTH, but he shall

command, most surely, will not be suffered by heaven and be crushed by five thunder-bolts! Each of you ought to obey tliis.
Art. 2.

When you
father,

have entered the Hung-league, you


to

ought

to

keep secret everything

for

your
as a

wife and family, for fear that something might leak out before strangers; even so

that,

you don't

tell

it

your

son, as

an elder

brotlier,

you

don't tell

it

to

your younger
he die and

brother.

Do not betray the secrets {^) of He who does not keep this command

the Hung-league!

may

Heaven not

suffer

him; but
to

may

become a headless ghost!

When
ears

it

is

found
off

out

that

brother

has betrayed the

secrets

strangers, one

of his

will

be cut

and he will, besides, be punished with lOS blows.

m m ^

-^^

:h

13G
Art.
3.

After having
the four higher

entered the Hung-league^


classes,

you must consider

all

the

members
as

of the as

league,
the four

as

earls,

marquises,

generals and ministers,

well

husbandmen, artisans and merchants, and the lower vagabonds and mendiauts, of which rank or station they may be, as brothers. You shall not, trusting to your riches, insult the poor, or, relying upon your
middling
classes,

as

scholars,

classes,

as

powei', op-

press the good

and

honest.

He who
a foreign

does not keep this

command

is

a false swearer and a perjurer.


tigers

May

he die in

country!

May

serpents bite

him, and

devour him!

Art. 4.

After having entered the Hung-league, you shall not insult


priests; for

any more

the Budhisfc or Taoist

the

five founders, oi"iginally,

were

priests,

and we venerate them as the founThis crime


to
is

ders: are

Ave not, then, disciples of priests?

He
to be

Avho does not keep this


forgiven,

command

may he die a wretched death!


Art. 5.

not easily

and, therefore, the offender will be punished, according

the

law, w'ith

72 blows.

After

having entered

the

Hung-league,

you ought
father;

to

be

faithful

and

loj'al.

You must
his
sister

consider the father


as

of a brother as your
his

own

his

mother

as

your mother;

your

sister;
lie

and

wife

as

your sister-in-law.

Do

not

or speak evilly!

When

her with the prescribed ceremonies; and


lawfully; neither
shall

you marry the daughter of a brother you ought to employ go-betweens, and maiTy it shall not be allowed to you to come together un-

you seduce
this

the

wife or concubine of a bi'other.

He who

does

not

keep

command

may he perish
Art. 6.

in a river

or a lake,

may

his bones
it,

sink to the bottom,

and

his flesh float


oft',

on the surface!

Besides,

if

the brethern

discover

one of his ears will be

cut

and he will be punished with lOS blows.

After having entered the Hung-league,

you ought

to

persevere

till

the

end:

let

not j'our

mouth say

yes, and your heart kg.

Do

not,

on account of a small gain, cause discord between brethern;


father

or,

on account of a
wife.

and son to be at variance. private promise, cause Do not speak slanderously, and disturb the harmony between husband and

He who does in an unknown


be punished

not keep these


land,

commands
to

is

an infamous

villain;

most surely

he will die

and be buried in the stomachs of swine or fishes! Besides, he will


circumstances.
Art. 7.

by

the law, according

After having entered the Hung-league,

you ought

to consider

the alTairs

of the brethern

137
as

your

own

affairs.

If

one of them has smuggled, or escaped the duties,

or has

some

se-

cret
it

affairs,

or trades iu
let
it

smuggled goods, or cheats strangers or the


leak out.
this

police,

you must
and the

keep

secret,

and not

He
of the

Avho does not keep

command, but betrays


to

it,

brethern become
his

known

other people

may he perish under thousands of swords, and


for this

so that the secrets

affairs

may
it

head be severed from his trunk! The punishment


be dealt with according to circumstances.
Art. S.

crime

is

not fixed,

but

shall

After having entered the Hung-league, you ought to consider fidelity and loyalty as the foundation.

^Yhen

brethern travel to and fro they have a badge as a sign of recognition.

(')

If

they have not found, either in the morning or at night, a place to rest or pass the night, you ought
to

receive them,

and not feign not

to recognise
is

them.

He who

does not keep this

command,

one

who
9.

has violated his

vow

in the PLed-pavilion.

May

he never be happy or prosperous, but

may
Art.

he die w^ithout posterity!

After

having

entered

the

Hung-league, you ought to

live in peace

and harmony with the

brethern, and separate yourselves according to the grades.

You

shall not,

relying

upon
is

drunkenness,

or speak
for

wantonly,
that

your strength, oppress the poor, or commit man-slaughter in insulting or vilifying father and mother, or lift up your
duties of the

liands for a scuffle;

violating the

brethern and the concord between

hands and

feet. (")

We, who belong


all
if

to

this

league,

either in

the

two

capitals or the thirteen

provinces,

are

we may not make a difference between we are kindred, but we must act as if we were so. He who does not keep this command shall, surely, die
ope body: so
according to law, with

mine and

tlime.

"We

may

not ask

at

the way-side! Besides,

he will

be punished,

lOS

l)lows.

Art. 10.

must always remember your oath sworn in the Flower-pavilion, and not forget that bloody oath. You must live and die together, and be attached to each other as if you were born from one womb. Do not give out untruth for truth and deceive the brethern neither shall you conceal
After having entered the Hung-league, j'ou
;

tlie

police

and betray the trust of the brethern.


violate the concord.

You shall not help a stranger who abuses or beats a brother, and, so, He who does not keep this command may he perish by cannon-shots!

Besides, one of his

ears will be cut

off,

according to law.

(M
(-J

^^
i.

n %
the brethern
;

^u
who
are united like hands

e.

and

feet.

18

138
Art. 11.

After havin"'-

entered the Hmig-league,


like

you must adopt


as

the

name

of

Hrxc, and vou must


di\'ided,

then be (attached)

hands and

feet;

but,

wealth and indigence are unequally


the
to

and death and life have a fixed time; so, when brother has died liimself, and there is no money come to"-ether and deliberate about it: he who
little,

parents of a

brother have died, or a

has much,

bury the corpse properly, we all must may give much, he who has

may
will

give

little;

but

all

of us

ought

to

unite our forces.

When

other people see this,

they

remark the charity


does not keep this

of the Hung-league.

He who

command
coffin

may

he perish in the deep mountains, or on wild

peaks, and be buried without

or shroud! Besides, according to law, he \vill be punished

with 72 blows.
Art. 12.

After having entered the

Hung-league, you have pledged yourself before heaven: so do not


avenge, for three
to truth,
feet above our heads are invisible spuits. and not give out untruth for truth, and, so,

say that providence

does not

You must

tell

your age according

deceive the five founders.

"When you have returned,

you

shall

not pray before other

altars

or in other temples for absolution

from your present oaths and vows.


is

He who

does not keep this

command,

a traitor and perjurer;


will be cut
oiT;

may

he be hacked in thou-

sands of pieces and perish!

Besides, both his ears


to enter
it

he shall be cast out of the

brotherhood, and never be allowed

again.

Art. 13.

After having entered the Hung-league,

you are bound by a bloody


Mith

oath.

You have become


you ought
to ad-

one gaU
So,

and one heart (with the brethern.)


see that a brother

when you

quarrels or fights

other people,

vance, aud examine fairly. If the other people are in the wrong you must, certainly, help him with all your might and strength; but if the brother is in the wrong, you must exhort him I'ou shall on no account to desist in this way the equity of the brotherhood will appear.
:

prfetend not to

have

known

it.

He who

does not keep this


shall not be

command,

beguiles indeed his

own

heart,

and deceives himself,


live in

ilost surely he

happy or prosperous, and


Art. 14.

his childi-en will not

harmony!

After having entered the Hung-league, you ought to


pavilion.

remember the oath sworn

in the Flower-

Amongst the members of our brotherhood, some are functionaries, others are vagabonds: each So, if fire is set to a place, of us has some employment, but we are not all of equal rank.
or robbery
is

perpetrated,

or a ship

is

plundered, or highway-robbery

is

committed,

we

ought

to look well to the flags or signals

before

we

set to

work;

for brethern

are not allowed to act

wantonly, aud

violate the

harmony between hands and

feet.

139

He who

does not keep this

command

may

he perish under thousands of swords and become

a headless ghost!
Art. 15.

After having entered the Hung-league, though you ought to consider benevolence and justice
as the first,

and courteousness and


to help
is

faith as the basis, still

you
is

are,

as brethern,

members

of

one family, and you ought

each other in disasters and misfortunes.


or a price
set

When

a brother

summoned
This
is

before a tribunal,

upon him, and he cannot


and the
less

remain longer in the place, the powerful must help him


his travelling expenses.

to escape,

powerful pay
dry place,

helping
,

him out

of danger, like taking a fish out of a

and

it

is

saving him from

difiiculties

like liberating a bird out of a close net.

He who

does not keep this


bite

him, and the dogs

command may he perish at the way-side! may the swine devour him, and may he never return in this world again! (')
Art. 16.

After having entered the Hung-league,

you must be

faithful

and honest;

for all things

have

an owner.
If

Don

^t

take anything

away without
is

asking, or instigate strangers to steal the pro-

perty or riches of a brother.

you know

that a

heavy

price

set
to

upon a brother,
the troops of the
to

and you do not think about saving

him, but betray him, on the contrary,


self

Government;

or

the thread in hands, or

lead the

you be struck by thunder-bolts, or perish in the flames, or and your corpse remain floating! This is the heaviest crime according our law; therefore the offender shall be killed, and his head shall be severed from his trunk.
brother
the ocean,
Art. 17.

may

way,

make him

prisoner, and injure, in this

you give yourway, a come to an end in


if

After having entered the

Hung-league,

ness and misfortune have no fixed gates, but that

(remember then) that since the ancient times happiman draws them upon himself:
(-)

Heaven has inexhaustible winds and clouds

Men
So,
fer

have misery and happiness for morning and evening

when

a brother has incurred adversities or misfortunes


shall he

by
to

his

own

fault,

he ought to suf-

them himself, and, on no account,


ghost
after
his

be allowed

implicate

the other brethern in

his misfortune, in order to extricate himself.


less

For such a one, most surely, will become a headboth his ears will be cut
it

death

If it is discovered,

off,

he shall be cast

out of the brotherhood, and never be allowed to enter


Art. 18.

again.

After

having entered the Hung-league and passed the bridge

laid before the

Hung-gate

(^),

(')

The Chinese
This
is

believe in metempsychosis.

{-)

Chinese

maxim,
(S)
i.

meaning that the


e.

fortunes of
steel.

men

are as uncertain

as the winds

and clouds

of Heaven.

Passed the arch of

140

and the
After

fair

has been opened


years

(^),

you can be promoted,


(^)

after

a year,

to the

grade of Introducer.

(=)

two
(*),
if,

you can become Vanguard.


there
{^)

After three

master
first

at least,

is

a vacancy.

When

you can become Incenseyou wish then to open a fair, you must
years
it.

send round a circular


does not

to

inform the brethern of

He who

keep

this

command, but himself opens a market, commits a


his

great

sin

against the five founders.

May

head be severed from

his

trunk and he perish!

may

the swine

devour him, and the dogs rend him to pieces!


Art. 19.

After having entered

the

Hung-league, the members will elect the

chiefs

by public

vote

(")-

There will be a President, a Master, a Fiscal, Treasurers, Agents, and those

who have

flowers

on

their head. C)

They

shall deliberate fairly

and

act justly; they shall not, trusting to their

greatness, oppress the little, or, relying

upon

their strength, crush the

weaker.

Those

who

selfishly take bribes, or

of their relations, but are only bent

make no difference between right and wrong on account upon violence and tyranny, shall, most surely, perish in
Art. 30.

an unknown country!

After having entered the Hung-league,


trusts

if

a brother

gains his livelihood abroad,


of them.

you with

family-letters,

you must take care


first to

But

if

and he inyou think that you can

not take charge of them, you ought


it

inform (the head of the lodge) of it, and not neglect

when
Or,
if

the time has already

come
is

(for

delivering them).
in these letters,
is

you perceive

that there

money
for

you

shall not pocket that yourself,

or remit less

money than

there

is,

such a one

a swindler

who

shall perish,

most surely,

by

the sword!

If it is discovered,

he shall, besides, be punished with 108 blows, and he shall

completely reimburse the goods or money.


Art. 21.

After having entered the Hung-league, you shall not secretly

show

the statutes

and diploma

of the lodge to strangers, for they are the most important things of the Hung-league.

He who

covetously

sells

them

secretly to others,

is

one

who

has forgotten his duties and pertiger in a

jured his oath.

He

shall,

most surely, perish by the mouth of a


Avill

deep mountain!

If it is discovered,

both his ears

be cut

off,

he shall be punished with 108 blows, and

be cast out of the brotherhood.


Art. 22.

After having

entered

the

Hung-league,

if

one of the

brethern has disputed, quarteled or

(')

^
:^

loJ^e
J

is

held.

(=)

(S)
,

&

(*)

See pag. 47.

(') (')

See the form of this circular on pag. 51.

{')

See pag. 47.

141
fought,
ling;

yoa

shall

on no account inform the authorities of the case, whether


Avill

it

be serious or

trif-

but a

council

be
less

held,

which will judge and decide equitably, and give verdict


It

according
yourself,

to the

more or

importance of the case.


it.

shall not be allowed to

you

to

act

and

to

inform the authorities of

He who
rountless

does not keep this

command, but disobeys


five

the law, most surely

sliall

perish under

swords, according to the laws of the

founders, and his head and trunk will be

severed! for the


master.

functionaries of the Tsing-dynasty

and

of the

Hung-league are each their

own

Art. 23.

After having

entered

the

Hung-league,

you may not remember


at the

or cherish old grudges or

new He who
liim!

enmities.

does not keep this


to

command

may he perish
Art.

wayside, and
72,

may nobody bury

According

the law, he will be punished, besides,

with

blows.

U:

After
friend,

having entered the Hung-league,

if

your

own

brother

or

a relation of yours,
together,
to

or a

and a brother of the Hung-league, quarrel, brawl, or


(to call

fight

you may
oft'.

give a
if

signal

the other brethern together), in order to exhort


it

them

leave

But

you

separate
police

them forcibly, and help them (the strangers), may you then perish in a wretched country!
Art. 25.

is

a crime of conspiring with the

After having
gers,

entered the Hung-league,

if

one of the brethern has a difference with stran-

and he

is

perhaps accused before a tribunal, you shall, on no account, give evidence


case,

for these

strangers in such a

no matter

if

you know them


of conspiring

or not.

For those who do this are guilty perish on the roads and wayfares!

of the crime

with the police

may they

Art. 26.

After having entered the Hung-league,

if

you
for
if

see

that

a brother possesses lands, j^ou shall


it is

not conspire with strangers


that

to

rob

him;

you conspire with strangers,


Hung-league.
If
it is

manifest

you injure

him

wilfully, and

you

offend

the statutes of the

He who

does not keep this

command

may
if

he die unburied!

discovered,

he shall

he punished, besides, according to law, with lOS heavy blows.


Art. 37.

After having

entered

the

Hung-league,

the

master has appointed a meeting, you shall


in

most surely not


the
secrets.

conceal

policemen
is

within

the precincts,

order to
(')

show them

secretly

To conceal them

to

mix serpents amongst dragons.

C)

hjI

^fe

VM

^^

>

Manchoos amongst Chinese.

142
This
is

a heavy offence against


tiie

the

statutes

ot'

the

Hangleague

May

such people perish

by the point of

sword, and may

five thunder-bolts

crush them!

Art. 28.

After having entered the Hung-league,

you

ouglit to be attached to each other

as brethern,

and consider each other as kindred.


a brother, j'ou must search for
it,

If other people

have stolen
about
for,

the

money

or properties of

that people

may

see the equity of the Hung-sect.


it,

Most
be

surely you shall not pretend not to


the contrary,
rallied

know anything
for

and not
the

inforni him,

but, on
will

conceal and keep


for

it

these

strangers;

in

first

place,

you

by other people

your perjury, and, secondly, you

violate the purity

of our

harmony

and concord.

He who
Avill

does not keep this

command,

is

one

who

has forgotten his duties.

Most surely he

not die a natural death, but

shall perish

under countless swords!

Art. 29.

After having entered the Hung-league,


society
(i),

if

there

are great or small cases coming before

the

all

the brethern shall range


of

themselves according to the higher and lower grades.

The council
shall not be

the Hung-league then shall decide equitably, and not, trusting to their potheir

wer, oppress the weak, or, relying upon


allowed
to

majority,
neither

oppress
shall
it

the single

ones.
to

It,

also,

cry or to be

obstinate;

be allowed

bring

along

sharp weapons, or carry secretly sticks or clubs.

They who

don't keep

tliis

command

may

they perish by a sharp sword

Art. 30.

After having entered the Hung-league,

you must observe


her; for this
is

the etiquette of this society, and

keep

it's

regulations.

When

the

wife or concubine of a brother passes you on the road, you


dally with

shall not address her rudely or

a heavy offence against propriety.


,

He who
a bare and

does not keep this


sterile

command

may
if

he never be happy or prosperous

but perish in

country!
Art. 31.

moment

you have had some words with a brother in a them and think of revenge; neither shall you speak improper words, or insult his parents with low and vile expressions. He Avho does not keep this command may he perish at the wayside! According to the law
After

having

entered

the

Hung-league,

of passion,

you

shall not

remember

he shall be punished, besides, with 72 blows.


Art. 32.
After having entered the Hung-league,
if

one of the brethern


(-),

is

involved, unexpectedly, in a

lawsuit, or gets implicated with the false authorities

and

is,

perhaps, prevented (from esca-

143
ping) on account of his wife and children

then

he who, being able to do so, receives his wife be reported

and

childi'en, is a charitable
if

man.
to

But

there

is

nobody able
about
it.

do this,

the case ought to

to

the

brotherhood,

who

shall deliberate

Art.

3.3.

After having entered the Hung-league,


of agent
(i),

if

the brotherhood has elected

somebody

to

tlie

rank

his

name

shall be nlgU-hrother.

He

shall, also,

be called Iron-plank

(2).

These

men

are destined to go about every where,

and they

live in all places.

If there are

public affairs, they are sent to transmit the reports.

The brethern
but, for private

shall

not turn them

off;

they have free nourishment and travelling

expenses;
tariff.

affairs for

the brethern, they must be paid, besides, according to the

If a brother refuses to

pay him

may

he die of sword-wounds, or perish

by

the

mouth

of

a tiger!
Art. 34.

After having entered


of your reception.

the Hung-league,

you count
holy

the years of your

age from the

moment
(*)

You must

celebrate

the
(^)

birthday

of the

Kwan-ti

('),

the Grave-cleansing festival

and the All-souls

festival.

You must contribute cheerfully to the expenses of these festivals, yes, you must even money gladly and not, pretending to be poor, refuse to contribute. He who does not keep this command may he be unfortunate and unprosperous

give

Art. 35.

After hax-ing entered the Hung-league,


either

if

there are great or small affairs amongst the brethern,


to

fortunate or unfortunate,

you ought

remain in harmony and concord.

The joy

of

the Hung-league will then be seen.

He who

does not keep this

command

may

he be unfortunate and unprosperous!

Art. 36.

After having entered the Hung-league,

bones, and be attached to each other as


It

you must love each other as your own flesh if you were children from the same womb.
one must observe
just.
it's

and

has always

been
till

said:

//If

one

enters a house,

rule."

So you

ought to persevere

the

end,

and be benevolent and


the oaths from the

You must remember and obey

first

to the thirty

sixth one; then


for in

your

children will be prosperous, and 3^ou will be

happy

for

numberless generations;

ancient

{')
(^)

% ^ M
The Chinese Mars.

"^
(See pag. 74,

('>

S^^ P^S' 4^
5).

49.

note

fillies

it

was

said:
all

//A family wiio hoards

up virtues,
this.

most surely will have abundance

ot

hlessiii^s."

You

must obey aud observe

After the reading of this

oath, the
is

brethern

all

rise

from

their

knees, to confirm this oath


it

by shedding blood.
his

Firstly tea
for

mouth.

The water

made, and each new member drinks a cup of making the tea is brought in, and this verse recited:
for

to purify

In the golden orchid the water flows

myriads of agesj

Idlers are not allowed to stand at the entrance of the bridge;

After having entered the league and drunk the water of the three rivers.

You

can roam about the world according to your wishes.

145

The brethern now take a silver needle, and prick themselves in the middle souie blood drop into this bowl of wine, (i)
Tiiey then all taste of this

finger, letting

mixed wine, during which ceremony these quatrains are


I.

recited:

We

mixed the blood and, unanimously, worshipped the


at that time,

five

men

Who,
From
But

made

a league under the peach-trees.

the present time that we've

sworn

this

oath, we'll never change;

we'll be

more

cordial than those born from the

same womb, and of one

flesh

and bone.

(-)

Iffc

147
I.

lis

149
o cash for the
Tliis

money
(~)

to

be kept about one's person.


is

(')

money,

consisting in three Hung-cents,

constantly to be carried about the person, as

sign of recognition.

The
iugs,

formalities of affiliation being

now

all over, the

new members

are led round the bniUl-

and the instruments and

flags are
is

shown

to

them.

Firstly the celebrated hmUel P)

raised,

and these quatrains pronounced:


I.

We
And

have newly established the City of willows,


the heroes of

Hung

are

assembled to night.

Shields and spears are piled

up high

Overturn Tsing and, then, restore Ming.

if

it

tK

^
%

l!

BJ

This night we raise the City of wiUows,

To
If

overturn and exterminate the dynasty

of Tsing

and restore the great Ming.

we

assist

our lord to mount the throne, our merit will be great;

And

the civil

and military

officers

shall be all promoted.

4 K % ^

1^ m.

^ m ^ ^

^
m
"k
5lf

>l^

^
-k

S5

^
-^

^
-h

m w

150

m.
We
hare raised
the Willow
(')

and stuck the red flower

(-);

The mjTiad

families

form together one family.


ior/etJier

Three ages they have been j)eaceahli/ united

every where;

On

another day

we

shall assist

our lord to

sit

on the throne of China.

IV

tL

^h

151

;n

ft
Ju

W>

^ ^

PA^RT
SECTION
I.

V.

LAWS AND STATUTES OF THE BROTHERHOOD.

Complete code of the seventy two articles of law of the hung-leagve.


Art.
1.

(')

The
If
shall

bretliern

of the

Hung-league ought
their

to

respect

and obey

their

parents,

and

live

in

peace and

harmony with

brethern.
father or

a lawless fellow

vilifies

his

mother, or insults the parents of a brother, he

be punished with 108 heavy blows.


Ai-t.
2.

The brethern
dest.

of

the

Hung-league

ought

to

be benevolent, just, disinterested, and mobrother,

If

lawless

fellow seduces
loss

the wife or daughter of a


life.

he shall,

if

detected,

be punished with the

of his

Art. 3.

The brethern of lies with the wife


of his ears will

the

Hung-league ought

to

act lawfully.

If

an unprincipled brother

dal-

or

daughter of a brother,
off.

and he

is

detected

by another brother,

one

be cut

Art. 4.
If there
is

are

traitors

among
in

the brethern
tliis

of

the Hung-league,

who

take the price whicli

set

upon a brother, and,


cut
off.

way, cause
Art.

a brother to incur punishment, both their ears

will be

5.

If

a brother of the

Hung-league

knows

that

another

brother has committed, during

his

0)

m m

-t

-{^

r.

m m

153
life-time,

a murder, or has set


to

fire to

buildings
life

or

ships,

and he then takes traitorously the

promised reward,

the prejudice of the

of this

brother, he shall be slain.

Art. 6.
If

brother

of

the

Hung-league

is

sufficiently

bad and

wicked
if

to

steal

the
if

money,
there are

clothes or

possessions
loss

of another brother,

he shall be punished,

detected,

and

proofs,

with the

of one ear.
Art.
7.

If

a brother of the Hung-league, going abroad, has confided his wife and children to another
if this

brother, and
of them,

brother, after

treating

them

at first this

with humanity, takes no more care

and drives them from

his

door, and, in

way,
is

causes the wife and children of


to begin a thing

a brother to suffer the hardships of famine and cold, so this


it,

and not

finish

and, therefore, he will be punished with the loss of one ear.


Art.
8.

(This article

is

omitted in the original

text).

Art. 9.

(This article also,

only the punishment of 108 blows


Art.
10.

is

mentioned).

If a brother of the

Hung-league, having committed a crime,


assist

enters the house of a brother

and beseeches him


help him
to escape

to

him
one

to

escape

over the

frontiers,

and

if

this brother

does not

over the frontiers, but, on the contrary, prevents


loss of ear.

him

to

escape, he will

be punished with the

Art. 11.
If a brother
lets

a stranger pass

for

a brother at the time that lodge

is

held,

and

intro-

duces him into the council-room, so that he


secrets leak out

may

see the formalities


loss

and ceremonies, and the


of his
life.

in

this

way, he

shall be

punished with the


Art. 12.

If

a brother

of the

Hung-league,

without

having

got

the

warrant,

or

without having

obtained orders, or informed the brethern, holds clandestinely lodge and usurps the functions of

Incense-master, he will be punished with the loss of his


Art. 13.
If

life.

way

a brother of the Hung-league, on the day that a meeting has been appointed, shows the to the magistrates to seize the President and Master, and causes injury to all the brethern,

he shall be punished with 360 heavy blows, and, afterwards, be slain.


Art. 14.
If a

brother of the

Hung-league has

got

dispatches

or

letters

from the lodges of the two


if

capitals or 13 provinces, to the purport of

convoking the brethern, and

he does not deliver


20

154.

these

letters

to

the

President and Master, but keeps


life.

them and opens them himself, he

shall

be punished with the loss of his

Art. 15.
If a brother of the

Hung-league, knowing that another brother has been killed by strangers,

secretly purloins his

money and

goods,

instead

of

informing the brotherhood of

it, that

they

may

avenge him, one

of his ears Avill be cut

off.

Art. 16.
If
if

a brother has gone abroad, and his wife or daughter commit adultery with another, and
it,

another brother takes bribes from them, and does not inform the brethern of
seize

that they

may

them, one of

his ears Avill be cut

off.

Art. 17.
If

a brother intrusts

another with letters to take over the seas to his family,


or letters,

and

if this

brother purloins the

money

or changes the goods, he will lose one ear.

Art. 18.
If a brother of the

Hung-league lends clandestinely the diploma, the handbook and Bases

(^)

to other people, in order to curry favour

with them, or

if

he

sells

them

for

money, and betrays

the secrets, he shall be put to death.

Art. 19.
If

a brother of the Hung-league, disregarding the laws and disobeying the statutes, teaches

secretly the signs of recognition

and the usages of the Hung-league

to strangers,

he shall be pu-

nished with 108 heavy blows.


Art. 20.
If a brother of the

Hung-league sees that another brother disputes or quarrels with a mem-

ber of his

own

family, he ought to intervene and enjoin

them

to leave

off.

He who

helps his

own

relation and,

wantonly, beats his brother,

shall be

punished with 108 blows.

Art. 21,
If a brother of the

or

commits unnatural

Hung-league disputes with another brother about a young and fair boy, sin with a younger brother, he shall, if detected, be put to death.
Art. 22.

If brethern of the

Hung-league have gone together to a brothel, and dispute about a prosti(-),

tute

or

,/

little

friend"

so that they

become

foes,

and are

railed at

by

others,

they shall

be punished each with 36 blows.

He,

who

has helped the one brother to beat the other brother, shall be punished with 72 blows.

(')

^ ^

J[S

^""^P'

"^'^f=

s.

X.

(2)

^J^

i.

e.

Catamite.

155
Art. 23.
If a brother of the

Hung-league, falsely and maliciously, incites other brethern with

lies

and

deceitful language to go to court,

and causes them


Art. 24.

to

become implacable

foes, he shall be pu-

nished with lOS heavy blows.

If

a brother of the Hung-league gathers

money under

a false name, or,

by

falsely telling
this

good

or bad, true or false things, collects contributions


for his

from the brethern, and purloins

money

own

use, he shall be punished with 108

heavy blows.

Art. 25.
If

a brother of the Hung-league, passing along the road, sees the corpse of another brother,
if

and

he has collected

money from

the brethern, but does not

bury

this corpse,

it

is

a case

of swindling,

and he

who

has spent the

money

of the brethern shall lose both his ears.

Art. 26.
If the brethern of the

Hung-league see that a


if

brother

is

seized for a crime


free

by

the govern-

mental

soldiers

and

is

transported, and

they do not advance and

him

forcibly

and pre-

vent the soldiers, they shall be punished with 108 heavy blows.
Art. 27.
If brethern

of the

Hung-league

travel

or

sleep together,

and

it

happens during their pas-

sage that wicked people wish to injure them, they ought to assist each other.
If the

one does not care

for

the other,
to

and,

knowing

it

fortuitously beforehand,

escapes

the

danger,

but

suffers

his

brother

be injured by them,
Art. 28.

he shall be punished with 108

heavy blows.
If

brother of the Hung-league,

coveting extraordinary profits,


flies

wheedles
if

another brother
detected

out of his money, clothes or goods, and he


zed,

Avith

it

abroad, he shall,

and

sei-

be punished with the

loss of

one ear.
Art. 29.

If

a brother of the Hung-league


brother,
or

ravishes

the male

and female slaves, or the children and

daughters of another
district

carries off his

oxen and horses,

and

sells

them

in another

or place, he shall be put to death. Art.


.30.

If

a brother of the Hung-league has

borrowed money,
relying

clothes or goods from another bro-

ther,

he

ought to return

them.

If he,

upon

his

power,

does not

give

them back,

and

insults or beats the brother, he shall be punished

with 72 heavy blows.

Art. 31.
If a

brother,

at

the time that a lodge

is

held,
If this

wishes to

introduce a

new member

to be

affiliated,

he ought to inform himself well.

man

(the

new

member) has been formerly

156
the cause that a brother of the league has lost his
lias
life,

then he himseK,

and the person

-n-ho

introduced him, will both be slain.


Art. 33.

If a brother of the

Hung-league, with an overseer of lands, has the direction over the crop and

agricultural implements,

and

if

they conspire then with other people to steal the implements

from these lands, and

so injure a brother, they shall be

punished with lOS heavy blows.

Art. 33.
If a brother of the

Hung-league conspires secretly with other people to cheat anotlier brother,


shall

or if he robs

with others a brother, he

be punished with 108 heavy blows.

Art.
If a

M.
all his

brother of the Hung-league sees that another bi'other disputes or quarrels with a stranif

ger,

and

he does

not

intervene

and helps him with

might, but, on the contrary,

assists the stranger,

he shall be punished with 108 blows.


Art. 33.

If a brother of the

Hung-league,

in

case

that pressing and important affairs have


after

happen-

ed,

and the President and Master have ordered him to come, does not come summoned thrice, he shall be punished with 360 heavy blows.
If

having been

he has, relying upon

his

power, knocked or beaten the four Great-ones

(^),

he shall, be-

sides,

be punished with 180 heavy blows.


Art. 36.

If a

brother of the Hung-league has insulted in A^Titings or speaking the


falsely

President

or Mas-

ter,

or has

accused the

four Great-ones, and those

who have

flowers on their

head,

he shall be punished with 360 heavy blows.


Art. 37.
If

a brother of the Hung-league has consigned goods


to

to

another brother, or has transmitted

money
it,

lum,
in this

in order to trafic
after

with

it

in other countries,
profit

and

if

this

brother

is

faithless

and dishonest, and,


and,

having made much

way,

cheats a brother out of his

by it, falsely pretends that he has lost by money, he shall be punished with lOS

heavy blows.
Art. 38.
If a brother of the

Hungleague has
the

confided temporarily

to

another brother his mercantile


to himself,

books, and

if

this brother is faithless

and dishonest, and appropriates

by

secret sche-

mes and contrivances,

money

of this brother, he shall be punished

with 72 heavy blows.

I^J

;;^

the Summoncrs.

(See pag, 48.)

157
Art. 39.
If a

brother

of the Hung-league has

opened a shop and made profit by

it,

and

if

then a
so that

miscreant, relying upon his power, borrows this


this

money and

cheats the shopkeeper

('),

man

shuts his sliop in despair, he shall be punished with 7^ heavy blows.


Art. 40.

If

brethern of

the
five

Hung-league

profess

no trade or handicraft, but unite themselves in


irregular conduct,

bands of three or

brethern, they shall

by their be punished with 36 heavy blows.


disasters

men, and cause

and implicate

their

Art. 41.
If a brother of the

Hung-league quarrels with another brother about money or accounts,


of
their respective lands or fields, houses

or

about

the

boundaries
to

or

buildings

etc.,

and

if

he

does not go

the court-room to bring the case before the President and Master, but secretly

calls the police,

and

lets

the brother be seized, he shall be punished with 30 heavy blows.


Art. 42.

If a brother

of the Hung-league,
his trade, ruins

knowing

that
this

another brother
affair

is

about to marry, or to

make

profit

by

or frustrates

on account of a former enmity with

this brother,

he shall be punished with lOS heavy blows.


Art. 43.

When
first,

brethern of the Hung-league trade, they ought to be accommodating; he

who comes

goes before;

who comes

later, follows.

But

if

a malevolent one

offers,

out of obstinacy,

higher prices, he shall be punished with

21 blows.
Art. 44.

If a brother of the

Hung-league, knowing that the father or mother of a brother has died,

remains, on the burial-day, quietly at


shall

home and,
Art. 45.

designedly, does not attend the funeral, he

be punished with 108 heavy blows.

If a brother

of the

Hung-league, knowing that another brother has died, or that the father
is

or

mother of a brother has died, and that the family


is

poor and has no

money

to

pay the
he.

expenses (of the funeral) and, although being rich,


shall be punished

too niggardly to contribute

money,

with IS blows. But in case he has been ordered

to contribute,

and he refuses

obstinately to give

money

ibr the funeral expenses,

he shall be punished with 72 blows.


Art. 46.

If a brother of the

Hung-league sees that another brother, who

is

in his house,

is

miserable

C)

By

not giving

it

back.

158

and

sick,

and he beats him

cruell}'

and mercilessly, and,

spitting

upon him, turns

liim out of

doors, he shall he punished

with 72 blows.
Art. 47.

If a

brother of the Hung-league sees that the fields, lands, houses, dwellings,

goods and

implements of a deceased brother, are stolen from his son by rapacious nobles, or are conliscated by powerful families, and that this son is illtreated or insulted by them, and if he
is

not the

first to

avenge him forcibly, he

shall

be punished -with lOS heavy blows.

Art. 48.
If a brother of the

Hung-league,

at the
at

time that there

are public affairs,

has promised

to come, with the

whole brotherhood,

a certain time and a certain day to a certain place,


if

in order to unite themselves and set to


for his

work; and

he remains then

at

home out

of a desire

own

comfort and fear of death,

and dares not come out of

his

house and go thither,

he shall be punished with 10 S heavy blows.


Art. 49.
If

a brother of the Hung-league

knows

that the brethern are going


to

on a naval expedition,

and he betrays traitorously the

secret,

and causes the brethern


life.

be caught by other people,

he shall be punished with the loss of his

Art. 50.
If a brother

of the

Hung-league has found out that another brother wdll pass, with much

gold, silver or goods, along a certain place,

and he conspires secretly with other people or with

the police to rob

him

of it,

he shall be put to death.


Art. 51.

If a brother

of the

Hung-league

is

partner in a business with another brother, and they


conceals

have made much money,

and

if

he then falsely

and hoards

his gains,

and goes to

another place with them, in order to profit himself by them, he shall be punished with 108

heavy blows and the

loss

of one ear.

Art.
If a brother

52.

of the

Hung-league crosses

the sea with another brother, and he, seeing that

this brother has

much money, throws greedy


and appropriates
to himself his

eyes upon

it,

and

kills

this

brother

by some

villainous plot,
loss of his life.

gold and silver, he shall be punished with the

Art. 53.
If

a brother of the Hung-league, seeing that the wife or concubine of another brother
his

is

young

and good-looking, and, relying upon

power,

(so that the

other brother dares not withstand

him) appropriates her to himself, and takes her as


Art. 51.
If a brother of the

his wife,

he shall be put

to death.

Hung-league, coveting

illicit

things, seduces, with specious

words and

se-

159
ductive language,
brother,
shall
to

the wife

and children of a brother and


if

who
sells

has gone abroad, or of a deceased

go with him to another place,

he

them

there to others as slaves, he

be slain under a shower of blows.


Art. 55.

If a brother

of the

Hung-league, knowing that another brother has gained in the course of


if this

his
kills

life

much

gold, silver and valuables, and


traitorously

(other) brother
off.

flies

to his house,

and he

him then

by

poison, his four limbs shall be cut


Art. 56.

If a brother

of the

Hung-league has had a dispute, quarrel or


out of vengeance

fight

with another brother,


of this

and

if

he ruins then,

brother, he shall

and grudge, the ships, house or shop-front be punished with 108 blows and the loss of both his ears.
Art. 57.

If
fully,
this
if

a brother of the Hung-league, having had a quarrel with another brother, gives, revenge-

money
the

to thieves

and robbers,

charging

them

to

injure this brother,

and

satisfies

in

way

secret

grudge of

his heart,

he shall be punished with the loss of one ear.


life,

But

he has charged them to deprive this brother of his


Art. 58.
If a

he shall be put to death.

brother of the Hung-league has committed a crime,

and he

is

seized

by

the authorities

and suffers the hardships of imprisonment,


punishment,

and

all

the brethern
it

have contributed money,

and

mtrusted this money to one brother, that he

may

use

to the mitigation or

remission of his

and

if

this

brother pockets himself this money, he shall be put to death.


Art. 59.

If

a brother of the Hung-league has killed somebody for the public interest,
if

and wishes to

escape to another district or country,

then a traitor informs secretly, out of revenge, other

people of

it,

so that this brother

is

caught, he shall be put to death.


Art. 60.

If

a brother of the Hung-league steals treacherously the

public

secretly uses the


loss of

money which he has

collected for public use,

money or goods, or if he he shall be punished with the

one

ear.

Art. 61.
If a brother

of the

Hung-league
for

is

faithless

and dishonest

and, falsely and treacherously,

cuts the seal

and the (planks

the)

book of laws and

statutes,
life.

and

sells

them

secretly in

order to gain

money, he

shall

be punished with the


Art. 62.

loss of his

If a

brother of the

Hung-league

is

faithless

gives evidence in favour of a stranger, injuring a brother

and wicked, and, coveting unexpected gains, by this means, he shall be punished

with the

loss

of

one ear.

160
Art. 63.
If a brother

of the Hung-league has

disputed or fought with another brother about money,


to

accounts,

or articles,

and they have gone

the court-room in order to


it,

request the Presi-

dent and Master to examine the case and decide upon

if

then some give

one has selfishly taken he

money from
sliall

the person

who

is

in

the wrong, in

order

to

evidence in his favour,

be punished with lOS blows.


Art. 61.

If

a brother

of

the

Hung-league
is

remains quietly at home at the

festival
is

of

some God,

or at the time

that

lodge

held,

and

if

he

is

an

officer

on

whom

bestowed the golden

llower on the head, and

if

he does not come after having been thrice summoned, he shall


his

be punished with 18 blows and be deprived of

flower.

Art. 65.
If there

are

among

the

brethern of the Hung-league faithless and wicked people who, redare to insult, abuse,

lying upon their power,


or the
cliiefs

knock or beat

the

President

and Master,

and the four Great-ones, they


72

shall receive 36

blows and, besides, be punished,


^

according to law, with

blows.
Art. 66.

If a brother

of the

Hung-league has committed an improper and unlawful action

and

or-

der has been given to call


ily to

him

in order

to

examine him, and he refuses proudly and haughtfirst

come, and refuses to obey the law, he shall be punished


Art. 67.

with 3G blows.

If a

brother of the

Hung-league,

seeing that

the wife or children of a deceased brother

are insulted or illtreated


Avith
his

by others, and, though dwelling next door, remains looking at it arms sleeved up Q), and, designedly, does not inform the brethern of it, that they

may

avenge them, he shall be punished with 21 blows.


Art. 6S.

If a brother of the

Hung-league, after having entered the Hung-league, covets,

triple -hear t-

ei and

douhle-mindeJ ,

power and authority,


to others
to

and,

therefore,
it,

passes

over to
to

another society,

and gives the book

destroy or burn

he shall be put

death.

Art. 69.
If

a brother of the Hung-league


is

introduces

bad people

into

the league,

on a day that

lodge

held,

without having inquired carefully and truthfully; but, on the contrary, having
lets

taken clandestine bribes,

them be

affiliated,

he shall be punished with the loss of one ear.

(')

i.

e.

with folded arms.

161
Art. 70.
If

a brother of the Hung-ieague has introduced a

little

friend"

(^)

into

the league,
disgrace

they do not amend afterwards, but go about as before, and bring in this
the reputation of the Hung-league, both of

way

and upon

them

shall

be put to death.

Art. 71.

a brother of the Hung-league has been intrusted Avith the wife and children of another brother, and he takes, covetously, money from an acquaintance or friend, and, avertin"- his
If

eyes, allows

him

to

commit adultery with them, he


Art. 72.

shall be put to

death.

If

a brother of the

Hung-league has

been intrusted with the wife,

children

and property
remarry,

of a deceased brother, and he cherishes afterwards wicked thoughts, that

and

forces her to
ear.
(-)

he

may

get her property, he shall

be punished with the

loss of

one

SECTION
THE

II.

TWENTY ONE ARTICLES OP THE REGULATIONS.


Art. 1.

(^)

He who blasphemes
with
vile

the Gods, disobeys his parents, beats or insults his superiors, or insults,
the parents of others,
shall be punished, according to

language or bad words,

law,

with 72 blows.
Art. 2.

He who,
proceedings;

relying

upon

his

power,

oppresses the

weak; Avho

assists the police in their

who

conspires with other people to steal the property of a brother, or assists

bad them
tiie

to cheat a brother out of his goods


loss of

and riches, shall be punished, according


Art. 3.

to

law,

with

one ear and 72 blows.

If a brother of the

Hung-league quarrels with one's own


it

brother or

fights

with a mem-

ber of one's
together),
cibly,

own

family or with a stranger,

is

allowed

to give

a signal

(to call the bretherii


for-

in order to separate

them.
shall

He who,

pretending ignorance, has separated them

and helped the stranger,

be punished, according to law, with 108 heavy blows.

(1)

Catamite.
Accordin;;
of her
first

(^)

to

Chinese law, a

widow who

remarries

is

obliged to give up to her cliildren the property

husband, which she has administrated during her widowhood.

(')

fij

zi

-h

#
2i

162
Art.
4,

He who
shall
lose

has committed

adultery

with the wife,

concubine,

or

daughter
if

of a

brother,

one ear

if

the adultery has been

committed bv violence; but

the

adultery has

been

pei-petrated willingly,

he shall be punished with 360 blows.

He who

gives his daughter,

who

has already lost her virginity, in marriage to a brother,

shall repent his

crime sincerely; he

who

does not reform, Art.


5.

shall be punished

with 108 blows.

If a

brother commits robbery afloat or ashore, he shall observe well the signs of recogbefore

nition

he

acts.

If one,

pretending

not to have recognized them,

sets

wantonly
to

to

work, he Avill be punished with 360 blows. But he W'ho knew certainly that it was a brother, but has pretended not cognized him, and he who has given the clue to others to rob or plunder him, nished with the loss of one ear and 108 heavy blows.
Art.
It
is

have

re-

shall

be pu-

6,

not allowed to abuse a brother, or to oppress the weaker, relying on one's pow^er;
trusting
to

or

insult the honest,


to beat

one's

authority.

Is

either

shall

it

be allowed to
disobeys,

lift

up

one's

hand

a brother, or to insult or vilify his parents.

He who

shall be pu-

nished with 108

blows.
Art.
7.
it

If

a brother has escaped the tax, smuggled, or sold prohibited goods,


to

shall not

be
of

alit.

lowed

conspire Avith

strangers in

order

to

rob him,

or

to
to

inform the

authorities
loss of

For, in that case, the transgressor shall be punished, according


Art.
If a brother has
it

law, with the

one

ear.

8.
is

become implicated with the


betray him to

authorities, or if a price

set
,/

upon

his person,

shall

not

be allowed to
is

the authorities,

and be the

leading thread"

by

Avhich a brother
one's
self.

caught; and, in order to get the promised reward, injure another to profit
slain,

For those shall be

according to laAV, and be killed with countless swords.


Art.
9.

In order to become Presiding-master


If he then wishes to lay the bridge

(')

there

must

first

be a vacancy.
he shall,
is

and open the

fair (-),

first,

send round a

cir-

vular to the brotherhood.


clandestinely opened a
fair.

If he does

not send a circular, he

guilty of the crime of having

Thereby he violates the laws of the

five founders,

and, therefore, he shall be

killed.

0)
(-)

# i ^ ^^

(See p. 47.)

p^

-j^

i.

e.

adopt new members and hold lodge.

163
Art. 10.

When

foir is

held

{^),

all

persons must be carefully


(-)

examined,

so that

no serpents mix

themselves with the dragons.

He who, knowing it, does who has brought clandestinely


secrets,

not give notice of


policemeii

it,

shall

be punished with 108 blows.


in

He
the

within the precincts,


spies.

order

to

show them

shall

be killed together with the spy or

Art. 11.

The Purse

(")

and the Clothes

(')

are important articles of the Hung-league

they ought

to

be preserved and hidden

carefully,

and not be shown

to

strangers.

If

one takes covetously

a bribe, and brings the police on the track, he will be punished with the loss of both his ears.
Art. 12.

After having entered the Hung-league,


to strangers;

it

is

not allowed to betray the secrets of the league


tell it

in

such a way, that a father shall not

to his

son, or the one brother, to

his other

brothers.

He who

does not

obey

this article

shall

be punished, according
Art. 13.

to

law, with

7:2

blows.

If a brother to

runs against

another person and

falls

a-quarrelling,

it

shall

not be allowed

give evidence in

favour of the stranger, and to the prejudice of the brother.


is

He who

disobeys,

guilty of the crime

of assisting the police,

and he

shall

be punished,

according to law, with the loss of one ear.


Art.
11..

When
to

brethern of the Hung-league have serious or

trilling

dissensions

the council

is

there

decide

upon theni according


magistrates.
If

to

justice,

but

it

shall not be
this

allowed to bring the case be-

fore

the

anybody should not observe

law, the council will decide the

case effectually,

and, besides, will punish the plaintiff with lOS blous.


Art. 15.

When
and
if

there

are public

affairs,
to

and the brotherhood


it

is

invited to

deliberate

upon them,

they are intrusted


speeches.

the council,
it

shall

not be allowed to injure the equity

by

boisterous
or

Neither shall

be permitted to carry sharp weapons, or to have sticks

cudgels in one's hands.

The

offeiider

shall

be punished, according to law, with

7:J

blows.

Q)
(')
(')

i.

e.

When

lodge

is

held.

Subjects of the

Manchoos amongst

the Hung-people.

^ ^
^^

the seal or diploma.


the handbook.

See pag.

2833,

(*)

i^

164
Art. 16.
If

a brother has gone


for

abroad to gain a livelihood,

the others ought

to

take

all letters,

money or merchandize He who, during his


ney or merchandize,

him

to

the

native

country.

voyage, opens clandestinely the letters, or pockets himself the mobe punished,
according
goods.
17.
to

shall

law,

with the

loss

of one

ear,

and

he shall reimburse, besides, the

money and

Art.
If the
tlieir

wife,

concubine,

sister

or daughter of a

brother pass along


to

the road,

or

are

in

dwelling,

and one adresses them, one ought


or voluptuous

behave purely, honestly, and properly,


is

and not

talk perversed

language;

for

this

an offense against the honour of

the Hung-league.

He who

disobeys this, shall be punished,

according to law, with 36 blows.


18.
liis

Art.

"When a brother has


educate the
If

died,

and

one
left

marries
behind.

widow, one
the

is

obliged to nourish and

children
left

which he has

he has

no children behind,
If a

one

must celebrate
at
off

anniversary of his birth and


accor-

death,

and

perform the sacrifices

and cleansing ceremonies


to

the grave-cleansing festival,


it

ding to the usages.


to

brother has gone far

another place,

shall not

be allowed

marry

his

wife.
this

He who

disobeys

shall

be punished with 360 blows.


Art.
19.
liim,
this
all

When
to

a brother

is

dead, and there

is

no money to bury
to

the

members ought
charity
it,

unite

themselves

and

contribute

money

help

him.

In
to

Hung-league will

appear.
to

When

his

neighbour pretends not

way the have known

of the

he shall be

punished, according

law, with 36 blows.


Art. 20.

If the

police
it.

has stolen the

search for
stolen

"When

one

has

money and property of a brother, one ought most surely to found them out, one ought to indicate the place where the
their

goods
is

are concealed.

He who
police,

acquainted

with

hiding-place,

and does not

tell

it,

is

a helper of the

and

shall

be punished, according to law, with lOS blows.


Art. 21.

The President and Master of the lodge ought to manage affairs honestly and equitably. They shall not, on account of relationship, be unjust, and neither shall they take bribes, and wrong the brethern. The council shall deliberate on all affairs, and it's members shall not, trusting to their
greater

age,

oppress

the

younger ones,

or,

relying upon

their

power, insult the weak.

165

May
If the

the

offender

be

unhappy and unprosperous


they have then, knowing the law,

brethern discover that they have taken bribes,


it.

transgressed

An old man of

adage says:
the people."

If the

emperor transgresses the law, he


disobeys this
shall,

is

a criminal

as

well

as

He who

therefore, be

punished with death.

SECTION

III.
in

The ten peohibitory laws on appointing meetings


Art.
1.

the hall of obedience to hung. C)

At every time that a day


ten days
at

for

holding a meeting draws

near, the President must inform,

before,

all

the

brethern
at the

by

circular,

if

they will
If

be pleased to come and look

the

theatricals,

and

assist

incense-table.

anybody holds meeting, without hav-

ing

first

sent

a circular, he will be punished with 108 blows.


Art.
2.
,

If a

brother desires to become


first

Presiding-mader

and take

his

seat

on the table-terrace,
left

lie

must
ders.

have been

Tavguard, according to the

laws and statutes


(-),

by
the

the five founseal,

After a fixed time,


(^)

he can get the warrant

the

sword, and

and be

made Leader.
If the

time has not yet expired, and some one sets himself up as Presiding-master
has got
the

beAvitii

fore

he

warrant and
of one
ear.

seal,

and holds a meeting, he will be

punished

lOS blows and the

loss

Art.
If a

3.

brother wishes

to

introduce a

new member
into

into the lodge,

he ought to inform him-

self well,

and not bring wrongly a miscreant

that

place.

He who, coveting a bribe, introduces secretly by this, shall be punished with 108 blows.
Art.
If

miscreants into the lodge, and causes turmoil

4.

a brother

knows

that

certain person,

who

has

entered the lodge, has given formerly

and has shown them the way, he will be seized and slain. But if a brother will stand bail for such a one, he can remain and may be suffered to preserve
the
clue to the police,
his
life.

(^)

^^

Ji

't

P^

'M

+ M

1G6
If the

securely,

however, took secretly a bribe, then he who, knowing

abovit it, did not

inform the brethern, will be punished with 108 blows and the loss of both his ears.
Art.
5.
,

The brethern shall not bring clandestinely policemen within the Council in order to show them the formalities and objects. If a miscreant should have introduced clandestinely a polifeman or stranger within the lodge,
h'ts

iu

order to

let

hiui

see the

ceremonies,

and

falsely

him pass
this is

for

a brother, the ini-roducer shall be

slain.

For

a violation of the law


shall

by an own

brother.
slain.

The policeman

be kicked out of the place, or he shall, also, be


Art.
6.

If a brother
cial

has been ordered to keep guard at the


stealthily
to

gates

of the

lodge,

and

if

some

offi-

approaches

have a peep within, he


all

shall,

immediately, inform the President


If the

;nid

Master of the lodge, that

the brethern
to

may

seize

him.

sentinel has not been

vigilant, or

had gone secretly home in order

drink wine or to sleep, without having asked


the deserter shall be slain.

the live Founders

for permission, or got orders to that respect,

Art.
If a
li>

7.

brother has been ordered to guard the passes,


to get

he

shall

not
to

be allowed to go secretly

the brothels,

drunk,

gamble, walk or return home

sleep,

and leave arbitrarily

the gates, or keep carelessly guard.


If, in

consequence of

this

negligence, the secrets have leaked out,

the offender will be pu-

nished with lOS blows and the loss of one ear.


Art.
If a brother,
S.

no matter

if

he

is

an old or a new member, wishes

to enter the Council-room,

and worship

the five founders before the table-terrace, he ought to

be clean and spruce,

and

not sully the Gods and Budhas.

The transgressor

Avill

be punished with lOS heavy blows.


Art. 9.

When

the

brethern go in

the

evening to the market (lodge), in order

to

see

the festivities
sta-

(ceremonies), they must be quiet, respectful, and earnest,


ring, or cry to the right
If one,
relj'ing

and not stand Avondering and


he will

and
his

left,

so offending the rules of the meeting.

upon

strength,

transgresses this law,

be punished with 108

heavy blows.
Art. 10.
If

brethern

sell fruits

or edibles at the

market

(lodge),

they ought

to sell

them

for

fair

pri-

ces,

and not ask high or extravagant


disobeys this

prices; neither shall the other brethern take

away

their

goods with violence.

He who

law

will be punished with 108 blows.

FA-RT
SECTION

VI.

SECRET SIGNS OF THE HUNG-LEAGUE.


I.

(')

Secret signs on the eoad and on journeys.


If a brother travelling, does not

know

the road and

wants

to ask it, he

ought do to so willi

the following quatrain:


I don't ask for South and North or East and West;
l<^or

since antiquity the speck of red


faithful heart

(-)
(^)

is

dazzling bright;

j\Iy

and sun and moon

are manifest
tell

Why

should I grieve then that people on the world won't stop and

me.

r^

m
-^
tU

m m
JS>

:\t

^
^\!>

m %n
rivant
to

M
m
B

m
'^

^
1^
If people

M
m.
/ come from
toherc
11/ e

m
on the road:

I
stops

^
go
to

ask you

Whence do you corned answer:

East.
join-

If
thf-

they ask .you:

Whither are you going?

answer:

the jilace

I can

myriach of Ireihern.
If

are you going ?

you are going to the lodge, and somebody answer him with these verses

you on the road and asks

.you:

////<//'/

(-)
X'')

The Hung-league
The Ming-dynasty.

or the Sun.

See p. 35, note 4.

168
At Thai-phiug
is

a great festival;

The Hung-gate

is

widely opened

We

are going to assemble at the bridge.

And teach the children faith and loyalty; (How dare you then) bar the road and interrogate me?
:*:

^
f^

#:
i^
ffi

#
^

m ^ B m
Having
If

IJ

#
-f*

^ m

i^

m
this
is

m
quatrain:
your face;
like the wind. (^)

said this,

you may continue you journey.


a distance a spot of red in

you meet a brother on your journey, say


I see at

Don't fear that the original colour


Before the censer

we have pledged we

to follow our heart's desire;

You

see

now

that

are sincerely united in one family.

169

i:

i^

^
If

m
tlie

A ^
first

+ m
left

^ m
foot.

'^

m
first

u
to stop

you Avant

to

enter
then,

house of a brother, you ought

moment

before

the
If

threshold and,

enter

with the

shop or school of a brother to pay him a visit, you ought some sign of recognition; if you have an umbrella in your hand, j'^ou ought to wind your handkerchief around the point of it, with a knot in the middle, and, having entered the house, you ought to place the umbrella in the left corner ('); the hat or rainhat (-), which you have on your head, you ought to depose in the same way. If you wear grass-shoes, and you are going to sit down on a chair, you ought to place the points of your slioes pointed towards each other, whilst your legs are wide apart; a
to give

you enter the house,

brother
If a
tlie

can then recognize that you are one


brother
is

who
is

has done the eight salutations.

(')

not at home,

but his wife

at

threshold:

the points of the shoes

pointed towards each other,

home, you can leave your shoes within and the shoe-heels apart
brotlier has

from each other.


there,

The brother, returning home, knows then that an own


to

been

who
the

has performed the eight salutations.

If 3^ou

want

go

away
The

again

immediately, you ought to put your shoes with the points

towards
going

threshold.

brotlier

knows then

that

you have dined

already,

and

an?

knows
if

but, if you put the shoes with their heels towards the door, he you want to remain over night. In case you have an umbrella with you, you may, also, draw the ring over the umbrella you are going to remain; but in case you are going away immediately, leave your umthat

away immediately;

brella loosened.
If

you

call

upon a brother with a friend or


,/What a cold draft there
the
is

relation

of yours,
(')

you ought

to

say in

en-

tering the
If a

house:

in the house!"

brother enters

house of another brother with a stranger, and he wishes


left

to

pass

the night there, he ought to place his umbrella and hat against the

^vall; if he has

urgent or
aright.

pressing

afl'airs,

he ought to lay them

down on

the ground; the brother then places

them

would become much mightier


want.
'

if

sage would dwell in

it

I don't doubt that

you

are the sage I

He

let

him mount
still

in his chariot

and they returned


first

togetlier.

Altliough Kiauff-shaiig was already


I.,

82 years of age,

Wen-wanrj made him his

minister.

(Histoire Generale de la Chine, T.

241.)

Q)
(*)

This knot represents the character

/ai^///'K?,

which

is

abbreviated to
,

jtl

instead of

^^

Large hat made of the leaves of Buphis flabelliformis

and worn during showers.


(Comp. pag. 134.)
is

1^^

(')

As the

slioes,

so placed, form the character eight,

A,

^*)

J&

ft

.wv

ffj*

^5

^''"^"i^S

lii'^

^'''^t

^^ uidtiated

witli

him,

as a draft

means

a stranger.

22

170
If there
is

a stranger going 'with you to the house of a brother, you ought to lay within
other,

the threshold one shoe with the sole upwards, and the If you are travelling, and you wish to give a sign,

with the

sole

downwards.
in your

you can take your umbrella

else around the handle of the umbrella. left hand, and wind your handkerchief or something hold it with the top outwards and put to or straw-hat, you ought If you wear a rain three fingers in the crown of it. If you meet some one on the road, you ought to give a sign with your clothes, handker-

chief or cue.

you hang your cue behind your left (i) in with your handkerchief and lay a. faUhful-heart knot
If you

have
on

affairs,

ear;
it.

you

can, also, gird

your waist
the

You

can,

also,

leave
is

two

buttons
open.
[-)

the

collar

of

your coat unbuttoned,

so that the lappet of

your coat

hanging

You may,
down.
If

also, tuck

up the right leg of your pantaloon, whilst

letting the left leg

hang

you enter

the house of a

man whom you


And
Are,

don't

know, say
wind;
\^)

this quatrain:

I have not yet met you,


I fear the drafts of

Three hundred and twenty one


all

together, of one clan.

^ ^ H ^
If

te

^ #
II

*
^ +

A
3!?

^
//I

//I

^ m ^
the peach-trees in the

people ask

you Avhere you were born, answer:

was born under

red-llower pavilion."
If

one asks you Avhen you were born, answer:


(*)

was born on

the 25th of the 7th

month

of the year Kah-yin.


If

you wish

to pass

the night in an inn and the innkeeper asks j^ou

The Hung-gate opens


If you've DO

like the character

Pah

money we

don't want you to enter.

[")

Comp.
i.

pag.

5-i.

(2)

e.

Huvg

'^

The Hung-people." (Comp. Introduction

S).

(*)

Aug. 23, 173-i; the date of the foundation of the league.

(Comp.

p.

17).

171

^m

PI

A
^

#i

M
answer then:

^ A m
money

M
{^)

^.

Three hundred and twenty one

Without money have yet to

eat.

H M
If the

n
^^

+
-M
(^)

--

n
H
^<^

innkeeper asks you


Three hundred and twenty three
If you've no

take off your clothes.

H m
answer then:
Tliree

A m
/\

in

B
zi

^
(*)

Imndred and twenty four

AVhen they have eaten enough they go to look

al the theatricals. (*)

H
:ir

II

*
SECTION
II.

+ ^

151

Meeting with eobbers ok pirates.


shoots partridges" (*), and he is going you meet on your journey with a brother who to attack you, you ought to say: I am a valiant Hung and not a partridge." If he then says: //I want also to shoot the Hung-heroes," answer him: ^You want to shoot also the
If
,/

(1)

This

is

parody on a

common

Chinese proverb which runs

The
t'is

gates of a mandarin's office


useless to enter

go open

like

the character

pah

(the door having

two

folds)

"without

money

them"

being an al-

lusion to the rapacity of the Chinese officials.


(-)
("')

The

i/KH^-ljrethern.

This, too, means


(clothes).

Hung;

the last character being changed into the character san (three) to

rhyme on

*.:

(*)

As

ill

the above note,


at the lodge.

(four)

rhymes on hi

(theatric.ils).

(-)
J^)

Played
i.

e.

highway-man, one who

assaults the passer-by.

173
Hang-heroes? You can
'I,

however, shoot me."


't

If he

says:

,/Don

't

brag so,

want
(')

to take

iiway your clothes," answer: ,/Tou can


//I'll

undress me, for I wear the surplice."

If he says:
it

knock your lantern


for it is the

(-)

to pieces,"

answer him: I

am

not afraid that you will knock

to pieces,

bundle"
I

(^),

answer

eye of sun and moon." p) If he says: Don't brag so, but deliver your him: //You can 't take away my bundle." If he says: //Why can't
//In

take

away your bundle?" answer him:


Patriotism-united"
(*).
{^),

my
to

bundle are only 21 cash where with

v:o

to the shop

in order to

buy
all

the Prince hereditary

("),

the

want to Armyon the


also,

leader C)

and Provisions
all

want,

also,

buy

kind of

fruits,

as offerings,
(^)

second day of the second month, to the festival of the Gods of the land.
III

want,

go with
called
(")

my

adopted brethern to look at the


1

theatricals."

(i)

If he

asks you:

//Who

lias

you?" answer him:


If

am coming

according to

the order of the

great brother
,/In

Wan."
Inindle

he asks you:

//What have you got in your bundle?"


Q"),

answer him:
and
it

my

are

thousands of changes and myriads of metamorphoses


('')

is

several mil-

and I shall take it away absolutely, to rob me. and want, most surely," answer him: //You seem not to believe me, Wait then until I have stamped the seal on it, and take it then away." He then, surely, will say: 1 have asked you, and you have answered me clearly on every question. Pray
lions of

pounds heavy."

If

he says:

I don

't

believe you,

don't be

angry with me, but go along with

me
't

to

my

house."

If

a high way -robber calls to you:

,/

You can

pass

this

road," answer him:

//I

walk on

iron planks (") and go through all the world." If he asks you: //My friend! both your eyes stand high," answer him: ,,1 am the three-eyed God of the fire." (^) If he says: //Have you
three eyes?
Jie

where

then

is is

your third eye?" answer him:

,/It

is

in

my

forehead."

('^)

If

asks: //What kind of eye

do you

do with these eyes?"

it?" answer him: //it is a sharp eye." ('') If he asks: ,,What answer him: //With the left eye I see the civilians and witli
I see

the right

one the military, whilst

with the middle eye

if

the brethern arc faithful or

treacherous.

(')

H
/fej

B^
,

or

rather

eg

g^,
(^)

a bright eye.

(*)

(0
(*)

iOlf '" '^^'u'^li Compare pag. 9^ A.


Betel-leaves.
-yyijo

the diploma
2 19.
(")

and Hung-cash are preserved.


Betel-nuts.
pag. 52.
(')

Lime,

Comp.

(10)

are played at

the festival.

(")
c^)
('"')

The

president of the lodge,


-ffc

JFan-ytm-lunj.

^ a 5 ~^
^^
i.

""

-^

fX

0^ account of the diploma which

is

in

it.

(") 0')

e.

t/rans-sfwes.

(Comp. pag. 49.)

^ m

('")

('')

fif<^

173
If

your

bundle

is

white
to

and the robber says:

nf

the

grotto,
{')

and goes
is

In clear daylight a white dog comes out roam about at night" {}), answer him: ,/The white heron flies and
the robber
("'),

alone."
If

your

bundle

yelloio

says:

//In

clear

daylight

a wild boar roams

about, and appears


the top
If

at

night-fall"
(*)

answer him:
,/In

,/A wild tiger

shall

come down from

of the

mountain."
is

your bundle

blue

and the robber says:


(^),

clear

daylight a black boar comes


falls
flat

down
(")

from the mountain-ridge"


If

your bundle
(7),

is

answer him: //The blackbird party-coloured and the robber says: ,/In
//The wolf goes

on the ocean."

clear

daylight the rabbit roams


(*)

about"

answer him:

over the

mountain-ridge."

If

to

you meet on your journey a snake (robber) coiled upon the ground, and you wish push him away with your foot from the road, say this quatrain:
Heaven
is

high, Earth

is

broad, and yet they implore each other;

The

prince hereditary has taken the lead on your account.

Now

an adopted brother comes to rob me,


his force, oppresses the

But he who, relying upon

weak

shall

be taken away

l)y

Heaven,

-m
"f

^
m

%
n
it

% 4
ft
You

^
5S

^
this

K % ^ ^
quatrain:

M
^

^ ^

^ w ^ ^

can then continue your road.

If

you meet a robber on the road, say

(-)

fi

n ^ ^
iE

n
(^
(^)

ll]

^
ffi

<:)

.^ # ^ W ^ e ^ ^ % ^ n m % ^ 0m-^li!^

It

^^

^;i

175
If

a ronlier attacks
{^);

you with a sword, you can

also

say:

,yl

did not fear on a certain

day two swords

how

should I then be afraid of your single sword;"


people;
the Tartars with two swords? the road;

A single sword may only frighten Why don't you rather exterminate
Yon,

my

adopted brother, stop

me on

But our brethern

are all heroes of

Hung.

m
"^

7;

T>

^
yt

^
71

m ^
If

m ^
m

#
"^

m
see

m
m
enter

m m m

^
^

A m

you meet a robber on the road and you


all
it,

f/We
across
If

an empty enclosure, enter it, and say: are people from the garden." {-) Draw then with your stick or umbrella a line so that it forms the character c/mnff (^), and continue your road.
is

there
it

a stick standing in this enclosure,

the garden

and, pulling

it

out,

bran-

dish

three times

above your head, saying:


(*)

,1

Cliau-tsz-luirg

has helped our lord with a single

club to break through the ranks."


If there is of grass

Throw

then

this

stick

away and

continue you road.

a grass-blade in this garden, pull in out and go

eastwards^ or

put the blade

in

your hair, saying


Under the

this
foot of

quatrain:

man and
grow

Idng

is

a heap of sand;

Above

the East-gate
is

flowers

and grass;

silk-thread

run through a needle with eleven eyes;


is

Sheep, goat and good wine

our family

(}).

(')

The arch
11

of steel", bridge of double swords on the day of affiliation.


(see pag.
2.)
ffi,

(2)
(')

The peachgarden",
middle,
five

|in

here meant for

faithful.

(*)

Liu-pi hd

valiant generals, called

Kwan-kung

(^

-^

) 1

Chang-fi

^^
)

5]) Chau-tsz-lung,
''^''^y

(
()

-^
is

B^)) Ma-chao
|

Lf^

^j

and Ilwang-chung

(^
^M

;^

'"^''^

called the

five tiger-generals

_^

^^)) ^^^

^^^^ ^^"^^ intimate friends.

This

a very interesting and,

seemingly, most unintelligible verse, but

we soon found

that

it

was nogolden

thing else but an analytic description of the four characters


orchid

-^
is

^X

>

"^"
Jl

"^^
,

we have pledged
king
;

fraternity."

The

character

-^^

composed of the

elements

man;

^P
The The
eye.

and ^ ), a heap of sand.

character character

^
^^

is

composed of the elements

'^

east;
silk,

P^

gate; and

"M

grass or plants.

is

composed

of the elements

^,

silkthread;

J^ j

eleven, and

mouth,

177

In a certain year Chang-fi cried to cut

off

one plank

(i)

so there

remained

still

two planks.

Why

then

is

there only one plank?"


(-)."

,/The sisters-in-law, also, took a plank; so there remained

only one plank

Having said
say
The
They

this, continue

your road.

Or you

may

also

this distich:
sisters-in-law meet each other
are Cliing-ytili-Ucn

on the road
.

and

Kicoli-siu-yvKj

(')

n
If

M
How

TO ACT ON MEETING PIUATES.

you are passenger on board of a ship, and a piratical vessel approaches to plunder tlie ship on which you are, write then the following verses on a white fan, and throw it uu board of the pirate. You may then be assm-ed that he will not harm you:

Spotless

is

the frozen autumnal water!

Confused are the bones of the Spirits and Genii!


Clear water does not take colouring!
It's jade-like

purity awakens our desires

The
The

bird
fish

who hops across the branches has a white head! who pierces the waves is bright underneath!
sound of the
lute. (*)

We
And

are only united for the twinkling of an eye; I fear to hear the

^ n
i^

^
^
{})

m n m % u
to

% m % X ^
(A.

^
\^

-^

^
%.

m ^
M,
D.

^
^
265).
not

Episode from the

History of the three states."


gave
^^^

168

In a battle between Thsao-t/t.iuo

and

Lin-pi,
(

Chm(j-fi

order

cut
of

off

the bridge

Chung-pan

1-^

'^)
it

near

tlie

pass

2'fl//y-

yang
behind.
(-)

'^

l^lt

^^^^

soldiers

Thsao-thsao

should

pass over

and attack Liu-pi from

The

sister

and wife of Ching-thian.


the

(Compare pag. 90, note

1.)

This

is

probably an allusion to some

episode from

one or the other historical novel, treating of the rebellion of Htcang-kao.


is.

We

could

not succeed, however, in finding out which this novel


{')

The

first

is

the sister, and the second the wife of Ching-thian,

(*)

Canon and guns.


.1

178

m
^^.

m w
(^);

^
may
is

m
by
force;

Or. also, the following quatrain

be written on the white fan:


a red-headed mast

In the Kao-khi- (temple)

The brethern throughout the world ought not The faitliful and loyal may come hither; But who
rely

to take

upon

their force

and oppress the weak,

shall be

taken away by Heaven.

^
m

yt

m
i<^'

&
'It

m
m

^^.

^ ^ M m

^^

ii

u ^ ^
Huug

m
^
are faithful

H ^ ^ ^
and good.

Or

this

quatrain:

The peach-flowers
The

just opened are every where fragrant

I have heard since long and found out that the


first

of the heroes in the universe, fraternity in a peach-garden. (-)

Were Liu, Kwan and Chang, who pledged

m
A

^
m

^7J

n
m
^'J

9^

m
:^55

^ M
I5PJ

^ M
Ti^
to

m
there are a

m
laaj (')

TffU

Although the brethern are not allowed

to tell anj'thing of the secrets

their family,

yet

few verses which they may teach


pirates.
is

their relations,

in case they miglit be attacked

by robbers or

The following

a quatrain which one


The
five
't

may

teach his sister, in case she might be attacked:

colours originally were red:

Don
If
P)Ut

say that I, your sister,


Si-shi, there are

am

lascivious.

you want a
I,

some on the mountains;


brother, both bear the

your

sister,

and you,

my

name

of

Hung.

(')
(')

The

flag-staff.

(-)
is

Compare the quatrain on page

54.

This,

we understand,

also

done in some American Freemasons-lodges,

179

S.

t.

M
A-

%
AThe next
nv
pirates:

M m
may
the
't

^ ^ m ^
I.

^
if
\h

m m n
(-);

'^

M.

^
^m
{')

three quatrains one

teach to his wife, in case she might

fall

in

with robbers

On
Don
If

mountains a flower opens a speck of red


phinder

me

as

you would rob


interrogate
tlie

a stranger, wife of a

you,

iuiinical foe,

Hung-iuan

Three hundred and twenty one are

all

Hung.

\h

w.

^ ^
-H-

n
11
a

m
^\

m K
^^

H
Dou
If
't

A
say that
I

II.

;i

Afar I see on the road before

me

speck of red

am

lascivious.

you want a

Si-nhi (^j, there are

some on the mountains;

But

my

husband and you,

my

brother-in-law, have the same ancestors.

m % ^ ^
We
The
all

M
n

#
A^

M
^
of the
clear

n
u

^ M m ^
III.

%
\\\

ii^

^^ U.

^
X
n

M m

same year and month are gay;


in the vernal breezes shines

moon

on Heaven and Earth

(')

(^)

Si-shi

was a

fine

woman

of antiquity

who

lived near the

mountain Chu-lo
carried her off,

^S

I,

She sold

fa-

gots and washed for the people.

The king of
fine

the state

Yueh

and presented her

to tlie

king of Wu.
poetry.

She

is

always cited as a

woman, and

allusions are

made

to her beauty in

prose and

We
('-)

would say: If you want an Aspasia,"

i.

e.

Hung-brother comes

to

rob

me on

the road,

ISO
The dragon
of

Heaven and the

tiger of
arid

Earth have come from Hwni-chao

{');

In South and North, in East

West, we are united in one family.

^
M.

m ^ m
If there is revolt iu the

n m
i*

M M
ii:

n
:^t

w m 1

^ %
^

M.
i^

m
1.

^ m
to

Signs of distress.

place where j^ou live,

and you wish


of

protect

your house and


Hung-nian
;"

trade,

you ought

to

nail
is

above the principal door

your house a square piece of red cloth,


{-),

on whose outer-side

written the characters Hunj-hia


is

,/Hung-house," or
i^)

//

and on the inner-side of which

written the character Ying


three feet and
six

;/hero."

Within your house

you ought
attack you.

to

place four green bamboos,

inches long.

No

rebel will then

2.

If

you are

in the theatre looking at the theatricals


to

fight,

you ought

rub your shoes against each other,


name

and there breaks out unexpectedly a and, throwing them up into the air,

exclaim
It's is

the iron-plank which ascends the clouds.

(^)

The brethern know then


lingers along

if

you

are a

stranger or a brother.

If

you then
all

stick

up nine

both your ears, with the fingers bent inward, the brethern will
possible.

haste to your

assistance ,

and no mistake will be

SECTION

III.

Questions and answers.


If people

ask you

how many pock-marks you have on your

face,

answer: #1 have 48 pock-

marks"

(^):

(1)

See page 15, note 3.

(2)

^^

(3)

<^'^

^ %

m.

u m m

ISl

You now

ask
is

me where

they are

hill;

The master

buried on the five-phoenix

On

the

triangular gravestone are sixteen characters:


left

All have three dots to the

side. (})

4^ it

m ^

182

3^

# m
it

M
m
59

^
m
If people laugh at

^
that

M
your mouth
is

m m ^ ^
so black
is

^ ^
1^
z-

H
)i. :J^

^ m
fiE

m
//I

^
so white,

you

and your teeth are

answer:

the four great Diamond-oues." Q) /,! have the mouth of If people laugh at you that you have no cue, answer:
If people

have been born without a cue."

(-)

laugh
laugh

at

you

that j'our

mouth
(^)

so

small, answer: //With

my

two yaws

can

swallow the four Cardinal points."


If people
at

the provisions of
If people If people

you that your mouth is so large, answer: two capitals and thirteen provinces." (*)
is

//My mouth can swallow

say that your mouth

too long,
is

answer: //The

five

peaks stand towards Heaven."


,/I

{')

say that your fore-head


C^)

protruding, answer:

have a head

like

the

cha-

racter

T/tree."

If people

say that your belly

is

so large

answer
is

,/

have a belly

like the cliaracter

Jt/e."

(")

If people

laugh at you that your head


(*)

pointed, answer: I have a head like the cha-

racter
If

United."

people
(9)

say that your ears are too large, answer:

,/Two phoenixes
a

look towards

the

sun."

If people

say

that

your mouth

is

awry, answer:
lips,

nl have

mouth
mouth

like

the

character

Peace."

(i")

If people
Together." (n)

say that

you have thick

answer:

/,

have

like

the character

^')

^ m m
i.

-K

^ m
-^
Pi
The

p
cue.

(^
<?^

e.

I have entered the

Hung-league without a

2p^

'^

(*^

a
.

m
P
-^

^ ^

^C

ilj

iS

-^
i^

n
:t
the
"

M + H
fore-head, nose,
1st lodge.
" "

-t
Comp.
/,

^'
p.

^
ears are called the five peaks.

(')

^ ^
|g
flt
^ft

mouth, eyes and


36.

(6)

C)
^^
'^-

^
^^u ^^

J^

^ ^
"?*

mark of the
'/

2d

,.

/,

37.
^^"

"

"
5

"
^'^'^

"

"

"

"

/^

1^

^^^

'"^ poetically

named
p.

phoenixes.
38.
39.

(10)

nM

^^

^ ^

p P

mark
"

of the 4th lodge.


S*'^

Comp.
"

"

"

"

"

183
If people If people

say that you have a youthful face^

answer:

//I

have peach-flowers on

my

face."

(i)

say that you wear a grass-blade on your head,

answer:

/,It is

the hard (hair)-

root."

(=)

If people say: If people

//Your coat
//There
is

is

not buttoned," answer:

//It is,

properly speaking, a surplice."


//It is

(')
.sil-

say:
(')

fowl's

dung on your
is

coat,"

answer:

the aslies of

ver preciosity."
If people say:
If people say:

,/How your coat


//Your coat
is
is

torn!" answer:
//It

,/It

is,

properly, a ragged coat."

{'')

old," answer:

If

they say: //Your coat

new," answer:
civil

//It

was made three daj^s ago." (") was made three mornings later."
[^)

(")

If people say that your legs are too long or too short, answer:

//My legs are like the


the

clia-

racter

Chung -ming -i ; they are

and military

legs."

If people say that

your eye-brows are too bushy or too scraggy, answer:


72, together, 108 hairs.
so large or so small,
(")

//In

left

<me

there are 36

hairs, in the right one

If people say that

your eyes are

answer:

//I

have eyes

like the cha-

racter Ming.

(^<')

If people ask

you: //Whence did the light come?" answer:

//The light

came from
])ale,

the holy

Temple." {")
If people

say that your face


('-)

is

pale,

answer: //The face of

Si-sJu \\a,s

but her heart

was

red."

SECTION

IV.

Secret signs with tea-cups.


If

a brother presents you tea, no matter

if

there are

many

r a

few cups, you ought

to

pour the tea in the cups back again into the tea-pot. Next you pour the tea again into cups, and you may drink of it without any more ceremonies.

the

i})

^
ill

i^^

4^
(^)

e)

II

*
(^)

:i

()

<')

-^ ^ w K ^ # H g ^ ^ ^ ^ M' ^ ^
[')

^ ^ ^ M ^ # #: H
-^
^y^
^^

19
composed of
a

M'
-b

short snn
(

and
)

Jam/

moon

<)
(10)

(") (")

"K

^ m M ^^ ^ Mi M ^ #

* * 0^ ^

H-

:^.

* *
^t>

+
^l

^ a - B *
8.
^'^''

''^'

H^l

with the same meaning as given in note

ft

^^

'^''^"^ '"''"""

p^=' ^^^' "'' '-^

184
If a brother presents

you

tea, he
is

ought
is

to

do so with the following quatrain:


all

Heaven

high, Earth

broad,

alike since olden times;

The mountains high and waters

fine are

mutually divided.

Kemember
I
lift

the affairs of the Hung-people in the golden orchid;

up

this blue lotus (^),

and present

it

to

mine adopted brother.

185

1S6

The guest ought

to take

away

this fan

with the following quatrain:

The Hung-fan
In the whole

covers the Hung-tea;


-n-orld

we

are one family;


fraternity;

In the red-flower-pavilion we pledged


TVe

know

each other throughout the whole universe.

P^

/?)^

mft.

C^

yfr!

187

The
your

host lays a chop-stick across the cup of tea.


Q),

The guest says

Mij lord! come down frmn

Jiorse

and drinks the contents.

The host lays a pipe

across

two cups

of tea.

The guest takes

it

off,

saying this quatrain:

The pure water


If there

of both the ponds nourishes a blue dragon


this blue

(-) (^)

In the hand I hold


is

dragon pierced at both ends.

no water in the ponds, the blue dragou dies;

When Heaven

and Earth have turned over,

we'll see a universal peace.

'^

M
m
i^
it

:^

^
jfe

^
The host lays a pipe
quatrain

m ^ m
is

m
Tie

^ m
w

M
m.
ig

m
fI
-M

^^

^
off,

across a cup of tea.

The guest takes the pipe

whilst saying this

blue dragon

in the pond;
{')

Eive tigers come down the mountains and follow the blue dragon.

The pond was shallow and The

steep

and he could not escape;

waterless well imprisons the blue dragon.

m
i;l

i m ^
The host
quatrain
places

m
^
of tea

T m u

m
iK

m
i^

^ # m
m
full
till

'i^

^
fl
'm

w
n

it
half-fall.

two cups
fuller

on the table, the one


full-one

and the other

The guest

ought to pour

the

cup into the less

the quantities are even, saying this

two men And one is


If

first

learned from one master,

faithful, the other treacherous:

The

faithful will

be

left

by God

to the

coming generations;

But the

traitor shall perish

by the sword.

(')
(*)

^ T ^
pipe
is

()

<')

The tobacco-pipe.
the

on the cup of

tea; Five fingers

come down from

arm and follow

the pipe.

188

=L

A
1@

^JJ

^
.

&
Kf
Having

^ ^
may

M ^ m

'^'

m
^
tea.

n
7J

^^

"^

M
"^

^
i^ t:

said this the guest

drink the

The host

places three cups of tea in a row.


Three great roads extend to the

The guest says


capital.
(^)

this quatrain:

Kung-ming

set

on foot

five

armies.

In the peach-garden three brethern pledged themselves


Their horses were not unsaddled in the town of Ku.
(-)

189

Two
again,

cups of tea placed next each other are the


to

//

Sun- and Moon-tea."

(')

The guest ought

pour their contents back again into the teapot, and, having

filled the

cups

may

drink of the tea.

Three cups of tea placed in a row, represent the tea of the brotherhood.
drink
the middle cup.

The guest

may

If the

snout of the tea-pot

is

directed towards the guest,

it

means

//the

combat on the bridge."

(-)

The guest says

this quatrain before drinking:

Liu,

Kwan and Chang

pledged fraternity in a peach-garden;


is

Their faith and loyalty

renowned

afar.
(^);

They would not

follow the aim of the lord Thsao

Their name shall be ever transmitted and be renowned in the world.

m M
:^

m
'^'

^ m
W #
in

ji
*

m M ^
==g

n
M.
'^'

m
"^

m ^
1^

#
size.

The host places three cups of tea The guest may drink this smaller
The young

a row, the middle cup being of a smaller

cup, saying this quatrain:

lord (*) stands in the middle;

Two
Both,

ministers stand on both sides;


civil

and military
sit

officers,

Assist the lord to

on his throne.

4^

190

(3
(~\ (~\

Three tea-cups placed in

this

order represent the character Shan (mountain).

{})

The guest, having

said the following quatrain,


is

may

drink the upper cup:

mountaia

just a

mountain high.

Those who entered the Hung-gate are countless;

The dynasty

of

Ming

is

our

own

mother.
five founders.

Let us obtain the empire in order to requite the

--

Ol

M
1^^

W
f^

A
m

m
m

%
Wi

Oi

^
m. "^

^
n.

^
]\\

m ^
^

%
The host
places a cup

m
%vith

m.

honey on the top of the tea-pot. The guest ought to take oflf the cover from the cup, eat the honey, and place the cover again on the cup , saying this quatrain:
The
I tea

on the table

is

Hung-tea;

In the

-n-orld

many

are

avowed Hung-men.

hope earnestly that you'll give


affairs

me

a cover

That our

may

not leak out.

^ ^ M ^
O
f-^ (_)

^
^

^
^y yt

:i

^^ ^m

m
m

m ^

m
^
in this

m
m

^ m m ^

Four cups placed


lent-ones.
(-)

way

represent the tea of the four great, faithful, excel-

/^

Place the cups in a square and say this quatrain;

Han-phang was born on the East- mountain

On whom

ought Hau-fuh

at

home depend?
tears?

Chiug-thian thinks of the day of revenge;

^Vhy ought Chang-kwoh shed two

m ^
0)
lii
(')

m
Is

\^

^
i^

n ^
M M ^

^ #
^''
p-

M
It
95'
1-

\h

A
"1'^

Wi

191

m
B

B m

M
"^
way
this

m
m
to

m m

% m

m
for tea, give

OOOO
If a brother
first

Four cups placed


gets into difficulties

have the same meaning.

and comes
to

your house, and asks


with
his

him

tlie

cup.

If

he

takes

the

second cup,

he wants to commit his wife to your charge;


j^ou

if

he takes the

third

cup, he

wants

intrust

child;

if

he takes the

fourth

cup, he wants some money.


If

you are able

to
to

assist

him, drink from the same cup, of which he drank;


choose another cup.

if

you are,

however, not able

help him,

Four cups of tea placed in a square


of the brethern meeting."
(')

Avith

the

tea-pot

in

the

middle represent the

,/tea

Before drinking, take the tea-pot out of the square.

OOO O
row; but
if

Four tea-cups placed


If

in this

way

signify:

Liu-sii(

who

passes the passes."

(=)

you can
't

assist

the straightened brother,

drink the middle

cup of the upper


sides.

you can

help him,

you may not touch

the

two cups on both

(3 r\ r^

Four cups placed in this way represent the character Sun. (^) The guest taking away the middle-most cup, it just gives a representation
character.

of this

o O O O O
0)
(")

Cups placed

in

this

way

are

called //the inexact square."

(*)

The guest may not drink

of this tea, before

having placed the cups in a square.

yt

^J

m m ^ ^ ^ >^ ^
after three years
,

ij-w was the

third son of

Zm-Z'w

/^j

^j

of the family of //.

He

and his two brothers Lm-9/en.

|^J

^)

and Lm-cJmnff ^0|]


of

-(rjj)

were

the

first

who thought
They
rebelled

of avenging the honor of their family against the usurpation

IFmuj-mmuj

|^

^|,

and,

Liu-siu was

made emperor

of China under the title of Ktcang-wu-ti

|^

^ '^\

..The bright martial emperor." A. D. 25.


(')

(Histoire Geuerale de la Chine, T. Ill, 250.)

(^)

pg

IE

192

(^(^(^
r\

Four cups placed in

this

way,

signify:

Chau-tsz-lung

pledges friendship."
of this tea.

()

Place the cups either evenly or in disorder, before

you drink

(30000

These

five

cups placed in a
of

row

signify

//

the five great tiger-generals."


the

(-)

The host covers these cups with a piece

linen,

which

guest

takes away, saying

this

quatrain

Amongst

the five tiger-geuerals is Kican-lcung


mLllioQS of soldiers is Chau-Uz-lnng
;

Amongst the
',

He who

cried out to cut off the

plank-bridge was Chang-yih-ieh

(')

They who

assisted the ffa-dynasty were Ma-c7iao

and Hicang-chung.

m
-f-

^^

ft

193
If a stranger enters,

the

host

takes

one

cup from the tray

and places

it

on the

table.

The host

If the guest is a hrother , he will surely replace the cup again on the tray and, before drinking, say this quatrain:

invites the

new-comer

to taste

of this tea.

most

Within the

city

of willows is the Heaven-and-Earth-circle

The pledged-ones

give

all

evidence with a drop of red


brother, will examine
for

(').

To day you, my adopted

me;

But don't take a llung-mau

a stranger.

-^

'^

% m
9
it

m.

^
%.
?J5

%t

^
'0<
fig

4 ^
The host
in

^ a
'^

m
it

#
^[^

^
cups,
fills

places
(-)

aspect."

two cups of tea on the top The guest takes down the
When
moon

of the tea-pot,

which represents //Siin and moon them with tea and, having said the

following quatrain, drinks them;


sun and
rise

together, the East

is

bright.

million of warriors are the Heroes of

Hung.
of
'^)

When
The

Tsing

is

overturned, and
will be

tlie

true lord

Ming

restored,

faithful

and loyal

made

grandees.

.g

w ^ M
OOO
to

m
-1

^ s
=^

tti

:^
BJ

^ ^
^

m
^^

BJ

^
-f-

#
'h

m.

M,

%
the

m
Wu-sau-hoci

Two

cups of tea placed on both

sides of

tea-pot signify:

who

requests SImn-chi to enter China, protect the

country and take

Peking."

(*)

The guest ought

turn one cup towards the snout of the tea-pot, saying this quatrain:

(')
(')

i.

e.

a drop of blood. (See pag. 145.)

^
Towards the

ffi
decline

#
of the dynasty of

I')

Comp.

p.

61.

Q. 15.

(*)

Ming,

Tfu-san-liwei

(.^

El Mjj

S^nei'-l

of

the

emperor
25

19i
The Pure
is

impure! the Bright

is

not bright
sit

(')!

With

iron courage uud bronze hearts we

in the city of willows.

Shields and spears are piled up, and

we lament over

the present times;


shall be restored.

Eut within one revolution

of

Heaven and Earth, the great ilinj

BJ

o OOO
If there is

These four cups of tea are called the Wnid-tea.

(-)

no wind (5) the host takes the middle-most cup away and places it to the right, form a square, meaning ,/four persons who have pledged fraternity." () the cups that

so

The host then requests the guest

to drink of the tea.

195

Having done

this,

lie

may

drink a cup.

Q (3 (3
/~v r-\ /~)
o o o o o

The host places


TlilaH-hla-thai-phmg

six cups in this


(^)

way

the guest ought to form the characters


(-)

or the character

Clmnj

with these cups,

These six cups represent the character Chung

;r;

//

middle."

00 00

000
00 00

000
00
o

These

4X6

cups form the characters

TJitan-hia-

tliai-pMng'^

z/In the

world

is

universal peace."

Eight cups placed in one


tea,

row

signify
genii,

,/the
i^)

eight

genii."

The

guest,

before drinking of this

sings

the

stanza on

the eight

(2)

These seven cups represent


the sword.

//the seven-star

sword."

(')

Q)r)Q)
y

drink the third cup of the blade, or the two side-cups

The guest may either which form the guard of

o o ^^^ O

These seven cups represent

,/the

sword without a

hilt."

()

O
V_J

The guest

places the fourth cup of the blade on the

top of the guard, in order

to form the hilt,

and

recites

this

quatrain:

Tlie changes with the tea-cups are iuexhaustible;

(3

My
And

abilities are

few and

my

knowledge

is

superficial, but

am

true.

I meet

now

to

day the

face of a brother
tencli

and superior;

I hope that

he will

me

little.

'1

^
?1

M
II
iL

^ #
=1=1

^
it

zi

H # ^ H

^
ft

M ^

196

Seven cups placed in a straight row represent

//the

wife

of the genius

who

crosses

the

milkr

way

on the seventh

night.'"'

(')

Before drinking, say this quatrain:

I')

"fill

i!35

'\l
'ic]>i

"^

i^

^L

^RT

'^^^

ffWife of the genius" is the constellation of the

Weaving-

girl

(^^

corresponding to the star-triangle

, i, ^ in Lyra.

The geaius"

is

the constellation
in

of the

Ox-leader or Herdsman

(^

.^
a,

or
e,

<^
is

^j
,

corresponding to a, ;g,

AquUa.
of

The

legend says that in the


(

star-triangle

a virgin,

grand-daughter
so
that

of

the

Queen
the

Heaven

-IS

^'*^

"'**

always

weaving

very assiduously
she

she was

named

Weaving-girl.

The Queen
Ox-leader.

of Heaven, pitying her,

because

neglected her toilet,


that the

married her to the Herdsman or

From
her
to

that time,

however,
allowing

she became so lazy her


the

Queen of Heaven had


the
to

to

set

her
se-

again

in

former
cross

place,

only

once

year,
,

on
order

seventh

night

of

the

venth

month,

the

galaxy over

inagpie-bridge
as

in

meet

her husband.
recipient

The

Chinese
I

now

take
Jont)
is
;

the

constellation

of the

virgin

the

symbol of the female

principle,

JW

jj^
former

whilst they take that of the Ox-leader as the symbol

of the male principle. [Linga).

'ilie

worshipped by the Chinese women, on the


threading seven

seventh of the seventh month, with various


different colours

ceremonies, as:

needles with silk-thread of five

during the moonlight;


in a porcelain

by spreading out parti-coloured


pot, green-peas,

threads in the

air;

by drying

their clothes;

by sowing,

small-peas and wheat, whose shoots they tie

together with red and blue ribbons, etc.,


(See the

by which ceremonies they draw prognostics

of their skill in female arts.

'^.

^S ^^

Encyclopaedical record of different things. Section: Seasons

[^^

B^

"nU

Chapter: Seventh night

|-^
C.
at

^V

Alt.

134; and "Pas Buddha


it's

Pantheon", pag.

107 lOS).
which

This whole

legend has

foundation in an astronomical
to
calculate for

phenomenon,
the
e,

my

friend.

Dr. J.

A.

Oudemans,
about

had the kindness


the

me.

On

seventh

night of

the seventh
Herdiiiutn
{a,

month,
Q,

midnight,

two constellations

Weaving-girl

(<f,

^ Lyrae)

and

Aquilae) stand equally high.

At a

place situated at a

N. Lat. of 35"

say the old

capital of
at

China, Chang-ngan , situated at Si'ie^o"

these stars stand on the seventh of the seventh month,

midnight, in this way:

a Lyrae,

Azimuth 11217' "W., elevation 44'50'.


63^1'

a Aquilae, Azimuth

W.,

elevation 45'27'.

Both

are

thus at about an elevation of 45: the one stands 22 south of the West, the other, 27 north

of the West.

The

crossing of the galaxy is, of course,


this as they say

only a fiction, as the fixed stars do not pass

it;

the Chinese

seem to be aware of
it

ntliat

because the Wearing-girl looks a

moment
to

at the

Herdsman,

is

said that she is married to him."

(Tide:

^g 1^ pg g^

Appendix

the

love-stories of

liie

state of Thsi).

In autumn
galaxy, over a

the

magpies
rise

migrate
to

and, during the seventh month,


part
of

seem

to

pass in

great

numbers

the

which gave
bridge

that

the

lesrend
,

saying

that the weaving-plirl

passes the

galaxy
to

of Magpies.

(Vide:

^^

"^ -^

Hoai-nan-lsz; and

|^ ^^ ^%i

Appendix

the Klga.)

197
The
wife of the genius crosses the milky

vay on

the seventh night;

At

this

time the sisters come

down on
to cross,

the world and meet again.

Every year, on the seventh night, she stands on the look-out near the galaxy:

The magpie-bridge

is

difficult

what do you think?

i^

m u

m
tn
The guest,
side,

m ^
before drinking,
places

OO OOO OO
o
o

The host

places

seven cups in this way.

one finger in the side-cup and two fingers on each


tation of the character Himg.
also "be
(')

making the

represen-

This figure can

made with

6 cups.

In

this

case

the

guest

places

three

fingers next the six cups.

198

:^
11

^
1^

m
m

i^

19&
I'm neither a
traitor
;

Nor am

an intriguer.

^T
PA
The host places
four tea-cups in

a square,

and the slop-basin


lifts

in

tlie

midst

of this square.

The

guest, having said the following quatrain,

with both hands the slop-basin out of the

square
At the East-gate At the West-gate
I enlisted as a soldier;
I cut to pieces

an unfaithful person. ()

We
To

are every where, in


assist

the capitals

Nanking, Peking and


is

all

the provinces;

our lord to mount the throne,

agreeable to us.

200

o o
r)(-\(-\

These eighteen cups represent the roof of the lodge,

(i)

OQO oooo ooooo oooo OOOO

Push the topmost cup one place higher, and drink then the second cup.

The host places


this

eight cups
first

in this Avar.
the

of

tea,

ought

to

form

The guest who wishes to drink character Kianj (river), and then the

character Shan (mountain) of

them

in this
o

way:

VT

kiang

(river)

[Jj

^^^^ (mountain).

Tliree cups placed in a

row with

the tea-pot signify:

^Hung obeys Heaven."

(-)

OO O O
and
left,

so

Four cups placed in this way signify: /,the Hung-heroes who enter the camp." (S) The guest, before drinking, ought to remove the two upper cups to the right that the four cups form au exact square.

The host covers a cup

of tea

Avith

an other

cup placed inverted.

The guest removes

this

upper cup, saying the following quatrain:

A Hung-cup covers the Hung-tea; We dissolve the Manchoo empire.


Three hundred and twenty one
Unite themselves in one family.
[*)

is^

u
m

*r

m m
::!

"^^

m
"F

H
-^

W ^

% + -

^'^

<=)

(')

^ ^ m Z M ^^ Ji % m A ^
"^^
i.

(*)

e.

'>^

the

Hung-members.

201

Quatrain on these seven cups


The
Help
five

o o o
s,
-t
J.

meu

{')

were born of one mother;


gathered, raised each troops.

The seven

lads

(-)

faithfully

and loyally the kingdom of Ming;

Assist with ail your heart and might the prince of Mine.

A
"^
A!>

t^'

^ ^
,/

^ ^ ^
:n

^
:^

n m
0J

^ ^
@

m
(')

Five cups placed in a row represent

the five founders."

Drink two cups of them and turn them upside down.

^
^^'^.^^
this

The two upper cups

are

called the
(=)

,/

plum-flower."

()

The two cups below are


tea.

called the //five elements."

In the middle-most cup

is

If the host asks the guest to take the middle-most cup,

he ought to point with


("),

his finger

to

cup and, having said A. heart turning to allegiance"


it

he

may

take

it

out of the square

and drink

One drop
The

(of blood) is venerated

and originally red;


all

In the four points and eight zones we are


faithful

of one clan.

and loyal will enjoy Heavenly blessings:

They'll cry thrice

Long

live the prince !"

and receive princely

fiefs.

m m
w.

*
n
-M

;i

'^

% s

m
1^

202

The guest,

before drinking of this tea, says the following quatrain:

Hau-phang
Han-fuh

raises (the standard of) righteousness iu the flower-pavilion;

coilects horses

and gathers an army;

Ching-thiau thinks on the daj' of revenge:

C'hang-kwoh meditates the overturn and extermination of the Tartars.

m m m
^
^

m m
m m
is

M
m
M^

m
'%

^
^
and the

m
inverted,

^ X n R
four
other

^
^u

^ ^
"^
<ra

%
i^
cups are
filled

The middle cup

with

tea.

The

suest, having said the following quatrain, turns over again the

middle cup:

The

great

battle

on that day was awful:

Every where were ambushed the Tartar-encircling dragons.


AmouETst millions of troops we assisted the lord of Ming:

We

fought ourselves through the enemy's ranks

it

was the

greatest

merit!

"M

i^

+ w ^
If

S
m

^
ft

^
ffl

^
il
?e

^
fl

m
n\

m
the

^ m

^ n
strangers,
If

^
to eat,

you enter

the

house of a brother and 3-ou

want something
he covers
to

and there are


don't
Avitli

in

the house of this

brother

many

people, or perhaps
host does.

whom you
the
tea-pot
if tliey

recognize as
the inverted

bretheru, you ought to look

what

cover, there are strangers present

and you ought not

speak; hut

are all brethern,

the host will take

down

the cover from the tea-pot


originally collect

and say

this quatrain

The Hung-people

Hung-tea

In the world many are


I earnestly

avowed Hung-members.
adopted brother will be
silent:

hope that

my

For originally we were born together

iu the city of willows.

^^

m
V

203

SECTIOX

V.

Secret signs with wike-cups.

The

Iiost

00

makes with nine wine-cups the characters Thian-hia-tai-ping-hung.

0000
O

00
000
Q o

()

000

00
O O If

000
host

the guest does the

not recognize the form of these characters, the


tea-pot

ought

to

pour

the

tea again into

and, having placed the cups confusedly, he

fills

them

again.

you enter the house of a brother, to drink wine and sup with him, and he lays down two chop-sticks, you ought to lay the chop-stick which is lying in front of you before tlie
If

host,

and place

his

chop-stick before _your

own

place,

saying this quatrain:

Before I met your bo;iry head, what did you thiuk?

"When there has been a revolution in Heaven and Earth the Tai-ping
If
it

will sing.

is

predestinated, people
is

come together from thousands

of miles;
(-)

But,

if it

not predestinated, one does not

know

his brother face to face.

^
it

^
i^

^ M
If a brother

m m

M m ^ m

^ m & w

M
i^

^ ^
m
9^

i^

^
r^

m ^

you to drink a cup of wine, and he presents it to you with his middle finger held above it's mouth, you ought to receive the cup with your middle finger at If he curves his middle finger whilst presenting you the cup, it means the bottom of it. that he kneels before you; you ought then to raise your left hand with the five fingers opened, and the palm towards the host, as if you invited the five founders to appear and
requests
receive
quire
so

his

worship

and pronounce these words


(')

Brefliern,

hc'uKj

faithful and lojal ,

don't

re-

manij words.

(^)

5^
Comp.

"T*
pag.

^^
96.

^^

1^
e)

'^"
i

''^'^

universe are the

Tai-ping Hungs.

'^

^.

S^

M'

% B ^ M

304
If the
fers
it
it

host offers

you

the wine-cup
finger,' take
if

with two fingers,


it it

take

it

with one finger;


offers
it

if

he

of-

to

you with one


to

Avitli

two
take
left

fingers; if he

with three
fingers.
if

fingers,

take
If

with six fingers;


offers it

he

offers

with

six fingers, take it


it

with three

he

you with the


it

right hand,

with the right hand;

he offers
(^)

it

to

you with the left hand, take Having said this you may

also

with your

hand, and say: Failh and

Loyalty.

drink.

SECTION

VI.

Secret sigxs at the DIN^EE-TABLE.


If

you dine with a brother, and a chop-stick


this

lies

across

a dish,

takedown

the chop-stick

and cover, saying

quatrain:
TVitli

one hand I manage a metal lance,


firmlj'

And And

grasp

a pair of precious swords,

(-j

I break open the city of Tsing;


save our true lord out of
it.

M^

m ^ ^
A
chop-stick laid
across

^ %
-^
ffi

n ^ m ^
I.

^ m ^ s

m m
yfe

the dish,

may

be also taken down with the following verses:

The men did not

leave their armour;


leave their saddles;

The horses did not

With a

single club

me may

save our lord;


't

But with a one-legged horse

is

difficult to go.

Q')

^
m

m
M
est.

(')

B
i.

^'^

M,
Chinamen
it

(-)
('')

e.

the two chop-sticks wherewith


is

With one chop-stick

difficult to eat.

205
II.

We

rose, the clouds broke, of the 8th

and
is

Tve

saw the blue Heavens;

The 15th

month

the day of our meeting.

Many

arrive

with one heart and united forces.


their

Holding weapons in

hands in the event of a great

battle.

M.
il

M
j\!>

s:
:^

^ H

^
B^

^
:k
are brought

m
If

^ m

m
^
lift

you dine with a brother and

all

the dishes

on table,

up

all

the

co-

vers

and pronounce the following quatrain


The Pure
With two The
five
is

impure! the Bright

is

not bright!
several

(})

clubs

we have knocked down

towns and

cities.

great valiant generals

came together.

To

overturn and exterminate the Tartar dynasty and restore that of Ming.

^
i m
We
The

^
II

m m
m
table.
city. (-)

Quatrain wliich one pronounces whilst picking out the greens


Savoury and precious viands are on the
have not yet penetrated into the red, golden
five

lodges shake the arms and weapons of

Hung

Victuals are transported, to succour our lord and master.

206

When

the

rice

has been brought on


\A'itli

table one

says

this

quatrain:

a sincere heart

and united mind

It tastes well wlien eaten.

The

hrethern

unanimously

And

peaceably drink together.

n
:^
yt

^^'

^
SECTION

^ ^ m
VII.

M ^
^'

Secret signs

o>:

smoking tobacco or opium.

If

you enter
of

the

house of a

brother

and he
he
to

offers

you the
with

tobacco-pipe
If he

witli

both his
two fingofTers
it

liands, 3'ou ought to look


ers

how many
pipe,
to

fingers

holds
it

on the pipe.
(//ree

holds
if

each

hand

to

the

you ought
take
it

take

fingers;

he

Avith
If

f/iree

fingers,

you ought

with hoo
of his
it

fingers.

you the pipe with the palm with your palm upwards; but if he ofTers to take it with the palm downwards.
he
ofl'ers

to

hand downwards, you ought you with the palm upwards,


into the

to

take

it

you ought
is

If

he

offers

j'ou

the pipe with one finger


or

thrust

bowl

of

the

tobacco-pipe,

it

a sign

that

there are strangers

policemen in the house.

If the

host sa^-s to
also

you:

IFiH
if

i/ou

smoke? and he offers


offers
it

you

the

pipe
it

with

both

hands,

take

it

with two hands;

he

with one hand, take

also

with one hand.

\{ he

offers

you

the

pipe

with the right hand, take


left

it

with the right hand; so you ought


to

to

take also

the pipe with the

hand,

if

he offers

it

you

Avith

the

left

hand.

If he
five

offers

you

the

pipe with two fingers of each hand, you ought


offers
it

to

grasp with your


his five fingers

fingers

the

grasping the bowl,


quatrain

bowl of the pipe and accept it; if he you ought to take it with two

to

you
each

Avith

fingers

of

hand,

and say

this

207
Rememlier always that the
five

founders protect the true draErou

(');

And

with a sincere heart help the state, wishing to obtain merit.


capitals, at the
(')

In the two

North and South

(-),

we

all

are brethern;

The nine Bases

are venerated and every where the

same.

ni

m ^ m m

m
jjj;

m
^
1^

^
)^

208
If

the

host

offers

you
The

the

pipe

with the

mouth-piece
(')

directed

towards you,

say:

//This

canon does not shoot the people from the garden:"


five

men

left this

canon to shoot the Tartar soldiers;

So don't shoot by mistake a Hung-brother.

Our Jlother

(-)

in the flower-pavilion has told us this:


griefs.

Henceforth forget old injuries and

>}^

"^T

209

210

^
75r

^ #
'f-t

ft

:4^

Tttr.

A
zitxxl

If there is

only

fire

and neither pipe nor tobacco, say: //There


The dragon's
pearl is

is

a pearl, but no light/'

spewed and yet not bright

(^)

Meeting each other in the world we revere the elder brethern.

Two

phoenixes standing towards the


all

sun,

are there since antiquity:

We

were born together within the city of willows.


tij

M.

w
If

Hi

1&

you

enter the house of a brother

and he asks you

to

smoke, and there

is

no

fire

in

the room,

say

this

quatrain:
If there is

powder

(-),

but no pearl

(^),

I can

't

blow

it

bright.

Your younger brother asks

his adopted brother sincerely

Like two phoenixes towards the sun, the brethern stand:


Originally

we were born

together

within the city of willows.

m
n

If

the

host olTers you a pipe,

and

it

falls

on

the

ground,

place your foot

upon

it

and

say: ,/The live ladies

mount on horseback."

(*)

211
Dragons wrestling,
tigers

fighting, are equally

strong (M

Why
The

is

the prince hereditary trodden

down

in the

mud?

Ask quickly
five

the

five ladies

to

mount on horseback
(-)

lodges

mount

to

day the cloudy ladder.

B
is: '1^

^
"?

^
m

Wi

Z-

'^
-^

1^

^^

^^

^
'i

H
M
to

fire,

^
It'

4
see

m
screens
fire

Wi

the host asks

you

smoke and, having struck


I

it

with

his

hand, say

Heaven

but don't see the

!K

The brethern have obtained

perfection. (^)

M.

i^

Z-

Ms

it
If he

^
fire
,

^
but don't see Heaven
long!

covers

it

with

his

hand, say:
I see the

May

the

brethern live

M
yt
Or
also this

'X

Z-

M.

f^

M
(*);

^
(')

quatrain:

sincere heart

does not fear heavy bars


the mountaia dare the

Five fingers on

heroes.

We

beat departments, prefectures and districts;


afliliated brethern

But we don't beat the

of

the

Hung-faraily.

(1)

There

is

no higher or lower, stronger or weaker in

fights

between equal powers.

(-)

Explanation in the handbook:

Why
The
(')

is

the pipe trodden

down

in the

mud?

Quickly tread with your


five toes tread to

five toes

on the pipe;

day the tobacco-pipe.

Budhistic expression: ,/nigban."

(')
('I

Tlie

hand with the

fingers, to cover the fire,

Tlie five fingecs

on the palm dare

212

213
If

a brother

smokes

opium,
to

and you should

like to
for

smoke

also, but

have no money with


he
{-)

you, you must not go


pipe the sign one Q)
ers.
it

the brother
,,1

and ask him


to

opium;

but

if

makes with
with your

his
fing-

means

am

alone."

The brother will then

invite

you

You give then the sign fwo lay down at his side and smoke

also.

If the

opium-pipe

is

lying on the table, the guest says the following quatrain:

piece of red

bamboo

lies
is is

on the

table;

In the character Hmiff


Don't say that this gun

manifestly the character


of in

pak

0).

no

use:-

For

it

is

most meritorious

overturning the dynasty of Tsing.

214
^'e meet each other
ever}-

where, and are

all

Hungs;
clan.

We

are peaceably together in the

whole world, aud of one

^
^

215

^v

ni

ii^

'^

i^

m
tr
The

You
oiioht
to

n m
are all

\h

^
convoked
restore

m i

answer with these verses;


red banner flutters!

The heroes

To overturn Tsing,

Ming,
Ming

And

protect

the lord of the dynasty of

R ^

m m
SECTION

m
iM

tn

m
%^
(0

m
VIII.

Secret signs at chewixg betel.


If the host offers

you the

betel-tray

and requests
the

j-ou to

chew

betel,

you nuist not take a


to

bundle of leaves,
stalks
circle

but only a single


the leaves.

leaf.

But you must take care not


lime
Chinrj.

throw away the


ought
to

and points of
on
it

In smearing

on
(-)

the leaf j'ou

make

&

crossed by a line, forming the character

Quatrain on the betel-nut.


The
betel-nut grows originally at Hal-nan
in the
(^);

But the roads

whole empire intercommunicate.


it

The unanimous brethern come to chew


Pure
it

together
red.
()

enters the gate, but

becomes quite

(')

I'roperly

it

should be
tlie

To ming

cJiao

dm,
Cliao.

but

Cliu.

has shifted

its

place for

Chao

for

the

sake

oi

the

rliyme with
(-)

characters TJtiao

and

dl
This
is

(^)

large Island at the South coast of China.


;

()

a double allusion

the

new member
as,

enters with white clothes the

Hung- gate

but, being affiliated,

he adopts the name of Eunc) (red),

also,

the betel-leaf enters

the moutli

pure but,

being

chewed,

becomes

red.

216

217
II.

Three drops united together form one speck of red

('), (-),
(^)

Eeturn the rations and provender to the magazine

Please bring forward the army-leader to give his orders

Turn round and

enter the five-terraced mountain.

(*)

^
bR
ffi

^ ^
s.

The

host covers the

betel -nuts with betel-leaves, and lays the betel-leaf-stalks on the top of

the leaves.

The guest

ouglit to take

away

the stalks and say this quatrain


eighteen feet long

With one weapon


Lii-pu fought Ziu,

()
('')

Kwan and Chang

thrice

To morrow we

will

have a true-spoken instruction

(7);
(^)

And

within and without the East-gate we'll choose a battle-field.

#
m

m
g

218
This day the provisions cover the Hung-soldiers ()

To
The

exterminate the Tartars and extirpate the dynasty of Tsing.


officers

meeting each other ought to be careful;

And

secretly conceal the

weapons within the Hower-pavilion.

^ ^

m ^
-f-

m m
^ M
is

w-

m
u.

m
1
ii
<h

^
If to

m
(-)

A # ^
and there
is

^ ^

^ m m ^
betel-leaves,

you enter

the house of a brother,


If there

no lime on the

you

ouijht
{^)

ask for the

armj/-leader.

lime, but no betel-nuts, ask for the prince /lerediiaiy.


is

If there are lime


evert/thing
is

and betel-nuts, but no betel-leaves, say: TAere


(*)

yet no provender, otlierwhe

ready.

If there is

no spatula, say: The weapons are


The shade

not yet ready, the

rest is present.

{')

Say

also the

following (Quatrain
of white clouds covers the

sun of the dynasty of Ming!


will

"When the prince of Ming has returned, the sun

be red again

And clouds will When universal

quite overcast the western Tartars.

peace has returned, we'll settle Heaven and Earth!

&
"^

m ^

m m m ^

m
^^

m
M.

^
B

^ -

n m m
IX.

m
"f-

m u

i^

SECTION

Badges which thk bketherx wear upon the person.

Every brother going out, ought to have with him: a copy of the seal as a diploma; three Hung-cash; the red floss-thread; a white fan.

0)

The

betel-leaves cover the betel-nuts.

^'^

^'^

m M ^ m ^ m M m ^ ^ m ^ m
'j^

219 Oi the diplomas Hung-cash and hear


(see

we liave already given engravings and descriptions on pp. 2732. The the cut) are round with a square hole in the middle. They are made of copper the inscription Hung-ylng-tlmng-pao Current coin of the Hung-heroes."
,

They are called Ihtng-cash ('^ ^j or (he Capital (^ ^\, To each brother three of these cash are given and, sometimes, ih^y
printed on the diploma.
(Conip. p. 31).

are

The red

floss-thread is, according to the missionary Rcittger,


silk.

a reed, nine inches long,

wound

round with red


This appears
of the handbook.

to

be confirmed by these following

quatrains,

which Ave

find

in the copies

This badge

is

named

,/the

silk-thread"

{})

or ,/the
I.

red floss-thread." f)

The variegated red

floss
('')

reaches Chang-sha
will be our

(^);

In short Chang-ngaii
Manifestly

home.

we

lead the thread through all the world;


flower.
(*)

Every where the strawberry has the same

m. z^

-^

U
M
m

Wi.

m,

^
m
floss
five
is

-^

n
The red

^ B m
II.

m M it,
it

^ n
m

'&

m m
It

m
red.

wound around

the

wooden foot-measure
was

IVhen the

founders distributed

Come
T\'e'll

with one heart and united forces to worship


speak about the circumstances; being of one clan.

000

m
t
The

i(^'

^
if

^ ^

Ji

)^
in.

^
is

five-coloured silk-thread is long or short;

But no matter

long or short

it

yet faithful

and good.

To

the faithfid
traitors

and loyal, Heaven gives blessings; and


villains will

But the

be swept away.

s.

^
'^'

m
^s

p^

^>

^ ^

M
A!>

221
II.

In the hand we hold a pure breeze-(\vafting) fan;

Few

people know the metamorphoses of Which man can know this wliite fan?
to advance

the Fin and Faiif/

(').

The brethern ought

and thank Heaven.

m A
"f-

m
-B

m
3^

^
III.
fan

n
characters;
assist

The precious pear-flower-adorned


It rushes against the

may

succour the former dynasty

weapons, derays the ranks and breaks the stranger's charms.

On each side are pure breezes and pure May the Hung-army obtain victory, and

the dynasty of Ming.

0-7

51

223

They rule the dual

principles of Yin

and

I'awy.

At

tlie

moment

of

their opposition,

these

dual principles are in liarmony.

Amulet

for cultivating

and regulating the person.

The character
means
"jj^

in

the midst of the


.

Amulet

is

the

character

-jj^

It

^ ^ ^

cnllivate 'jour person (in

order to be enabled)

to regulate

yonr familij.

Confucius

is

his

//Great learning" says:

//The ancients

//Virtue throughout the


//their states,

empire,

first

ordered

well

their

who wished to illustrate illustrious own states. Wishing to order well


to regulate their families,

they

first

regulated their families.

Wishing

they

first

//Cultivated their persons.

Wishing

to

cultivate their persons, they first rectified their


first

hearts.

./Wishing to rectify their hearts, they


//to

sought to be sincere in

their their

thoughts.

Wishing Such

be

sincere in

tiieir

thoughts, they
in

first

extended to

the

utmost
(')

knowledge.

//extension of

knowledge lay

the investigation of things."

The two characters ^(g


{jiitnr/

-^

underneath the Amulet mean:

To attain

the sense

(f s/tame

l;i

one's person the

rules of propriety,

Confucius in his //Analects" says:


//If

the people

be led by laws, and uniformity

sought to be given them by punishments,


of

//they will try to avoid (the punishment), but


/,

have no sense
to

shame."

If

they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought

be given them

by

the rules

of proprie-

lit//

(^
(2)

j^

J^

)iis)

^^^^^

^^^^^

\'is.ye,

the

sense of shame,

and

moreover will become

.good."

Q)
(^)

J.
J.

Legge, The Chinese


Legge, The Chinese

classics. Vol. I,

231222.

classics. Vol. I, 10.

224

Amulet of

Lao-tsz.

.^_:^^v\ ^"^^ I

This Amulet

is

under the invocation of the famous Lao-linn or Lao-tsz,


the

the founder of the doctrine of Tao.

The Chinese characters underneath I


obey
ilie

Amulet mean:

Pi're

and sjMikss

Latcs and Behests of the great and supreme

Lao-khm.

SECTIOX
The ORiGrsAL
These verses seem
other
to
to

X.
(i)

bases,

be used bj the brotherhood ^Yhen they wish to


it's

make known
If to

to each

which lodge one of


the

members

belongs.

So

if

he wants to give sign that he bethe

longs to
lodge,

Canton-lodge,

he will
the

recite

the

12

Bases of Canton.

Fuh-kien-

he

will

pronounce

1x9

Base.
as

AVe have seen on page


does also

38

that

4X9

means

the 3rd lodge in

Yun-nan and Sze-chuen,

4x7.

In the Cantou Bases


is

we we

see
first

that the

verse

is

only made in order to conceal the real meaning which

found in the

character of each line.

We

found the meaning of these Bases often very obscure, and


is

do

not pretend in the least that our translation

the correct one,

some

lines

being in fact quitf

untranslatable, and not possible to be explained without the help of a thorough initiated member.

The

1x9

base.

(-)

A
The blue
lotus heart
(5);

}&
(');

The house

in

peace and bloom

Hung

obeys Heaven

(').

(-)
1.
L-.

(-)

i.

e.
e.

single line consisting of nine characters,


(')
i.

Tea.

(*)

i.

Wine.

e.

Vinesar.

225

^ m
Is

it''

m ^
THE

M'

^ m

^.

the verse on the rise in the province of Fuh-kien.

2x9
:fi

BASE.

(1)

zL

}&
the universe,
(")

The Hung-water flowing athwart inundates


The Hung-water

flows athwart: peaches, plums and vinegar.

(^)

m m

i^
ii:

m m

'^ '^

'^

^ =? ^ T m ^ m m %
BASES
(*)

THE

4X7
-b

ra

IS

Quatrain on the npper

4x7
f#

Base.

All the people

PI

-t

IS

United bones and sworn hearts are the bretheru.

come together and unite


lord of

in one family.

Having
Thrice

assisted the
is

Ming

to

mount

the imperial throne


they'll

called:

Long

live the

king"

and

get

imperial

fiefs.

m M
^.

^
i^

"^

!^

m
tf
rise

^
Is

^ a

^ ^
^^

^ m

^
and

^
Sze-cJmen.

^ m ^ ^

the verse

on the

in the provinces of Yun-nan

(1)

Two
of

lines consisting each of nine characters.

(2)

Taken from Mencius, Book III [Tkang-wen-KMng]

Part. I, Chapt.

IV, 7, where
the

it

is

said:

In the time
flowing out

Yaou,

when

the

world

had

not

yet been perfectly reduced to order,


(J.

vast waters,
II,

of their channels,
(^)

made a

universal inundation."
(See p. 233.)

Legge, Chinese

classics, Vol.

126).

Lit:

Hung

obeys Heaven.

(*)

Four

lines each consisting of

seven characters.

23

236
Quatrain on the middle

4x7

Base.

^ m
At Fe-ma-thao, during

-t

m n
day to night Q),

a pure breeze from

Three men swore fraternity, viz: Li, Chu and Hwuj.

Wood,

establish, bushel,
raise

'world, Heavens-iinder

know.

(-)

Obeying Heaven,

Ming!

united peaceably together.

227

The verse on the

13 bases of canton,

M K +
Obey Heaven
(And we
will)

II

Ig

H
under (the expanse
of)

[Proper translaliou.]
(and) act righteously!

Bring down (upon yourself] future happiness;

wander

(over)

all (the places)

Heaven.

m ^ n M m ^
In

ja

t m m ^ T

company, however,

this is recited in

the following manner, so that only initiated can un-

L-rstand the true

meaning:

Obediently and quietly, serve both your parents;

For Heaven's

will is not selfish

but benevolent.

Go

to the

two

capitals

and to the thirteen provinces


left;

Place your officers and privates on the road, divided to the right and

Assemble

all

the valiant Hung-officers in the universe

To

help the dynasty of


, ,

Ming aud

kill

the benighted prince.

When afterwards we shall be reunited we will be ennobled And lucky stars will, effulgently, encircle prince and vassal. Eoam about the world according to your wishes; And every where establish all our people.
If

Heaven and Earth

will grant that the dynasty

of

Ming

returns;
earth.
(')

Pitch then your camps and plant palisades, to

settle

Heaven and

Hi

'^'

^^

^ n

^
m

M m

M
m ^
m m m

M M
M

^
^
-\'

m
M m
B

m m
m m m
"^

^ m

m m
%

ff

m
^
p.

m ^ ^ m
M.
7273.

^ m ^
a
m
Sf.

m m ^ ^ ^ m m n
it^

n
t:

"M

^ m ^ ^
^ m
i^

T
(>)

m m m

^ M

"p

m ^

Compare the Catechism, Q. 100,

228

The

five great bases.

m.
At

i^
fail;

}&
men;

the River's side are pale-faced

Their Himg-heart will never

Our Tears

fall

down because

the founders

we

d'ont see;
the country.

The

rivers

Khi and Thai extend themselves throughout

^ m
n

#
^^

,W

rM.

m
The

m ^

^
m.
^)^

G)

five warrant-bases.

Joyful like genii and fairies,


If he be

human and

righteous,

man may match with Heaven.


will be

If he has propriety If he be faithful

and wisdom, Heaven will bless him;


eminent.

and virtuous, his progeny

^B

tr

229
Three hundred and twenty one
(i)

are together in front;

Four X

seven

(^)

we coml)ined

together to devise these sentences;


their

Five valiant great generals convoked


Six brethern united because
it

men;
(^);

was predestined

Seven

planets, circled around, illuminate the


sea;

Heavens;
the
first;
(*)

Eight genii are crossing the

Kao-lao

is

Nine Bases

are

honoured by hundreds of millions;

Ten

parts

()

faithful

and loyal, the world

will be perfect.

IT.

^
ii

\^

^
-H-

H
m

A
-^
M.

m ^ -

m
^
M

M
^

^ m
ir

^
iz
it

^
y>

^ m
1^

m m
i

IS

-t

A
ji

m m m ^

m
-^
"^
l^X

^ ^ ^ ^ m
-^

w A
^

M
-^

m
pW
TO

m ^ ^
tH

^
=^

n
111

(^)

llOCNDELAY ON THE TEN FINGERS.

p
(^1;

One

finger

bent inward (means) the seat of the blue dragon

Two
Four

fingers bent

outward (means) to save the good people


faithfully
flesh

Three fingers bent inward (means)


fingers

swear fraternity;
intimate
(^);

bowing (means) bones and

(1)
(-) (^)

The Hung-members.
Four

(Comp. Introduction,

3).

lines of seven characters each.


4.

Compare page

C)
(^)

See the Catechism, Q. 56, pag. 67.


If the

Hung-members

are in all respects faithful, etc.


first

()

The words The throne


i,

printed with a thick letter and the


1

character of each of the ten lines of the (;hinese cr)

giual are the numbers


(")

to

10.

of the Emperor.
fingers

(8)

e.

The four

moved backward and forward

express the love between the brethern.

230
Five fingers
is

the division wherewith the lodges are divided

['');

Sis fingers (means)

may

the

first

minister help

me!

Seven fingers (means) that the brethern of the same place are long (together); Eight fingers (means) that
all

within the rivere, lakes and four seas prosper.

Nine

fingers (means) fingers

that a bright pearl really is not


affiliation.

spewed

(-);

Ten

(means) the great merit of

A
J

^
B

^ H

4t

^
^

n
m ^
b^
lfi>

it

m
m

SECTION

XI.
(s)

List of the principal slang-expeessions of the brothekhood.


Eneiiiv
^Vind-dratt

flg

ff,y

j^

Magistrate.

M,

f? M.

^
'^

Police.

|
/^

^tonii
there
51'eat
is

&. Government

troops.

^ M A
,^

wind

^\

AMan.
J\^

-]

Stranger*

wind

A ^
J\^
-4-

many

jDeople.

Horse
one ounce

^
(])
(-)

ten men.

Because there are

five

lodges.
hri2:at

That the Emperor of the

(Mine) dvnastv has not vet appeared,

(r)

231

m
^
^

Wind around

for
1

% \
^ ^
7J

many

people.

U1^

M ^

the black,

round, red-headed club

an umbrella.

^
Jf,

the one-legged club

^ /^ ^ j^ 1^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S
)Jj^

bridge-planks

a double sword.

Iron-plank-shoe

Night-brother
Grass-shoe

Agent, spy

of the league.

Melon-seeds

_!

Money.

ft

t'^*^

white dragon
//

of the

dawning East
Provisions

^ ^ ^ ^
^ ^
^T
:fj
^jg

Prince hereditary

Army-leader

5S Weapons

^
J^
jll

* ^^^'' gravel to

"'

beat the billows

Q
^X
i^

white melon
red melon
the great, variegated,

)Jk

^ ^ ^
red cloth
to prosper

^ J^ ^ ^ ^
|^

fi^ middle of a mirror

smashed mirror
Lantern

233
blue lotus

for

Tea.

the house in peace and

bloom

,/

Wine.
Vinegar.

m ^

Hung obeys Heaven

,/

Hemp-water
blue sticks

//

on.
Chopsticks (where with the Chinese
eat).

//

^ ^
a

Lotus-flower cup

//

Basin, bowl.

blue Lotus-drum

//

drum

i>

^ ^

Tea-cup.

Wine-cup

small six

ii

Goose.

E5

small seven

//

Fowl.

A
cing the

small eight
military post

//

Duck.

//

Dog.

5^

plants and flowers pierFish.

waves
Hung's braves swerving
//

^
?^

prepared tobacco

^ ^ ^
3^

Clothes

Books.
Clothes.

Study
(river)

Cia

Breeches.

^
:fg,

"^

*^^^^

(cent)

one man.
rich (having money).

slow

to take to take
^'^'"'''

^
tT

fll

wishing
f^S
^

fit

^ ^
Kg
j&ft

poor (having no money).


to

SI
^&
>te

partridges

plunder on the highway

-^
4r-

to eat

ducks

to plunder a ship.

^
"1^^

to

make

the great circuit

to cruize

^ ^
'^^

to

plunder a village.
to

-^
l^'B

^''^'^^

*^^

ear-pick

*J

'gp

^
to

plunder pawn-shops.

to plant peaches

j^

charge with gunpowder.

233

^ m ^ ^
1^ I^
jlp
to

the cold
to

work
the

for
i

wash
wash

body

to

the ears

^ ^ ^
^ij

to go,

to do.

to

stab, kill or murder.

M
the

*^^ks off *^hat

which lends
,/

wind
*'''

^^
j

to cut off

an

ear.
^"^

^
^L

^ ^
!^
seven.

"^

^^^''

"^ ^

room

,/

^
to

?^

M
to

''

^'^^P "^

ho'^^-

'tl

long-grass-leather

~^
p^

J\^

a girl or

woman.
lodge).

^
-[g:

play theatricals
be born

^
1^

open the market (hold

m
)^

to

y\

to enter the league.

^ ^ ^ ^ Yf ^ %
^fe

the Purse the

II

the Diploma. the Fiscal the

red Staff

II

the Clothes
Wli

II

Laws and

Statutes.

*h^ Willow-city

the Lodge.

According to a Chinese teacher of

my

colleague

M.

v.

Faber,

who had been taken

prisoner

by some members

of the league in China,

the following words are also used, viz.,

^^

righteous uncle

for
II

p^

an elder brother.

^ ^ ^
fj^

adopted brother
or

n
silver.

^
gold.

one of the same degree,

J^

f^

sworn brother
II

a younger brother.

f^

white yellow
!i^

^
^

II

pierced in the middle

cash

(as

the Chinese coin has

a hole

in the middle).

the yellow shell


large ginseng

II

grains.

A ^

II

m ^
1^

a wealthy man,

to take a

mouth

of blue

II

to drink tea.

horses dallying

II

^ ^
jffJsj"

Government
a

troops.

^ ^
ft

wasp
*'*^

II

good man.
to attack the

3^

describe a large

circle

j^

^
pital.

provincial ca-

30

2;34

^
.

^pi
to

a troop or

number

of horses

/c;r

are:

^
to

a liuudred meu.

chew clouds 0)
for the

smoke Opium.

The abbreviations

names

of the lodges
*'oi"

^^

the 1st Lodge

||

.^

^P
^ AlP
;;^
(')

P P

,/

/,

3d
4th
5th

//

"

"

^ ^ ^ ^ ^
eloiid."

jgr

(^)

Somewhat
See pag.

similar to the English slang-expression

Blow a

(-)

IS 19.

I ^' I s.

ADDITIONS

AISTD

EXEGETICAD
water-camp)

ISTOTES.

The village of Page 6, line 18. from Amoy, built on the left bank
chielly inhabited

Peh-shwui-ij'mg (white

is

about 10 miles distant


a dirty,
little

of the Dragon-river [Lung-Kiang).


light

It is

place,

by

the

owners and skippers of those


in

crafts

which transport human


of ,/Stinkboats."

manure, known amongst foreigners


village

China by the

significant

name

The

numbers about one thousand


1.

souls.

P. 13,

6.

We
five

have not been able

to

determine the situation of this place.

According to
This must
lies

the History given


original, the

by Dr. Hoffmann, who was, however, not in monks fled to Chang-sha-fu in the province
(line

the possession of the Chinese


of

Ru-hoang.

be
deep

wrong, for they were at a place quite near the Ocean


in the interior
of China.

13);

whilst Chang-sha-fu

On

page 14, line

1,

we
is

see,

besides, that they arrived at Kao-khi,


TJiian-Jda-lu-cJiing
fol.

near Tun-siao.

Both these places are mentioned in the Chinese woi"k


mentioned in Vol.
(Lat.

(Itineit

rary of the Empire, Edition of 1G94). Kao-hlii


the 13th post
Tsiang-loh (Lat.

Ill,

87, verso:

is

or

stage
,

on

the road from Ting-cJiao-fu


11.518'), in
it

25<'44.'54',

Long. 11409'35")
is

to

2643'

Long.
fol.

the province of Fuh-kien.


is

Yun-siao

mentioned in

the
io7i

same volume on
to
KLAPiioTii's

66, dorso:

the

2Sth stage on the road from the city of Canis

Chang-chao-fu (Lat.

243ri3", Long. 115''32'30") in Fuh-kien; the place, besides,


la

no-

ted on

Carte de

Chine.
,

The mistake

originates

in

the interpretation

of the

three Chinese characters Chang-sha-lu


sha) or

which

may

be ti'anslated by Chang -sha-road (road to Chang-

by Long -sand-road

as

we

have done

having come

to the

conclusion

that

this

is

the right interpretation on account of the


P.

above-mentioned topographical notices.

13,

1.

8.

The

episode

of the

two

boatmen

Sieh

and

Wu

is

not

mentioned in our

copies; but

we have

taken

it

from the History given by Dr. Hoffmann: as

we have
the

mentio-

ned already above, he had not got the Chinese original, and could, therefore, not give the
Chinese characters for those two names.
cause there
is,

We

have intercalated, however,


80

episode,

be-

perhaps, a connection between those two boatmen, and between the skipper

and

his

wife, mentioned in the Catechism

on page 70 & 71,

Q.

86.

236

Page 17,
to

line 27.

It

know

that the ten brandies


etc.

would lead us too far to explain this geoman tic expression. Let it suffice and twelve stems run through the Cliinese chronology, divination,

geomancy,
bridges,

etc.,

The explication of the geomantic rules observed in building houses, graves, would fill a book which would be, at least, thrice the size of the present work.

P.

21,

1.

10.

;/Sun,
etc.

moon, mountains and streams", means


(Compare
p.
-35,

the
4.)

Empire (mountains and

streams) of the Ming-dynasty (sun-moon).


P.
2-3,

note

note

1.

Dragons,

tigers, tortoises

and snakes are the common symbolical animals

on Chinese
P. 2 J.
,

flags,
S.

note

"\Ve

got this prophecy with

its

explication from our old Chinese friend

and

teacher in
place,

Amoy,

Ang-sien-si
still

/'^ -^

^)}

^'^^^

known

to Chinese

students residing in that

and better
J.

as the scholar

by whose valuable

aid the excellent Bible-translation of

was effected. number of the prophecies concerning the future of the Chinese Empire are Drawings made back to back" r)^ found in the book named mj, This book, of which only manuscript copies exist, and the possession of which is punished, now, by death, which makes it exceedingly difficult, nay, impossible to get a copy of it, was made by Juen-thmn-hmg and Ll-sJinn-fung L two officers of the y^ Emperor Thai-tsung of the y//a_7-dynasty (627 649). The future of China is wi'itten in it under allegorical and prophetical di-awings. The name was given to it because these two men sat down with their backs turned to each other, whilst composing their dramngs. After they had each finished a drawing they showed it to each other, and when they were
Rev.
Stronach

great

,/

^ ^ ^

alike they preserved them.

P. 31,
lines

1.

3.

That

this is the right interpretatiim of these four characters

appears from four

of poetry,

found loose in the handbook, running thus:

5^
itb
13

^ &
j^
Hi

Heaven's name
Earth's

is

flourishing.

name
is

is

prosperous.

^ ^ ^ ^ 1^
The
1,

Sun's

name

grandchild.
is

Moon's name

Thang
fig.

(Cliina).

inscription
7,

on the
8

flags

delineated on Tab.
fig.

xm,
3,

1,

4,

&
is

10, on Tab. siv,

fig.

4, 5, 6,

&9,

and on Tab. xv,

which we have translated on pp. 36


haps be rendered also by:
for tldan-ii.

40
M.

by:

1,2, The
//

&

a, running Hing-wang-hwni-shng
victorious",

/(?m^/<7 league

//The

J?i?pea-ir^^-league is

victorious;" as Inng-wang

may pei-may stand

P.
I

110

111,
itii))

note
^*

1.

^
when

^j

San-mei-chin-ho.

Saii-fnei,

or

better

San-mo-ti

*-^^^

Chinese transcription of the Sanscrit ex^xession Samadhi , which means


the meditator

//the

terminus

of meditation",

has lost

all idea

of

liis

individuality,

so

237
that

he

has

incorporated himself entirely with


62).

the

object

he

is

meditating

upon.

(Comp.

,/Das Buddha Pantheon", pag.

Page 132,

line 11.

The porcelam Budlia


is

in fermnine shape

iQ
i.

^
exist,

jjlg^

&)<
and

We
is

suppose that by this deity

meant the
^^^

so-called wife of the

male Budha.
,

She generally bears the name of


identified
,/

with Fairotschana

for

H^ which name
mu

-^

e.

Budha-eye, Budha-mother

fi?e translations

amongst which the name


is,

of

Budha-mother."
this,

Also Pan sho fu

(sanscr:

Pradschna Budha Matra)

as

appears

from

one of the names of Fairotschana.

(See B. H.

Hodgson, Illustrations of the Literature

and Religion of the Buddhists, pag. 81, where Pradschna in the state of TVirm/^i is explained as the summum et solum numen, Diva Natnra, and taken as the wife of the male Budha.) (See
//Das

Buddha Pantheon," pag.

54.)

P.

114, note

1.

Phu-hien-phu-sah
the

is:

Sarnxntaba'cha

or

Fis'wah'adra

Bodhisatwa,

the

Most-

excellent One.

P. 145, note

a.

In

//Quotations of the Spring

and Autumn Records"

it

is

said
fire is

that

the cock

is

the

symbol

of the

accumulated heat of the sun and of the South.

The

the
the

subtil essence of the sun, which

mounts flamingly.

On

that account the cock crows

when

sun

rises.
is, therefore,

The cock

sacred to the sun with the Chinese, as

it

was,

also,

with most an-

cient nations.

Proclus says of this bird that

it

was

sacred to the sun quia gallus quasi qnibusdam hymnis ap-

plaudit surgentl soli, et quasi advocat, qnando ex antipodmn medio coelo


ficiis

ad

nos dejlectitur.

(De Sacri-

et

magia,

p.

2S0

f.

ed.

Cons. Vol.

iii.

Apud Chwolsohn,

die Ssabier

und der Ssabismus,

n,

87).

P. 150,

1.

24.

It is

rather remarkable that in the ceremonies of the Hung-league Geapeit is

wiNE
i.

is

made use

of,

or, as

said in

the last

quatrain on page 144, the

Original colour,

c.

rffi-wine.

Evidently with

this

red

wine

is

meant the blood

of fraternity; thus Christ


is

gave the wiiie-cup

to his disciples at his last

supper with the words: //This

vay blood."

Now-a-days the Chinese


from grains or sweet
fruits.

in social

life

never drink grape-wine,

but always wines distilled

P. 181,

1.

1216.
affiliation.

This stanza justifies the order into which

we have

arranged the

ce-

remonies of

The following

piece of poetry, called the


this order.

,/Poem of the Vanguard,"

also found in the hand-

books of the Society, confirms

333

Poem

of the

Vanguard.

^
We We
The
imperial palace and

l#

were swerving and wandering like a nestless bird


sought for a den to hide ourselves at the Ea^t-bridge;
gardens are effulgently clear;
we'll joyfully

AThen the Tsing have been exterminated and the Manchoos annihilated,

ramble.

The Vanguard
Eeverently

leads all the

new members;
at the first gate [});

Wan-tao-hiung keeps watch

we

pass underneath the bridge over the waters of Saa-ho (');


of willows. (')

And
Old

enter into the City


trees,

gloriously,

like a pair of Laurel-trees, glisten;

Silver

lamps shine brightly like the seven planets;

Flags, parasols, shields and spears in the bushels are placed;

Peaches
III

plums

firs

and cedars adorn the flower-pavilion

the Kao-khi-temple are the three revered


all sides are

Budhas;

And on
With

placed numberless soldiers.


(*)

dishevelled hair the master teaches us himself

3fe

m
if

T m

3S^

n
m m
n
(1)

^
m

ft

# ^ ^

-H-

P
(S)

See p. 8S.

(-)

See p. 79 and

SI.

See

p,

92.

(*)

See p.

57112,

239

On
And

all sides

the brethern, attentively, listen.

After having past the fire-oven (i),

we
(-)

will enjoy glory

and honor,

going through the two points

we

reach, indeed, the Tai-ping. (^)

If ye ask the former things regarding

Chu and Hung,


both sides unite,

(*)

At the four

gates precious swords on

Arrived at the flower- pavilion we, hastily, kneel down,

And the master asks To night the waters


The 36

us our antecedents.
of San-ho appear
fail (5);

essays are taught without

(^);

And

for

21 cash

we buy

fruits

(7);

Each of us eating them,

gets glorified.
(*);

With a

silver needle,

pricking our fingers, the rare red (blood) appeared

We

killed the traitorous fowl, that our

mouths might not


(}'^);

lie.

(')

Upright we entered straight within Heaven and Earth

Through the

fire-oven

we jumped

into

the plains of universal peace.

('')

m
^x
:r,

^
iji

)t

^
^ m
^^

^i^'

m
ff

n
W:

^
iit

^
ra

^
m

f^

A ^ ^
'rW^.

m ^ m
i^
-^

^ ^
?!^

M ^
59

m m
it

^ ^
M
~F

^ ^
m
z-

r.

m ^ :^

^%

^
tf

A ^
-b
A!>
^ji
(")

m
^F

M m m m
^ir>

^ ^ ^
n

i^
iit

M
"^

m
^

n M
p

u ^
i*

m m m
ft
'}:>

^
!K
(')
(*)
('')

A
^
('')

^
:k
The
lodge.

m
(')
(7)

^
(S)

See p. 110.

Heaven-Earth-circle.

The arch The


oath.

of steel. (See
p.

(See p. 87.)

See p. 79.
See
p.

135144.)

See p. 84 and 148.

145.
lodge,
(see
p.

(9)

See p. 145.

(")

The Heaven-Earth-circle (Seep. 9091.)

(n)

The

92.)

240
To
the united righteous-ones were distributed cash as capital;
of three cash,

Each portion

and no more
,

(i).

Two

planks were united iuto a bridge

underneath which we passed

(2)

The new members,

henceforth, are worshipped as

Hung-members.

r.

^
i&

^
^ ^
i^
p.

m
r
[-]

^ ^ m
it

A
r^

m
(1)

m n

# m T m

* m
^M

See p. 149.

See

81.

END OF THE NOTES.

iVNi^LYTICAL TABLE OP COTSTTENTSPage.

PREFACE INTRODUCTION
I.

V. IX.
of the Hung-league

Resemblance

and the society


intercourse
of

of

Freemasons; opinion of Dr.

Schauberg;
IX.

reasons for this


his

resemblance;

China with ancient nations,


antiquity of the Hung-league;
the league has
xi.

Pythagoras;
X.

system identical with the Chinese;

secret signs of recognition


litical,

among

the Peking-Chinese;
it's

why
name

become polove

Real tendency
both

of the league; discourse in


societies;

handbooks,
of the

Fraternal

and

faith the base of

explanation of the

Hung-league,

xii.

The One-God; names the Chinese gave Him; Yin and Yanr/ compared to JacMn and Boaz, XIII. The 3 powers: Heaven, Earth and Man; explanation of the equilateral triangle,
XIV.

Compared
may

Road
ning

of Confucius;

with the Egyptian explanation; philosophy of Lao-tsz; the Tao; the human duties, xv. How God was adored in China; the temples

in His honour;

the Ming-thang or temple of

lirjld;

the Sun-

and Moon-temple; what measymbol


of the

be attached to the Ming-thang, xvi.

The
xvii.

tonsure;

sun;

the

sun painted on the doors of Budhist temples,


I.

Sacred
numbers;

numbers

of the Chinese; the unity


;

and the decas; the

perfect

and imper-

fect

the 3; theory of Hoai-nan-tsz

the 3 treasures of the

Budhists and Ma-

number Dianumbers of Heaven and Earth, xviii. gram of Heaven and Earth; how it was composed; the tortoise of Yu; it's meaning; the Lung-ma of Fuh-hi, xix. The Lung-ma of Fuh-hi; the numbers 3 and of God; Bachofji;n's explanation; power and influence of the number .5, the number
sons,
etc.;

xvn. Power

and induence

of the

3 on the Chinese institutions, laws,

the male and female

numbers;

the

on the Chinese institutions, religion, natural system,


xx.

etc.;

the

blessings;

the

degrees of nobility,

The

.5

founders of the league;


the

the pentagonal and octagonal

diplomas; the numbers 5 and 7;


7

numbers

of the world; the


sins;

old Chinese Aveek of

days;

the 7th

day destined

for

reflection on

the

the
."J

number
7

of death;

it's

part in the funeral ceremonies; the 3, 5

&

7, xxi.

The

3,

and

in

masonry;

in31

243
Page,
fluence of the

number
city";

on the Chinese institutions, laws,


the

etc.;

the square;

it's

meaning;
of the rules,
1,

the //forbidden
Avorld;
tropical

word
of

Faiuj;

it's

analysis,
of

xxii.

The

lodge symbol
the

meaning

the square;

oi-igin

Cliinese

four figures, and eight


;3

diagrams
of

of Fuh-hi;

theory of

two Tso-khiu on the numbers


scripture;

2,

and

-1;

component parts
i seas and
1-

the

character for fmir ;


division
of the year

fourfold

division

of

mankind,

XXIII.

The

canals;

and the day;

when day began

division of hours; names for month and moon identical; hieroglyph for moon; the four cardinal points; the 6 points; division of fields and provinces, xxiv. Four human virtues; the numbers 6 and 8; the six venerable Ones; the six liberal
at midnight;

the

arts; the six

departments; the six sorts

of chariots, etc.,

of the magnates;

the six ele-

ments and
flexions
//

six sacrificial
C/ii

animals; the six kinds of grain; six the symbol of Earth; use

which the Emperor

made

of

the

number

6, xsv.

The

number

8;

the eight genuthe

and the eight gradations of obeisance;

the eight points and eight sounds;

eight-borne sedan;" the number 9; the number of dissolution; masonic sentence; hierofor the nine, xxvi.

glyph

Division
5

of

China into
San

9 parts; 9 gates of

Peking; nine de-

grees of rank; the nine professions; the nine apertures; nine punishments; nine officers;

the nine presents;

the 3,

and
as

furrows;

to

hiu ju, xxvii.

Confucius

and the

boy Hiany-tok
the
3.

the

36

Decans and 72 Intelligences; the numbers 13,


inflicted

30 and 360;

numbers of strokes

punishment,
of

xxviii.

Comparison
the

of the

symbols

Masonry and

of the Hung-league; the sword; the

arch of steel;

lodge; analj'sis

of the

words Lodge and Fang, xxix.


compared;
of

English ap-

prentice-catecliism

and Catechism
spirit in

of the

Hung-league

Browne's

Masterkey

and
XXX.
bers;

Catechism of the

Hung-league

compared;

the seat

the

master at the East,

Fraternal
meaning

Freemasonry and the Hung-league; equality amongst memlai-jnug


;

of the expression

the bloody oath;

it's

universal diffusion;

it's

antiquity in China; custom observed in


J.

making a
cups

treaty,

xxxi.

Bojak CMsiota;
the

Rev.

H. Barnstein;

the Teplirapotes ;

the three

pledged to Heaven,

Earth and the


xxxii.

Altar; the mourning-apparel; symbolical death of the


Inscription on the bathing tub of
the Avhite apron

new member;
symbolism

new man,

Emperor

Cliing-tang;

of taking off the shoes;

and gloves; the wMte clothes of linen; colour of mourning white in China; purification by water and fire; concordance of the Catechisms of the Hung-league and of The holy temple; peaches and plums; their the Masons; the lighting of lamps, xxxiu.

symbolism;

Taoist tradition;

peach resembling the

tree of

life;

the pine

and cypress,
Love-trees;

symbols of immortality; quotation of Confucius; planted on public places of towns; the


IskeUeh;
sacred

cedar symbol of conjugal love;


the
rose

legend

of the

wife of Han-pJiang;

flowers;

given to

Wreath of golden flowers; flowers and lotus-flower, xxxv. Chinese doctors; the Rose-garden and P;?j7-// ; the steelyard, scales, foot-measure
the string
or

and mirror;
red
silk;

rope;

it's

symbolism;

the red silk-thread; nuptial fetter of

the triangle of the

Masons and of the Hung-league; abbreviations in writing,

243
Page.
XXXVI, Cryptogram
tical

of the

Masons

of the

middle-ages;
the

Hebrew
degrees
of

secret Avriting; Taois-

method of combining

secret characters;

three

Hung-league; original belief of the Chinese, xxxvii.


characters

Synonymic

Masonry and of the meaning

of the

of the

-^

and

^X

legend oi Hmj-iou
J

knight of light; xxxviii.

Revolt against
to
to

least

tyranny sanctified by Chinese philosophy; quotation from Mencius' work; Chinamen the submittive to tja-anny of all Eastern races; illustration of this from the //Family
sayings",
xxxix.

Singapore;

defects in
to

it's

government with regard


Chinese;
impossibility
of the

the

Chinese
the

opinion

of Mr. Oliphant;

how

govern

the

eradicate
at

Hung-league; fruitlesness of military expeditions;

existence

Hung-league

neo, Sumatra and Java; reasons for tolerating the Hung-league, xl.

Bor-

IAIIT I
HISTORY OF THE HUNG-LEAGUE
Origin of the Hung-league
1.

unknown; compared
1.

Avith the origin of

masonry; sworn coveLiu-pi, Chang-ti


2.

nants in antiquity; oath of the state of Yueh,

The

alliance

between

and Kwan-yii; the family alliance between the


Influence of Budhism;
first

states

Thsin and Tsin; Chinese clans,

causes of dissatisfaction; Wu-tsung; persecution of Budhism;

Hung-wu; Tartar sway;


their

the national dress; immorality of the Tartars, 3.

Resistance against
first

sway; Koxinga;

naniss of the Hung-league;

the statutes of Shan-tung;


at

chiefs

of the Shan-tung branch, 4.


of the Hung-league

Friendly

societies

Palembang; resemblance

of

symbols
ans-

and of Christianity; reasons

to fear both;

idea of Yung-ching;
5.

wer he gave

to three

R. C. Missionaries; degeneration of the Hung-league,

Revival

under Hung-siu-tsiuen; the Shang-ti-hwui; Christian doctrines introduced; persecution by


the Tartar government; corruption of the league; bands of robbers; the so-called //smallknife-society";

Hwang-wei
of

or Ooe-Ooe; vitality of the Hung-league, 6.

Political histohy of the le.vgue

7.

The grave

Wan-yun-lung,
before

17.

The

obelisk on his grave;

it's

inscription; the pa-

goda with nine stories

the grave;

situation of the first five principal,


18.

and

five

minor lodges in China, with

their designations,

PART
DESCRIPTION OF THE LODGE AND
Description of the
the

II
20.

IT'S

APPURTENANCES
meaning
of
distichs

lodge;

the flags of the generals guarding the gates;


20.

words Kin-laa or //Golden orchid",


founders
of

The
it's

on the four gates of


21.

the

lodge; the great gate of the lodge; the Hall

of Fidelity

and Loyalty,
23

table of the

the

league,

Avith

translation,

blets; prophecy of Liu-peh-wan regarding the Tartar dynasty,

23. 24, Ancestral


Budha

Genealogical Ancestral
tablets;

ta-

the

precious

nine-storied

pagoda;

the

red-flower pavilion;

the

Kia-lan;

the

zu
Page.
shrine of Earth and land,
places
26. 25.

Style

and architecture of the buildings of the league;


27.

where the lodges


lodge
is

ai"e

built; description of the approaches of the Shan-tung-lodge,

Where

held in populous places,

SECTION n.
Instrvments of the lodge
,

The diplomas;
it's

description of the grand diploma, 27.

Fac-simile

of the grand diploma;

description continued,

28

30. Description
it's

of the small diploma, 30.

of the small diploma;

differences

between the diplomas; the Shan-tung diploma,


description; seals
of the league,

Fac-simile of the Shan-tung diploma;

Fac-simile 31. 32. Seals of

the live lodges; the State-campj/ and Army-standard ; quatrain on the State-canopy, 33.

Quatrains on the Army-standard; the

flag

of Benevolence

and Justice,
;

34'.

Quatrain
the five
of the

on this

flag; the

Great -red -flag; the flag of the great ancestor Chu-Jinng


the flags for Sun,
the four seasons;

the flag of the

great Ming; quatrain on this flag;


Seven-star-flag,
3.5.

Moon and
for

Stars; quatrain on the


for

The

flags for

the four points;

elements;

for

the four excellent-ones;

the

Warrant

of the

Army;

the

Warrant

General; the

flags of

the five lodges;

description of the flags of the


37.

first

lodge, 36.
of the flags

Description of the flags of the second and third lodges,


of the fourth

and

fifth

lodges,

38.

Description
flag-staffs;

The

flags of the

five

Tiger-Generals;

the flags of

Heaven and Earth,


flag;

The Audience-flag; the of Tun-thian-hwai; the great Lodgethe 40. The of Revenge; the the Bushels 7; the and their contents, 41. The censer white porcelain; the red the precious Sword, The Scissors; the precious Mirror; the jade foot-measure, 43. The Balance, The steelyard; the Abacus; the inkstone, 45. The pencil, P^RT III.
39.
flag
r/^ree-flag,

flag

flag fig.

of

Staff;

42. 44.

46.

SECTION

I.

GOVERXMENT OF THE SOCIETY


Government
tions

of the five lodges, 47.


for

The

counsel and councilroom; election

of chiefs;

form of Advertisement
of the

this

election, 4S.

Translation The

of this advertisement; func-

Master and Vanguard;


to

the fiscal;

the Kiglit-lrethern or Irou-jdanJcs,

49.

Diploma given
ing lodge
(for

an agent; circular

for holding lodge, 50.

Form

of circular for holdof

China); the

same

for

Siam,

51.

sword, seal and Avarrant

the

President; obligations of the heads of the lodge; meetings; Avhich festivals are celebrated

by
52.

the brotherhood

Form
how

of a receipt

and contributions they pay hereunto; oiigin with it's translation, 53.

of the Sun-moon-cakes,

SECTION
Directions for those
place;

II.

who wish

to

be

affiliated, or

make

a visit in a lodge of another


to

one

ought to come before the Master; quatrain which one ought

pro-

245
Page.
noiince,
bi.

Quatrains

continued; the certificate of birth; handing in the capital; quait;


it

train to be
to

pronounced with
handing

how
over,

the Master ought to accept the diploma;


55.

be pronounced in

to

be observed in entering the lodge, 56.

Quatrain
NEW
I.

quatrain

on one's ignorance;

ceremonies

PART IV
AFFILIATION OF

MEMBERS.

SECTION

The catechism

5".

Way how new

members

are got;

how

they are brought to the lodge,

57.

The
9.,

ilrst

gate; the bridge of swords; the entry; the Hung-gate; the Hall of Fidelity and Loyalty;
the Heaven-Earth circle

Presentation of the new members the Master; Qiiestion 4 new the Catechism of the Vanguard; question Thian-yu-hung, members; the great and petty Ileaven-Earth-league, GO. Question 11 the petty 19 Question the East; the gue; the East, military the instruction in the red-flower-pavilion, 63. Question 26 the school; the examination, sections; Maitreya-Budha; the Pure-tea tion 29 32., the poem; the 64. Question 33 36., military art; the boxing of the Hung-brethern, 65. Question 37 48.,
;

the lodge, 58.

to

3.,

59.

IS.,

lea-

61.

25.,

art;

28.,

63.

Qiies-

five

sect,

Avhy he comes alone and


the
three

roads,

66.

on the eight genii,


of Ling-wang,
68.

67.

Question 49 Question 57
63

why

so late;

who accompanied him; voyage by


56.,

land and

by water;
stanza

the white

heron;

the

eight

priests;

62., the princess; the

Ling-wang temple; notice


the

Question

72.,

antithetical

couplet in

Ling-wang-teniple
the

Hian-chu-lung;

the

mulberry-flowers;

the

Black-dragon

mountain;

coves;

notice

of Hian-chu-lung, 69.

Question 73 SO.,
birth

antithetical couplet
70.

on the agencies of nature;


89.,

the Nail-mountain;

the ferry-boat;

the skipper,

Question 80
skipper's wife;

skipper;

his date of

and dwelling-place;
Jru;
71.

the

her
it's

name name,

of the

date ot

birth and dwelling-place; the hours Tsz and

the great shiphold;

compartments;

load of
of sails;

it's

compartments,

Question 90 100.,
what kind
of

number

of deckboards;

number wood made of;

of holds in the ship;

number

peach-, plum-,

and red-wood;
110., the

36 and 72; the 13 keels, 72.

Question

101

104.,

stanza on the 12 keels; seams of the

ship; the caulking-stuff; the nails; Deities of the ship, 73.


of Fire; the Clear-percepting ear

Question 104

God

ther; the prince

Kwan;

the prince

and the Thousand-mile-seeing eye; couplet on the weaKwan-phing and the general Chau-choang; couplet on
110

Kwan-ti; the Queen of Heaven and the generals Hiang and Hoh; Kwan-yin, the Hungbrethern and Lo-han, 74.

Question
who
wood and

119

119.,

the

masts;

the sails, 75.


tlie

Question
four

125.,

the bowlines;

poled and

who

superintended the tackle;


the red flag,

great

Diamond-ones; the Lo-han; the pure pearl; the signal;


125
135., the goods; red

76.

Question
which unite

red rice;

their

use;

the three rivers

246
Page.

waters; whither the ship went; the Fair of great peace; departure and arrival of Question 13314.7., places along which the ship came; the two pots the sliip, 77. with red bamboo; 36 and 73; 103 plants; the shallows; the three rivers Hoang, King and
tlieir

jleh, 78.

the origin of the three rivers; crossing of the water; how great peace; master Ching154160., the Fair Question many the the bridge of two planks; 160167., Question teh-hui; the three markets, Question 168175., Chu-kwang and Chu-khai; bridge; Yun-siao, origin of

Question
it,

147

134.,

crossed

79.

of

it's

80.

inlet;

this

81.

the sworn and adoptive brethern; the peach and plum-trees; number of their fruits; Question 176 182., the three holy Budhas; the youth with excelS6 and 72, S3.

lent

Question 183-190., peaches of Khia-lan, and of the de191 images the Question colours; Question 197 202., the Long-cash; the bridge; parted brethern; the Question 203 207., the founders; the Hung-water; 36 and 72, the images Question 208 Ku-ching, the Hung-water; the three red stones; the Hung-gate; Question 211 214., the Hall 210., Wang-tao-lung and Wang-tao-fang; Tao-kwang, 215 Ching-ki-thian and Chingenerals Question the Loyalty, 318., and of Fidelity Question notice of Ching-thian, yun-chiug; the Heaven and Earth the generals Wu-kan-rl and Wu-kin-lai, 219 234., the Heaven and Earth 225 notice the Muh-yang-ching, City of Willows; Question Quesdouble walls, the Lodge; Question 230 234., height and breadth Thian-ting; the wall; the bene235 the four characters on double 243., tion excellent-ones; the three Question 243 the volent cloud,
talents;

Hian-chu-lung; Shie-pang-hang

83.

five

the 21 cash, 84.

196.,

of

Long-casJt,

85.

of

live

86.

87.

88.

89.

circle;

historical

90.

circle;

91.

229., the

historical

of

03.

of

it's

five

93.

eacli

star

94.

249.,

four, great, faithful,

streets; the

108 shops; the Peace-united, Patriotism-united, and Myriads-united shops;


of

historical notice

Chang-kwoh,
of

95.

Question 250
97

259.,

what

is

sold in the shops; the

street of Fidelity

and Loyalty; the 72 families; the three moats, 96.


the lodge,

description of contents

temple of Kwan-yin, 99.


live wells,

Question

Question 264 270., the water of the wells; the pagodas; the nine Question 271 276., the ponds; the stone carpers; the orchards, 103. Question 277 282., the peach and plum-branch; quatrain on the Cypress; the the houses; the caserns; the watchOS houses, 103. Question 283 291., divisions Question 292 299., red the furnaces; 72 crops, 104. turrets; the founders; the Hung-Jamp; red 105. Question 300 305., the number the signal-banners, 106. Question 306 311., the evidence by blood-mixing; cut a cock's-head, 107. Question 313 317., mony by drinking blood mixed wine; weapons; Lo-tung; the red 108. Question 318 331., the East- and West-gate; execution-ground; the disloyal cocks, 109. Question 333 338., the Volcano; the the red furnace; Ilung-hai-rl, 110. Question 339 331., the Volcano; the red-flower pavilion 111. Question 333 333,, red-flower pavilion; of the Vanguard, 112. Execu100.
storied pagoda, 101.
1

Question 259., 98. Question 200 361., the three temples; 261 263., temple of Kwan-ti and ofKao-khi; the

of

fields;

their

rice;

of acres;

rice,

five

the

testi-

to

oil"

tlie

staff,

distich

tion of refractorj'^

new members,

113.

247
Page.

SECTION n.
Ceremonies op affiliation
Catting
off
,

113.

the head-cue;

clipping the hair, 113.

Covering the washing-basin; 116. The undressing, 117. Patting on the white washing of the uncovering girding the waist, 118. Wrapping the head-kerchief, 119. The straw-shoes, white porcelain; 13 questions of the Master the Vanguard, 121. liO. The censer incense; the grass-blade, the grass-incense, 132. The distribution Burning grass-blades; incense; presenting incense; and the 123. The second lighting the dry-wood candles 125. Lighting the 124. The second and and second cup, 126. The third cup; lighting the wine; the red candle;
three states, 114.
it;

Seven-starred
115.

altar;

episode of the

The
of

washing-basin; the towel,


face,

dress;

to

of

of

first

third

olTering

fine
,

first

stick,

third sticks;
first

offering

of the

seven-plauet-lamp and precious,


127.

imperial lamp;

episode

of the

history

of

the

three states,

Lighting
continued,

the

Hung-lamp; formulary

of prayer

to the

Gods; Pwan-

ku, 128.
cles

Prayer
oath,

129

134.

The

eight
tea;

salutations,

134.

The 36

arti-

of the

135

143.
146.

Drinking of the

the

bowl of wine, 14i.


a cock;
the
five

Mixing
of

the

wine with

blood pricked

from

the finger;

pricking

virtues

the cock,

145. Q,uatrains

recited during the drinking of the blood-mixed wine; chop-

ping
the

off the cock's

head,

Quatrains

recited during

the

decapitation of the cock;


secret

execration, 147.

Burning

of the oath;

the diploma;

way

of analyzing

name; the

Hang-cents; the Bushel,


Sacrifice of the

handbook and poniards; the first entry or contribution, The Army-flags; consecration of the banners, 149.

148. The

three

150.

white horse and black ox; the banriuet; the theatricals, 151.

LAWS AND STATUTES OF THE BROTHERHOOD.


SECTION
I.

Complete code of the seventy two articles of law of the hung-league

152.

SECTION

II.

The twenty one

articles of the regulations

161.
III.

SECTION

The ten prohibitory laws on appointing meetings

in the

hall op obedience to hung.

165.

PART
SECTION
Secret signs on the road and on journeys
.

VII.

SECRET SIGNS OF THE HUNG-LEAGUE.


,
.

167.

Asking the road; the East,


a brother,
169.

167. AVen-wang,

Analyses

of the

character

168. Signs Hung, 170.

to give in calling upon

248
Page.

SECTION n.
Meeting
colours;

uith

kobbees or pieates
to

171.
their questions,

Answers one ought

give

them on
173.

172.

The bundles
to the lodge,

of four

quatrain against a snake,

Quatrains

when going
of five

174.

Quatrain on the sword of the robber; Chau-tsz-luug; the


quatrain on the characters Kin-lan-kieJi-i , 175.
a garden;

five tiger-generals; analj'tical

Heap
177.

stones; piece of cloth

in

Chinese riddle, 176.

The

bridge Chang-pan; the


it,

sisters-in-law Ching-i/nh-lien

and

Ktvoh-siu-ying ;

the white fan;

quatrain on

quatrains which one


wife;
Si-shi,

may

teach his sister, 17 S.


of distress,

Quatrain
III.

Quatrains

on the white fan;


his

which one may teach

179.

Signs

ISO.

SECTION
Questions and answers

180.
the five acts of the theatre;

The 4S pockmarks; the new, variegated phoenix-company;


the capital of 3 cash, ISl.
the holy temjile, 183.

Questions

regarding one's exterior, 1S2.

The

light

from

SECTION IV.
Secret signs with tea-cups
,

183.

Presenting tea; pouring water upon the tea; the tea of the two sisters-in-law, 184.
of saving the lord; the chop-stick across

Tea

two cups

of tea; the white fan of the Hung-people,

The Hung-tea; the ponds, 186. The blue dragons; the unequal cups, 187. Kungnotice oi Lm-sAen, 188. The Sun- and Moon-tea; the tea of the brotherhood; the combat on the bridge; the tea of the prince hereditary, 189. The mountain-tea; the Hung-tea; the tea of the four excellent-ones, 190. Tea ofthebrethern meeting; the Sun-tea; the inexact square; historical notice of L'm-siu, 191. The tea of tea tiger-generals; the Master-tea, 192. Tea of the Sun and Moon in aspect; the 193. The and y/^-dynasties; the Wlud-tea the 194. The
185.
miitfj ;

historical

CJiau-tsz-lung ;

of

five

IFv-

sa/i-kwei,

J/?'y-

3Iing-tea.,

tea-cups Thmn-lnartliai-pliinfj and Chinrj ; tea of the eight genii; tea of the Seven-star sword;
tea of the
Ox-leader,

196.

sword Avithont a hilt, 195. Tea of the seventh night; the TFeaving-girl and The Rtmg-i^^; the tea of the sixth envoy of Yang, 197. Tea of the

nine great bases;

the Lord's tea,


199.

198. The

tea of sincerity;

tea

for a

brother in

straight; the reunion-tea,

Tea

of the roof of the lodge; tea of the characters

A'j<2?e9

and Shan; tea of //Hung obeys Heaven"; the Hung-cup and Hung-tea, 200.
seven lads; of the
cellent
five

Tea of the

founders;

of the plum-flower

and

five

elements;

of the four ex-

Ones, 201.

Tea

of the battle; the inverted cover of the tea-pot, 202.

SECTION
Secret signs with wine-cups

V.

203.
the

The

characters Thian-hia-tai-ping-hung;

senting the wine-cups, 203.

two

chop-sticks;

different

ways

of pre-

249
Pace.

SECTION
Secret signs at the dinner-table

VI.
0Q4,

The
205.

single chop-stick, 20i.


Tiie rice

Lifting

the covers from the dishes; picking out the o-reens,

on table,

206.
SECTION
VII.

Secret signs on smoking tobacco or opium


Different

oq3

ways
fire

of presenting the pipe,

206 30S.

on tobacco,
tobacco-pipe,
ers,

and pipe, 209

213. Roundelay

311. 'The

The

cornet with tobacco; quatrains

T/oan-yany-fest'ivaX , 212.

Quatrains

on the

on smoking tobacco;

line of recognition of the

Ash-drink-

214.
SECTION
VIII.

Secret signs at chewing betel

The

character C/mny

quatrain on the betel-nut,

215.

quatrain on offering the betel-tray, 216.

Quatrains
SECTION
IX.

Quatrain

315

on the betel-leaves;

on the utensils of the betel-tray,

217218.
Badges which the brethern wear upon the person

218.
it,

The diplomas;
fan; quatrains on
221.
let

the Hung-cash; the red floss-thread; quatrains on


it,

219.

220.

Tlie

The

white

warrant-flag; pass-woi-ds;

quatrain on the warrant-flag,


battle, 222.

Amulets

of Luk-ka/i

and Lnh-ting

for protecting one's life in

for

cultivating and regulating the person,

223. Amulet

Amu2-24.

of Lao-tsz,

224.

SECTION X.

The original bases The 1 X 9 Base, 224.


Bases of Canton,
Bases, 228.
227.

The

The

2x9

Base;

the

4x7

Bases,

225 226.

The

12

five great Bases;

the five warrant-Bases;

the ten

great

Roundelay

on the ten fingers, 229.

SECTION

XI.

List of the principal slang-expressions of the brotherhood

230.
235.

ADDITIONS AND EXEGETICAL NOTES


The
village oi Peh-shwui-ying ; Chang-sha-fu;

the

boatmen

Sleh

and IFu,

235. The

ten

branches and twelve stems; sun, moon, mountains and streams;

symbolical animals of

China; old prophecies concerning China; secret terms for Heaven, Earth, Sun and Moon;
the terminus of meditation, 230.

wine; poem of the Vanguard; 237.

The female Budha; Phu-hien-phu-sah; the cock; Grape Poem of the Vanguard continued, 238 240.
62

ILLUSTRATIONSPage.

Diagram

of

Heaven and Earth

xix. xix.

The tortoise of Ya The Lrmg-ma of Fuh-hi The eight diagrams (Pah-kwa)


Genealogical table of the founders of the league

xx.
xxiii.

22. 28.

The grand Diploma The small Diploma The Shan-tung Diploma


Advertisement
for the election of the

81. 32.

heads of the lodge

48.
50.

Diploma

of an agent

Circular for holding lodge

51.
53.

Form

of receipt

Hung-cash

219.
for protecting

Amulets of Luh-kak and Luh-twg

one's life in battle

222.

Amulet Amulet Tabula


Tab.
II.

for cultivating

and regulating the person

223.
224.

of Lao-tsz
I.

The grave-stone of Wan-yun-lung, described on pages 17 fig. 1. The porcelain censer described on page 11. fig. 2. The cups mentioned on page 15.
fig.

IS.

3.

The stones mentioned on pages 58 and

87.,

Answer

202.

The

first

gate mentioned on page 58.

Tab.

III.

Tab. IV.
Tab. V.

Tab. VI.
Tab. VII.

The Red-flower-pavilion, described on pages 25 & 111. The Hung-gate, described on pages 25, 58 & 87. The Hall of Fidelity and Loyalty, described on pages 21, 58 & 89. The great gate of the City of Willows, or the Lodge, described on page 21. The West- and East-gates of the Lodge, described on page 20.
Tlie North-

Tab. VIII.

and South-gates of the Lodge, described on page 20.

251 Tab. IX.


fig.

1. 2.

Ancestral tablets, described on page 24.

fig.
fig.

3.
1. 2.

Tab. X.

fig. fig.

The Temple of Land and Earth, mentioned on pages 25 & The Nine-storied pagoda, described on pages 18, 25 & 101. The Army-standard, described on pages 33 & 97. The precious canopy

85.

Tab. XI. Tab. XII.


Tab. XIII.

of yellow silk, described on pages 33 & Benevolence and Justice, described on page 34. Flags of the lodge, described on page 35, seq.

97.

The

flag of

Flags of the lodge, described on pages 36


Flags of the lodge, described on pages 38

Tab. XIV. Tab.

XV.

Flags of the lodge, described on pages

38. 39. 39 41.

Tab. XVI. The Paper-cent-bundle, described on pages 41, S5 and 86.

ERRATA
Page XIV,
XXIV,
/'

line Si,/o?-;
//

/V

read:

2S, dele comma after: were called. 24,


2,
/o;-;

XL,
"',

II

1S52, read: 1S51.


l^osession, read: possession.

V V V V
II

II

^,

II

36,
18,
20,

replied the abbot:, read: replied the abbot,

10,

II

easely,

read: easily. read:

10,
12, 12,
1-3,

II

ennemy,

enemy.

00
II II

sulfur, read: sulphur.

/
/'

37, o4.

desinterested, read: disinterested.

II

Faug-tai-hung, read: Fang-ta-hung.


charge, read: place.

;/

li,
15,
16,
16,

II

/'

II

17, lefore: 1734, add: April, 24.


15, for: seing, read: seeing.

/'

II

/'

II

34

II

words, and seing, that, read: words and, seeing


from
1

that.

/'

17, 18,

note 2,
line 15,
II

,/

A. M,

till

3.

P. M., read: from

13

A. M.

/'

II

the, read: he.

//

21,
2i,
24,
'>4

5,
6,

II

Mantchoo's, read: Manchoos.


the

II

II

name

Li-chu hung, read: the names Li, Chu, and Hung,

II

note

2, add: See Catechism, Q. 285.


read: length.

II

line 35, /or: lenght,


,/

II

00 ~,
39, 39,
41,
4T,
48,

5,
V,

//

his

hands, read: her hands.

II

//

Mantchoos, read: Manchoos.

II

S3,
25, 13,
5, 1,

//

Flag, read: Flags.


Phenixes, read: Phoenixes.
Councellor, read: Counsellor.

II

II

II

I,

V
II

//

Councellors, read: Counsellors.


expessed, read: expressed,
S. I, read: S. II.

49, 49,
note

//

II

4,

//

zry.i

Page 54,
,/

last line of the last quiitraiii, /;;

Chung,

read:

Chang.

58,
58,

line 15, for: Sieh-pang-hang, read: Shie-pang-hang.


,/

,/

rJl,

,/

Loyality, read: Loyalty.


coral-groove read: coral-grove.
his

,f

63,

,/

17,
5,

//

,/

68, 68, 68,

//

,/

hands, read: her hands.

;/

11,

,/

groove, read: grove.


grooves, read: groves.
iinitiatcd, read: uninitiated.
collects, read: collects.

,/

,/

18,

//

169, 202,
218,

last line,

^
//

,/

line

3,
4,

note

,/

read:

TAB!

::siu.

a.i.lLf,U,i B^f^*:\

^u^mBmea^j^

TAE.II.

^^

TAB. 11.

"^

c>

,Je^i.^.l. dsi

B^'---*

TAB. Ill

TAB

[ir

C.SrkUjil. J.l.S<tt^..

TABJV.

i]

El

[n

"n

TAB.A/.

TAB.

V.

TAB. V.

c.s.kUj.l..

J.t.

BATAVIA.,

o
/

II

n^wm

TAB .VI,

^m^.

Ci,),U,:l,

^.ISVAWA

i/V.

VIL

mmmamlmmmatKmm

TAB. ML

C JMjcl. J.L lATAVIA


.

TAB

.vnr.

EJaEHEELd nnimiii H

TAB

.vra.

TAS.K.

'\

^f-t'
r^vt

Tc

-j-*--'-^^"^

TAB.nr.

S,A/.f,t, J.I.

BATAVIA

TAB-X.

^ ^^^/Ae^-^^^

TABJf

i^=^=A^%^^

^
&-M^ m^^^

CfcAJf*l

^L fifx/cM-iW.

TAB. XI

^
#1

TAfi.XI.

C.iM.(,L J-l SIVWIA.

TAB.XII

TAB.Xa

.1

C.S,U-jil. J-L.

JtATAVM.

TAB.Jffl

TAB.JSffll.

X^B.AIV.

tAB.AIV.

C.SM4fJ.. J^. MTAVIA.

II

#^

TAB. XV.

TAB. XV.

TAB. XVI.

TAB. XVI.

-JLV
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