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A

DICTIONARY

OF

BASIC

JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)
B*\037g\037*:S<:j!!\302\245\037)

Seiichi

Makino

and

Michio

Tsutsui)

TheJapanTunes)))

cloth-bound edition: March paperback edition: March 1994) 18th printing : January
First First ISBN 4-7890-0454-6
and Copyright (g 1986

1986 1989

1989 by

Seiichi Makino and

Michio

Tsutsui)

Cover:
All

CADEC

Inc.)

rights
portions

or

reserved, including the in any form.) thereof

right

to

reproduce

this book

Published

by The Japan Tim\037, 5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku,

Ltd. Tokyo

108,

Japan)

Printed

in

Japan)))

Preface)

for first Japanese grammar designed primarily and for teachers of After Japanese Japanese. having examined we have major textbooks being used in Japan and the United States chosen what we believe to be basic grammatical items. Our descriptions and in Japanese the recent findings explanations have incorporated linguistics which we felt were of practical significance. We have spent three years and a half preparing this dictionary. Each of us half 200 of the draft: entries. original initially prepared approximately Upon of the first draft of the dictionary completion (i.e., Entries, Appendixes, Characteristics of Japanese Grammar, and Grammatical we closely examined, Terms), and improved our individual drafts. discussed Therefore, every part of this has virtually been written by both of us. dictionary we owe a great deal to our predecessors whose works are listed Naturally in the references. Our heart-felt thanks go to them, although we could not acin each entry where we used their exknowledge them individually insightful also like to acknowledge many discussions planations. We would profitable with our colleagues at the University of Illinois, and at the Urbana-Champaign Vermont. For Summer Japanese School of Middlebury College, Middlebury, rather not attempt a comprehensive listing fear of omission, we would of names. assistance Even so we would like to mention four individuals whose technical has made it possible to publish this dictionary: First, Mr. Burr Nelson of the of Illinois and Mrs. Sharon who have edited our English Tsutsui, University and provided us with valuable comments and suggestions from the user's viewpoint; also, Mr. Mamoru Y oshizawa, who has patiently and conscientiouslyasof

This is a dictionary and second year

basic

students

sisted

with

the proofreading;

The Japan

Times,
for

who

perfect

midwife

last but not least Mr. Masayuki such conscientious editing: he and our special thanks the birth of our progeny

and,

Ishida

of

has

done

has been a
go to him.)

Spring

1986)

Seiichi Makino
Michio

Tsutsui)))

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS)

Preface
To

the of

List
List

............ ... . . . ... ... ... ... ... ............ ... v ... . ... ... ... ... . .. ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. VIII Re ader... .......... ...... ... x Abbreviations ... ... .........
.................................................................................
...........................................................................
XI

... ... .

.. ... ...

... ... ... ...... ...... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ......
1

of Symbols

Grammatical

Terms

Characteristics of Japanese Grammar ................................................... 16 1. Word Order .............................................................................. 16


2. 3.

Topic......... Ell i ps is

.........

......... ............ ...... ...........


i ty

...... ..................... ......... ... ...


. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .

21

... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ..

23 28 33

4. 5. 6.

Personal Pronouns Pass i ve

....

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

... ... ... ... .. . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Politeness and Formal


Sentence-final

............................................................

36
45 50
57)

7.
8. 9.
.

Particles

...............................................................
and

Sound Symbolisms-giseigo Viewpoint......


.
.)

gitaigo

......... ............... ......

... .................. ... .....................


61

.......................................

Main Entries) . . .) A ppendi 1. 2.

573)

xes . ...

...................................................................................
.....................................................................
Verbs

575 576 582)))

Basic

Conjugations

Semantic

Classification of

and

Adjectives

...........................

T ABLE OF CONTENTS

V 11)

3.

Pairs

of Intransitive
Forms
. ..

and Transiti ve
of Important

Verbs.................................... 585
. . ..

4.
5. 6.

Connection

Ko-so-a-do Numerals
Compound

... ... ... ... ... ...

... ......

......... ... ..... ... ... ...

Expressions .................................589
... ... ... ... ... . .. ...
6()()

and

Counters............................................................... 602
.....................................................................
by

7.
8.

Words

608

Improving Reading Skill

Identifying

U ni
Grammar
E

t'

.........
Index

......... ...... .........

......... ... ......... ... ... ... ... ... ...............


612

an 'Extended

Sentential

.................................................................................

619

ngl ish

Index

Japanese

References

.................................................................................... . . . . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ... ... ... . .. ............ . Index ... ... ... ... ...... ...... . ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ...

..... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

621
626 632)))

To

the

Reader)

This
A.

dictionary

consists

of the

following

parts:

Terms contains brief or informal definitions of explanations used in this book. If the reader the grammatical terms frequently finds that he is not familiar with these terms, we suggest he read this section carefully. B. Characteristics to the major of Japanese Grammar introduces the reader and the important concepts involved. characteristics of Japanese grammar The this section before he starts to consult the reader should read through from the Main Entries section refer the reader to dictionary. Some entries on those entries. topics in this section which provide broader perspectives C. Main Entries constitutes the core of this book. Each entry is organized
Grammatical
as

follows:)

CD

\\ (

[entry \037\037J\037\"

name])

[part of speech])
\"'VI)

@ [meaning / function] (\037\"\"\"\"\"\"\"'''''-'''''''--''''-''' ...) ./\"\"o.\"\"\"\037

[English

counterpart(s)]
expression(s)])

[antonym]
CID

[related

@.

Key

Sentence(s))

(1)Formation)

@Examples)

@Note(s)

@)[Related Expression(s)])
CD

[entry
hiragana

name]:
version.

Each

entry

Entries

is given in romanized spelling followed by its are alphabetically ordered based on their ro-

manized spellings. Each entry is followed by its part of speech. The general meaning or function is of the entry the entry name. given in the box below to the entry are @ [English counterpart(s)]: English expressions equivalent to the right of the box. When the entry has an antonym, it is given as in (ANT. xxx).))) provided,

[part

of speech]:

[meaning

/ function]:

IX)

CID

[related

Items expression(s)]: are listed as [REL. aaa; bbb;


like

which

are related

ccc (ddd)].

Expressions

semantically to the entry in non-bold type

aaa

Expressions

are explained in the entry under [Related in bold type like ccc contain comparisons

Expression(s)]
to the
entry

(@\302\273.

under

like (ddd) are Expression(s)] for ccc. Parenthesized expressions in the ccc explained entry. in @ Key Key sentences present basic sentence Sentence(s): patterns The frames according to sentence structure. parts in red color are recurrent elements. The same is true of Formation. Formation: The word formation rules / connection forms for each item (1) [Related

are provided @ Examples:


@
@)

with
Example

examples.

Note(s):
[Related
the

entry

D.

Appendixes

gations, a
counters.

list

sentences are provided for each entry. Notes contain important points concerning the use of the item. are semantically close to Expression(s)]: Expressions which are compared and their differences are explained. contains information as tables of verb / adjective conJUsuch of connection rules for important expressions and a list of

E.

Indexes contains three indexes: the grammar index, the Japanese index. The reader, therefore, has three he is looking up.))) word

the English index and means of access to the

List

of

Abbreviations)

Adj(i)= i-type
Adj(na)=na-type

adjective

(e.g. takai

'high, expensive', yasui


'healthy',

'inexpensive')

adjective (e.g. genkida

shizukada

'quiet')

Adv.=adverb
Aff.

= affirmative

ANT. = antonym
Aux.

Conj. = conjunction
Cop.

= auxiliary

= copula

(= da / desu,
(= -des-,

datta

/ deshita)

Fml. = formal

-mas-)

Gr. = Group
Inf. =

informal
(e.g. Sentence + Verb

Irr. = Irregular

kuru'

KS=Key
LSV =

come',

suru 'do')

Location + Subject
ve

N = Noun N ego = negati


NP=Noun

Nom. =nominalizer

(=no

and

koto)

Phrase

Phr. = phrase
PI. = pI ural

Pot. = potential

Pref. = prefix
Prt.

Pro.=pronoun
REL. = Related S = Sentence
Sinf ni

(e.g.

0-, go-

'politeness markers')

= particle

Expression

= Sentence iku

that ends

with

an informal

n desu

'

predicate (e.g. Nihon


to

ni iku of

Nihon

It

is that

I am

going

Japan.')

SLV =

Subject + Location S.o. =someone

+ Verb

S.t.=something
SOV

= Subject

+ Object + Verb
Verb

SV =Subject+

Str. =structure)))

XI)

Suf. =

suffix

(e.g.

-sa'

-ness',

-ya

'store')

V = Verb
Vinf=informal

Vcond=conditional stem of Gr. 1 Verb (e.g. hanase of hanaseba 'if s.o. talks') form of verbs (e.g. hanasu hanashita 'talk', 'talked') Vmasu=masu-stem of Verb (e.g. hanashi of hanashimasu 'talk') informal of hanasanai 's.o. Vneg= negative form of Gr. 1 verb (e.g. hanasa doesn't talk') Vstem=stem of Gr. 2 Verb (e.g. tabe of taberu 'eat') Vte=te-form of Verb (e.g. hanashite 'talk and -', tabete 'eat and -', kite and -', shite 'come 'do and -') = volitional Vvol form of Verb (e.g. hanaso 'let's talk', tabeyo 'let's eat', koyo 'let's come', shiyo 'let's do it') ' =an interrogative WH-word word (e.g. nani 'what', doko where', dare' who', itsu do naze 'how', 'when', 'why'))

List of

Symbols)
by the number

t:)=See

or refer to. ? = The degreeof unacceptability three being the highest.

is indicated

of question

marks,

or unacceptable (in other words, no native speaker would accept the asterisked sentence.) {A / B} C = AC or BC (e.g. {V /Adj(i)} inf = Vinf or Adj(i)inf) 0= zero (in other words, nothing should be used at a place where 0 occurs. or kamoshirenai Thus, {o / datta} kamoshirenai is either Adj(na) Adj(na)

*= ungrammatical

Adj(na) datta

kamoshirenai.))))

Grammatical

Terms)

The

following

are
in

brief
this

explanations
dictionary.)

of some grammatical

terms

most

frequently used

Active Sentence A sentence which describes an action from the agent's point view. (Cp. Passive Sentence) In active sentences, the subject is the agent. Sentences and a passive sentence, respectively. (a) and (b) below are an active
of (a) -:J t::.. o ;tG!:i:Ji.y 3 \037\037'- tJ\037 Sensei wa Jon 0 shikatta. (The
(b)

teacher

scolded John.)

tJ \037t .y 3 \037 t::..o 'i;tG!:E ,:. '- tJ\037

Jon (John

wa sensei ni shikarareta. was scolded by the teacher.))


who in

Agent
agent

One
is not (a)

initiates the

and /

always
and
(b).

subject

position.

or completes an action or an event. The of the agent Compare the positions

Bill
(a)

in

I::\"Jldi -;\" -

\037-:J t::.. o \037\037

SiTU (Bill

wa Masa

butta.

hit Martha.)
\037'i I::\"Jif

(b)

-;\" -

,:. \037t::..it t::.. 0


ni

Masa

wa SiTU

butareta. by

(Martha

was

hit

Bill.))
clause which modifies a noun (or noun noun is. In (a), Mear; ga Tomu ni acta 'the fact' refers clause, and is what jijitsu
A

Appositive
phrase)

Clause (Construction)
what an

and explains

the

modified

'Mary
to.)

met Tom' is
fL'i j
Watashi

appositive

(a)

7 !J-

tJ\037 i'

,:.\037

-:J t::..$\037 \037 1JJ -:J -C\037, \037 0


Tomu

wa Mear;
fact

ga

(I know the
Adj ecti

that

Mary

ni atta jijitsu met Tom.))

shitte

iru.

Auxiliary

v e)

A dependent

adjective

that

IS preceded

by and

at-)))

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS)

tached

to a verb or another The bold-printed adjective. sentences are typical ing auxiliary adjectives.)
(a)

parts of

the

follow-

fL'i.y

\037 ':.ff

-:J

-c \037 l, L '0
ni

Watashi (I want
(b)

wa Jon

itte

hashii.

John
wa

to

go

there.)

\037 Q)\037f.'i-ft\037\\\037TL'o

Kono jisho (This


(c)

tsukaiyasui.
easy

dictionary is
LtJ\037ft\037t::L'o

to

use.))

fL'i-jWatashi

wa sushi
to

ga tabetai.
l,L'o
deta

(I
(d)

want

eat sushi.)

\037A'i*\037\037mt::\037

wa daigaku 0 (Beth seems to have


Besu

Tashii.

graduated

from

college.)

L\037\\ J: (e) :m.:r'iff*


Hanako
(Hanako (f)

t=.o

wa sabishii
looks

yoda.
t=.o

lonely.) L-t-?

\037 Q)jO..:r'ijO\037\\

Kono

o-kashi

wa oishisoda.
delicious.))

(This cake looks


Auxiliary

Verb
The

A verb
bold-faced

which

is used
the

in conjunction with
following

a preceding

verb
aux-

or

adjective.

words of

sentences

are

typical

iliary

verbs.
1::'\" Jv'i\037.:F\037\037.\037\\-c

(a)

Biru
(Bill

L'Qo tegami 0 kaite iTU. is writing a letter now.))


wa

ima

(b)

\037tJ\037mHt

-c \037Qo

Mado
(The (c)

ga akete aTU. window has been opened.

(= The window

is open.\302\273

\037'imm\037 L -c l, \037 ?t:: o Boku wa shukudai 0 shite (I have

shimatta.

done

my

homework.)
\03711 t:: 0 ni

(d)

fL 'j:\037}t\037:. jO \037\037 it L -c Watashi wa tomodachi

o-kane

0 kashite ageta.)))

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS

3)

(I

loaned

money to
- ;r-

my

friend.) i! Q 0

(e)

Q)::r \0371::0;:r. \037 Kono

'ifNj\"t

wa takasugiTu. is too expensive.)) (This computer 3 A \037:b - \037 .y -.y \037 'i \037 '-1,)( ? -C L \\ Q (I) wa 0 Joji supotsuka hoshigatte iTU.
konpyuta
(Lit.

George

is showing

signs of

wanting

a sports

car. (=

Georgewants

a sports (g)
OJ Al

car.\302\273

-:J! Ame

-:J -c mtJ\037\037\037

*t:: ! futte kita! ga


started

(Gee! It's

to

rain!))

A particle which consists of more than one word but. Compound Particle to shite wa For example, the compound particle functions like a single particle. consists of the particle to, the te-form of suru and the particle wa, but it is used C like a single particle to mean for'. (Cp. Double Particle))

Compound coordinate

Sentence conjunctions
the 1t\\ t.:

A sentence which such as ga meaning'


meaning

consists

of clauses
the

combined

by

but' or by

te-forms

of verbs,

adjectives or
(a) \037'iiJk

copula

'-

and'.
wa

-:J t::.. o A \037 Iv 'i iJk tJ\037 tJ\037 tJ( A \037 t\037

Boku

wa oyoida

ga

Sumisu-san

oyoganakatta.

(I swam but
(b)

Mr.

Smith

didn't.)

Iv a3 \037

';1 Jt!Jj( ,:. fT -:J -C \037\037* Iv ,:. \037-:J t::.. 0 \037

Yoshida-san

(Mr. Yoshida
Contrastive X

wa Tokyo ni itte Suzuki-san ni atta. went to Tokyo and met Mr. Suzuki.))

Marker
with

is contrasted
appear

Y, it

A particle is typically

which

marks marked

contrast.

For example, when


X
in

usually

in SI and

S2, respectively
wa Bill

by the particle wa. in 8 1 ga 8 2 , as shown

and Y

(a).

(a)

.y 3
Jon

-:J t::.. o \037,\037*t::.. tJ\037, 1::'\" Jv,\037*t\037 tJ\037

wa

(J ohn

kita ga, Biru came here. But

konakatta. didn't.)) that combines two

Coordinate
subordinating
Exam pIe:)))

Conjunction one to the

A other.

conjunction A typical

sentences without

coordinate conjunction is ga

'but'.

GRAMMATICAL (a)

TERMS)

T fJ(, \037-:J -c ,,\\ '\302\243. Hashitte (I'm

't:J

-:J \037b \037-tt '\302\243. -tt Iv o

imasu

running,

ga, chitto mo yasemasen. but I haven't lost any weight

at

all.))

Direct

Object
the

represented by object is the direct inanimate direct object


worked

The direct object of a verb is the direct recipient of an action An animate It can be animate or inanimate. verb. direct An of some action (as in (a) and (b) below). experiencer
is typically

something
the

which

is created,

on,

in short, the

recipient of

action

of the

verb (as in

exchanged or (c), (d) and

(e)

below).) t1J

(a)

Q 96!:E 'i\037!!: \037J: < 11 \037Q 0

Yamaguchi-sensei (Prof.
(b)
tJ\037jO!>

wa gakusei 0 Yamaguchi often praises his


L t::.. o t.= '\302\243. \037

yoku

homeru.

students.))

'j:-!B

Kaori (Kaori
(c)

wa IchiTO deceived

damashita.

Ichiro.))

\037'j:*\037.\"\\t=o

Boku
(I W

wa hon 0
a
book.))

kaita.

wrote

-M\037\037\037!>\037\037\037-7\037\037-:J\0370

Ichiro

wa Midori
gave

ni

(Ichiro
Watashi (I

a scarf

sukafu 0 yatta. to Midori.))

(e) fL'j:t:7 \0371m It


kept the

-c jO ,,\\ t::.. o

wa doa

0 akete
open.))

oita.

door

Although

direct

objects are marked


always

by

the

marked (f)

by 0 are not

direct

objects,

particle as shown

in

0, nouns (f) and

or
(g).

noun

phrases
2 (t:) 0 ; 04))

:mT'i-1!\037Q)*\037A\037\037.lvt.:o Hanako wa Ichiro no daigakunyugaku 0 yorokonda. was glad that Ichiro entered college.)) (Hanako
\"A 'i:t
Q)\037\037lI\037\037\"\\-c

(g)

,,\\t::. o

Tomu

wa sono
time

toki

koen

0 aruite ita.
walking

(At

that

Tom

was

in

the

park.))))

GRAMMATICAL Double

TERMS

5)

A sequence of two particles. The first particle is usually Particle / conparticle such as wa 'topic particle and the second is an adverbial trast marker', mo 'also, even', and shika 'only'.)
a case
(a)

Iv \037\037*t::..o Jt!Jj(tJ\\ a:, '\037a3 \037\037 Tokyo (Lit.

kaTa From

wa Tanaka-san ga kita. came.)) Tokyo Mr. Tanaka

(b)

Iv t: t \037 '- t.: 0 7 - \037 fL 'i \037 Watashi wa Mira-san to mo (I talked

hanashita.

with Mr.

Miller,

too.))

Embedded sentence.

another sentence is an embedded A sentence within Sentence senThe bold-faced part of each sentence below is the embedded such is marked a subordinate tence. An embedded sentence by conjunction ' noni as kara 'because', keredomo 'although', node C because', although', C C a nominalizer (no or koto) or the head to that', if', the quote marker to noun of a relative clause.)

(a)

a3 \037

'i D tJ( 111L \\ \037 \037-:J t.: 0

Yamada

wa atama

ga itai
he

to

itta.

(Yamada
(b) a3 \037

said

that

had a headache.))

'i iltJ(1II L \\ f/) \037\037\037 \037 f* Iv wa

Yamada

atarna
to

t!.0 ga itai node


school,

gakko

0 yasunda.

(Yamada didn't go

because

he had a headache.))

(c)

a3 'i\037\037OO'=ft \037 Yamada

wa

(Yamada
(d) a3 \037

< f/) tJ;*fJf t! t!.o ni iku no ga dai-sukida. gaikoku loves to go to a foreign country.))

'i\037.:f\037:g?

t.:

\037\037 tJ\037dJQ

0 koto

Yamada

wa kaTate
learned

naTatta

ga aru.

(Yamada has Hearer


dictionary

karate

before.)) a spoken or written in a broader sense In this


the

The
the

term

person \"

who hearer\"
the

receives is used
writer

message.

to

mean

person

to whom the speaker or Imperative in Hanase!

communicates.)

Form 'Talk!',

conjugated

verb it!',

form

that indicates a

command,

as

Tabero!C Eat

Shiro!

'Do it!' or Koi! 'Come!'.)))

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS)

Indefinite cally. jisho


C

Pronoun
in

No

B's

sentence

dictionary',

A pronoun in (a) is an but does not refer


L

which

does

not refer pronoun.

to

something

specifiused

indefinite to

Here, no is a specific dictionary.


ka.

for

(a) A:

\037 Ivt\037M=.tJ;\037

\037\\Iv\037TtJ\037o n

Donna

jisho

ga hoshii
dictionary

desu do

(What kind of

you want?)

B:

IJ,\037\037\\O)tJ;\037'-\037\\Iv\037To

Chisai

no ga

(I want a small
Verb identified

hoshii n one.))

desu.

Intransitive

A verb by the

which intransitive verb

does

action or state

verb hashitta

not require a direct is related only 'ran'

to

The object. the subject


intransitive

of

the

verb

For example, the sentence. because the action of running

in (a) is an
the

is related

only to

subject.

(Cp.
(a) Iv \037 \037\037* Suzuki-san

Transitive

Verb))

'ijE?

t=.o

wa hashitta.
ran.)
typically

(Mr.
Intransitive
aruku

Suzuki

verbs

indicate

movement
get

'walk',

tobu

'fly',
'change',

noru

onto '),

(such as iku 'go', spontaneouschange


fukuramu

kuru'
(such

come',
as naru

become', kawaru

tokeru

'melt',
'

'swell',

gin '), human emotion (such as yorokobu rejoice', kanashimu , 'be feel '), and birth shinu / death (such as umareru born',

'

hajimaru
feel

'beomou

sad',

'die ').
(t:)

Appendix

3))

I-type

An whose nonpast prenominal form ends with i. adjective Adjective and tsuyoi ' strong', of i-type adjectives are takai expensive' 'high, as seen in (a). (Cp. Na-type Adjective)

Examples

(a)

(Wi\" ,*

takai hon
(an

expensive

book))

5!U\"'A

tsuyoi

hito

(a strong

person)
subdivided
with

I-type adjectives are further end with shi-i and those

into two endings.

types:

i-type

adjectives

which
Shi-i)))

non-shi-i

Most adjectives with

GRAMMATICAL endings

TERMS C for

7)

sabishii jective
C

'

express

human emotion
kurushii C

(such

as

ureshii

happy',

kanashii
are
C

sad', ob-

lonely',

painful '

'); the black',

high,

descriptions (such as kuroi expensive ').

non-shi-i adjectives hiroi shiroi ' white',

used

spacious',

takai

An adjective Na-type Adjective ' For example, shizukada quiet' na. tives, as in (a).

whose
and

genkida

nonpast prenominal form ends with ' healthy' are na-type adjec-

(Cp. I-type

Adjective)

(a)

t\037 * 1flt tJ\037

shizukana

ie

(a quiet house)
JG \037t\037A

genkina
(a

hito person)

healthy

to nouns. Some na-type can Na-type adjectives are very similar adjectives be used as real nouns as shown in (b). All na-type adjectives behave as nouns when they are used before the copula da, as shown in (c).)
(b)

Kenko

..'i*:$\"t*T.t wa

o dalj\"idesu

yo.
you

(Health Cpo

is important,
hito

know.)

-Qt\037t\037A

kenkona
(a

healthy

person)
Iv o wasuremasen.
your

:=UiJJ 'i:git
G o-shinsetsu

'! -tt
wa

(I'll never forget Cpo


m;ut\037A

kindness.)

shinsetsuna
(a (c) \037 Q)A

hito person)
\037\037

kind

Ii :rc \037 /

{t.: / \"t*T
OJ \037 '! \037

tet \037\\ OJ !> '! 1t / t!. -:J t::.. / \"t* L. t::.. / 1.: \037 / 1.: \037

/ gakusei Ida / desu / datta / deshita / janai masen / janakatta / jaarimasendeshita.} (This person {is / was / isn't / wasn't} / a student.)) healthy
N ominalizer
A

-:J t::.. / 1.: Iv / 1.:\037t.t. tJ \037 Kono hito wa genki

it

Iv\"t*

'- t::.. 0 } / jaari-

nominalizer

phrase or clause.

There are

two

is a particle that makes a sentence into a noun nominalizers no and koto: the former rep-)))

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS)

resents

the speaker's

nominalized
anti-empathetic

in the empathetic feeling towards an event / state expressed the speaker's relatively noun phrase / clause; the latter represents (t:)no 3 ; koto 2)) feeling towards an event I state.

Noun

Phrase

/ Clause
Particle

Predicate

Sentence
f3*m\037MCtr

Nominalizer
(J)/::\"\037

'i
wa

;I '- \"'0
muzukashii.

Nihongo

0 yomu

no / koto
difficult.))

(Reading Japanese is

The nominalized sentence can be used in any position where or a noun phrase / clause can be used.)

an

ordinary

noun

Passive

Sentence
of

sentence

which sentences.

describes
affected

an

action

by someone from

the
(a)

viewpoint

someone

else who is
passive

by

that

action.

(Cf.

Active

Sentence) fL'i

(a) and

(b)
Biru

are

1::'\" Iv \037:.\037 t::..tLt::.. o

Watashi (I was
(b)

wa

ni butareta. Bill.) t=o nakareta.


by

beaten

by

\0371!\037 'itJc.:r\037:. mtJ\037tL

Taro wa (Lit.

Akiko ni
Akiko's

Taro was annoyed


by

the

fact that

Akiko cried. (= Taro

was

an-

noyed
Potential

crying.\302\273)

Form

A verb Vcond+.75
ru)

form

that

expresses

competence
talk'

In

the

sense

of

'can do
Gr.

s.t.' The formation

is as follows:) e.g.
\037\037-tt.75

1 Verbs

'can

hanase
e.g.
ft\037

-ru) C

Gr.

2 Verbs

Vstem+ '?tL.75
rareru
Vstem+tL.75

'?\037'L.75

can

eat'

tabe-rareru
e.g. 1t\037tL.75

'can

eat'
come'

reru
Irr.

tabe -reru
*\037tL.75

Verbs

*.75 kuru

'can

korareru

*tL.75
koreru)))

GRAMMATICAL T.75) suru)

TERMS

9)

m*.75
dekiru)

can

do'

The part of a sentence which makes a statement about the subThe core of the consists either of a verb, an adjective, or a predicate ject. noun followed by a form of the copula da. Optionally, and other adjecobjects In (a), (b) and (c) the preditival and / or adverbial modifiers may be present.
Predicate

cates are
(a)

printed

in

bold

type.)

t\037*\037Iv'i\037<\037Ii\037\037Qo

Matsumoto-san

wa

yoku

(Mr. Matsumoto
(b)

sees

eiga 0 movies often.))

miTu.

A \037 Iv(/) \037I.J if l., L '0 fLQ)\037ni A \037

Watashi no ie wa (My house is newer

Sumisu-san than

no YOTi ataTashii. Mr. Smith's.))

(c)

.y

3 \037'i8*i!(/)\037!!:1:\"to
wa

Jon

nihongo

(John

is a

no gakusei desu. student of Japanese language.))

Prenominal

a noun
(d)

The verb / adjective form which immediately precedes The bold-faced verb and adjectives in (a), (b),(c) and are prenominal forms.)
Form
and

modifies

it.

(a)

fLtJ\037\037t;

/ \037\037t=ffiflfl
shinbun

watashi (the
(b)

ga yomu / yonda I read)) newspaper

tJ\\ ? t=. ** i! L' / * \037 okii / okikatta ie (a big house / a house :u:\037t\037 /

which

used

to be

big))

(c)

:u:\037t=?

t=.}i4o/J

Tippana

/ Tippadatta
building

tatemono
/ a building
which

(a magnificent
(d)

used

to be

magnificent))

a L' l., i:
oishisona

? t\037/

a L' l., i:
cake

? t=

? t=. -7

\037

/ oishisodatta

keki
/ a cake
which

(a

delicious-looking

looked

delicious))))

10

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS)

Punctual occurs (a)

Verb once, as

in

(a),

A verb that or can be


to

represents
repeated

a momentary
continuously,

action
as in

which

either

(b).)

\0370

'get
' die'
0

know')

shiru

}Eb
sh

in u

'

\037ai.

begin'
get

hajimaru \037\037T

married' s.t.')

kekkonsuru)
\037\037o

'stop ,

yameru

\037o

resemble')

niru (b) rt\037T

drop')
off')

otosu
t\037o

'pluck
,

mogiru

Ito

kick')

keru
C m\037

jump') ,

tobu
ty\":>

hit')

utsu)

Wi th
after

the

auxiliary

an action after

state

verb iru (i.e., iru 2 ), the punctual verbs was taken, and those as in (b) express either an action was taken.

in

(a) express a repeated

a state action or
2))

(t:)Appendix
or someone

Stative

Verb
in

some point
(a)
OJ

time,

A verb which as in (a).

represents

a state

of

something

at
2))

(t:)Appendix

aru

(exist (of
\\1\\0

inanimate

things\302\273

;ru

(exist (of

animate

things\302\273)))

GRAMMATICAL
'\"

TERMS

11)

iru

(need)
lfi*\037

dekiru

(can
Subject

do))

The
in

subject is
active

an

element

of

sentence

which

indicates

an

agent

of an action
or (b\302\273

sentences

someone or something and (f\302\273.The subject is normally it is the sentence topic.


(a)

or an experiencer (as in (a\302\273 is in a state or a situation that marked

of an
in

action

(as in unless

(as in (c), (d), (e) Japanese

by the particle ga

:;:1 Jon

\037 tJ\037 !>

Iv \037\0371t\037 t::.. o

ga ringo

tabeta.

(J ohn (b)

ate

an

apple.)

)I. 7 1 ) -tJ\03796!:E\037\037Jl\037\037tLt::..o MeaT;

(Mary
(c)

7-

ga sensei ni homerareta. was praised by her teacher.) \037 :\" - 'i \037 tL 1t' t.: o
wa

Nansh;
(Nancy
(d)

kireida.

is pretty.)

1t' t::.. o t: 7 tJ\037rm Doa

ga aita.
door

(The
(e)

opened.)

mtJ\037-':>dJOo (Lit.
aru. Tsukue ga hitotsu One table exists.

(= Thereis

a table.\302\273

(f)

\037tJ;W1t'o

SOTa ga

aoi.
is blue.)) clause

(The sky
Subordinate
a subordinate

Clause

which

is embedded

into

a main

if', kara conjunctions conjunction. Typical and noni 'although '. Thus, node' because', keredo 'although' 'because', the subordinate conjunction node is with in (a) below, the bold-facedclause embedded into the main clause Nakayama-san wa gakko 0 yasunda, C Mr. was absent from school.'))) Nakayama
subordinate

are ba

clause '

with

12 (a)

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS)

Iv'iDfJ(.fJ'?t::C1)-c:\037\037\0371*lvt.:o \037UJ \037

Nakayama-san

wa atama
was

ga

itakatta

node

gakko
he

(Mr. The
informal

Nakayama

absent

from

school because

had

0 yasunda. a headache.)

form

of a verb / adjective

is

usually

used

in a subordinate

clause.)

A verb that requires a direct It usually expresses object. inacts upon s.o. or s.t. indicated by the direct object. Actions C real causatives make dicated (such as ikaseru / by transitive verbs include let s.o. go', korosu nakasu 'make s.o. cry', noseru miseru 'show', 'kill', , as ageru 'give', morau kureru' give '), (such put, place '), exchange 'receive', ' as 'think '), communicacreation tsukuru (such make', kaku 'write', kangaeru tion (such as hanasu 'speak', oshieru tsutaeru 'teach', 'convey a message') verbs are intransitive in Japanese.) and others. Note that some English transitive
Verb an

Transitive
action

that

(a)

fL'i1l!tJ\037\037.Qo

Watashi wa kuruma ga aTU. (Lit. With me a car exists.


(b)

(= I

have

a car.\302\273

\037'i

id\037tJ\037L\\.Qo

Boku
(Lit. (c)

wa o-kane ga
To me
money

iTU.

is necessary.

(= I need

money.\302\273

A \037 \037 Iv'i

\037oomtJ\037\037fJ'.Qo

Sumisu-san (Lit.

wa chugokugo

ga

wakaTU.

To Mr.

Smith Chinese is
W*.Qo

understandable.

(= Mr.

Smith understands

Chinese.\302\273

(d)

fL'i 7

A \037fttJ\037p \037 L
wa

Watashi

furansugo French

ga sukoshi
is a

dekiTU.

(Lit. To me
(e)

bit possible.
t:: o

(= I
atta.

can

speak

French

little.\302\273

*r-

'iJtiJi(-C: wa Kinoshita-san

Iv \037

Iv ,=. \037? id\037 \037

Tokyo de
father

o-to-sanni
in

(Mr.
(f)

Kinoshita met his


= ;t.flfJ'?

Tokyo.)

fL':\"i\037Jv\037\037M

Watashi

ni

wa the

beru

(Lit. To me
(\037

t:: o ga kikoenakatta. bell wasn't audible.


.to ga miemasu Fuji is visible.

(= I
yo.

wasn't

able

to hear the

belL\302\273

tJ\037 \037 \037 \037 1j:61:1:UJtJ\037\037;t.\037T

Koko kara

wa here

Fujisan Mt.

(Lit. From

(= We

can

see Mt.

Fuji

from

here.\302\273)))

GRAMMATICAL (h)

TERMS

13)

fLiit;J:ffi\037\037':.* I.) \037 l, t=.o Watashitachi wa shinkansen (We rode a


bullet

ni

nOTimashita.

train.))

(0

fL'ia,:.{1:1\"'CL\\.QG L v'o Watashi wa haha ni niteiTu

rashii.

(It seems that


Sentence
in

I resemble

my mother.))

Volitional

A sentence sentences

in

which

a person form,

expresses his
as in (a).)

will.

The

main verb (a)

such

is

in

the

volitional

-mtJ\037ft

Boku

=? / fti! \037 l, J: ? ga iko / ikimasho. go.))

(I will
WH-question

which,

when,

why

A question that and how, as

asks

for information
by

about
(Cp.

who,

what,
below.

where,

exemplified

(a) through

(f)

Yes-No

Question))

(a)

iltJ\037*

* L t::. tJ\037o

DaTe
(Who (b)

ga kimashita
came

ka.

here?))

{PJ\0371t\037

* -t-tJ\\o

Nani
(What

0 tabemasu
will
':.ff\037

ka.

you

eat?))

(c)

C = Doko
(Where

* -t-tJ\\o

ni ikimasu ka.
are

you

going?))

(d)

L\\\"J*\037li\"fiff

* -t-tJ\037o \037

Itsu
(When

Osaka
are

e kaerimasu ka.
you going

back

to

Osaka?)

(e)

C?
(How

l,\"'CR:bt\037v'Iv-c:-t-tJ\\o

Doshite

kawanai
come

n desu ka.
buy

you don't

it?))

(f)

JRJX\037,,'j: C? ff\037 * -t-tJ\037o eki e wa do ikimasu Tokyo

ka.
Station?))))

(How

can

I get

to Tokyo

14

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS)

WH-word as who,

An interrogative word which to English words such corresponds are some exwhat, where, which, when, why and how. The following
'

amples. (a) \037\037 dare


fPJ

who
what'

'

nani /
.:. \037

nan

'where'
C

doko

v' \"':)
itsu
\037?

when'

L. -C / t\037-tf

'how

come / why'

doshite / naze
\037?

'

how'

do
Note

they
below. (b)

that Japanese WH-words after are frequently found

are not

always

found in

a topic noun

sentence-initial position; in (b) and (c) phrase, as shown

q) \037 Kino

? q).I{-7;( no pati ni

wa

':'Ij:iltJ\037*'1

L t::..tJ\037o

daTe
party,

(Lit. To yesterday's
party?\302\273

ga kimashita ka. who came there?

(= Who

came

to yesterday's

Cpo

q) iltJ\037 \037 DaTe

? q).I{ -7

;( pati

,:.* * L

t::..tJ\037o

ga kino
to L.

no

ni kimashita

ka.

(Who came
(c) J3

yesterday's t::..tJ\037o
shimashita

party?)

*-c:

,j: {PI \037L

Nihon

de wa

nani 0
what

ka.

(Lit.
Cpo

In Japan
{PI \037J3

did

you do?

(=
ka.

What

did

you do

in

Japan?\302\273

*-c:

L*

Nani

0 nihon

'- t::.. tJ\037o de shimashita


do

(What
Yes-No ie

did

you

in

Japan?)) that

Question

A question
\037 lv'i*'1

can

be answered

by

hai

/ e

'yes'

or

'no '.
(a)

(Cp.
J:IB

WH-question)

Examples
'-t::..tJ\037o

follow:

A:

Veda-san

wa kimashita
come?))))

ka.

(Did Mr. Ueda

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS

15)

B:

'iv\\,
Hai,

o ** Lt::..

kimashita.

(Yes, he did.)
(b)

A:

\037* \037 lv'i\037!:E-C:TtJ\037o wa gakusei Suzuki-san

desu ka.

(Is
B:

Mr.

Suzuki

a student?)

v\\v\\;t,

\037?t:.\037tb!J*-ttlvo

ie, so ja arimasen. (No, he isn't.))))

Characteristics

of

Japanese

Grammar)

1.

Word

Order)

+ Object + Verb) (Subject An important fact about word order is that each sentence ends in a verb, an adjective or a Japanese form of the copula, and that the order of the other sentence elements is relawhich normally comes free, except for the topic noun or noun tively phrase, A sample sentence at sentence-initial follows.) position. Japanese
language,
typologically

is

classified

as

an

SO

whereas

English is

classified

as

SVO.

(1))

Subject

(topic)
A\037A\0371v

Location
,:1: wa \037

Direct Object

Verb

(transitive) L -C v'-'5 o

a* Nihon

;-c:
de \037

a*m
nihongo
in

\037

\037%i

Sumisu-san

benkyoshite

iru.

(Mr.
The
and

Smith

is studying

Japanese

Japan.))

the

Location and the Direct Object can be switched, but the Subject (topic) Verb must normally be in sentence-initial and sentence-final positions,

respectively.)

The ified.

word order principle This principle holds

for Japanese whether

is the

modifier

precedes
dependent

what is modor

the modified

word is

fully

The function of the modifier is to specify the meaning of the independent. C modified word. Thus, in (1), the verb benkyoshite is studying' is modified iru the preceding elements Subject, Location and Direct Object. Observe the by following phrases and clauses.)
(2))

Adjecti
\037v'

ve

Noun
11!

(3))

Noun

Phrase
Noun

Relative Clause
\037 tJ\037\037q)? kino \037Iv t:!.

akai

kuruma
car))

* hon
read

(a red

chichi ga
(a

yonda

book

which

my

father

yesterday))))

CHARACTERISTICS
(4)) (5))

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

17)

Noun
A\037A\0371v

Particle
,:t

Subordinate

Clause

Sentence

Conjunction
tJ\037G

Sumisu-san

wa
(topic\302\273

a*
Nihon

\037

ft<

(Mr.

Smith

iku
to

kara
Japan)

A\037A\0371v Sumisu-san

tJ\037

(Because I go
a*
Nihon
(Although \037

ga
(subject\302\273

ft<

,t tL

\037

(Mr. Smith
A\037A\0371v Sumisu-san

iku
I go

keredo
to Japan)
\037

\037

0
(object\302\273

a*
Nihon
(VVhen

\037

ft<

(Mr. Smith
A\037A\0371v

e
I go
\037

iku

to

to Japan)
t\037 t? nara

Sumisu-san
(Mr.

mo
also)
,:.

a*
Nihon (If Note:

ft<

Smith

iku

A\037A\0371v

you go

to

Japan))

Sumisu-san

ni Mr. Smith)
tJ\037 t?

A subordinate

clause precedes

(to / by

/ from

a
(6))

main

clause.)

A\037A\0371v

Sumisu-san

kara

Nominatized

Noun

Phrase
N

(from

Mr. Smith)
J:\037

Sentence
.ft\037 a' \037

ominatizer q)/\037\037

A3:A\0371v

f18<
kiku

Sumisu-san
\302\253more -)

yori

ongaku 0

no /

koto

than Mr.

Smith))

(to

listen

/ listening

to music))

noun the basic the modified word is an independent the second element is a dependent where word, the basic modificational principle such as a particle, conjunction, or nominatizer, of the modified word is fully specified by the modalso holds, because the meaning modifiers. words Unlike require ifier. dependent however, words, independent and understand some It is important for students of Japanese to recognize of of the most basic Japanese sentence types and their word order. Examples are given below:))) these basic sentence types

In (2)

and

(3) where

principle

holds;

in

(4)

(5) and (6)

18

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE Y da I

GRAMMAR) da
C

(7)

a.
X

wa

X ga

Speaking
Y

of X,

is Y

/ It is

that

is Y')

(subject

/ topic)

Prt
'i

Copula t!. / \037To

JH\037\0371v

\037!:E

Tanaka-san
(Mr.

wa is a student.))

gakusei

da / desu.

Tanaka

(In

answer

to

the

question: Prt
tJ\037 Y

Who is a

student?))

X (subject)
JH\037\0371v

Copula t=. / \037To

\037!:E

Tanaka

-san
It

ga

gakusei

da / desu.
student.

(Lit.

(= Mr.

is Mr. Tanaka who is a Tanaka is a student.\302\273)

b.

=(1)
Adj)

SOV

c. S

Subject
UJJI(

(topic)

Prt
'i wa
is young.))
\037\"'\\

Adj (i)
/ \037\"'\\\037To

Iv \037

Yamakawa-san

wakai I wakaidesu.

(Mr. Yamakawa
Subject (topic)
UJJI(

Prt

Adj
7G \037t!.

(na)

Iv \037

'i wa

/ 7G \037--c,;T 0

Yamakawa-san

genkida / genkidesu.

(Mr. Yamakawa
d.
X

is healthy.))

wa

Y ga

'Speaking

of X,

Y -')
Y

(topic,

experiencer)

Prt
'i wa

Prt

Predicate

*JH\0371v

Honda-san

7=-A tenisu

tJ;

J:\037t!.I J:\037--c,;T 0
jozuda

ga

/ jozudesu.

(Mr. Honda

is

good

at

tennis.))))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

19)

X (topic,
\037

possessor)

Prt

Prt
tJ\037 :N:\"\" nagai

Predicate
/ \037\"\"\037To / nagaidesu.

'i

..

Zo

wa
long

hana

ga

(An elephant has a


e.

trunk.))

SV (=

Subject

+ Verb))
Prt

Subject (topic)
A\037A\0371v Sumisu-san

Verb
\037f3C

(intransitive)

'i wa
to

,:.

n<
iku

/ n\037*To
/ ikimasu.

gakko

nl

(Mr. Smith goes


f.

school.))

LSV (=
Location
\037q)1Uf

Location

+ Subject

Verb))

(topic)

Prt
0:.)

Prt
'i
wa

Subject
*\037

Prt tJ\037

Quantity =--:J

Verb tb.'5 /

(existence)
tb \037 *To

Kono

machi
town

(ni)
there

daigaku
universities.))

ga

futatsu

aru / arimasu.

(In
g.

this

are two

SLV

(=Subject + Location
Prt

+ Verb)) Location
\037q)1Uf

Subject (topic)
*\037

Prt
,:. ni
two

Quantity
=--:J fu ta tsu
of them

Verb (existence)
tb.'5 /
dJ \037 *To

,:t

Daigaku
(Speaking

wa

kono

machi

aru / arimasu.

of universities,

there are

in this town.))

any major element listed vermarked by wa. The element with a lower number tends to be used towards the beginning The order of a sentence. of elements within the predicate is usually that much more complex than , shown below. An adverb, which in the chart, can be positioned is omitted at any place before the Core Predicate, or after as long as it is positioned before NP + Prt. The normal position for an adverb, is right before the however,
Finally,

as shown

in the

following

diagram,

tically

in

(1) through

(8) can

be

a topic

word

it

modifies.)))

20)

c.c I \037 \037 \037

to;S rn ---

U c

\037

C \037 00
\037 \037 to;S

:-Q \037 .... to;S Q.

u :.a

\037 rn C \037 \037

\037 .... \037 \037 ....

be \037

U
=' -(
\037

z --to;S

:;

Q.

u
=-5'

>

-(

\037

I \037

.9 \037
\037 ....

-\037

U \037 .--. ..c


\037 \037 U .... \037

0
U ..... \037
c::.!:: \037

0 .\037
\037 \037 t:::'\037 c::\037 \037.-

C u
0

=' 0

00

-\037 C

\037] z\037 C 0 .Z
\037

to;S

......9 \037

---e

zt.
.....)

z'2
N)

u \037o

c::to;S

\037 \037 \037u O).\037

t; u 0 .... OQ. ......-

.0

\037 \037 u \037

\037

Q.

:E'

--

(brn

\037=' z\037

\037;
\037\037

\037\037 \037\037

....c \037.-

\037be

....

\037\037

(b\037 .... \037.-

\037 o\037 .... \037.-

z\037

z\037
LO)

z\037
(0)

zB
t-)

zB)
00)))

CHARACTEIUSTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

21)

2.

Topic)
is a key concept of a sentence is what and in

Topic
topic

understanding

the

sentence

Japanese. is about. For


provides

example, in

Roughly speaking, the (1), the topic


about
Hanako.)

is Hanako
(1)

the

rest of the

sentence

information

\037\037-r'i\037!:E

-c:-t- 0

Hanako
(Hanako

wa gakusei desu. is a student.)


Hanako,)

[(Speaking of

Hanako

is a

student.])

Topics are presented using various topic-marking devices. Among these, most frequent marker. (For other topic-markers, see wa 1 Oi).) When a topic is presented it must be something both the speaker and the hearer can identify from their knowledge. Usually a topic is something that has been mentioned in a previous and the discourse, something the speaker hearer perceive through their five senses, a proper noun or a generic noun, as seen in (2).)
wa is the (2) a.

1* k ,

-A

(1)

t3

t v' \037 Iv
hitori

tJ;f::l:

Iv -c: v'

* '- t::.. o

t3 t:. L \\ \037 Ai f;t c!::-r

t 1tz.
O-ji-san

-c:

\037L t::. o

(O-ji-san

was mentioned no

Mukashimukashi.

previously.) o-ji-san ga sunde


an old

imashita.

wa totemo
(Once

binbodeshita.

upon

a time,

there
(Kore

lived

man.

The

old

man

was very

poor.)

b.

=hf;tfL(1)\037

\037\037-t-0

is what the

speaker and

the

hearer

see.)

KOTe wa watashi (This is my pen.)


c.
Ai j\037* \037 f;t J3 *A

no

pen desu.

-c:-r

(Suzuki-san

is a proper

noun.)

Suzuki-san wa nihonjin desu. (Mr. Suzuki is Japanese.)

d.

<

t:..;

f;t \0371\302\245LtJJ4o/J-c: -r 0 (Kujira

is a genenc

noun.)

KujiTa
(Whales

wa honyudobutsu
are

desu.

mammals.))

In general, any noun phrase (NP) can be topicalized, although subject NPs are the ones most frequently topicalized. (3) presents additional As examples. seen below, when an NP is topicalized, the particle which follows mayor may not be retained depending on the particle.)))

22

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR) * '-

(3)

a.

A \037 \037 Ivl;t

*\037ff\037 Nihon

t.: o

Sumisu-san wa (Mr. Smith went


b.

e ikimashita.

to Japan.)

-t
(I

(1)\037OOil;t

t ?

Sono

eiga

J! * wa mo

'- t::.. o
mimashita.

c.

saw the movie.) a * ('\"/ 1=) l;t * t.:ff -:Jt::.. \037c!::tJ;t\037 v\\o Nihon itta koto ga nai. (e / ni) wa mada been to Japan yet.) (I haven't
already

d.

'1!J TI=I;t*\037
Mariko

'bJ\037ft::..o

ni wa

hon 0 ageta.
a book.)

(To Mariko,
\037.

I gave

l;t A \037A \037 Iv tJ\037*t::..o Amerika kaTa wa Smisu-san ga kita. (As for \302\253lit.) from) America, Mr. Smith
j] fJ'; 7 j. \037

came (from

there).) need

is established, it does not Finally, in discourse, once a topic unless another topic is presented. Consider the following peated sisting of four sentences (a) - (d) in (4).

to be

re-

passage,

con-

(4)

a.

;!:!BI;t *
TaTo

j] t.:7 j. \037

'c.ff

-:J

t::..=- c!::tJ\037 t\037 v\\o

wa
has

(Taro

mada Amerika ni itta koto ga nai. not been to America yet.)


-:J -C t::..v\\ c!::I\037' \037 v\\ -'5 tJ\037:td\037tJ\037 v\\ tJ\037 t\037 t.J ff\037t t\037 v\\o

b.

v\\\":)

t ff

Itsumo

ikitai go.)

(He always
cannot

to omotte iru ga o-kane ga nai kara ikenai. thinks he wants to go, but since he has no money,
v\\ c!:: \037? \037 :td\037\037 t::..\037t\037

he

c.

13:><: \037 Ail;tflbv\\-C

0 to iu.

O-fo-san

(His
d.
\"1:

father

wa hataraite o-kane 0 tells him to work and

tamenasai

save

money.)

Demo (But

Iv 'c.:td\037 \037 t ;!:!BI;t:td \037\037 tH '- -C Ii '- v\\ (1) t.: o TaTo wa o-to-san ni o-kane 0 dashite

hoshii

no

da.

Taro

wants

his

father

to give
Taro

him

money.) is a

Here, (4a) introduces Taro is an established

a topic,

Taro. Since(4b)
point,
Taro wa

statement about
have

Taro

and

topic at
presents

this

does not

to be topic

repeated
is still

here. (4c), however,


in
effect

a new
to

when

the topic

returns

topic, o-to-san. Since this in (4d), Taro wa has to be

reintroduced.

A topic
graph,

even

must also be presented if a sentence is the first sentence of a new paraif the last sentence of the preceding has the same topic.))) paragraph

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

23)

3.

Ellipsis)
language

the to minimize are ellipsis, contracOf these, ellipsis (i.e., the omission and occurs frequently in Japanese. of words) is the most efficient can be understood from the context Generally speaking, elements which in Japanese unless ellipsis makes the and / or from the situation can be omitted sentence ungrammatical. For example, in (1), B does not repeat Taro wa and sono mise de becausethey can be understood.) it

In

is universally

observed

that

strategies

exist

effort of conveying messages. The most and the use of pronouns. tion, abbreviation

common

strategies

(1) A:

:t\037\037'i.;c(1)h5\037fPJ\037J\\v\\'1

Lt::..tJ\037o nani

mise de (What did Taro buy at


Taro

wa sono

0 kaimashita

ka.

the store?)

B:

\037\037\037.Rv\\'1

Lt::.. o

Pen

0 kaimashita.
bought

(He

a pen.))

even though Kaimashita, however, cannot be omitted in normal conversation it can be understood end with here, because Japanese sentences (or clauses) must a core predicate (that is or a noun phrase which is, either a verb, an adjective followed by a form of the copula). Therefore, without the core predicate kaimashita,

this
\"pen\" abrupt.)

sentence
in

is ungrammatical.

(In
but

informal

conversation,

reply

answer

to A's

question,

an answer
in

of

this

sort

B might is con-

sidered
The
(A)

following

are some
sentence

general sentence

rules (often

of ellipsis marked
X

Japanese.

If X is

the topic of a
the

topic of
sentence.
(B)

which

follows it,
if

can

by wa) and it is also the be omitted in the second

In

question-and-answer

discourse,

an

element
in

(See (4) in 2. X is shared


the

Topic.)
in X

the is

X can be omitted and the answer, question the core predicate. Example:

answer

unless

(2) A:

Iv Ea \037\037 Tanaka-san

'i if

tJ\037 x.. ,=-*-C < n * wa mukae ni kite

L t::.. tJ\037o
kuremashita
you

ka.

(Did Mr.
B:

Tanaka

come

to pick

up?)

'i

v\\,

*-C

<

n *

L t::.. o

Hai,

kite kuremashita.
did.))))

(Yes, he

24

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR) v' t::..lt},


ni \037!:E -c:-

(3)

A:

t::..'i 'bJ t\037 Anata

7 j.

j]'\037 \037

L t::.. tJ\037o

wa Amerika
you

ita

toki gakusei
you

deshita ka.
in America?)

(Were B:
Hai,

a student
-c:-

when
L t::.. o

were

'i v', .;c? / \0371:


s6 /

(S6

is more

commonly used.)

gakusei deshita.
situations,

(Yes, I was.)
(Refer omitted

again in
the

to (1).

very
referent

In yes-no question informal conversation.)


of X is
can

even predicates can

be
the

(c) If
X

something

very

close

to the

speaker

and

hearer,
can

be understood from the context and / or the situation, be omitted as in (4) - (6). words can be (The parenthesized

and

omitted.) (4) A: ('bJ


(Are

t\037 t.:

'i) ff

(Anata

* T tJ\037o \037 wa) ikimasu ka.

you

going?)
* \037
wa)

B:

'i v',
Hai,
(Yes,

(fL'i)ff
(watashi
I am.)

To
ikimasu.

(5)

A:

(fLJi'i)ff\037'1
(Watashitachi
(Shall

L.1:?

tJ\037o

wa) ikimasho go?) J: L *

ka?

we

B:

v\\\037,

(fLJi'i)

L.1: ? 0

Iya,

(watashitachi
not.)

wa) yoshimasho.

(No, let's
(6)

A:

(\037n'i / .;cn'i) fPJ-C:-T tJ\037o wa / Sore wa) nan desu ka. (Kore (What is this / that?)
'i /

B: (.;c tL
(Sore
(That

;: n'i)

v -it \037\" \"->7\302\260 \037TtJ\037 \037


wa)

-C:-T 0

wa / Kore
/ This

Hanako

kara no

is a present from

purezento desu. Hanako.)

(A) - (C) concern


However,

are

some
(D)

the ellipsis of content words such as nouns and verbs. in Japanese is not limited to content words. The following the ellipsis of particles in conversation. general rules regarding ellipsis

If the the

hearer,

referent of X in X wa is psychologically close to the speaker and wa tends to drop unless X is under focus. Examples:)))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

25)

(7)

a.

b t::.. < L Oi) IlJ


Watakushi (Lit.

Ea c!:: t

(wa)
myself

I call

? L * T0 Yamada to m6shimasu. Yamada. (= I am

Yamada.\302\273

b.

\037 Oi)

Kimi
(What

4'-, fPJlF1:\037TtJ\037o (wa) ima nan-nensei


year

desu ka.
you

(in school)

are

in

now?)

c.

\037 (1)*

Kono (This

Oi):IO t L 0 v\\.1: o hon (wa) omoshiroi book Oi)


is

yo.

is interesting.)
\037t\037TtJ\037o

d.

cb (1) A An\037 (Who

hi to

(wa) dare desu ka. that person?)


be the

(E)

The subject tion which the

marker ga can is expected by Examples:)


m1l!(t,)\037)*t:.o

omitted hearer

if the

sentence conveys
is very

informato

or

which

closely related

hearer.
cb,

(8) a.

A, densha
(Oh, b.

(ga)
:IOft*

kita. train.))

here comes the

'J.). t\037 \037 lv,

lfi* (tJ\037)

* L

t::.. o

Minasan,

o-shokuji
the

(ga) dekimashita.
is ready

(Folks,

meal

now.)
( tJ;) cb -:J t:. J: 0 ni denwa (ga)
for
atta

c. 4'-a Ea \037\037Iv Ky6 Tanaka-san kara (There was a phone d. t L t L, < ':> (1) {} t
Moshimoshi,

tJ \037 t.J \037,:.

mu
kimi
call

yo.

you today from


* T .1: 0

Mr. Tanaka.)
yo.

II \037 -C \037t (t,)\037)

kutsu
your

no himo
shoelace
can

(ga) hodokete
omitted questions.)

masu

(Excuse me,
(F)

is untied.) be in

The focus.

direct

object marker 0

unless the NP 0 is Examples:

under

(0 drops

more

frequently

(9) a.

:3K6hi

\037

(\037) \037'J.). * oft

Iv tJ\037o

(0) nomimasen ka. (Wouldn't you like coffee?) b.


1.: \037 , .;c

it ( \037) t t.J v \\ * T 0

Ja,

sore

(0) moraimasu.
take it.))))

(Then, I'll

26

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE < t!.\037v\\o

GRAMMAR)

c.

\037\037m\037(\037)

Konban

denwa

(0) kudasai.

(Please give me a call tonight.) - (F) concern the Rules of parts of simple sentences (A) ellipsis There are, however, cases in which entire clausesare omitted. (G) is regarding this sentential ellipsis. If the message conveyed by a main clause can be understood (G) context and / or the situation, the main clause can be deleted.
(10)

or clauses.

a general rule
from

the

Examples:

A:

(J) \037

-7 ? .I\037
ni

..(

'I:*t\037

-:J t::.. no tJ\037

Kino pati

konakatta

nee
the

(You didn't

come to
'-

party

yesterday.)

B:

? lv,
Un,
(Yeah,

t.>

J: -:J c!::it

-:J t::.. tJ\037 -:J t::..)o tJ\037 tJ\037 \037 (ff\037t t\037

chotto

(I couldn't

isogashikatta kara (ikenakatta). come) because I was busy.)

(11)

Ea

\037961:'\037fI8v\\t:. \037 (\037 ? \037TtJ\037) ?

Tanaka-sensei

ni kiitara
will

(Lit. (How
Prof.
(12) to\037tJ\037'iv\\!>

it be) if you

(do desu ka)? ask Prof. Tanaka?

(= Why

don't

you

ask

Tanaka?\302\273

* '-t\037\037t\037 (v\\tJ\037tJ\037\037TtJ\037)o

kedo (ikaga desu ka). (how would you like it?\302\273 That is, the reasons. Additionally, ellipsis can take place for psychological either because he considers it rude, because speaker may omit a part of a sentence he feels uncomfortable it or because he doesn't know how to say it, etc. saying For example, if he is offered food he cannot eat, he may say, Sore wa chotto, , I can hardly Sore wa chotto taberaremasen, '(lit.) That is, a little,' implying eat it.' if he the hears someone's Or, may say, Sore speaker unhappy news, , , wa d6mo, Sore wa kanashii koto desu ne, That (lit.) That is, very,' meaning is a sad thing.' it is noted that since ellipsis is common in Japanese, Japanese senFinally, tencesare often ambiguous in isolation. They are interpreted correctly only if in are contexts and or situations. / they proper Examples:
Q-cha

ga hairimashita
ready

(Lit. Tea is

now, but

(13)

a.

f1' < 'i\037T'i

(b

* !> \037\037t:- \037 t\037 v\\o

'- tJ\037 '- (11' <

'i)
wa)

Boku wa
HaTuko

Yukiko

wa amari sukijanai.

Shikashi (boku

fJT'\037tf\037t=o

wa sukida.
like

(I

don't

Yukiko

very much.

But,

I like

Haruko.))))

CHARACTEIUSTICS b. 11' < 'i\037T'i


cb t\037 * !J \037\037t \037 v\\o

OF

JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

27)

L fJTI\037 '- tJ\037

Boku wa

Yukiko

wa amari

sukijanai.

Shikashi Haruko wa

(\037TtJ\037) \302\273\037t:.o

(Yukiko

(I
(14)

don't

ga) sukida. like Yukiko

very much.
-:J-t \037

But,

Haruko

likes her.)

a.

fL'j:v\\v\\.A\037Jt':Htt::..(1)-C*, wa ii hito 0 mitsuketa Watashi

< EB\037\037\037I:'

node,

sassoku

Tanaka-san

ni

(':c (I
b.
fL

(1) .A 'I:.

) \037? -c

; ? t= 0
Mr.

(sono
found

hito
a

ni) atte mOTatta. good man, so I asked


t::.. (1) -c* ,

Tanaka

to see

him

right

away.) 'i
v \\ v

\\.A \037 jt':Ht

-:J .;c \037

< (.;c (1) .A ,=-) ni)

Watashi
Tanaka-san

wa

ii

hito

0 mitsuketa
t=o

node, sassoku(sonohito

EB\037 \037\037I:'\037? -c

t.;? ni atte

mOTatta.
asked

(I found

a good

man, so I

him

to see

Mr.

Tanaka

right

away.))))

28

CHARACTEIUSTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAIt)

4.

Personal
the

Pronouns)
peculiarities
for

One of
than have

one been

pronoun no third

of Japanese personal pronouns the first and second person and


The
listed

is that

there is more

that

traditionally
and

there
second

person pronouns.
below:)

most frequently

used first

person pronouns are


Pronouns

Singular

\037
c;
E ....

Levels of Formality

Firs t

Person ' I '

SecondPerson
none

'

You

Very

Formal

b t::.. < 'watakushi

\037)

bt::.. 'Formal Informal

NJ

t::.. < '-

t::.. NJ t\037

wa tashi

a takushi
(female) t::.. 'a tashi (female)
cb

ana ta
\037'J.). kimi

,! <
boku (male)

(male) :IO'1*omae
(male)) cb

c; E

.... c.E c: \037)

Very

Informal

:IOn
ore

Iv t::..

anta

(male)
Pronouns Formality \037
Levels of Plural t

First

Person'

We

Secon none

d Person

'

You'

c; E .... o
\037)

Very Formal

bt::.. < '-\037t.


watakushidomo

Formal

b t:. < '- t= 1b watakushitachi


bt::.. '- t= 1b watashitachi

t::..fJ(t= NJ t\037
anatagata

,1' < t= 1b
Informal

bokutachi (male)

,!<
Informal

\037

bokuTa

NJ t::.. '- t= 1b atashitachi (female) NJ t:. '- \037 atashiTa

\037 'J.). t= 1b

kimitachi (male)
\037'J.).\037

anatatachi

NJt\037t::..t= 1b

kimiTa
(male)

(male)
Very

(female)

:t3tL t= 1b
oretachi

:10 * *- t= 1b

cb

Iv t::.. t= 1b

omaetachi

antatachi
ant
cblvt::..\037 aT a

c;
E .... c.E c: \037)

(male)

(male)
:IO'1*-\037

omaeTa

(male))
Note: the (Male) / (female) means that male / female speaker, respectively.)))

particular

pronoun is used

by

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

29

The

first

person

The

way

the

singular pronoun watakushi has at least six contracted forms. contraction takes (i.e., omission of sounds) place is as follows:)

watafJl'shi
\037takushi \037taf\037shi

-+ watashi
-+ atakushi -+ atashi

(formal)

female) (informal, female)


(formal,
(very

ratafyftli
wallJlJl'shi

-+ atai
-+ wash;

informal/vulgar,

female)

);V'a#flshi -+ a\037shi) The


person fact

(informal, older male)


(very

informal,

adult

male of

the

Bay that

area of Tokyo)
one
for the first and second pronoun first and second person are pronouns

there
but

is more
that

than

leads

us to

suspect
adjectives

Japanese

not pure pronouns freely modified


peated

are a kind

of

noun.

In

fact, these
in

'pronouns'
that

can

be

by

in

a single
regular

sentence
nouns.)

or by relative as in (2), which

clauses as
supports

(1) and

cannot be
they

reare

the idea

similar to
(1)

a.

ftLv\\fldi.:r
Isogashii (Lit.

v\037.tJ!\037tLt\037v\\o

watashi

wa terebi mo
even

mirarenai.

Busy me cannot see because I'm so busy.\302\273


b. t\037fldiif\037tJ\037\037\037

TV.

(= I cannot even

watch

TV

flt1 v\\ -C \037if\037 \037

v\\.'5 0

ga sukina watashi wa ichinichijD ongaku 0 kiite iru. (Lit. I who like music is listening to music all day long. (= Because I like music, I listen to it all day long.\302\273
Ongaku
c.
v\\ -z; 'i * t.:\037tJ\037\037 t\037 \037v\\ N> tctt= \037\037

L J: ? 0

Wakai

anata
Young

ni
you

wa

mada

wakaranai

(Lit.
young,

probably

desho. won't understand


it.\302\273)

it.

(= Since

you are

you

probably

won't understand
c!::U no

(2)

a.

*fk'ifk(1)\037m-Z;fkC1)\037Ji

-C

v\\t::.. o

*Watashi hanashite

wa watashi ita.

heya

de

watashi

no

tomodachi

to

(I was talking with my friend in my room.) -+ fk'i 0 \037m-z; 0 \037Ji c!::\037\037 L -C v\\ t:.. o Watashi wa 0 heya de 0 tomodachi to hanashite b. *N> tct t= 'i
* (1) \037

ita. L t::.. t,Po


to nani

? N> tct t= (1) \037m-z; N> tct t= (1)\037Ji c!::fPJ \037L -C v\\ *

Anata

wa kino
imashita

anata

no

heya

de anata

no

tomodachi

shite

ka.)))

30

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

(What
Anata
ka.)

were
'i

you \037 (1)?

doing

yesterday
de

with

your

friend

-+ N> tct t=

in your
0 shite

room?)
imashita

\037m\037 heya

0 \037ii c!::fPJ \037'-\"'( \\t\\ * '- t::.. tJ\037o

wa kino

0 tomodachi

to

nani

Japanese first and second person pronouns to Under necessary emphasize me-ness or you-ness. is speaking to whom is obvious, so normal communicative situations, who omit these pronouns. Students of Japanese, therefore, Japanesespeakers simply should avoid using first and second person whenever pronouns possible. In addition to first and second person pronouns, there are other ways to refer to the speaker or the as summarized in the following chart.) addressee,
It is
note

also important to

that

are deleted

unless

it

is

Kinds &
Conditions

Self-address Forms
:td\037\0371v

Alter-address

Forms

Kinshi p terms

(your (your

father) mother) grandpa)

:td\037\0371v

0- to-san
:tdfij:\0371v

o-to-san
:tdfij:\0371v

o-ka-san
:td

o-ka-san
:td

1.: \\t\\ \037 Iv (your Iv (your 'f cb \037 (your

1.: \\t\\ \037 Iv Iv 'f cb \037

o-ji-san
:td

o-ji-san grandma)
uncle)
:td

o-ba-san
:td1.:\0371v

o-ba-san
:td1.:\0371v

oji-san :td 'f \037 Iv

oji-san (your

aunt)
teacher)

Iv :td'f \037

oba-san

oba-san
(your

Social role terms

961:
sensei

96!:E

sensei
tl\037(president

of a

shacho
aI\037

company)

(section

chieO

kacho

Occupational

terms

none

Iv (fish \037m \037

monger)

sakana-ya-san
Iv \037m \037

(butcher)

niku-ya-san

First / Last names -m.:r


Hanako

-m.:r\0371v

Hanako-san
EaT\0371v

Tanaka-san)))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

31)

of age) to the

if the speaker is considered superior (primarily in terms he may use a kinship term as a addressee (Speaker>Addressee), form but if not, he can use only a first person pronoun in selfof self-address, If the addressee is considered address. superior to the speaker (Addressee> when the has to the kinship term of the addressee speaker employ Speaker), addressee's a or the he must use second or him, pronoun person addressing name (optionally with -san or -chan). Outside the family, in an Addressee> social role term the addressee's has to employ the speaker Speaker situation, is Speaker> him. If the situation when Addressee, the speaker addressing as a form of self-address, except for the term use his own social role cannot teachers. school and junior high term sensei when it refers to elementary 'butcher' 'fish as such terms niku-ya monger', sakana-ya Occupational as address forms by attaching -san to them. and hana-ya 'florist' are used first name is employed by a young girl as a self-address (t:) -va) Also, a female in very informal speech as in (3).) form
Within

a family,

(3)

cb (1)

n,

\037T\037 (1)

Iv c!::T \037 ? -\037\037

\"

L t:. (1) J: o

Ichiro-san Ano ne, Kyoko kino I know what? (= (You Kyoko)

to deto shita
had

no

yo.

a date

with

Ichiro

yesterday!)
in

There is no real English third person


(4) a.
Yamada-san
no

third
pronouns

person

pronoun in Japanese. no corresponding have


ni

As shown

(4),

all

forms
Eigo ga

in

Japanese.

IlJEa\037Iv'i\037lF7

j. \037 j]'\037ff-:Jt::..o

\037mt,)\037fll%iLt::..tJ\037-:Jt::..C1)t.:o

wa kyonen Amerika
went

itta.

benkyoshitakatta
to study

da. to America

(Mr. Yamada

last year.
t.:*
katta

He wanted

English.)
iru.

b. l:Ea \037lv'i+lFM
Veda-san

\037\037 * M -:J t::..Jf!\037\037

-:J -C v\\ -'5 0

wa junen
still

mae

ni

kuruma
which

ni mada
he bought

notte

(Mr. Ueda is

driving

the car

ten years ago.)

c. A:

\037:7

(1) ? 'i \037

Bobu

* * L t::.. tJ\037o wa kino kimashita ka.


yesterday?)
o *'1 Lt::..J:

(Did Bob come see you


B:

;t;t,

E, kimashita

yo.

(Yes, he did.)

d. A:

Ea\037\037IvJi,

\037v\\:bn;to

Tanaka-san-tachi, (Miss

osoi wa nee Tanaka and the people with

her

are late,

aren't

they?))))

32

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

B:

\037tL-C\037\\ONt\037t\037\037\\tJ\037'-\037o

Wasurete

iru n

1'a

(I
c.

wonder

if they

nai ka shira. have forgotten


\037\037 \037rl=t'tJ tJ 0 0 kuruma

about

this.)

::

::

tJ \037 \037 * \037* \"\"t: It! \"\"t:


one

Koko kara

Osaka made
hour from

de

ichijikan

kakaru.

(It
f

takes

here to

Osaka.)

\"\"t: -;- 0 4' 1::; p-\037 Ima shichi1'i

desu.
now.)

(It is seven
During ,

the

past

he

\"

kano1'o

'she',

century or so, however, karera 'they (male)'


primarily pronouns

the
and

third

kano1'ora

begun

to be employed

in

novels

translated

person pronouns kare (female)' have 'they into Japanese and in

Japanese

novels.

These
and
in

Japanese. Like first like nouns, as seen


(5) a.
\037\037fJt3(,

second

are also fairly widely used in current spoken person pronouns, they are treated very much

(5).) c-ct\037tL\037\\t\037/vt.:o
totemo

Boku

no kanojo.
girl

kireina

n da.
you

(My
b.

friend

is very

pretty,
sugu

know.)

tii t::..fJt'i -;- <*\037\037 l., t::.. o *\037 \037 Daigaku

0 deta
who

kaTe
finished

wa

kekkonshita.
away.

(Lit. He
married

right

got married right after graduation from college.\302\273


college
governing

(= He

got

There

is one
The
erent

condition
writer

the

use of third

person

pronouns:

speaker /
of the

is psychologically

somewhat distant from the ref-

pronoun.)))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

JAPANESE GRAMMAR

33)

5.

Passive)

in Japanese, which is called ukemi The concept of passive (lit. body (\037-!t) is considerably different from its English which receives something), countercontains two an elements: event an action The Japanese passive (i.e., part. by someone which is affected / something) and a person or thing by that event. if someone runs away and it affects For example, someone else, that action can be expressed by the passive construction. Or, if someone smokes and it affects someone else, that can be a passive situation. In other words, the common of the Japanese passive is that the event is not under the control characteristic of those affected by it. Note that the person in the first situation above has no over someone's control running away and the one in the second has no control over

someone's

smoking.
are

Passive situations

expressed

in various

ways

according

to the

situation.
For

The most
forms.)

common

way is
situations

to

use

the can

instance, the above


(1)

1 passive forms of verbs. (t:) TaTeTu ) be expressed as in (1), using passive

verb

a.

N IlJ III \037 Yamada-san

'i

N \037\037 ; \037\037j \037\037

n
ni

t= 0

wa okusan
wife

nigeTaTeta.

(Lit.
b.

Mr. Yamada's

ran

away on

him.))

t::..'f::: \037\037\037'i\037-r\037:'

\037 T

bn

Taro wa Haruko (Lit. Taro had a

ni

tabako

t=o 0 suwaTeta.

cigarette

smoked

by

Haruko

on him.)

' verb nigeru run away' is intransitive and in (1 b) Neither is a direct nor can be exthere tabako (1a) (1 b) object 'cigarette'. U pressed using the English passive construction be + past participle\". This in Japanese and is called found of construction, however, is frequently type In indirect passive sentences the thing affected by the 'the indirect passive'. and how the person is affected is interpretable only human event is usually from the context. The sentences in (1) show situations where someone is is an example where the person is positively affected. The following negatively

Notice

here

that

in (1a) the

affected.)
(2) *f1\"\037

N'i\037A\037:.fIt\037:.I* \037n -c
wa

Kimura-san

bijin

(Lit. Mr.
In indirect

Kimura,

? tL l.,.:t? t!.o ni yoko ni suwaraTete ureshi soda. a pretty woman sit beside him, having

looks happy.)
animate

passive sentences the


Therefore,

the action is

volitional.

is usually agent the following examples are all


of the event

and

unacceptable.)))

34 (3)

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

a.

*fL'i\037\037:.\037,:.fj:\037

\037nt=o
ni

*Watashi

wa ishi
was

atama

ni ochiraTeta.
by

(*My
b.

head

fallen

on

a rock.)

*\" A li\037\037\037\037 * Nr:p\"\"t:.\037:.l1: * tJnt=o *Tomu wa kosaten no mannaka de kuruma ni tomaraTeta. (*Tom was stopped in the middle of the intersection by
however, \037nt=o ni a

his

car.)

There are,
(4)
Boku

very

few exceptions,

as seen

in

(4).)

m'im';:\037
(Lit.

wa ame

furaTeta.

It rained on me.))
forms

The passive some (5) presents


(5)

of verbs can

also express

what

is called

direct passive.

examples.)
}:* )Ld:.\037 t::..nt=o

a.

.y 3 Jon

\037 'i wa

Biru was

ni butaTeta.

(J b.

ohn

hit by Bill.)

\037 \037\037'i+1t;tIt\037\037:.tNitJ\037nt=o

Kono

e wa

jukyu-seiki

ni

kakaTeta.
in

(This

picture was painted


\037t\"f\037n.Qo

the

nineteenth

century.))

c.

rm'i*tJ\037

wa kome kara (Sake is made from


Sake As seen
is noted
in

tsukuraTeTU. rice.)

(5), direct
in

that

direct

satisfied. That Bill's hitting, and direct passive and


thing is directly of someone's /
the

passive sentences have passive equivalents in English. It mentioned above are passive sentences, too, the conditions is a person, John, who was affected is, in (Sa) there by an event, the event was not under John's control. The difference between
indirect
affected

passive is
by an event

that

in direct person while

passive sentences a

person

(i.e., a

effect

of an event

something's action) on a person

as in (5),

/ thing is the direct receiver in indirect passive sentences


is

is indirect action),

(i.e., a person
in

not

the direct

receiver of someone's / something's


In

as seen

(1)

(4).

general, when a passive sentence which is affected by the event, and when takes the viewpoint of the person rather

is used, it is about the person / thing what is affected is human, the sentence than the agent of the event.

(See 9. Viewpoint.)

Some passive

situations

are also expressed

by

the

verb morau

'

get', as in

(6).)))

CHARACTERISTICS (6)

OF

JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

35)

a.

-;\" -

'if v ':I

Magaretto

\"'i \037- )Ld:.'{ ..y !J wa Poru ni iyaringu


a pair
1\" -7'\037 ni

\037 \037\037 \037 t

-:> t=.o

0 mOTatta.

(Margaret

got

of earrings from 7
/\037\"

Paul.)
t

b. ;) 7
Meari
(Mary

!J

- 'i A 7\"
had

':.*--r

-:> t=.o

wa Sutibu
Steve
for

apato

ni kite
her

mOTatta.
(=

come to

apartment.

Steve came to

Mary's

apartment
c.

her.\302\273

fL'i

\037,:. 'jJ

;) 7 \037 J( -:J --r t


ni

-:> t=.o

Watashi

wa chichi
my father

(I
for
When
not

had

0 katte mOTatta. me a camera. (= My father buy


kamera

bought

a camera

me.\302\273

morau
the
that

is used,
of the

the

event

always
rareru.)

affects

the

person

positively.
the

(This is
viewthe
fol-

case with

sentences with
affected

In this

case, also,

speaker's
Compare

point is
lowing (7)

Naru

person ' become' can also express some passive situations. and naru.) 'do' suru pairs of sentences with 7 ;) !J 'jJ \037\037n < .:. C ,:. l., t=.o wa Amerika ni iku koto ni shita. has decided to go to America.) (Mr. Yamaguchi
\037 'i IlJ t=1 \037

by the event.

(t:) mOTaul ,2)

a.

Yamaguchi-san

b.

\037 'i IlJ t=1 \037

7 ;)

!J 'jJ \037:.n

< .:. c ,:. tti. -:> t=.o


ni

Yamaguchi-san

wa Amerika
Mr. l., t=.o
teigaku

iku

koto

(8)

a.

(It's been decidedthat \037\037,:. 96!:E'i 7 v ':I F \037


wa Fureddo 0 Sensei (The teacher suspended

Yamaguchi

ni natta. is going to

America.)

ni shita.

Fred

from school.)

b.

7 v ':I F
Fureddo (Fred

'i\037\037\037:.tti. -:> t=.o

wa teigaku ni natta. was suspended from school.)


in the (b) sentences

Here, again, the viewpoint the event, and the agent

is that of the

person affected
main

by

of

the

event

is not the

speaker's

concern.

(t:) koto

ni

naTU;

naTu))))

36 6.
All

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

Politeness
languages

and Formality)
are

and Japanese is no equipped with polite expressions makes Japanese polite different from expressions distinctly those of other languages is that the Japanese system involves as well grammar as lexical items. one is Basically, there are two ways to be polite in Japanese; to elevate the speaker's a who is older in and social i.e., superior, person higher status than the speaker. of this are called Polite Expressions Honorific type The other method is to lower the speaker or his in-group Expressions. members, and thus elevate his superior indirectly. of this type are called Expressions
exception.

What

Humble

Polite

Expressions.
Polite

With
superior

Honorific

and

the

form

Expressions, the subject of the sentence of the main is an honorific predicate

speaker's form, as shown

is the

below:

(A)

Honorific Polite Verbs


Regular

Formation)

N onpolite (Dictionary Form)


-;g\037 hanasu

Honorific Polite

0t3\037L

masu

ni naTU

Passive Form
\037\037n.Q

(talk)

o -hanashi

ni

1= tti..Q
naTU tti. .Q naTU

hanasaTeTU

\037;tQ

osh ieru

(teach)
Forms)

o -oshie ni
N onpolite Form)

t3\037;t

1=

\037;t\037n.Q
oshieTaTeTu)

Irregular

(Dictionary

Honorific Polite
-=\037

J!Q miru
?a1-:J\"\"(

(see)
\037\\ Q

,;:
ni

goran
(know)
\037ff?a1

tet. Q naru t\037

(Gr.

1)

shitte iru /

iru

gozonji da
/ go)
\037\\rJ-:J'-\037Q

ir5'Q/*Q/n<
kureru taberu

kuru / iku <tLQ (give (to


(eat)

(be/ come
me\302\273

irassharu Q < t\037\037

(Gr.

1)

kudasaru
Ll:tJ;Q \302\243

(Gr. 1) (Gr. 1)

ft-:Q
suru

meshiagaru
(do) tet. \037 Q

TQ

nasaru
(come

(Gr. 1)
(Gr. 1)

kuru /

*Q /n< / ir5'Q
iku

/ go /

/ iru

be)

oide

\037 'co tet. Q :Jo \037\\ ni naru)))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

JAPANESE GRAMMAR

37)

\037Q

(wear) (die)

kiru
JE\037

omeshi

jo-BL

,:.
ni

tet. Q naru

(Gr.

1) 1)

shinu
. ::=r s:::I? iu

o-nakunari ni
jo-:JL\037Q

jotet. < tet.!J

,:. tet.Q (Gr. naru (Gr.

(say)

1)

ossharu)
following

The

are typical

examples of sentences

using

honorific

polite verbs:)

(1) a.

96!:E'i7}!J jJ\037*\037\"\"t:E*m\037t3ti:.i,=t\037I.J*To
Sensei

wa Amerika
will

no daigaku
teach

de nihongo

0 o-oshie American
0

ni naTimasu.
college.)

(The professor b. 96!:E'i 7 } !J


Sensei

Japanese
de

at

an

jJ \037*\037\"\"t: E *m\037ti:.i

;h*T

wa Amerika
professor ::f)V

no

daigaku

(The
c.

will

teach

0 oshieTaTemasu. nihongo Japanese at an American college.))

961: 'i
Sensei

7 \037 L \\ * l., t=o t\037 .Q C t3\"':) l., '\302\245\302\273 \037


nasaTU

wa gorufu 0
told

to

osshaimashita.
to

(The professor

me

that

he's going

play

golf.)

Sentence (la) with its longer honorific expression, is more polite than (lb), which has a shorter honorific Notice also that the honorific form expression. in (lb) is the same as the passive form. An important characteristic of the honorific and passive form is indirectness, the origin of honorific politeness. ' the irregular Sentence (lc) includes verbs nasaru ' do' and ossharu say'. Such verbs as nasaru and ossharu which are irregular must be memorized one by one. Note that the following but are irregular honorific polite verbs are Gr. 1 verbs, in their of formal nonpast and imperative forms.) conjugations
Inf 1t\\ \037 -:J

Neg

Fml

Nonpast

Inf

onpast Q \037

Conditional
-:J \037\\ \037

Imperative
'\037L\\ irasshai L \\ < t!. \037 kudasai L \\ tet. \037

L tet.\037\\\037\\\037-:J \037\037

irassharanai
\\ \037 t\037 < t!. \037\037 kudasaranai tet. \037\037 tet. \037\\

-:J L \037 \037L\\'1-;- \037\\ irasshaimasu irassharu


L \\ * -;< t!. \037 kudasaimasu L \\ * tet. \037

-:J \037 \037tL\037i \037\\

irasshareba
tLl-! < t!. \037

Q < t!. \037 kudasaru


tet. \037 Q

kudasareba
tL,! tet. \037

-;-

nasaranai
tet. \037\\ jo -:J'- \037\037

nasaimasu
jo-:J l.,\037L\\'1T osshaimasu

nasaru
jo-:JL\037Q

nasareba
jo -:J L \037 tL\037i

nasai
jo-:J
'-\037L\\

ossharanai

ossharu

osshareba

ossha i)))

38

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE
form

GRAMMAR) of Vte

The
chart.

honorific polite

iru is

formed

as shown

in the

following

Honorific

Polite Forms of

te iru.)

Nonpolite
V MeN\"\"t*\037\\O

Honorific Polite
te

iTasshaTU

0- Vmasu da /
\037Mr.Jj. f=.

de iTasshaTu

yonde

iru

(be reading)
Me

L, N \"\"t*

\"':) l., \037 .Q

yonde
0 \037;t \"\"(\037\\ oshiete

iTasshaTU \"':) l., \037.Q

o -yomi

/ 1: L' ; \"':) l., \037 .Q da / de iTasshaTu


\"':) l., \037.Q

(be teaching)

\037;t \"\"(L';

iru

oshiete iTasshaTu

o -oshieda / de iTasshaTu)

t3\037;t f=. / 1:L';

polite Vte iru is exemplified by (2) below. Here again version is more polite than the shorter one. Thus, the hierarchy of politeness is: 0- V masu de irassharu > V te ;rassharu > 0- V masu da.)
The the

use of the honorific

longer

(2)

a.

96!:E'i\037\037*\037t3\0373I-1:L';\"':)

l.,'\302\245\302\273L'*To iTasshaimasu.

Sensei (The

wa ima professor

go-hon 0 0 -yomi de is reading a book.)


go-hon t31Jr.3I-f=.o go-hon

b. c.
(8)
Honorific

96!:E'i\037\037*\037\037N1:L';\"':)

l., '\302\245\302\273 L'*T 0

Sensei Sensei
Polite

wa wa

ima

0 yon

de iTasshaimasu. da.

96!:Ett\037\037*\037 ima

0 o-yomi

Adjectives
(Adj(i\302\273)

Regular

Formation

N on polite (Dictionary
\037\037\\

Honorific Polite
0- Adj (i)
t3\037\037\\ inf

Form)

(young)

wakai
%l\037\\

o -wakai
(strong)

tsuyoi

t3%t \037\\ o -tsuyoi)

Irregular

Forms)

N onpolite
\037\\\037\\ / J: \037\\

Honori

fic

Polite

(good)

;; /

yoi

t3 J: 0 L \037\\ o -yoroshii)))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAU

39)

Regular

Formation

(Adj(na\302\273)

Honorific

Polite
Ida
L \\

Nonpolite
7G 1l\\

0-

Adj(na)stem

/ de

iTasshaTu}

t.:

(healthy)

genkida
\\ t.: tL \037 \037

t3 7G 1l\\ {f: / 1: o-genki Ida /


tL t3 \037
\\ \037 (f:

\"':) l., \037 .Q} iTasshaTu} \"':) l., \037 .Q }

de

(pretty)

/ 1: L \\ ;

kireida There
(from

o-kirei

Ida / de
forms (from

iTasshaTu})

are

additional
'young
are

wakai

polite '), o-tsuyo


now

adjectival gozaimasu

(such

as o-wako

gozaimasu

hyperpolite
greetings ,

forms

seldom

used

by

younger

early'), o-medeto gozaimasu gozaimasu (from hayai ' ' ' ') and arigato gozaimasu Thank (from medetai auspicious Congratulations! can be used in '). Adjectives which 'grateful you very much' (from arigatai those limited to which refer to charachonorific sentences are personal polite teristics. Examples follow:)
such as o-hayo
(3)

'

but such tsuyoi 'strong '\302\273, native speakers, except in

a.

t3\037L

\\1:T

tJ

O-wakaidesu

nee
young,

(You are
b.
O-to-san

aren't

you?)
\"':) l., '\302\245\302\273 L \\ * T tJ\037o

N 'i t3:rc 13\037\037 \037-c L \\; wa o-genkide


your

(Lit. Is
In

father

healthy?

iTasshaimasu ka. (= How is your


subject

father's

health?\302\273

terms
or

of

humble

speaker
humble

someone

polite expressions, the in his in-group rather than

of the

sentence is the

the speaker's

superior. The

polite
Humble

predicates
Polite
Formation)

are listed below:

(c)

Verbs

Regular

Nonpolite
(Dictionary

Form)

Humble Polite 0- Vmasu SUTU / itasu t3\037T.Q / o-hanashi


t3\037;t L\\f=.T SUTU

\037T

(talk)

hanasu

/ itasu

\037;to
oshieru

(teach)

T.Q

L\\f=.T itasu)))

o -oshie SUTU/

40

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

Irregular

Formation)
N

(Dictionary

on polite Form)

Humble Polite

J!Q
miru Q 1\037\037

(see)

\037J!TQ/
haiken
\0371\037T Q

\037\\t::\"T

suru / itasu (Gr.


/
\037\\ t::..T

1)

(borrow)

kariru
\037tJ

haishaku suru / itasu


/ it\"...: Q /

t t??

(drink

/ eat

/ receive)

\\ t::..t!. \037 itadaku \037\\ t::..T

<
(Gr.

nomu / taberu / morau TQ suru

1)

(do)
(go)

itasu (Gr.
*\037\\Q mairu

1)
1)

*Q/fi<
kuru

/ iku

(Gr.

\302\267 -31=1? (say)

\037T

iu
\302\267 ..6.. (meet) \037?

mosu

(Gr. 1)

tJ\037 'Co tJ\037 Q :J:3 \037

au

o-me

ni

kakaru

(Gr.

1)

(:J:3\037\037\\T

t::..T) Q I \037\\

(o-ai suru / itasu)


\037\\Q

(be)

:J:3Q

iru Q \037Q / OJ \037j

oru (Gr. (give)

1)
(Gr.

Q \037L OJ \037j
sashiageru

yaru /

ageru
(know)

2)

\\ Q ?a1-:J \"\"(\037

ff

1.:-\"\"(\037\\ Q iru

shitte Typical
(4)

iru sentences containing


Watashi
humble

zonjite
polite

(Gr.
follow:)

2))

expressions

a.

fLtJ\037.:t\037:J:3m\302\245JJ\037t3\037\037 l.,*To

ga sono
carry

o-nimotsu

0 -mochi

shimasu.

(I
b.

will

your

luggage.)
0

ro:tJ\037t3i1nL\\t=

l., *T

Haha
(My

ga 0 -tsuTe itashimasu. will take you there.)))) mother

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE more

GRAMMAR

41)

Sentence
with

(4b)

a shorter
In

with its longer humble expression is humble expression.

humble

than (4a) Polite and


Polite can

addition
Polite

Humble
pression.

Expressions),
called or

to the two major there


'neutral' neutral-polite,

polite
is
what

expressions

(i.e.,

Honorific
Neutral

might

be called

Exbe

It is

because

honorific-, humble(D)

its predicate de gozaimasu as shown in the following chart.)

Neutral

Polite

Form of

Copula' da')
Neutral

Nonpolite

Polite ga 0- /

Speaker's superior
(a) 96!\302\243'i\0371l\\t.:o

wa /

go-

- de go-

zaimasu.
(Honori

Sensei (The

wa byoki da. professor is ill.)

fic)
\037L'

96!:E'i .::\0371l\\\"t!'::
Sensei
Speaker

* 1\" 0

wa go-by6ki
wa /

de gozaimasu.

ga

- de gozaimasu.
* 1\" 0

(b)

fLli\037!\302\243t.:o

Watashi

wa gakusei
a student.)

da.

(Humble)
fL'i\037!:E\"t!.:: \037L'

(I

am

Watakushi
Inanimate

wa gakusei
object

de gozaimasu. ga

wa /

- de gozaimasu.

(c)

;btL'ia.\037-r:-;Are wa gljido

desu.
building.)

(Neutral)

(That'sthe
In In

Diet

Are

;btL'ia.\0371:'::\037L '*1\" 0 wa gijido de gozaimasu.)


to the
towards

(Da)

the speaker
using

(Db)

the speaker is
just

is being polite being humble


speech;
subject.)
polite

person referred
the

speaker is
object

polite
the

it is

not

to by the subject. addressee and in (Dc) the directed towards the inanimate

referred

to

by

In the case of

honorific

or go- is
a

attached

to someone

sentence.

Although

in general, the polite prefix 0expressions or something belonging to the human subject of the prefixes 0- and go- are normally attached to J aparespectively,
benkyo (\037%t) never

nese and Sino-Japanese nouns, J apanized nouns such as highly


wa
nouns. (.\037IS)

the

prefix

0-

can be attached

'study', attached

'telephone'.

G 0-, sentences

however, is
which

cha (*) tea' to traditional


are

to

and

den-

Japanese
below:)))

Example

in

0-

or go-

are

used

given

42

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

(5)

a.

96!:E'i\037.\037

jo\037tJ \037TtJ\037o

Sensei (Do

wa o-kuruma you have a

0 o-mochidesu ka. car, Professor?)


-:J

b.

JB q:t96!:E'i ,:. t.t \037*\037 jotf \037 Tanaka-sensei wa go-hon

t::..o
o-kaki

ni natta.

(Prof.

Tanaka has
go-

written

a book.))

The prefixes 0- and


to the
Female
Example (6)

speaker's superior, housing. The purpose


speakers
sentences a.

be attached to things which are not related items related to clothing, food and of such usage is to make a sentence sound more elegant. tend to use 0- and go- in this way more frequently than males.
can also
especially

to basic

follow:)
L \037L \037 \037\037\037\\\037,:. J: ; tJ\037o

4-\037'i\037jfitJ-!t

Konban

wa o-sashimi
it

(Shall we make
b. O-tearai
(Where

to o-suimono ni shimasho sashimi and clear soup tonight?) desu ka.


that there is a stylistic
honorific-, used

ka.

\037\037\037\037\\'iE \037 \037TtJ\037.

wa doko
is the

washroom?))
distinction

It is also
informal

important

to note

and formal

polite distinctions.
ing

styles, independent of the The formal style is normally


with

humble-, when one is

between the and neutral-

NOT speakThe such


in

intimately

or personally
when

someone is speaking used

who belongs

to

his

in-group.

informal style is used

one

with one's
tsumori

own

in-group

or when a

verb,
(7).

an

adjective

or the
da
C

copula is
be expected

in specific

as right

before hazu
a.

to' or

grammatical C

positions,

da

intend

to', as shown
(I),

(t:) Appendix
(7)
96!:E'i4-J3liJf\037\037':'L'i;\":) \037\037g

4 (C),(D), (E),

(J) and

(K\302\273

/* L'i;\":)

\037\037L'*T'i-r-c,;To

Sensei
desu.

wa

kyo

kenkyushitsu
to

ni iTssshsTU I
be

*iTssshsimssu hazu
today.)

(The b.

professor is expected
g
ni

at his b

office !J

fLtJ;96!:E':' \037i!\037T Watashi ga sensei

*T0 \037i!\037 \037

-c,;T 0

gO-TenTskusuTU

/ *go-TenTskushimssu

tsumori desu.

(I The
chart.))) formal

intend

to contact is marked

you, Professor.))
by -mas-

style

or -des- as shown

in

the following

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

43)

Informal

Formal

Predicates \037

Nonpast
1t\037Q

Past
1t\037t::..

onpast

Past

1t\037:tT

it

\037:t

L t::.. ta

Verb

taberu (eat)

tabeta (ate)
-:J t:\037tJ\037

tabemasu (eat)
\037\"'-C:T

tabemashi

(ate)
-:J t::.. -c: T \037tJ\037
hirokattadesu

Verbals \037'\"

Adj (i)

hiroi
(is

hirokatta
(was wide)
tL '\" \037 kireida (was t.: -:J t:-

wide)
t.:

hiroidesu (is wide)


\037 tL\"'-C:T

(was

wide)
-c: L t:-

\037 tL '\"

tL '\" \037

Adj (na)
Nominals

kireida

tta pretty)

kireidesu
(is pretty) *-C:T hon

(is
*t.:

pretty)

kireideshita (was pretty)


*-c: L t::..

* t.:-:J t::..
hon

Noun

hon da
(is a book)

datta

desu

hon
(was

deshita

(was a book) (is a book)

a book))

be exposed to the formal usually style in their it is the proper stylistic for adults. They register should be aware, however, that the informal style is more basic than the formal children master the informal style, as evidenced by the fact that native style
will beginning

Students of Japanese
textbook,

because

fi

rs t .) It is interesting

to note

that

whenever

the speaker

takes a

speaker-oriented

position

he switches his style from formal to informal, even in a formal situation. For example, a student speaking with his professor would use the formal style he would use during conversation. But, if he were stung by a bee while talking,
informal

the

stung

formal form itaidesu, because getting This is an extreme case, but there speaker-oriented are many situations where the informal must be used due to speakerstyle orientation. This results in a formal discourse interspersed with informal verbals and nomi nals.
itai

'ouch',

rather

than

the

is purely a

matter.

are the appropriate situations for polite practical terms, what uses polite speech to an addressee Generally speaking, an inferior or to the person presented as the topic of a sentence. Typical situations are the following:)))
Finally,

in

sentences?

44

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

You are:
student

Your addressee
teacher,

is:

professor

subordinate

boss
customer
senior)

salesperson
junior
Sometimes, of

an older

person uses polite


such

expressions

a younger Another

person.
inferior

Under

circumstances,

when he is asking a favor the older person feels psy-

chologically

to

the person

he

is

addressing.

situation for polite speech involves discourse among adults of equal status who do not know each other well. Formal Japanese is also used at such occasions as ceremonies, and public announcepublic speeches The informal style, then, is normally ments. reserved for communication among who are on intimate terms.))) equals
appropriate

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

45)

7.

Sentence-final

Particles)

called sentence-final In there is a group of particles particles. In Japanese are placed at the end of a main non-inverted sentences, sentence-final particles clause and indicate the function of the sentence or express the speakerts emotion situation. (Personal letters, toward the hearer in a conversational or attitude between the sender and the receiver, may also which are a sort of conversation are used, exclusively contain sentence-final particles.) Someof these particles
by

male

or exclusively
In

by

female

speakers,
will

so

they

also

function

to mark the

speakerts sex.
ticles

what
they

and

see how

follows, we are used.

take

some common sentence-final

parare

affixed

(1) is a declarative to (1), as in (2)

sentence. If
and

the

sentence-final

particles
question

ka and

ne

(3),

the

sentence

becomes a

and \302\2532))

sentence of confirmation
(1)
\037a3 \037 lv'i;t!:E\037T

\302\2533)).)

0 sensei

Yamada -san

wa

desu.

(Mr.

Yamada

is a

teacher.))

(2)

\037a3 \037 lv'i;t!:E\037TfJ'o

Yamada-san

wa sensei desu
a teacher?))

ks.

(Is
(3)

Mr.

Yamada

lv'i;t!:E\037i.Qo \037a3 \037

Yamada-san

wa sensei desu nee


is a
to

(Mr.
Ne is also
speakerts
(4)

Yamada

teacher,
requests

isntt

he?)
invitations,

used

soften

and

and

it often

expresses

the

friendliness.)
\037,)no * \037( < t.: \037 Kite (kudasal) nee

(Pleasecome.)
(5)

-\037':.ff\037:t

L J: ;

no
shall

Isshoni
(Lees Ne can
(6)

ikimasho

nee we?)

go together,
used

be

with

polite

imperatives but not

with

plain

imperatives.)

\037f3C-..ff

t,t \037 \037 \037'no

Gakko

e ikinasai
school,

nee

(Go to

okay?))))

46

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

(7)

*\037f3C\"ffftno

*Gakk6 Na
informal

e ike

nee)

functions
nonpast a.

as the verbs.)

negative

imperative

marker

when

it

IS used

with

(8)

\037-:Jt:>\"*Qflo

Kotchi e kuru ns. (Dontt come this


b. tJJ < flo

way.)

Ugoku ns.
(Dontt

move.)) to

When

na is
functions

affixed

informal

declarative or
limitation

invitational

sentences,
only

it somemen.)

times
(9)

like

ne, with the

that

it is used

by

a.

-\037\037'i-\037!:Et.:flo

Ichiro

wa is

ichi-nensei a freshman, fl o

da ns.

(Ichiro

isntt he?)

b.

-\037';:ff\037;

Isshoni

iko ns.
shall

(Lees go together,
Na is
(10)

we?)

also
a.

used

by

men in

monologue situations.)
}!;
inai.

jotJ\037L\037\\flo

ttb\037\\t.t\037\\o

Okashii ns.

Dare mo
Therets
with

Do

Lt::..lvt.:o;o shita n

daro.
wonder?)) ments

(Ies
Sometimes

strange.

nobody. sentences

Whaes wrong, I in older

na is used
the

formal

speech.

This

na

conveys
(11)

feeling

of weak

assertion.) desu ns.


Some English equivalents are\" I rd say U. ZO and ze are exclusively
tell

a.

:t tL'i
Sore

t:>

J: -:J \037;I L \037\\\037Tflo

wa chotto muzukashii
bit

(Thaesa
Yo, zo and
you used

difficult.))
for

ze are used

assertion.
and\"

u, \"you know u, \"believe me u, in informal male speech.)


a.

(12)

fL'i\037!J:t
Watashi

it lvJ:.o
wa shirimasen
know.

yo.
me.))))

(I

dontt

Believe

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

JAPANESE GRAMMAR

47)

b.

Ore

jotL'i\037Jt tet \037\\-F0 wa makenai zoo


wontt

(I
c.

lose!) 0 da

\037 tL'i\037t.:1f

Kore wa

kin

ze.

(Hey, this is gold!)


Yo

and
(13)

ze are
4-\037

also used
t

with

invitational

sentences.)

'itx

; J: /1f0
ze. sentences
by

Konban

wa nomo yo /
tonight!) only

(Lees drink
Wa is
sentences affixed

to declarative
flavor

female
light

speakers.
assertion.

It gives
It is

a feminine
in

and
informal

sometimes
speech.

expresses a

used
(14)

both a.

formal

and

fL'i:tt':+J\\\037Tt>o

Watashi

wa

mada

jtJhachi

desu wa.

(I
b.

am

still

eighteen.)
\\ \037 t>

d.> t\037 ,-,

; tL '-

Atashi,

ureshii wa.
ne

(Pm happy.)
Wa

can be used
a.
\037 tLt

with

and yo but

not

with

ka,

as in

(15).

(15)

;Wi \037\\t>no

Kore,

takai

wa nee
isntt

(This is
b.
fL

expensive,

it?)

tff

< t>J:o

Watashi mo iku wa (Pm going, too.)

yo.

c.

a3

Iv q:t \037

* Qt>
mo

fJ'.
kuru

*Tanaka-san (Is Mr.

wa

ka.
too?)

Tanaka

coming,

sentences. Ne can also convey the Ne, na and wa are used in exclamatory idea of confirmation. Na is usually used by men, but can be heard in conversations by younger women. Wa is used onl y by women.
(16)

a.

\037 tL\037\\t.:nxo

(Male)

Kireida nee
(Isntt

it pretty!))))

48

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

b.

\037\\ t:. \037t \037 Kireida

wa
it

bn;(.o nee

(Female)

(Isntt
c.

pretty!)

(Male) ff;*\037'i J: < 1jJJ < f,i.\"8:Jo Suzuki-kun wa yoku hataraku ns.

(Boy, Mr. d.

Suzuki

works

hard!)

T\037 \037 t.:V\"8:Jo

(Female)

Sutekida ws.

(Ies
Some

wonderful!)

sentence-final
informal

particles appear

in

questions

in informal

speech. For
and
(\037

example, in
(17)

male speech kai and dai mark yes I

no questions

WHkat)

questions, respectively.
a.
\037 tL'i\037q)*fJ'L

dai;

Kore wa

kimi your

(Male) '0 no hon kai.


book?)

(Is this
b.
K

(Male) \037tL'it:.tLq)*t=L'o ore wa dare no hon dai. (Whose book is this?)


spoken

In

informal

with

rising

amples
(18)

female speech the sentence-final n(o) desu ka becomes no intonation. In this use no is almost a female question marker. follow:
Q:.T\037

Ex-

a.

Ivt

/{-r
going

\037 -':.ff;O\037t.t\037\\O)? ni

(Female)

Tomoko-san,

pat;

ikanai

no?

(Arentt

you

to the party,

Tomoko?)

b.

fP1 \037 J\\

O)?

(Female)

Nani
(What

0 kau no?
are

you going
appear

to

buy?)

Kashira

and

kana also
about
latter

in

sentence-final

pOSItion

and

express
by

the

speakerts uncertainty speakers and the


(19)

a proposition. by male speakers.

The

former

is usually

used

female

a.

fL':'blfi*QfJ'\037;o

Watashi

ni

mo
it,

dekiru
too,

(Female) kashiTa.

(Can I do b.
d.>

I wonder?)
(Male)

L t\037'imfJ'f,i.\"8:Jo

Ashita

wa ame

kana.)))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

J AP ANESE GRAMMAR

49

(Will

it

rain

tomorrow,

I wonder?)
examples

As
play

we

have

seen

an

important
toward

in the various role in determining


in

using

these particles
the

conversation,

above, sentence-final particles function of a sentence. Also, by a speaker expresses his / her emotion the his /

or

attitude

hearer as

well

as

her

masculinity

/ femininity.)))

50
8.

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

Sound
is

Symbolisms-giseigo
abundant
giseigo),

and gitaigo)
symbolisms

Japanese onomatopoeia, All

in sound phonomimes

in

the
and

form

of phonomimes

(=

phenomimes

(= gitaigo)

psychomimes

languages every

have

or
the

direct

phonetic

(= gitaigo). of actual representations

bang, bowwow, cock-a-doodle-do considered childrents phonomimes are normally language and are not fully integrated into adult In Japanese, however, not language. but also phenomimes of phenomena only phonomimes (phonetic representations of senses) and psycho mimes (phonetic perceptible by non-auditory representations human psychological states) are an integral part of adult spoken and written of Japanese learn Japanese. Therefore, it is of vital importance that students
English
and

sounds in

day life, such

as

meow.

English

these
A

sound summary

symbolisms of sound

as part

of

their

ordinary

is
by

an

adverb

associated

symbolisms is given with a specific verb.

below.

vocabulary. Each sound


is normally

symbolism
followed

The adverb

the

quote marker examples

The

to, because the sound symbolism is perceived as a quotation. contain the verb that typically co-occurs with the given sound
and

symbolism.
(A) V

Voiceless oiced

consonants

Voiced Consonants tend to represent


consonants

something

big, heavy,

dull

or

whereas pretty.

voiceless

represent

something

small,

light,

sharp

dirty; or

a.
b.

i! \037 i!
kirakira
\037 0

\037 \302\253 \037)J't\037)

\302\253shine)sparklingly)

hikaru) \302\253to)
\037) \302\253 \037)\037tJ\037 \302\253to) korogaru) \302\253smallobject)

\037 0

rolls)

korokoro
c.

\302\253smallamount l\302\243t\037l\302\243t\037\302\253\037)it\037\037) potapota

of liquid)

drips)

ochiru) \302\253to) a \302\253cut)

d.

\037 \037< \037< \302\253 ) Wi \037) sakusaku \302\253to) kiru)

thin,

light object)

a'.

\037\037 \037\037 \302\253 \037)J't\037)

\302\253shine) dazzlingly)

giragira b'.
0 \037 0 \037

hikaru) \302\253to)
\302\253 \037)\037tJ\037\037) \302\253heavy object) \302\253to) korogaru) \037 \037)

rolls)

gorogoro
c'.
botabota

1\302\243 t::.. \302\253 t::..l\302\243 \037)it

amount \302\253large

of liquid)

drips)

\302\253to) ochiru))))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

51)

d'.

\037< \037< \302\253 c) tJJ zakuzaku

Q)

a \302\253cut)

thick,

heavy object)

\302\253to) kiru)

(B)

Velar

Consonants-k
consonants separation, O:'\037Q)

and g
to represent [k] and [g] tend hardness, detachment or sudden change.
\302\253freeze) hard)

The
clear-cutness,

velar

sharpness,

a. b.
c.

fJ\\ t:>fJ\\ t:>

kachikachi
<

(ni koru)
\302\253be visible)

-:J i! !J \302\253 \037)J! *- .'5)


\302\253to) mieru)

clearly)

kukkiri

\037 i! -:J,t !J \302\253 ) 5JIJtL

Q)

\302\253separate

from

people)

once and for

all)

kippari

\302\253to) wakareru) \302\253completely)

d.

fJ(\037-:J(\037\037bQ)

change)

garat
e.

(to

kawaru))

<.-:J(\03751<)

with \302\253pull)

jerk))

gut (to
f.

hiku) \302\253die) suddenly)

f!

-:J

< !J \302\253 \037)9E\037)


\302\253to) shinu))

pokkuri
(c)

Dental

Fricative Consonant-s
fricative

The dental
emotion.) a.

consonant
in

[s] tends

to

represent

and quick motion. [sh]


\037-:J (\0373L

particular

seems

a quiet state or to represent some quiet

a quiet human

t:>J:tJ;

Q)

\302\253standup)

quickly)

sat (to
b.

tachiagaru) \302\253\037)mQ) \302\253slide) smoothly)

T.'5TQ surusuru
c \037

suberu) \302\253to)
\302\253it rains)

c.

\037 \037 \302\253 c) \037Q)

quietly)

shitoshito
d.

(to

furu) \302\253talk) quietly

\037 1vJJ. !J \302\253 c) \037\037T)

and intimately)

shinmiri
e.

hanasu) \302\253to)
\302\253be) quiet)

\0371v(\037TQ)

shin

(to suru)
Iv f\302\243 \037 !J \302\253 ) T Q)
suru)))) \302\253to) \302\253be) despondent)

f.

\037 J:

shonbori

52

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)
\302\253escape) secretly)

g.

\037 i\" \037 i\" \302\253 \037)\037.f \037)

kosokoso h. L
Iv \037

\302\253to) nigeru) \302\253be) dispirited)

(\037T\037)

shun
I.

(to

suru)) \302\253be) quiet))

\"{} -:J i\" !J \302\253 \037)) T \037)

hissori
(D)

\302\253to) suru)

Liquid

Consonant-r
consonant

The
pertness.) a.

liquid

[r] tends

to

represent

fluidity,

smoothness

or

slip-)

T;-:J(\037L\",(v'\037) SUTat (to shite iru)

\302\253figure) is

slim))

b.

T; T;

\302\253 \037)\037;t

i,)

\302\253answer)

with

great

ease)

SUTaSUTa\302\253to) kotaeru)) c.
d.

<.Q < .Q\302\253 \037) *


kUTUkuTU

b\037)

((turn) round

and

round)

\302\253to) mawaru) \037) \302\253be) slippery)

-J.Q -J.Q ( L \"'( v'


tSUTUtSUTU

(shite

iru)
\302\253be) slimy)

e.

\037.Q \037.Q

(L \"'( v' \037)


iru)

nUTunUTU (shite
f.

\037; \037; \302\253( \037)VfftL\037)


saTasaTa \302\253to) nagareru)

(flow)

smoothly)

g.

t::..; t::..; \302\253 \037)VfftL\037) taTataTa \302\253to) nagareru)


Nasal

\302\253sweator

blood)

drip continuously)

(E)

Consonants-m

and
to

The

nasal sounds
C < (L\"'(

tend
v'
\037)

represent

tactuality,

warmth and softness.

a. C <
b.

a \302\253of

dog or a cat)

is

plump)

mukumuku

(shite L
\"'(

iru))

t.:> C t.:> (

v' \037)

((be)
iru)

plump)

muchimuchi
c.

(shite

J: f\037 f\037 J: \302\253 \037) L \"'(

v' \037)

slender \302\253be)

and delicate)

nayonayo d.
nichanicha

shite \302\253to)
\037)

iru)
\302\253be) sticky)

f= t.:> \037 f= t.:> \037(T

(suru))))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

53

e.
f.

f= \037 \037 f= \037 \037(

\"'(

\", \037)
iru)

\302\253be) slimy)

nyurunyuru

(shite (shite
L
\"'(

\037\037\037\037 (L\",(\"'\037)

\302\253be) slimy)

nurunuru
g.

iru) \302\253be) sticky)

't.:>n

't.:> (

\", \037)
iru)

nechinechi
(F)

(shite

Voiceless Bilabial

Plosive-p
plosive

The voiceless bilabial


crispiness,

(=stop)

[p] tends

to

represent

explosiveness,

strength and suddenness.


-:J ( \037 \037 ) ijJJ \037< t\037
akaruku \302\253become

a.
b.

f;t

bright)

suddenly)

pat (to

naru) < )

\037L \037!J (\037pn

(whack)
(come

pishari (to
c.
\037Iv(\037<\037)

tataku)

to (me)

in

a flash)

pin (to
d.

kuru) \302\253 \037) L \037\037\037) \302\253to) shaberu)

\"G\"

(gibber,

speak

fluently)

perapera
e.
\0371v\0371v

(L\"'( \"'\037)
iru)

\302\253be) peppy)

pinpin
f. \", ,S\037

(shite
\"'( ff

ill ( \037

< )
iku) \037)

\302\253leave)suddenly)

pui
g.

(to dete
( \037 Wit

'::> -:J ,S\037

\302\253break) suddenly)

putsut

(to kireru)
\302\253 \037)r$tJ\037\037) \302\253float) suddenly)

h. It -:JtJ\037 !J
pokkari
(G)

ukabu) \302\253(to)

Semi-vowel-y

The

semi-vowel [y] tends


J: \", 0:. t\037 \037)

to

represent

weakness,

slowness and softness.


reflexes)

a. J: \",
yoiyoi

(have

locomotor

ataxia, loss of

(ni naru)
t\037 \037 J:It (\037=. ) \302\253become)

b.

J: It

senile)

yoboyobo

(ni naru)
\302\253become)

c.

\037 J:it J:it (,=. t\037 )

worn-out)

yoreyore

(ni

naru))))

54

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE
l= ) \037 It \302\253

GRAMMAR
\302\253sway)like

d.

tP G tP G yurayura tP -:J <


yukkuri

-'5 )

waves)

\302\253to) yureru) \302\253speak)slowly)

e.

\037 (\037T)

(hanasu)
(l=-g?)
\302\253tell) softly)

f.
g.

\037lvb!J

yanwari

(to

iu))

l= ) \037 < \037't:J \037't:J \302\253

\302\253walk) totteringly)

yochiyochi
(II)

\302\253to) aruku)

Back High
high

Vowel-u
vowel [u]
or (T-'5)

The back
human
a.)

tends

to

represent

something

that has

to

do

with

physiology

psychology.) (doze)

? l=?

l=

utouto (suru)
b.) ?\037?\037(T-'5) \302\253be) buoyant)

ukiuki
c.)

(suru)
\302\253perceive)

?T?T(\037-J <)
usuusu

dimly)

(kanzuku)
(itch

d.)

?f?f(T-'5)
uzuuzu (suru)

for

action)

e.)

? \"?

G?

':) G (T-'5)
(suru) (T-'5)

(doze)
off \302\253be)

utsurautsura f.) ?-:JtJ\037!J

guard)

ukkari (suru)
g.)

?-:Jl=!J (T-'5)
uttor;

\302\253be) enchanted)

(suru)
(somewhat (lonely\302\273

h.)

? G(\037al.,v')
ura

(sabishil)
(T\037)
(suru))

I.)

?Iv\037\037

fed \302\253be)

up with)

unzar;
(I)

Back Vowel-o

The
regard

back vowel [0] tends to to human psychology.)

represent

something

basically

negative

with

a.

13f13f(L\"'Cv'-'5)
ozuozu

nervous \302\253be)

and

timid))))

(shite

;ru))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

55)

b.

13 \037 13 \037 (L-\"'( v' \037) odoodo (shite iru)

\302\253be) very

nervous)

c.

13 \037 13

\037(1- \037) (suru)

in \302\253be)

a dither)

orooro
d.

i)t::..13t::..(1-\037)

(don't know

what

to

do)

otaota

(suru)
\037tL\037) \302\253be deceived)

e. i)b?i)b? (\037t.='!
omeome (to
(J)

in a shameless manner)

damasareru)

Front

Vowel-e
vowel

The
a.

front

[e] tends

to

represent

something dead

vulgar.)

\"\037n It (,:.tet \037) hebereke (ni naru)

\302\253become)

drunk)

b. \" ;\" ; \302\253 \037)\037? ) herahera \302\253to) warau)


c.
-C

\302\253laugh) meaninglessly

when

embarrassed)

-C

(J't\037) (hikaru)

(be

glossy)

teratera
d.

N.>\037N.>\037\302\253 \037)i'iI

<)

(sob)

mesomeso
In addition

\302\253to) naku))

to the
in

regular terms
that

sound
are

symbolisms there are somebasicwords

that

can be explained

of (B) and

mantically similar words


Vel ars

(E) above. Consider the following in Japanese grammar.) indispensable


Nasals
(J)

se-

fJ(

ga

no
marker (subject and nominalized

(subject
fJ\\

marker)

in relative clauses)

(J)-r:/t(J)

kara
(because) fJ\\ ; (1t ? ) kara (morau) \302\253recei ve)

node / mono
(because)

I::Cit
ni

? )

(morau)

from)

\302\253receive) from))))

56

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

fJ\\

(J)

ka

no

(or) It tL
(although \037/ fJ(

(a
I ga
/ but)

particle

for

combining
(J) f=

nouns)

keredo

noni
(although)
(J)

\037\037

koto

no
(nominalizer)

(nominalizer)
\037\037

=t,(J)

koto

mono
thing)

(an

intangible

(a tangible

thing))

The words with the nasal [n] sound more personal, subjective and speakeroriented than their counterparts with the velar [k] or [g]. It is also to be noted that (C) above would tend to explain why i-type ' tanoshii ' enadjectives that end in -shi as in kanashii 'sad', sabishii lonely', ' \" emotive states. ureshii happy' represent human joyable psychological Also note that the glottal stop is often used to create more emphatic and / of a given sound, as in pitari vs. pittari 'tightly', yaor more emotive versions ' 'as expected', bakari vs. bakkari hari vs. yappari only', yohodo vs. yoppodo

extent', to vs. tte 'that', i-type adj. stem + kute (e.g., sabishikute - ') vs. i-type etc. adj. stem + kutte (e.g., sabishikutte), lonely It is important for students of Japanese to learn basic sound symbolisms, in their Japanese and psychomimes) relatively phenomimes (especially, early These words are an indispensable study. part of the basic vocabulary language of any adult speaker. More importantly, the acquisition, use and understanding of Japanese sound symbolisms allow the student to appreciate the keen sensibility of Japanese and culture toward language directly perceptible objects.)))
'to

a great

'be

and

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

57)

9.

Viewpoint)

There is more than one way to describe a state or an event, and the choice in part, on the viewpoint from which the state or event of expressions depends, us that a person A hit a person B. let To illustrate is described. suppose this, This event can be expressed by either (1a) or (1b).
(1)

a. b.

hit

B.
hit

B was

by

A.

is different.

but the speaker's (or writer's) viewpoint (1 b) state the same fact, the event That is, when (1a) is chosen, the speaker is describing from A's point of view or a neutral viewpoint, and when (1b) is used, the speaker's is from B's point of view. description rules are several principles and There viewpoint; some are concerning universal The following are rather and others are specific to Japanese. universal

Both (1a) and

principles:
(A)

Within should

a single

sentence

(excluding

coordinate

sentences)

the

viewpoint

be consistent. a sentence

(B)

When

includes
A's

the

structure

A's
than

B, (e.g.,
B's.

John's

wife)

the

speaker (c)

is

taking

viewpoint

rather

to
(D)

When the speaker (or writer) take that person's viewpoint.


The

empathizes

with someone,

the speaker tends

speaker

point rather
event.) (E)

than

or an event from his own viewusually describes a situation in the situation or the from others' when he is involved

It is easier for tence subject positions.

the
position

speaker
than

to take the viewpoint to take the viewpoint

of the of

person

in in

a senother

a person

(F)

It is

been established one who has


(G)

easier for the speaker to take the viewpoint of the person to take the viewpoint as a discourse topic than in discourse. the introduced been just
normal
person.

who has
of some-

Under
dead

circumstances the speaker cannot

take

the viewpoint

of a

are rather principles concerning viewpoint Although many of the grammatical are a number of viewpoint-related there expressions universal, as seen above, Some rules concerning these))) which are important and specific to Japanese.

58

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

expressions
(II)

are listed
following
(2).)
\037\037, yaru

below:
giving / receiving verbs
Q ,l., &; \037j \037
require

The
in

the

viewpoints

shown

(2)

a.

&; \037j \037 ,

(give): the

giver's or
are

a neutral

viewpoint

ageru

sashiageru

(when
only

they

used as auxiliary

verbs,

the

giver's

viewpoint)

b.
c.

< tL\037,
kureru

\037 (give): < t=. \037

the receiver's

viewpoint

kudasaru
\" , fr:.

t G?,
morau
with

t!. <

(get;

receive): the receiver's


the

viewpoint

itadaku)
(A)

(H), together
sentences. (3)

and

(D), explains

un acceptability of the following t l (t:) ageTu ,2; kUTeTu ,2; mOTau

,2))

a.

*-\037\037fifAI=.I\037

\037 \037 \037 I-It=:o

*/chir6 wa watashi ni pan 0 ageta. (Ichiro gave me some bread.)

b.

*fAf\037fQ:Jj

,:.\037 \037\037 < nt=:o

*Watashi

wa

Kazuo

ni pen

0 kUTeta.

(I
c.

gave

Kazuo

a pen.) t \037
\":) t=:o \037

*:tE.:rfifAr=

;llva\037

*Hanako

wa watashi construction,
referent

ni

enpitsu

0 mOTatta.

(Hanako received a
(I)

pencil

from

me.)
or

The

passive
the

whether direct

indirect,

requires

the view-

point of
Together

of the
(D),

subject. the
unnaturalness

(Cp. (E\302\273
of sentences
(\037

with (A),
a.

(B) and
\037 fifLf;::

this explains

like
t

(4).
(4)

TaTeTu

*fLQ) U-r
*Watashi

l., tJ\037 G tLt::.. o wa

no musuko
was

watashi

ni shikaTaTeta.

(My son

scolded

by me.) ni himitsu
read

b.

*fLQ)*Pi'ifLf:'\037*Q)\037\037\037m*nt=:o

*Watashi

no kanai
had

wa

watashi

no

tegami

0 yomaTeta.

(My
(J)

wife

her secret

letter

by

me.)

the verb kuru 'come' is used, the speaker's viewpoint is somewhere close to the arrival point. When kuru is used as an auxiliary verb, the is the point to which an action is directed or a change viewpoint
When proceeds.)))

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR

59)

(K)

When

the verb
the

iku

'

go'

is used,

the

speaker's
iku

close to
the

viewpoint

departure point. When is the point from which

is used

viewpoint is somewhere as an auxiliary verb,

an

action

is directed
(5) and (6)

or

a change

proceeds.

(J)

and

(K)

explain

the

unacceptability

of the

sentences

in

under

the

given conditions.
(5)

(t:)iku

1 ,2; kUTU ,2))

a.

[The speaker is in Japan.] j !1 :b---**T 0 *Watashi wa rainen Amerika e kimasu. (I will come to America next year.)
*fL'i*lp7'
is in j
!1

b. [Thespeaker
*fLfi\037lp7'

America.]
o

*Watashi

(I
(6)

went

Lt:: wa kyonen Amerika to America last year.))


:b---ft\037*
,;:.

e ikimashita.
o

a.

*fLfi

c!! \037 It?

id \037v' tJ\037tJ\037 -:J\"'( *t::


ni

*Watashi

wa dorobo
to

osoikakatte

kita.

(Lit. I came
b. * c!! \037 It
*Dorobo

attack

the robber.)

-:J \"'( ft\":) t:: o tJ\037 ? fifL';:. id \037v' tJ\037 wa watashi ni osoikakatte itta.
robber

(Lit. The
(L)

went

to attack

me.)
(lit.

When

adjectives

like hoshii
which

' want'
one's

desirable),

ureshii '

happy'

and

personal feelings are used with the third person subject, the speaker empathizes with that person, which that the speaker is taking the viewpoint of that person. implies usually
kanashii

'sad'

describe

(Cp. (C\302\273)
subject is someone the speaker is unable to empathize with, adjectives mentioned in (L) cannot be used, as in (7). (t:) gaTu; hoshii;
Thus,

if the

the
tal))

(7)

a.

J!\037

t::..fi \037 G 'tJJ.A tJ\037 L L '0 tJ\037\037

*Mishiranu

hito ga
wants

tabako

ga

hoshii.

(A stranger
b.
*jffi!J tJ\037 tJ\037 !J

a cigarette.)

*Torigakari
(A (M)

Q) A tJ\037 ? n L L '0 no hito ga uTeshii.

passerby

is happy.)

Kinship

terms

second

person.

can be used for the first person and (less commonly) In this case the proper kinship term for the first

the person)))

60

CHARACTERISTICS

OF JAPANESE

GRAMMAR)

second person) is selected from the viewpoint of someone X with X is usually lower in status empathizes. The person than the person for whom a kinship term is used. (e.g., one's little brother) (Cp. 4. Personal Pronouns) an elder brother to his younger (8) a. [From brother]
(or the
whom

the speaker

Iv \302\243 \037

,:.J!it\"'(
ni

::: G No goran.

Ni-san (Let me
b.

misete

see it.)
to
his

[From a
Oji-san

an uncle ga shite
for

niece]

L:. \037 Iv tJ\037 l., \"'( &; \037j J:

ageyo.

(I'll do it
c.

you.)

Y oshiko from the viewpoint [Spoken by a mother to her daughter of the daughter's little brother Hiroshi] V. \037L ':.jt L \"'( &; \037jt\037 \037 atifi 1:> \037 lv, \"'0 Hiroshi ni kashite O-ne-chan, agenasai. (Yoshiko, let Hiroshi have it.)

(N)

When

a reflexive
with

pronoun jibun
referent
the

'self'
which

pathize
point

the

of jibun,

is used, the speaker tends to emthat the speaker's viewimplies (t:) jibun
l

is that referent

of

referent.

In

(9)

the

of jibun

is

Hanako

and

the

speaker is

taking

Hanako's

viewpoint.)
(9)

L \"'( f3 \037\037\037 :mT'i\037\037\037t,)\037 Hanako

\", \037\037 rn- t\"'( \", t.:: o


aishite

wa Taro ga
that

jibun 0
Taro
viewpoint

iru

to shinjite ita.

(Hanako believed

loved her.)
is inconsistent.) \", \037\037 rn0 ima

(10)is
(10)

unnatural

because

the

*.

fifLt,)\037 f3 \037\037 \037\037t \037 L \"'(

\"'(

\", \037 0
iru

*Tsuma

wa watashi
believes

ga

jibun

demo aishite

to

shinjite

iru.

(My

wife

that

I still

love

her.))))

DICTIONARY

OF

BASIC

JAPANESE

GRAMMAR) (Main
Seiichi
Entries))

Makino

and Michio Tsutsui)

B*\037\037*X\037!$ft)))

ageru

63)

ageru

\03711

Q)

v. (Gr. 2)) a person who is


giver's

-=== \037 = = = \037 Ai

\037)

S.o. gives s.t. to a member of the is whose status


of the
giver.)

not
but
that

give

in-group

[REL.

kUTeTu l

(morau

1 )])

about

equal to

. Key

Sentence)
Indirect 'i
\037-r

Topic (subject)
fL -

Object
,:.

Direct Object
:IE hana
\037

dJ \037jt::.. I dJ \037j'1 '- t::.. o

Watashi

wa

Yoshiko
flowers.))

ni

ageta I agemashita.

(I

gave

Y oshiko

Examples)

(a)

*Jf\037

lv'iJ.lpi\037\037

Iv':'*\037

cb\037jt::..o ni

Ono-san

wa Yamamoto-san
gave

hon

0 ageta.

(Ms. Ono
(b) \037fi

Mr.

Yamamoto 't::.. tJ\037o

a book.)

\037 ,:. fPJ \037 cb \037j *

Kimi
(What

wa An
did

ni

nani

0 agemashita

ka.

you give

to

Ann?))

em

1.

Ageru C

is one of a set of giving and receiving verbs; the meaning be used when the indirect object is the However, ageru cannot the speaker emfirst person (i.e., I or we) or a person with whom a member of the speaker's in-group). Thus, (la) and pathizes (usually (1 b) are ungrammatical.) is give

'.

(1)

a.

*\037-r'ifl\"=*\037

i) 11t.: o

*Hanako

wa watashi

ni
\037 i)

hon

0 ageta.

(Hanako gave me a book.)

b.

*\037-r'ifk(/)t.;T

\037 1=* wa

11t.:o

*Hanako

watashi
my

no

musuko

ni

hon

0 ageta.

(Hanako gave

son

a book.)

the giver's The reason for this is as follows: Ageru requires point of an event. When an view or a neutral point of view when describing event involves the first person or a person the speaker empathizes with,)))

64
AI)

ageru

1)

from that person's point the event is normally described of 9. Viewpoint.) There(See Characteristics of Japanese Grammar, the speaker empathizes with is a refore, if the first person or a person in a conflict the sentences ageru-sentences, arises, making cipient viewpoint The sentences for (la) and (lb) are (2a) grammatical ungrammatical.
however,

view.

and

(2b), respectively. a. 1E-rfifLf:'*\037

(t:) kUTeTu
watashi

(2)

Hanako
(Hanako

wa

< nt.: o ni hon

0
o

kUTeta.

gave me a

book.) no
musuko

b. 1E-r'ifLq) UT=- \037:.* \037< nt.:


Hanako

wa watashi

ni hon

0 kUTeta.

(Hanako gave
2. The humble

my son a book.) of ageru

polite

version

is sashiageru.

Example:

(3)

fLfi96!:E\037:'*\037

\0371,i)11\037 ni

Watashi

wa sensei
my

hon

l,t.: o 0 sashiagemashita. in sashiageru is higher than the polite versions of kureru

(I

gave

teacher

a book.)
expressed
which

The degree of politeness of kudasaru and itadaku,


morau,

that and

are

respectively.
the

(t:) kUTeTu position than


speaker,
the

, REL.

II)

3.

When is

giver

is in a higher
to

recipient is

a person

very close

the

yaru

recipient used instead of ageru.

or the

Examples:

(4)

a.

fL'i\302\253H:.*\037\037 \":) t.:

Watashi

(I

gave

wa ot6to ni hon 0 yatta. my little brother a book.) wa neko


gave ni

b. '(}0

'- 'i Wi\037:.\037Iv 11 \037\037\":) t.: o


miruku

Hiroshi

0 yatta.

(Hiroshi

milk

to the

cat.) friend.]

c. [Tom is fL'i \" A


Watashi

the
f:. ?\"

intimate speaker's - \037\037 \037\037J \037 l, t.: 0


ni

wa Tomu
a cake

keki

0 yaTimashita.

(I

gave

to Tom.))))

ageru 2
ageru' \037f1Q) some

65)

aux. v. (Gr. 2)) action


a

= -= .... A -= =)
-=-

= !:!!

)\037-\037........................(

S.o.gives
a person

as a
member

favor

to
\037

do

s.t.

for

s.o.;

do s.o.
2

favor

who is not
in-group

giver's
about

but

whose
of

equal

to

that

) ) status is \037 the gi ver. ( >)

of the

by doing

s.t.
(morau 2 )])

[REL. kUTeTu

. Key
(A))

Sentences
Indirect Object
m!1J
Iv \037

Topic
fL

(subject)
'i
\037wa

Direct

Object

Vte
J!\":)-C t::. NJ \037j

\037\037:.*\037\037.{\037\037

NJ \037j *

'-

t::.. o

Watashi

Nobuo-san
for

ni \037

nekutai

katte

ageta / agemashita.

(I
(B))

bought

a tie

Nobuo.))

Topic (subject)
\037

Direct

Object .
\037 \037

Vte
fJ. <.\037 N)-C
NJ \037jt::../ NJ \037j'1

'i

\037T\0371v

'- t::..o

Boku

wa

Haruko-san

nagusamete

ageta / agemashita.

(I

consoled

Haruko.))

Fermatien)

Vte

NJ\037jQ

ageru
\037!'- \"'(

Q NJ \037j

(talk

for

s.o.'s

sake)

hanashite
1t\037\"'(

ageru
(eat
for

NJ \037f Q ageru)

s.o.'s

sake)

tabete
Examples)

(a)

Iv\037:'fPJ \037'-\"'( NJ\037:f \037 * \037'i id\302\243}

'-

t::.. tJ\037o

Kimi
(What

wa o-ka-san
did

ni

nani
your

0 shite
mother?)

agemashita ka.
NJ \037jt::..o

you do for A

(b)

Iv'i a3 Jf3 \037 Tanaka-san

A \037 \037 Iv \037:.* \037\037 '-

-r

wa Sumisu-san
lent

ni

hon

0 kashite

ageta.

(Mr. Tanaka

a book to

Mr.

Smith.))))

66 Ai

ageru

CD

1. Ageru
meaning

is

used
of

as an auxiliary

verb
s.t.
for

with

the

te-form
C

of verbs.
favor

The
doing

V te

ageru

is

do

s.o.'

or

do

s.o. a

by

s.t.'

l restriction which applies to ageru also applies to agefL /2 . sentences with are Vte Namely, ageru descriptions from the viewpoint in subject position); therefore, of the benefactor (i.e., the the person indirect object must not be the first person or a person the speaker with. (t:) ageTu l , Note 1) Thus, (1a) and (1b) are ungramempathizes matical.)

The

(1)

a.

*:ffi.:r'ifkl= a *m\037\037;t *Hanako wa watashi

\"'( \0371ft::

0 0 oshiete

ni

nihongo

ageta.

(Hanako taught
b. *)

me

Japanese.)
\037 1ft::

7 !J-

I=\037 \037 \037 cY.> 'ifkO)CT J\\ -:J\"'(

0 ageta.

*Mear; (Mary

wa watashi no bought a pen for


sentences

musume ni pen 0 katte


my

daughter.)

The

grammatical

for (1 a) and (1b) are

(2a) and

(2b),

respectively.

2 (t:) kUTeTu ))
(2)

a.

1E.:r'ifL\037:.

Hanako

a *m\037\037;t \"'( < nt:: wa watashi ni nihongo

0 oshiete
< nt::
o

kUTeta.)
kUTeta.

b. )
2.

7 !J
the

Mear;

- 'ifLq) UT wa watashi
the

\037 \037\037:.\037 \037 J\\ -:J\"'(

no

musume

ni pen

0 katte
is the

As in
the

KS (B), if

sentence,
ungrammatical.)

person receiving the benefit indirect object is omitted.

direct object of (3a) and (3b) Therefore,

are

(3)

a.

*mfi.:r\037NI=\037.:r\037

Iv\037t\037 <* \037\037\"'(\037\037ft::..o

*Boku

wa HaTuko-san

ni

Haruko-san

0 nagusamete

ageta.)

b.

*mfi.:r\037NI=t\037 <* \037\037\"'(\037\037ft::..o ni nagusamete *Boku wa HaTuko-san


main

ageta.
along

3. When the

verb sentence

is

intransitive,

ageru is not used

with

ni.

The
(4)

following

is ungrammatical,)

*fLJtfi\037

\037I=1t'J\037\\\"'( \037Ift::o

*Watashitachi

wa Jon ni

hataraite

ageta.

(We worked for


In

John.)
'

this

case, no tame

ni

for the

sake of'

is

used,

as in

(5). (t:) tame (ni\302\273)))

ageru (5)

/ aida (nt)

67

IA

\03

fLJi'i.y
Watashitachi (We

\037(/)t::\037'=1I1J,,\\t::..o

wa Jon
for

no tame ni
sake.)
of

hataraita.

worked

John's

4. The humble
(6)

polite

version

Vte ageru is Vte

sashiageru.

Example:

l} ,,\\\"'( \037l, i) 11\037 l, t:: o fL'i96!:E\037:' t07 J \037 wa sensei ni piano 0 hiite sashiagemashita. Watashi

(I played
The degree of

the

piano

for

my

teacher.)

politeness

of 5.

te kudasaru
Vte

and
morau,

te itadaku,

kureru and
When

in Vte sashiageru is higher than that which are the polite versions of Vte l (t:) kUTeTu , REL. II) respectively.
expressed

the

benefactor
his ageru. v::r

is in a higher relationship Examples:

position
recipient.

than

the

recipient

or is of
is used

equal status and instead of Vte


(1)

to the

is close,

Vte

yaru

a.

fL'i\037\037:'

Watashi

(I bought b. 1.:. Iv 'i \037


Jun

- t: \037.R -:J\"'( \037\":) t:: o wa imoto ni rekodo 0 katte yatta. my little sister a record.)
0
ni

\037 t1f\" \\ \"'( \037\":) t:: Wi \037:.\037

wa neko
roasted
is

sakana
for

0 yaite cat.)

yatta.

(Jun
c.

fish

his

[John

the

speaker's
ni

close friend.]
rajio

fL'i .y
Watashi

3 \037\037:. 7 .y *\" \037 \037 l, t:: 0 \037 '- -r \037\037J

wa Jon
John

0 kashite

yaTimashita.

(I

lent

my

radio.))

aida

(ni)

rd1

(I\037)

phr. (the

G\037\037\037 points physical 1 -.\037\"'J\"V\"'\037\"\"\

during

time

[REL.

nagara;

when); uchi nil)))

while

::

. = \037 i :: A iCi \037)

;;:z

68 .

aida

(ni))

Key Sentences
(A))

Subordinate

Clause

Main Clause
Vte

fL
Watashi

tJ\037 \037!1i

\037

:f4:\037-C

v\\ iru

-5

rn' aida

11Ja3\0371v

'i

7 v 1::' t!:

ga

gohan

tsbete

Yamada-san

wa
v\\

terebi 0

J!\"( v't::.. /
mite

* '- t::..o

ita
watching

/ imashita.
TV.))

(While I was eating


(B))

my

meal,

Mr. Yamada was

Subordinate

Clause
Main

Clause

Vte
fA tJ\037 \037fJi gohan \037 :f4:\037-C v\\

rn'

,:.
ni

11Ja3\0371v

tJ\037 *t::..

/
/

Watashi ga

tsbete

iru

aida

Yamada-san

ga

ki ta

*!
I was eating

'- t::.. o

kimashita.

(While
Fermatien)

my

meal,

Mr.

Yamada came

in.))

( i)

Vte

v' Q
iru

rn'

(,\037)

aida

(ni) (while

'- \"( \037i5 hanashite


ft\037 \"(

v' -\"> r\037' (':.)

s.o. is

talking)

iru aida (ni)


\037'Q r\037'

(':.)

(while

s.o. is

eating)

tabete

iru aida (ni)


(i)
rfl'

(ii)

Adj

(':.)

aida
\037v'

(ni)

rn'

(':.)

(while s.t.
0:.)
(ni))))

is

expensive)

takai

aida (ni)
(na)

(iii)

Adj

stem

t\037

rn'

na aida

aida
r;1J\037t\037 r\037' (,\037)

(nl)

69)

-=== !::!! iCi A

= i i ::

(while

s.t. is quiet))

shizukana

aida
rn'

(ni)

(i v) N

(/)

(,=.)

no aida (ni)

:l1*Jj.
natsuyasumi
Examples)

(/)

rR\037 ('.:) (ni))

(during the summer

vacation))

no aida

(a)

.A -3: .A \037 Iv'i

f3 *'\037 '\"

Q rn'\037m a: \037;t \"'(\", \037'- t::.. o


ni

Sumisu-san (Mr.

wa Nihon

iru

aida

Smith

was teaching English v t:' \037 J! -C '\" Q rn'fL'i* ga terebi 0 mite

(all

eigo 0 oshiete imashita. the time) while during

he

was in

Japan.)
(b)

-rfjtiin\037 7Kodomotachi
shita.

lv \"'t:\", \037'- t::.. o \037 \037\"t iru

aida the

watashi time)

wa

hon

0 yonde children

imawere

(I

was reading a
TV.)

book

(all

during

while

my

watching

(c)

iNif.t

Iv'i \037

Takahashi-san

'\" Q rn' 7 } !J 11,\037 wa Amerika

Iv ,.:. ::z\"
ni

iru

7 a: Jt;t * '- t::.. o aida ni gorufu

0 oboemashita.

(Mr. Takahashi
(d)

learned Iv'i \037

golf while

he

was

in

America.))

Iv Jf:1J II \037
t::.. o

0) t3 fa:

/ \037 Iv tJ \037 !J Jf:1J II \037

,.:. Wi \037'- \"'( '\" \037 * 'rn' ':.1(1i \037,.:. t\037\037

Nakagawa-san

no o-ka-san
byoki mother
'\" t\037 '\"

wa

Nakagawa-san

ga Pari
he

ni

ryugakushite

iru aida

ni

ni narimashita. became

(Mr.
(e)

Nakagawa's 'j:-rfjttJ\037

ill

while

was studying

in

Paris.)

tk-r

tr 0 rn' ,.:.* a: \037\"t

Akiko
(Akiko

wa kodomo ga inai aida ni hon 0 yomu. reads books while her children are not at

home.))

em) 1. The

subjects

for

the

aida-clause
as

clause can be different in Exs. (a) and (c).

in Exs.

When

clause) and the main (b), (d) and (e) or can be the same as the subjects are different, the subject in the
(=subordinate
by

aida-clause
2. The
the

is

marked

not by wa but
is

ga.
V

tense

verb before aida of the main

normally

nonpast

te iru or

iru, regardless of

clause.)))

70
All)

aida
3.

(ni))

\037)

Aida,
the

if followed time span

by

ni,

a particle
identified

of

specific

time

point,

means
falls

that

of an event

by

the

main clause

within

time span of an event identified by the aida-clause, as in Exs. (c), without (d) and (e). Aida ni, as in Exs. (a) and (b), indicates that the are assumed to cover the same span of time. Thus, if the two events main verb is a punctual verb, aida be used with ni. should The folsentence, therefore, is ungrammatical. lowing
the
(1) Iv *11HB \037 *Yamada-san ni natta.
/\037 tJ\037 !J

-:J t\037o '\037&'$ '- \"'( '\" Q rEi' :t3fa: \037 IvtJ\0371\037j(\\,C.f\037
ni

ga Pari

ryugakushite

iru aida

o-ka-san ga

byoki

(*Mr. Yamada's mother becameill (all during the time) while he was studying in Paris.) The di fference between aida ni and aida can be diagrammed as follows: Event
aida
1)

ni)
I(

(main clause)
Event

2
- \\

(subordinate

clause)

Event 1
(main

clause)
2)

aida)

Event (subordinate

clause)
before

4.

noun
(2)

or an adjective can
!i 1*Jj. 0) rEi' V.A
\"

be

used

aida.

/'..{ \" \037'- * '- t::.. o no aida resutoran de arubaito 0 shimashita. Natsuyasumi I worked part time at a restaurant.) (During the summer vacation
7 \037\"'t:7 Iv }t f\037Jj. 0) rEi' 1= jlNatsuyasumi

(3)

Iv 7

\037J-: tJ\037 l:i:B1E \037'- t::..o garufurendo

no

aida ni

ga

dekimashita.

(During the summer

vacation '\" \037 -tt

I found

a girl

friend.)

(4)

*\"'rEl'fI},c.-=\302\245\037t!:1}\"\\\"'(

Iv o

Nagai

aida

haha
written

ni

tegami

0 kaite

imasen.
a long

(I
(5)
ti\",

haven't rd1 r=*

to my
t\037 ,t t::..

mother

for

time.)

\037 l:i:i* Q

\037 < \037 \"'0 IvfJCJ.). f\037

Wakai aida

ni

hon

0 dekiru

dake takusan yominasai.


while

(Read as

many

books

as you can

you

are

young.))))

aida

(ni)

71)

;;:z

5. The

is used

non-temporal aida in the structure

which A to B

means

'space between'

\037 \0 iCi A :: or

'relationship'

\037)

(to) no

aida' between
wa and

A and B

' as in:

(6) f3*t
Nihon

7)
is

!J j} (t) to Amerika

O)rEl],='j:m'-tJ\037t\037v'o

(There
(1)
III 1=1t

only

ocean

(to) no aida ni between Japan

umi

shika

nai.

America.)

m ( t)

Yamaguchi

to boku

v' 0 0)rEi' \037i lR: '- \"'( \037 < t\037 (to) no aida Yamaguchi
C

wa

kesshite

warukunai.

(The relationship between


The
tension

and me is not in
(7)

bad

at

all.)

usage of

aida

meaning

relationship'
two

is a

metaphorical ex-

of physical

space between
animate
stative

persons.

6. The
Ex.

verb

iru

(an
its

(c), due

to
C used

sive', yasui can also be


(8)

cheap', in

object) exists' can be used by itself, as in Some adjectives such as takai C expen' ' C atatakai warm', suzushii cool', wakai young'
nature.

this

way, as

follows:

v' V \\ -c: To 0 '- t::..15 tJ \037 Wakai aida ni supotsu 0 iroiro shita ho ga iidesu. (It's better to do various sports while you are young.) These adjectives, sound a little more natural with however,

ti

'

rEI], = .A \037

v' 0 v' 'Y \037

uchi

nl
nt))

while'.

(t:) uchi

[Related

Expression]
main

If the subjects of the verbs are action verbs,


meaning.)

and subordinate

clauses are
by

identical

and

if the

aida

can be replaced

nagara,

but

with

different

[1]

\037=r'i;::!Jj \0371t\037\"'( v' Q rEI]7- v 1:\" a: J! \"'( v' t::.. o Yukiko wa gohan 0 tabete iru aida terebi 0 mite ita. TV while she was eating her meal.) (Yukiko was watching
::'!Jj a: ft.\037ti..IJ<; 7- v 1:'\"\037 J! \"'( v' t::.. o
tabenagaTa

[2] \037=r'i
Yukiko

wa gohan
Yukiko

terebi

0 mite ita.
although

(Lit.

was

primarily

watching TV,
was

simultaneously
meal

she watching

was eating her meal. TV.) ))


[1] and [2] focus

(= Yukiko
of some

eating

her and

while

on '

duration

action/state'

accompanying

minor

action',

respectively.

(t:)nagaTa))))

' -i = A \037) \037

72

amafl)

amari

6; \302\243 \037)

adv.)

j\037e\037\037\037\037)
. Key

(not)

very

much;

(not)

very)

Sentence)
Predicate

Topic (subject)
-::'q)

(negative)
J:<&;\037'\302\243itNo

* hon .

Kono

'i wa
not

&;'\302\243\037

J:<t\037\",\\/
yokunai

amari
very

/ yokuarimasen.

(This book is
Examples)

good.))

(a)

ff1*

\037 N'i

&; '\302\243 \037 \"\"0 1t\037 t\037

Suzuki-san

wa amari
does

(Miss
(b)

Suzuki

not eat

tabenai. much.)
hashiremasen.

fL'i

&; '\302\243 \037 )! wa

it No < \037tL '\302\243 amari

Watashi

hayaku
fast.))

(I
em

cannot

run

very

1. The adverb
(much) t.
tive

amari
Amari

usually They

occurs

in

negative
adverbs

sentences,
which

meaning
co-occur

not

very

is one of a

group of
mettani C

with negaC

predicates.

include:
C

(1)

zenzen

(not)
C

at all t;
sappari

rarely,

by no means t;

(not)

at all

kesshite C t; sukoshimo (not)


seldom t;
usually

never,

a bit';

chittomo 2. 3.
Anmari In

(not)

a bit'
variant

is a

phonological

of amari
used

and

used

in conversation.

limited

this

situations, case, it means


A

amari can be

in affirmative a negative

every; too'

with

sentences, too. In implication. Examples:) 'i


\037-:J -C \037-:J -C

(2) a.

:3 ':I \"tJ\037 -::. \037 t\302\245.> * LJ \037tL t\037 \037 \037 ? q) -c,; \037!J
koto

'-

* -:Jt::.. o

Sukotto ga amaTi shitsureina


kaette

0 iu

node Sari
rude

wa

okotte

shimatta.
was

(Since Scott got mad and b. #

very

went

rude (lit. said home.)

very

things),

Sally

1: \037N'i

t\302\245.> * LJ iW \037 \037Nt.:

q) -c,; 1f4 \037.U:.t\037 -:J t::.. 0


nonda

Inoue-san

wa amaTi

sake 0

node

byokl

ni

natta.)))

amari (Mr.

l / aru

73)

s=

Inoue

drank too

much

and

became

\037 -- A \0 ==

ill.)

c.

.:t tL'i t\302\245.> Iv * LJ -c,; To Sore wa anmaTi desu.


(You're

(lit.

That's)

too cruel.))

aru 1 \302\253>.Q)
\037

v. (Gr.

1))

\037ni\037\037hir;;xi\037s.)

\037 J)

be;

exist;
iru l

have
;

[REL.

motte

iru])

. Key Sentences
(A))

Topic -::'q) Kono


lIfT

(location)
0:.)
-

Subject
'i wa
*\037

Quantifier tJ\037 =:\"\"':) mittsu

&;Q aru three

/ &;!)

'\302\243To

machi
this

(ni)

daigaku

ga

/ arimasu. universities

(Lit. In
in this
(B))

town

are three

universities. (= Thereare

town.\302\273)

Topic

(subject)
-

Noun (location)
'i wa
.r': !J

.:r.'/

7 .x. Iv!t
Eiffel

,:.
ni

&;Q /
aru

&;!)'\302\243To

Efferut6

Tower

Pari
is in Paris.))

/ arimasu.

(The
Examples)

(a)

f.L.q)/
Watashi

/\037-

\"

0:.)

'iT

l::\"tJ\037=ii&;Qo

(There
(b)

no apato (ni) wa terebi ga nidai aru. are two TV sets in my apartment.)


if \037 \037 \037 T 0 1'IH:. &; !) '\302\243

T\"

1:1 \037 \"'i

Detoroito (Detroit

wa Mishigan-shu ni arimasu. is in the State of Michigan.))))

74
AI) (c)

aru 1)
Iv q) ft1fB \037 Wada-san

\0370:.)

'i

\037

- 7

tJ;'rt

\"\"0

(There

is

no uchi (ni) wa no air-conditioner

kura

ga nai.

at Mr.

Wada's.))
of inanimate problems.

em

1. Aru

expresses

the

including
ungrammatical.)

abstract

existence of or things such as


t\302\245.> \037 0

the events

possession and

things

Thus,

(1) is

(1)

* \037 'i 8 *AtJ; q)1HT\037:. *Kono machi ni wa


(There

nihonjin
in

ga town.)

BTU.

are Japanese
things, informal patterns

this

For

animate

iru l is used. form of aru is not


with a aranai

(t:)iTU
but

))

2. The
3. Two

negative sentence

nai.

can be used
presented

aru.

The In this

used when a

location is
In

as

topic.

KS (A) case, what

pattern

is

exists

is

under focus.

this

The KS (B)
a

pattern

pattern, the is used when


it

topic.

In this

case, where

location marker ni can optionally drop. something which exists is presented as exists is under focus. Comparethe two

patterns
(2)

in (2).)
A:
fB*\037fj: !f.\0371i Waseda
\037 \037 ,:. &; !) '\302\243 T tJ\037o

Daigaku
Waseda

wa doko
University?)

ni

arimasu

ka.

(Where is
B :
Waseda

!f.\037-afB*\037fj:JRJj(':.&;!)

'\302\243To

Daigaku

(Waseda A :
JRJj(

wa Tokyo ni arimasu. University is in Tokyo.)

,:. fi 1f!fi1i fB *\037 '- tJ \037 -tt Iv tJ \037 &; !) '\302\243 0

Tokyo

ni wa

Waseda
no
Waseda

Daigaku

shika

arimasen
but

ka.
Waseda

(Lit. Are there versity? (= Is


kyo?\302\273

universities
University

in Tokyo the only

Uniin To-

university

B : \"\"\"\"x., fe,

JRJj(\037:\"i*\037tJ\037t::..

< \037 Iv&;!)

'\302\243To

Tokyo
there

ni
are

wa

daigaku

ga takusan
in

arimasu.
Tokyo.)

(No,
4. A
thing

many

universities

(whether

animate
In

or inanimate) can case, the

position of KS (A).
than

this

also occur in the location rather sentence expresses possession

existence.

Examples:)))

aru 1
(3)

75)

= -A \037

= .. ii

a.

\037(1)\037(I::)I;tj}-. A=;-V:;ttJ;t\302\245.>\037o Kana kUTuma (ni) wa ka sutereo


(Lit.

\037)

ga

aTU.

There

is a car

stereo

in

this

car. (=

This car

has

a car

stereo.\302\273

b.

\037 fk (I::) 1;t1f!tJ; t\302\245.> 0

Watashi

(ni)
is

wa

kuruma

ga

aTU.

(Lit. There
Note are

a car

with me.

(= I

have

a car.\302\273

even marked not


that

if by

the idea of possession, possessed aru expresses things This is because 8ru essentially indicates 0 but by ga.

existence.)

5.

When that
with

aru is used

to express the

idea

object must be someonewho the possessor, such as a family


acceptable,

maintains

of having and the a very


member,

object is animate, close relationship


or a friend.

a relative

Thus, (4) is
(4)

but

(5)

is odd.

'i-=f#ttJ;=:A &; Q 0 Watashi (ni) wa kodomo ga (I have three children.)


fL 0:.) ? ?fL

sannin

aru.

(5)

0:.)

'iimfi\037tJ;

&;

Q 0

? ?Watashi (I

(ni) wa untenshu

ga

aru.

have

a chauffeur.)

Since
situations
{6)

aru

in this

where
*fL 0:.)

usage is a possessive expression, the idea indicates existence. Thus,

it cannot
(6)

be used

in

is unacceptable.)

'ifS:tJ; b *Watashi (nl) wa


don't

? &;

-tt No !) '\302\243

(I
In

have

ga mo arimasen. my mother now.)


haha

this

case, iru must


aru is used
for

be used.
events

6.

When marking (7)

such

as parties
in ..,

and

concerts,

the particle (t:) del;

locations

must

be de
*

as

(7).

ni 6 )

1: / l; 13 \037A (7) ? \037

I:: /\037 -=;de

- tJ; &; Q 0
aru.

Kyo Samu
(There is a

no

uchi at

I *ni

pati ga
today.)

party

Sam's

[Related Expressions]

I. Thereis
of
iru motsu

another
C

hold'

possessive followed
when

expression, motte
by the possessor
auxiliary

iru,

which

verb

iru.

is the te-form However, motte

is used

only

the

is animate and the

possessed thing)))

76
AI)

aru

2) / aru

\037)

is inanimate.

Thus, [1]
wa ii
kuruma

is

acceptable,

but [2] and

[3]

are

not.

[1]

.y 3
Jon

\037'i\037'\037'.\037t\037?-CL'\037o

0 matte

iTU.

(J ohn

has a good wa imoto 0

car.) matte
iTU.

[2] *.y
(John

3 \037'i9-*\037\037?-CL'\0370

*Jon

[3]

has a younger sister.) * - 7 - \037 \037 q). 'i \037 \037? -C L , \037 0 *Kono kuruma wa kura 0 matte car has
an

iTU.

(This

air-conditioner.)

Groups
institutions

and organizations of people such as political parties, countries, and companies can also be possessors in sentences with motte
in

iru, as
[4]

[4-].
\037,\037,\037.tif\037\037?

\037 q)*\037'i

-CL' \037o

Kono

daigaku
university

wa

ii

toshokan

0 matte

iTU.
iru l IS used

(This II.
Iru l

has

a good library.)
However,

is

also used objects.

to express existence.

only

for

animate

(See Note

1.))

aru 2
S.t.

\302\253>.Q)

aux.

v. (Gr.
to

1))

has

been done

s.t.

and the
remai\037

\037

have been
[REL.

done; be

done

resultant

state of that action


J)

iru 2 ; oku])

Key Sentence)

Topic(subject)
.:ttL
Sore

Vte

'i
wa .

b?
mo
to

.y

3 \037 ,:.
ni

i! l,
hanashite

-C

&;Q/ &;!)'\302\243-;-0
aru /
ari

Jon

masu

(It's

been told

John

already.))))

aru
Formatien) V te
OJ

77

I -== -A=)

aru)
L -C \037\037
hanashite it\"..;: -C tabete OJ OJ

(has been

told)

aru) Q

(has been

eaten)

aru)

Examples)
(a) \037Jj.\037

'i b

Nomimono (Drinks
(b)

'\302\243 ? M -:J-COJ \037 -;- 0 wa mo katte arimasu. have already been bought.))

\037tJ\037f*Ht -C OJ

Q 0

Mado
(The

ga akete aru. window has been

open

I is open.))

CD

1.

Aru

is used
V

with

te as an

auxiliary verb. Two

points

are

indicated

by

the
(A)

te aru Someone verb.)

expression:
did something state.
marked

to

X.

(Thus,

Vte is usually a

transitive

(B)

X is still

in

that

X is most
marker

frequently

ga; agent

occasionally
is

by the topic marker it is marked by the direct


he

wa or the subject object marker o.

2.
[Related

The obvious.)

usually

omitted because

is

unimportant,

unknown or

Expressions]
to Ex.

There are expressions similar us compare [1] and [2] with [1]
\037tJ\037OO\037'-CL\\\037o

Vte aru, namely, Vte (b).

iru

and

Vte oku.

Let

Mado

ga aite

iTU.
is open.))

(The window
[2]
fL

'i \037\037 mHt -C \037< 0

Watashi (I open /

wa mado 0
will

akete-

oku.
advance).))))

open

the window (in

\037 A \037 \037

78
[1]

aru

/ ato de) the te-form

\037)

verb. As seen copen', C do s.t. in advance for future convenience'. An imV te aru and V te oku is that the former expresses between a portant difference while the latter expresses an action. Note that in V te oku sentences, state, is not omitted unless it is known.) the agent
of aku
is

means that it. Aite, the opened in [2], V te oku means


simply

window

is open.

It doesn't

imply

that

someone

an intransitive

ato

de

c \037 \302\253>

conj.)

\037 Some

state

or action

takes place at
after has

after

\037:::\037\037:\037\037ways

immediately)
or

[REL.

tara;

te kara]

another
-..

state

action

taken

(ANT. mae ni))

\037-\",.....

place.)

I \037\037.\"..... -\037...,....,. ,.....\037\037\037,.....,,\037\037)

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Subordinate

Clause
Predicate

Topic (subject)
Vinf.

past
t=. &;\037 \037 1f4 3lt \037:.t,t.

j .{ '/

'./\037Iv

'i

13 * Nihon

-...

ij?

-:J t::.. /

Meison-san

wa

itta

ato de

b yoki

ni

natta /

'- t::.. o trt \037 '\302\243 narimashita.

(Mr.
(B))

Mason became

ill

after

he went

to

Japan.))

Topic
fL

(subject)
'i
wa

Noun (event)

ti.
jug

q)

bJ\037

\037

\037.\037 toshokan

\037:.ff

-:J

t::.. /

Watashi

yo

no

ato de

ni

itta /

'- t::.. o ff\037 '\302\243 ikimashita.

(After

the class I

went

to

the

library.))))

ato

de

79)

--

==

\037 A \03

Formatien)

=====)

KS( A) :
Vinf.

past

bJ \037 \037

ato L t::.. \03715


hanashita

de) (after

bJ \037 \037

s.o. has talked/had

talked)

ato

de) (after

it'\"
tabeta

t::..

&; \037 \037

s.o. has eaten/had

eaten)

ato

de)

KS(B) : N q) bJ\037
no Ml%! benkyo Examples)

\037 de) &; \037 \037

ato q)

(after

study))

no ato

de)

(a)

\037!& \037 it'\"

t::.. &; \037 (\037)

L t::.. o -;- <\037Ml%!L '\302\243 benkyoshimashita.

Gohan

0 tabeta
right 1::\" -Iv

ato (de) sugu


after

(I studied
(b) N \037 \037lHB Yamada-san (Mr. (c)

I had

eaten

my

meal.))

Ii

\037 \037N

-:J t::.. o t.: &; \037(\037) \037-c L'\302\243

wa biru 0 nonda fell asleep


after

ato (de) nete shimatta.


he

Yamada

drank

beer.))

\037!fttJ\037j\037b-:Jt::..&;

\037 (\037)J'tjj(':,

Lt::.. '\302\243 b\037\" \037

Senso

ga owatta ato (I went back to Tokyo


\0377 &; \037

(de) Tokyo
after

ni modorimashita.
war

the

ended.))

(d)

it$q) Shokuji

=- A \037Lt::.. o

no ato (I played tennis CD)

de
after

tenisu

0 shita.

my

meal.))

The

particle

de

may be omitted

in

informal

speech.)

[Related Expressions]

I.

Vinf.past

ato
very

de is

crucially

different
main

from Vte kara


clause

in

two

respects:

Vte
ato

kara is
the

awkward

if the
restriction.)))

expresses of the

something beyond
Vinf.past

control

of the

subject or

the

speaker

sentence.

de is free from such

'

--

80

ato de)

\037 : A \037 ...)

[1]

fLtJ\037?

/ \037---\037-:Jt.:t\302\245.>c!::\\!

???

\037-:J-CtJ';fijtJ\037\037-:Jt::..o ???kaette

Watashi (It
Secondl

ga uchi e kaetta ata de / rained after I came home.) V te kara

kaTa

ame ga

futta.

y,

indicates
C

the

Vinf.past
[2]

ato de

indicates

any

space

space of time of time after

following

after',

but

'.

Thus,)

/ **t':t\302\245.>c!::\\!{PJ\037,:.t.t \037 a*---*-ctJ'; '!-;-tJ\\o e kite kaTa / *kita ata de nannen ni narimasu ka? have passed since you came to Japan?) (How many years
Nihon

(t:) kaTa2)
II.

Vinf.past ato
with

de can

be replaced

by Vinf.past ra
C

purely
and

(a),(b)
[3]

temporal meaning (c) can be rephrased


0 tabetaTa
]::\"-

when C

the

latter

is used

(i.e., as [3a],

after',

when

').

Thus,

Exs.

[3b] and [3c], respectively.


Lt::.. o

a.

\037!!i\0371t\037t.:;-;-

<\037Ml%l L'!

Gohan b.

sugu

benkyoshimashita.

Iv'i fB \037 \037

Iv

\037 \037Iv t=. biru JRJj(

\037-C

L '! -:J t::..0

Yamada-san
c.

wa

0 nondaTa

nete

shimatta.)

\037!fttJ\037j\037b -:J t.:;

,:. b \037\037 !) '! L t::.. o

Senso

ga owattaTa

Tokyo ni

modorimashita.
C meaning

However,
not

if Vinf.

past

ra

has

a non-temporal

(i.e.,

if '),

it can-

be

[4]

replaced by Vinf.past ato de, as illustrated by [4]. a. -c.* L.t c!:: \\! \037,\037, a *---fT -:J t.:; / *fT -:J t.: t\302\245.> ? 0 Nihon e ittaTa / *itta ata de ii desho. if you go to Japan. (= You (Lit. It would be nice go to
b.
Japan.\302\273

should

\037tL\037\037lvt=.;

/ *\037lvt=.t\302\245.>c!::\\!}!? -c.*-;-tJ\037o

Kore

0 yondaTa /

*yonda ata
it

de do
read

desuka.
this.

(Lit.
read

How

would

be if you

(= Why

don't

you

this?\302\273)

(t:) taTa))))

ba ba

81)

It

conj. \037\037 preceding


if \037 \037

=
\037 iiiiii

= 0

\03 ==

\037\037 \037

the

clause expresses a con-

[REL.

taTa (nara, t0 4 )])

dition
\037 \037.\037'-\"\"\037)

. Key Sentence)
Subordinate
\037(7) \037

Clause
\037 iX\037

(condition)
If

Main

Clause
trt !) '\302\243 -;- 0

.t<
yoku you'll

trt Q /
naru

Kono kusuri

0 nome
this

ba

/ nari masu.

(If

you

take

medicine,

get

well.))

Fermatien)

(i)

Gr. 1 verbs:

Vcond

Ii

ba
\037\037-ttli

(if s.o.

talks)

hanaseba

(ii) Gr. 2

verbs:

Vstem

tLlf reba) (if s.o.


(if eats))

itA:tL'i

tabereba

(iii) Irr.

verbs:)

*G -+ *\037tli
kuru
-;-

s.o.

comes))

kureba)
(if

Q -+ -;- tL If

s.o.

does))

suru
(i v)

sureba) ,t tL
Ii

Adjs (i):)

Adj (i) stem

kereba
rBi

,t tL'i

(if s.t. is

expensive)
/
-e,;

takakereba

( v)

Adjs

(na):)

Adj

(na) stem

(trt

\037 Oi)

OJtLlf}
areba}

(nara(ba)
(fittJ\037trt \037 Of)

/ de

1ffttJ\037-e,;

OJnlf}
areba}

(if s.t.

is

quiet))))

(shizukanara{ba) (vi) N +cop.:)


N

/ shizukade
OJnlf}
areba})

(trt

\037 Of)

/\"\"t<'

(nara(ba)

/ de

82

ba)

=
Exan1ples)

\037 0 \037 == --

-)

(%!:E t.t G Of) (sensei nara(ba)


(a)
\037 h\037it\037*%!:E':.r18\037t ,f7ttJ\037

/ %!:E
/ sensei

\037 ;bh\037f}

(if s.o.

is a teacher)

de

areba})

* \037
ni

To
kikeba

Matsumoto-sensei (You'll understand it if you


Kore wa

wakarimasu.

ask Prof.

Matsumoto.)

\037\037\037\037.\037ffn\037\037+7t\037ffn\037o

Sono (You

machi can get

wa

kuruma that

de town

ikeba

to

in thirty

sanjuppun de ikeru. minutes if you go by car.)

(c)

:t(\037t h\037fJ( \"\" *

To
would

Yasukereba kaimasu. (I'll buy it if it's cheap. I I


(d) tJ\037;btL \037r\037'

buy

it if it were

cheap.)

t::..\"\"0 t ff \037 Jikan ga areba Kyoto e mo ikitai. to go to Kyoto, too. / If I (If I have time, I want to go to Kyoto, too.)

'fJj{m-..

had

time,

I would

want

(e)

j!t::..\037t

hlij!t.t

\037 \"\"0

Mitakereba

minasai.
want \037 h

(If you
(f)

to see

it, see

it.))

lfi*h\037f
Dekireba

\037-:J -C < t!. \037 \"\"0 yatte

(Please

kore mo do this, too,

kudasai.
can.))

if you

em

1. \"SI ba
the

S2\"

basically

expresses
which

two propositions
proposition in

represented by
holds

a general conditional relationship between a condition SI and S2. SI represents or will


topic

and S2 a

hold

true

under

the condition.

(Ba is,

fact,

the origin

of

the

marker

wa.)

2. S2 can be a statement of the speaker's volition or hope, as in Exs. (c) and (d). (t:) to 4) a request 3. S2 can be a command, or a suggestion, as in Exs. (e) and (f). In this be an action. Thus, in (1) and (2) ba case, however, Sl cannot is ungrammatical. (t:) naTa; tara))
(1)

G -it-C < t!. \037 \"\"0 **tLI:nt ga kitaTa I *kuTeba shirasete (If Mr. Yamamoto comes in, please let me UJ*
Iv tJ\037*t.: \037/ \037 Yamamoto-san

kudasai.
know.))))

ba

83)

(2)

\037:fJ

::f -\"17 < (0))

tl

\037/

Shikago

e iku

(no)
factual

naTa

*i7lt r;t/{ A \"\"t:ff -:J t::.. r::, \037? \"\"t:-riPo basu de ittara do desu I *ikeba why don't
you

ka.

(If you

go

- = 0
=
\037

to

Chicago,

go by

bus?)
Thus,

\03

4. SI can (c) and


5.

express (d)

both

and
factual

counterfactual

conditions.

Exs.

can be either

or

counterfactual

statements.

(t:) ba
Sl can be a state Examples:
or an

yokatta)

event

in

the

past if it is

counterfactual

or habitual.

(3) t (I (4)

-:J

!: :t(.t h\037iJ(

\\-'\\*

'-

t::.. o

Motto
would

yasukereba
have

kaimashita. bought it if it had been much cheaper.)


ie de

mtJ\037\037tLfi

J: < *\"\"t:*\037i1Clvt.:
yoku

Ame ga fureba

t (/) t.: o hon 0 yonda


at

mono

da.

(When
However,

it

rained,

I often

read

home.)

SI cannot
condition,

be a
*fjlt

single

factual

event

in the past
t.t -:J t::..o

even

if it

rep-

resents a
(5)
J3

as seen
t=. \037/

in (5).
';f
J3

(t:) taTa))
ga jozuni
went

*-..ff\":)

*mtJ\037l:-=F':'

Nihon

e ittaTa I
does

*ikeba nihongo
more than
when

natta.
to Japan.)

(I becamegood
6. \"SI
this

at Japanese

when I
the

ba

S2\"

not mean cannot

a conditional

construction

be used

speaker

thing
one

by a conditional sentence. should not approach the cage.


statement, one

For

example,

relationship; therefore, wants to suggest some (6) does not suggest that
only

It is acceptable

when

as a mere conditional
that

that one

is in

danger

under

it means, the condition

gets close ori ni

to

the

cage.

(6)

.:t (/)
Sono

to \037 ,:.)[[-3.t

\037i;b\037 t.t \\-'\\\"\"t: T abunaidesu

J: 0
yo.

chikazukeba
if

(It is dangerous (In order

you

get close

to

the

cage.)
the

to suggest

that

one should not

approach

cage,

chikazuku

to

or
7.

chikazuitara

is used

instead of chikazukeba.)
expressions

There

are some

idiomatic

construction.

(t:) ba

which utilize the \"SI ba S2\" yokatta; nakeTeba naTanai; to ieba))))

84

bakar;)

bakari
\037)

rtfJ'!J

prt.)

\037 \037 ==0 iiii I

a particle which indicates that the only thing or state which


or

s.t.

is

only; just; be
have

ready

to

exists,
takes,

just

done s.t. hodo

; just
about

did

do s.t.; s.t. ;

the
taking

is

only action or took)

s.o. will

take,

be just
[REL.

doing s.t.;

\037\"\"\"\"\"\"'\037...-.\037\037\037)

(kurai);
da 2])

shika

. Key
(A))

Sentences
Vinf.nonpast
tt\037.Q tabeTU

(dake); tOkOTO

Topic

(subject)

:r-t!-r
D eza to (Lit.

\037i wa

tJ\037 \037i \037

r:.

t.t

-:J '\"'( \\-\" \037 iru eat

\\-\"\"1To imasu.

bakari

ni na tte
dessert

dessert is
(B))

The

only ready

left to thing to eat.\302\273)

do

with

the

is to

it.

(=

The

Topic
-Jj:=f

(subject)
\037i

Vte
\037N-C:

'i

tJ\037 \037

\\-\"\037 / \\-\"\"1To

T omoko

wa
only

asonde
thing

bakari

iru

/ imasu.
(=Tomoko

nothing but
(C))

(Lit. The

Tomoko

is doing is

playing.

is doing

playing.\302\273)

Topic fL
Watashi

(subject) 'i
\037\037!!i \037

Vinf.

past

tt\037t=

'i

tJ\037 \037

t!. / \037To da /

.
had

wa
my

hirugohan
lunch

t abet a
anything

bakari

desu. then.

(Lit. I
have

and haven't done

else

since

(=1

just

eaten

my

lunch.\302\273)

(D))

Topic

(subject)
\037i

Adj

-::..(/) vAr7\037 K ono

resutoran

itL' yasui

tJ\037 \037i \037

t!. / \037To

.
merit

wa

bakari
that

da / desu.
the

(Lit. The only

(= This restaurant

is just

of this

restaurant is

food

IS

inexpensive.

cheap.\302\273)))

bakari

85)

(E))

=
Noun I::\"Jif

Topic (subject)
T=-A -

\03 !!!! 0 :::

-\037itJ\037 \037 \037Iv\037 \\-\"\037 / iru

'i
wa

\\-\"*1-0

Denisu

biTU only

bakari beer.))

nonde

I imasu.

(Dennis is
(F))

drinking

Topic
fL Watashi

(subject) 'i
wa
in

Quantifier

u.t:JJ
hitotsuki
for

tJ\037 \037i \037

..I': \037 r:.

\\-\"t::.. / \\-\"*

'-

t::.. o

bakari

Pari

ni

ita

/ imashita.

(I
Formation)

was

Paris

about

a month.))

( i)

Vinf. nonpast

tJ\037 \037i \037

bakari)
881\"\" tJ\037 \037i \037

(be ready

to
to

talk))

hanasu

bakari)
(be

\037 1t\037 \037 \037itJ\037

ready

eat))

taberu

bakari
\037itJ\037 \037

(ii)

Vte

bakari
81S

'- -C

'i

tJ\037 \037

(be

just

talking)

hanashite
it'\"

bakari)

-C \037!tJ\037 \037
bakari ,!tJ\037 \037

(be

just

eating)

tabete
(iii)

Vinf.past

bakari '\037.5

t.:

hanashita

(i tJ\037 \037 bakari

(have

just

talked)

1t.\"'t.: (iv)
{Adj

'itJ\037 \037

(have

just

eaten)

tab eta bakari


(i) inf.nonpast

I Adj

(na) stem

t\037}

\037iip \037 bakari)))

na

86

bakari)
rt1jv\\ 'itJ\037!J

(just

expensive)

BI)

takai bakari
t,t fit tJ\037
tJ\037 \037i \037

(just

quiet)

shizukana bakari

( v)

'i

tJ\037 \037

bakari) :%!:E sensei


tJ\037 \037i !J

(only teachers))

bakari)
Prt
'itJ\037 \037

(vi)

bakari
\037!:E

,.:
ni

\037itJ\037 \037

(only

to students)

gakusei
(vii)

bakari
'itJ\037 \037

Quantifier
-\037rfl'
ichijikan

bakari
'itJ\037 \037

(about

an hour)

bakari)

Examples)
(a) \037v\037\037 \"

t.: o ':1;b c!::\037\037\037. < \037itJ\037 \037


wa

Kono repoto

ato

ketsuron

0 kaku bakari
this

da.
is to
write

(The only
(b)

thing

left to

do

with

report

a conclusion.)

:{fiI'inr\\-'\\-c\037itJ\037

\037 \\-'\\-cfPJt\037iS.:t?

c!:: '-t\037v\\o

Harue

wa naite bakari ite nanimo

hanaso

to

shinai.

(Harue
(c)

is just

crying

and

won't

talk about

anything.)

Iv \037i t\037UJ \037 \037\037:fJ

::f ,:.tf \\-'\\t::..\037i tJ\037 \037 \037 To

Matsuyama-san

wa
has

ima

Shikago

ni tsuita bakari
in \037 t

desu.

(Mr. Matsuyama
(d) \037 \037tt$'i

just arrived
*

Chicago

now.) it Iv o
us

\037 Iv c!::*? t\037 'itJ\037 \037 \037;b

tJ\037 * \037

Kono

shigoto
is

wa mendona
just

bakari

de

amari

m6karimasen.
big profits.)

(This job
(e)

troublesome

and doesn't
o danshi
in

bring

\037 \037\037,:.{tlv\037\\-'\\;;'

t.: \037'i\037T\037!:E\037itJ\037 \037

Kono ry6

ni

sunde who

iru no

wa

(The
(f)

students

are living

this

gakusei bakari da. dorm are all boys.) -c


\\-,\\;;' 0

7.{ ':I \037-\\\"-96!:E\037i


Fissha-sensei

!J \037c!::\037itJ\037 \037 \037 '-

wa Risa
talking

to

bakari

hanashite
Lisa.))))

iru.

(Prof.

Fisher is

only

with

bakari
(go)

/ ba yokatta

87)

A\0371.tJ\037 \037 \037\037ittJ\037-=F\037-:J -C

< h

* '- t::.. o
tetsudatte

Junin

bakari

no tomodachi ga
helped

kuremashita.

_ = --

(About

ten friends

\037 0

= = -

== ==)

me.)

CD

1. The basic idea


what

is nothing except bakari expresses is that there When Vinf.nonpast precedesbakari, the whole expression means there is nothing left to do (to complete something) but what is stated by the verb. In some contexts, Vinf. nonpast bakari means that someone does nothing but what is stated. Example:
which is stated.

(1)

1&:'i\037?

Kare

':fJ' I.) -C*{iiJ t \037ijJJ '- -C < ht\037 \\-\"0 wa WSTSU bsksTi de nanimo setsumeishite
laughs

kurenai.
to

(He just
2. When
Vinf.

and

doesn't

explain

anything

me.)

past

has been almost took place. That


done

that there precedes bakari, the whole expression means no time for to happen since what is stated anything has or has just someone is, something just happened,

something.

3. When bakari follows\" N ga\" or \" No\", ga or 0 drops. The directional be either deleted or retained. e and ni may Other case particles do when they are followed drop by bakari. 4. Bakari
means in

not

classical
still

usage is

seen

Japanese in the

expressed the
\"Quantifier

speaker'sconjecture
pattern,

and

this

bakari\"

where bakari

'about'.)

ba

yokatta a phrase

It J: fJ\\
which

-::> t:.

phr.)

expresses

the speak\037'\

\037 \037 I

I wish

had

done

s.t.

er's regret I \037\037

[REL. te

yokatta])

. Key

Sentence)
Clause ,:. Pl,1lt

Subordinate

(condition)
\0371.

Main Clause
J:. -:J t:. tJ \037 -:J t::.. -c* T / J:.tJ \037 / yokattadesu. 0

96!:E

Sensei

ni

kike ba asked
my

yokatta

(I wish I had

teacher.))))

88

ba

yokatta)

Formatien)

-B\037 == iiiii)

( i)

Gr. 1 verbs:

Vcond

'i
ba

-:J t::.. J: tJ\037

yokatta
-:J t::.. J: tJ\037

:\037-tt

\037i

(I wish

s.o.

had

talked))

hanase

ba

yokatta
-:J t::.. J: tJ\037

(ii) Gr. 2 verbs:

Vstem

h\037i

reba

yokatta
-:J t::.. tJ\037 (I

tt.r.:::it \037i J:
tabereba

wish s.o. had

eaten) come))
done))

yokatta) -:J t::.. *tL \037i J: tJ\037 kureba yokatta TtL\037! -:J t::.. J:. tJ\037
yokatta)

(iii)

Irr. verbs:)

*
T

\037-+

(I

wish s.o. had

kuru
\037-+

(I

wish

s.o.

had

suru Examples)

sureba

(a)

tb\037*\037ME\037\037i

t::..o J: tJ\037-:J yokatta.


that

Ano hon

yomeba

(I wish I had
(b)
rj.:r.

read
J3 Nihon

book.) -:J t::..b J: tJ\037 \037i o

/v:X \037 Iv'i

*-..ff\037t

Ueruzu-san

wa

e ikeba
to

yokatta nee
Japan,

(I

wish

Mr.

Wells

had gone

don't

you?)

-:J t::.. t\037 'i J: tJ\037 tbo (c) tb tb, t -:Jc!::\037m \037\037%i '- -C to \037t okeba A, motto eigo 0 benkyoshite yokatta na. (Oh, I wish I had studied English harder!))

..
1.

V cond

done s.t.'
good'

idiomatic expression which means' I wish - had ' was of a conditional clause with ba and yokatta and literally means' It would have been good if - had done s.t.'

ba

yokatta is an
consists

It

2.

When

there

is

no subject

in

a ba-clause

sentence, the
words
na,
had

first

person

IS

the implicit

subject.
is often

3. This
and

expression

the

sentence-final
than

used with exclamatory particle of exclamation

as in
done

such as a 'oh' Ex. (c).

4. \"S.o. (other
using

the first person)

wishes

s.t.\" is

expressed
4; to 3))))

this

phrase

and the verb

omou

'think',

as in

(1). (t:)iTU2,

Note

ba (1)
1:.

yokatta

89)

Iv 'i J3 * -.. ff.t

\\ \037 -:J t::.. c!::1Fi!!.. -:J \"\"(\\-' J: tJ \037 \037:f 0

Biru

wa Nihon
Bill

ikeba

yokatta

to omotte iru. good if he had

(Lit.
to

thinks

that

Japan.

(=

Bill

it would have been wishes he had gone to

gone

\037 iiji;0

= = - -

==

Japan.\302\273)

[Rela

ted Ex pression]
Vcond
in

In U state
factual

action or yakatta \", Vcond ba expresses a counterfactual In a similar expression U Vte yokatta \", Vte expresses a action or state in the past. Compare [1] with Ex. (a).

ba

the

past.

[1]

;b\037*\037MtIv\037

J: tJ\037-:J t::..o
yonde

Ano hon (Lit.

yokatta. I read

It was good that

that book.

(= I'm

glad

I read

that

book.\302\273))))

90

dai) t::. L \\
prt. indi-

dai

:====\" i

particle which f\037\037;\037\037 ( cates a WH-question in informal


j

[REL. ka 2 ;

kai])

male

0 I)

speech) . Key
(A))

Sentences
(na) stem /

Subject }! '.,..

Adj : :
tJ\037

IffJ'

t!. \\-'\\ 0

Doko

\037ga

shizuka
quiet?))

dai.

(What place is
(B))

Sentence

(informal)t
<

t!.h
Dare
(Who

tJ\037 ff

Iv

t!. \\-'\\ 0

ga iku
is going?)) Adj

dai.

tDa

after

(na) stem and N

changes

to

na.)

Formatien) ( i)
{Adj

(na)

stem /

N}

t!.\\-'\\

dai
1f/t1J\\ t!.\\-'\\

(s.t.

is quiet?) is a teacher?)

shizuka dai
\\ t!. \\-' 96!\302\243

(s.o.

sensei
( ii)

dai)

{V I

Adj

(i)}

inf

Iv t!. \\-'\\
n

dai
Iv
t!.\\-'\\

{\037iSt\" {hanasu \\ {rwi \\-' {takai

I \037\037 '-t\037} / hanashita} '? t\037} Iv / rwi tJ\037 / takakatta}

(s.o.

talks

/ talked?)

n dai
t!. \\-'\\
(s. t.

is / was expensive?) t!. \\-'\\


dai)))

dai
{t\037/

(iii)

{Adj

(na)

stem / N}

t!.

-:J

t::..} Iv
}

{na /

datta

dai

91)

{\037n\"t\037

l1fjtn\"t\037

-:J t::..}

Iv

t!. \",
t!.\" ,
dai)

(s.t. is I was

quiet?))

(shizukana
{%\037 t.t,

I shizukadatta)
I:%!:E -:J t::.. } t\037
datta})

n dai
Iv

(s.o.

is I

was a teacher?))

{sensei Examples)

na I sensei

\037 = =
=

0 -)

(a)

\037? t\037 ffi '- ,,'ft*,:! \"'0 A earashii shigoeo wa do dai.

(How's
(b) d:> \037 A

your

new
t\037 \"'0

job?) dai.

'i t!.h Ano hito wa (Who is that


'fiiJtJ\037tdtJ\037

dare

person?)

(c)

\"'lvt\037\"'o
n

Nani ga (What's

okashii
funny?)

dai.

(d)

\037 \037 Iv t!.'\" A tJ\037\037Ki96!:E t\037

Sa to-sensei na (Which person is Prof. Sa to?))


Dono

hi eo ga

n dai.

...)
1.

Dai can speech,

as in

also be used (1)


Kore

with

declarative

sentences for emphasis

in

boys'

(1) a.

\037 h'i\037\037 t\037\"'o

wa boku
is

no dai.

(This
b.
\037 t

mine.)

Boku

'\" 0 ff < Iv t\037 mo iku n

dai.
sentences,
sentences

(I
2. When dai is WH-questions.

will

go,

too.)
interrogative
following

used

with

the sentences

must

be

Thus, the
hito

are ungrammatical.

(2) a.

*;b\037A':!96!:Et\037\"'o

*Ano

wa sensei dai.
a teacher?)

(Is that person b. *ftaI \037Iv t ff

< Iv t\037 \"'0 *Murata-san mo iku n dai. (Is Mr. Murata going, too?)
questions,

For

yes-no

kai is

used.)

(t:) ksi))))

92

dai)

3. Questions with

dai,

as in

KS

(A),

and

those with n
and

respond
speech,
' i0

to

questions

without

no desu

those

with no

respectively.

=
II)

dai, as in KS (B), cordesu in formal (c:>no da)

4.

Dai

actually

follow
following

consists of the copula da and the particle i. Thus, it can and noun equivalents. The only na-type adjective stems, nouns sentences are ungrammatical because dai follows a verb or an
*

i-type adjective.

(3) a.

t.: tL tJ;fT

< t.: \"\\0

*Dare
(Who b

ga iku

dai. 0
,,\\

is going?) t.: \" \\ 0

l: tL tJ \037.t3 t 'one

*Dore
(Which

ga omoshiroi dai.
is interesting?)

verbs and i-type adjectives, as in KS (B) and Ex. (c), nominalizer (the colloquial form of n0 3 ) and it changes the a sentence into noun preceding equivalent.

N dai can

follow

becausen
5.
In

is a

informal

male speech,

questions as

in

(3) are

expressed as

in

(4),

with

rising
(4)

intonation.)

a.

t.: tL

tJ;fT < ?

Dare ga iku?

(Who
b.
Dore

is

going?)

l: tLtJ\037.t3 t '- 0 ,,\\? ga omoshiroi?


is

(Which one
6. The

interesting?)

past

form

of

dai

more frequently as seen in (5).


(5) a.
ffi Atarashii (How b

used

is dattai, but it IS not past form of dai is datta

frequently
with

used.

The

rising

intonation,

'- \"\\tf::\037tHi l: ? shigoto was

? t.: -:Jt::.. wa do datta? your new job?)


t:. ?

l:

\037 \037 tJ \037 1fft tJ t.: -:J

Doko
(What

ga shizukadatta?
place

was quiet?)

[Related
In

Expression]

informal

speech, the question

marker

ka

2 (i.e., ka )

IS

not

usually

used.)))

dai The

/ dake

93)

following
Formal

chart summarizes
Male,

the

endings

for informal

questions.) Note
=
=

informal
tJ\037 \037\\; Sinf

Female,
informal

yes-no

Sinf

Sinf

Da

after and

Adj N

(na) drops.

;;

i)

question yes-no
question

kai Sinf
(f) tJ\037 \037\\; Sinf

stem
(f)

Sinf

(f)

Da

after
and

Adj (na)
N changes

no

kai

no Sinf
\037\\ dai

no

stem
to

with no desu
WH-question

na.
after

Sinf;
{Adj (na) stem / N} t!.

Da
stem

Adj

(na)

and N

drops.

WH-question
wi

Sinf Iv t!. \037\\; Sinf

(f)

S inf

(f) no

Da stem
to

after
na.)

Adj (na)

th no

desu

n dai

no
speech or

and N

changes

Sinf ka is used
endings

in

very

informal

in

vulgar

speech.

Female

informal

can also

be used

by male speakers.)

dake
a

t=(j
particle

prt.)

which expresses a
that

limit IS

imgrow-

>

( )

only; all

just;

alone; merely; that's

> ))

posed upon something ing and expanding


Key

\037

[REL.

shika

(bakar;)])

Sentences

(A))

Subject
A.'=:A.\037A, \037 t!.

Predicate
It ( tJ;) (ga)
came.))))

Sumisu-san
(Only

\037dake

*t::.. / ** Lt::.. o kita / kimashita.

Mr.

Smith

94

dake)
(B))

Number-Counter
=-=-== fL

01)

Watashi

-'i a* wa Nihon e
to Japan

-Ii

t.:It
dake

fi -:J t::.. / itta

fi

\037\"1 '- t::.. 0

ichido

/ ikimashita.

(I

went

only once.))

(C)) Sentence
1'1-r\0371v Yukiko-san
c!: Vinf

'i

T-

,..

t, t;:

t.: It
dake

t.: / \"t:-r
da /

to wa Yukiko,

dito shita
that's
all.))

desu.

(I
(D))

just

dated

Sentence ::'(1)
Kono
(This

Adj (i) inf


*\037L'

* 'i
ie wa
house

t.: It

t!. /

\"t:-r

6kii
is big,

dake da / desu.
all.))

that's

(E))

Sentence

Adj (na) stem


'i
\037 tJ\037

::'(1)
Kono
(This

id\037-r

\037t1.L'

fJ.

t!. It

t!. /

\"t:-r

o-kashi
cake

wa \"0 ga

kiTei
that's

na dake da / desu.
all.))

has pretty

colors,

Formatien) ( i)

t!.It
tf.

(tJ \037) / (a:)

dake (ga) /

(0)
(a:) (the teacher alone

96!:E ( i i)
N

It

(tJ\037)/

(subject)/

(direct

object\302\273)

sensei dake
It!. ,t
{dake 96!:E sensei

(ga)/ (0)
tf.

Prt / Prt
Prt / Prt

,t }

(where

Prt = particles other the teacher /

than

ga, 0, and

dake }
}

wa)
(only

{t!. It

'dake

,:. / ,:. t!.It ni / ni dake})

to

to

the

teacher

alone))))

dake

95)

(iii)

{V /

Adj

(i)}

inf

t!. ,t
dake
t!. ,t dake t!.,t dake
{t\037/

It!. /\"\"(* -r}


Ida /

desu}
\"\"(*-r}

{g5-r
{hanasu

/
/

g5

L t::..}

It!. / Ida /

(s.o.

talks

/ talked,

that's

all)

hanshita}

desu}
(s.t. is /

= . ==---

=0 .

{rwi\037\\/ rNitJ\037-:Jt::..}

{t.: / \"\"(*-r}

was expensive,

that's

all)

{takai /

takakatta}

Ida /

desu}
t.:,t It!. /
Ida \"\"(*-r)

(iv)

Adj

(na)

stem

t!.-:Jt::..}

{na /
{r;tJ\037t\037

datta}
t!..t

dake
It!.
Ida

/ desu} (s.t.
all))

/ 1ffttJ\037t!.-:J t::..}

/\"\"(*-r}

is /

was quiet,

that's

{shizukana Examples)

/ shizukoclatta}

dake

/ desu}

(a)

Ivt!.lt {\302\243Ki\037 Sat6-san

(i1\037)\037m':.m* Lt::.. o dake (ga) kaigi ni demashita.


attended

(Only
(b)

Mr. Sato

the

conference.)
Lt::.. o

IJ'\037\037\\fl]\037\037At!.lt(\037)R\037\\*

Chisai
(I (c)

waeijiten dake (0) kaimashita. bought only a small Japanese-English


t!. ,t / t!.,t ,:.a5 L-C r \037 \037\\o ni dake / dake ni hanashite
tell

dictionary.)

\037,:.

Boku

kudasai.

(Please
W

it only

to me / to me alone.)

\037\037*\0377N\037-N\"\"(*\037\037/\037\037\"\"(*\037\037*-ro

Kono

kuruma
runs

(This car
(so

wa aruk6ru de dake / dake de ugokimasu. else) / on alcohol only on alcohol (and on nothing

alone

it needs nothing
wa

else).)
L-t::.. o

(e)

cb\03796!:E':\":t-lflt.:'t\037\037\\*

Ano sensei

ni

ichido

dake aimashita.

(I (f)

met

that

professor

only once.)
nomu

\037Hi\037-1::

-a:-\037\037trt!\"t\"\"(*-ro
ippai

Asa

wa k6hi 0
the

dake

desu.
all.)

(In
(g)

morning

I just drink a

cup of coffee, that's

\037 \037*,:trr6\037\\t.:,t\"\"(*.t3

K ono

hon
book

wa

(This
(h)
Tenisu

is

t L0 < t\037\037\\o taka; dake de omoshirokunai. just expensive and is not interesting.)

T'::' A fin(I just like

t\037 t: \037 t!. It\"\"(* l:-=\302\245 t\037 \037 \037\\o

wa sukina

dake de j6zuja
and

nai.
at it.))))

tennis,

I'm

not good

96

dake

(0

Sore

- T .-(- t.: -:J t::..o t.: ,t Q).I\037 wa gakusei dake no pat; datta. for students (It was a party only.)
tL 'j:\037!:E \037

DI)

(j) m*o
Dekiru (Please

t.:lt '9> -:J <


dake

'\037 \0375

-Cr

\037 \037\\o

yukkuri hanashite kudasai. speak as slowly as possible.)) noun, as in Exs. (a), with the noun can be positioned ga, 0
and

CD 1. When

dake

modifies

a preceding

(b),

(c), before

the particle that dake, except for


used

is used the

and (d), or after


optionally

particles of the

wa,

which

can be

only after

dake.

2. The optional
a subtle
particle,

positionings

particles other
Distinctive

than

semantic
yielding

difference.

dake.

No

a meaning of exclusiveness of exclusiveness is implied meaning

emphasis in the
in

ga, 0 and wa is placed

create

on

the

case of

+ Prt

the

case of N +dake

+ Prt.
3.

If dake is

used in:
/ Adj

{V

{{AdJ
as illustrated

(i)}

inf
{na

(na) stem
by

+dake
/ datta} }

Ida

/ desu}
modifies

KSs

(C),

ceding
Compare

part

and

means

'

(D) and (E), dake


that's

the

entire

pre-

-,

all.'

(la) and (lb) below:


1I.\\f:lt(\037)itA-t::.o

(1) a.

Sakana

dake
only

(0) tabeta. fish.)

(I
b.

ate

11.\\\037 it

A- t::.. f: It
tabeta

t.: 0
dake

Sakana 0
(I ate fish,
In

da.

that's all.)
only

(1 a)

dake modifies
dake

the

preceding
preceding

in

(1 b)

modifies
fish.')

the entire

o tabeta 4.

' I ate

noun sakana 'fish', while part of the sentence sakana


much , as one can - .)))

V(Potential)+dake

as in
tJ tL

Ex. (j) means'as


itAt::.. \037\\o

(2) a.

itA-

0 f:
to

It

Taberareru

dake

(I'd

like

tabetai. eat as much as I

can

(eat).))

dake b.

/ dake

de (wa) naku

- (mo)

97)

MtLQ t:.:ltM 0 ? 0 Odoreru dake odoro.

(Let's

dance

as much

as we can

(dance).))

= =
I

i)

dake

de

(wa)

naku

(mo)

f= (j

1:' (1;1:) \037 <

(t\302\273

phr.)
but

not only X but Y can be either


adjecti ve)

also Y, where X and a noun, a verb, an

not only

also de

[REL.
(mo)])

bakari

(wa) naku

. Key
(A))

Sentences)

Topic
'bJ(f)

(subject)
A ,:1
wa

Vinf
J:<
yoku

M\037Tg
benkyosuTU

tf.

It

-c:

Oi)

t\037 < naku

J:<
yoku

Ano hito

dake de (wa)

jQf\037 / irf{} * To asobu / asobimasu.

(He not

only

studies

hard, but also

plays

a lot.))

(B))

Topic
'bJ(f)

(subject)
A
hi

Adj (i)
jj1 tJ\037

inf

'i wa

L'L'

tf. It

-c:

('i)
(wa)

t\037 <

J:<

fll%i

Ano

to

atama ga

ii

dake de (t)
(mo)

naku

yoku benkyo

TQ / L*To
suru

/ shimasu.

(He

is

not

only smart;

he studies

hard,

too.))))

98

dake de
(C))

(wa) naku

(mo))

Topic (subject)
iii) ::'(1) ;'tj Kono uchi

Adj

(na)

stem
fJ. t\037ft

fi
wa

\037 tLL'

-c:

Oi)

t\037 < naku

c-ct
totemo

kiTei

na

dake de (wa)
ii:\037\\

(-c:-r)o

yasui

(desu).

(This

house

is not

only

beautiful

but

it is also

inexpensive.))

(D))
Subject

Predicate

Noun

Noun

\0373/
Jon
(Not

t!.ft
dake John

-c:

('i)

t\037 < naku Mary

;1.71)MeaT; came

t
mo

de (wa) but also

*t.:. / ** Lt::.. o kita / kimashita.

only

here.))

Formatien)

( i)

{V /

Adj

(i)}

inf

t.: ,t
dake

-c: (Ii)
de

t\037 <

(not only

-)
speaks /
only

(wa)
-c:

naku
Oi)
t\037< naku

{\0375-r {hanasu

/\037Lt::..} / hanashita} t.:ft

t.:,t

(s.o. spoke (s.t.

not only -)

dake de (wa)
-c:

{iNi\037\\/rr6tJ\037-:Jt::..}

(Ii)
(wa)

t\037<

is/was

not -))
(not

{takai

/ takakatta} (na) stem

dake de
f.=\"')

naku

expensive
t.t naku

( i i ))

Adj

(tJ:/

t::..}

{na / datta}
\037 {Jtt tJ t.t

dake
t.: ft

t.:,t -c: (Ii) de (wa)


-c:

<

only
/ was

-)) not
only

/ t(; tJ' t!. -:J t::..} / shizukadatta})


t::..}

Oi)

t.t <
naku)

(s.t.
quiet

is

{shizukana

dake
Oi)

de (wa)
t.t <

-))

(iii) N {0 /

f'=\"'J

t!.ft

-c:

(not only

-)
only

dake de (wa) naku {0/ datta} -c: <'i) t!\"t {96!:E /96!:E t':-:Jt::..} dake de (wa) {sensei / sensei datta}

t.t< naku

(not
only

teachers

/ not
teacher))))

s.o.

was a

dake Examples)

de (wa) naku

(mo)

99)

(a)

\302\243YJQ)A'i/J'\037a:Mftrt.:lt-c:,:tt\037

< .\037*To

Ano hito wa (He not only


(b)
7\037 =j

sh6setsu reads
f3

0 yomu novels but


-:J

dake de also writes


t\037 <

wa

naku them.)

kakimasu.

== == = - o ==

- -)

Iv'i ? \037\037
wa

*-..fj' Nihon

t::..t.:

It -c:,:t

Buraun-san
(Mr.

e itta
only

dake de

fi:1v t.: \037c t naku sunda wa

cb \037 *

To
arimasu.

koto mo
lived

Brown

has not wa

been

to Japan, but

has also

there.)

(c)

\037 Q)7

.I\037- \"'i\037\037\\t.:lt-c:t\037

< *\037\037\037\\-C:To

Kono

apato

takai

dake
only

de naku
expensive

taihen

semaidesu.

(This
(d)

apartment is not

but
tJl

it is also
m-c: L
t::.. o

very

small.)

-:J t::.. t.: It -c: 'i t\037 <, $-r'i\037tJ\037J: tJ\037 wa atama ga yokatta Sachiko

c -c t
dake

de

wa naku,
very

totemo

shinsetsu-

deshita.

(Sachiko was not


(e) Kono kuruma
wa

only

bright <,

but J:

was also
<\037\037 wa

kind.)

\037Q).,:t\037tL\037\\t\037t.:,t-c:,:tt\037

*To

kireina

dake

de

naku,
runs

yoku hashirimasu.
well.)

(This car
(f)

is

not

only pretty but

also

(g)

* To t.: It -c: t\037 < 7 ;) !J -j} A t J: < fjlj \037 f3 *A mo yoku hatarakimasu. Nihonjin dake de naku amerikajin work but also Americans hard.) (Not only Japanese ,:. t J: < m\037 L * Iv'i 7 ;) !J -j}\037 3 - p \037 .I\037t.:,t-c:,:tt\037 < JRm7.y7 \037f;j\"\037 To Nakamura-san wa Amerika ya Y6roppa dake de wa naku T6nan Ajia ni mo shutch6shimasu. yoku a business trip not only to America and Europe makes (Mr. Nakamura also to Southeast Asia.) but .y 3 \037'/ \037\037 Iv':t
f1 *\037ft

(h)

t!. It -c: IJ: t\037 < tp oom

\037i51t*

To

Jonson-san

wa

nihongo can

dake

de
only

wa

naku

(Mr. Johnson CD)


In
\"

speak

not

Japanese

chtJgokugo but also

mo hanasemasu. Chinese.) can be

Noun

- dake

de (wa)

naku

Noun

- mo\",

the

two

nouns

fol-

lowed

by various particles.)
.:pkiH:t\037}i(tJ\\;)

(1)

t.:lt-c:'it\037

Tegami
kimashita.

wa came

tomodachi not
only

< 96!:EtJ\\; t** (kaTa) dake de

Lt::.. o
wa

naku

sensei

kaTa mo
teachers.))))

(Letters

from

my friends but

also from

my

100 dake

de (wa)

naku

- (mo) /
t.:Jt-C:'it\037

daro)

(2)

.:pkiHi\037}i(f::)

< 96!:EI:: t\037\037 * Lt::.. o naku

Tegami (I
'

wa tomodachi

(ni) dake de wa
to

sensei

ni mo
my

kakimashita.

wrote

letters not

only

= [Related Expression] !0 !!)


In to

my friends, but

also to

teachers.)

the define

When one needs majority of cases dake can be replaced by bakari. limitation in a rigid way, however, For example: dake is preferable.
to

[1] [Teacher
cb

his student.]
t\037 It /?? r:tJ'''J -c: < +-\037 t fll%t ni jukka dake / ?? bakaTi de naku

L t::.. * -c: ,:. +\037t::

L -C.t3 \037 t\037 \037 \037\\o jtJikka

Ashita

made
okinasai.

mo benkyo-

shite
(Study

not only

Lesson 10 but

also

Lesson

11 by tomorrow.)

(c:>dake))

dare t:.. '5 -5


j

allX.)

\037;:\037;i1\037i\037i\037\037 conjecture

ak\037
j

probabl y gainai);

particular
,....

based on information or evidence)


which is not

any
(

......\037\"......\037\037..............\037!)

[REL. kamoshiTenai yoda (rashii,

(ni

chi-

soda2)])

. Key

Sentence) Sentence
(informal)t

- '/ 7 \037\037.
Andason-san

\037 Iv \037

'i

a*

\037 \037i<

t!. 0? daro
Japan.))

wa Nihon
will

iku

/ -c:L J: ? 0 / desho.

(Ms.
tDa

Anderson

probably

go to
drops.)))

after

Adj (na) stem and N

daro

101)

Fermation) ( i)
{V

/ Adj

(i)} inf

t!. 0
daro)

?
t!. 0

{aiS-r

giS

Lt::..}

will (s.o.

= =
probably

talk / probably

talked)

{hanasu
f\037v\\

hanashita})

daro)
t:. 0

-:J t.:.} / iNitJ\037

(s.t. t!.-:Jt::..}
datta}
t!. 0
daro)

is

/ was probably

expensive))

{takai

/ takakatta}
(na)

daro)
N})

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

{0 /
{0 /

t!. 0

?
/ was probably

daro

(fit t,p {shizuka {JIG!:E

/ r;;/)\\ t!. -:J t::..} / shizukadatta} /:%!:E

(s.t. is
(s.o. is

quiet))

t!.

-:J

t::..}

{sensei /
Examples)

sensei

datta})

t!. 0 ? daro)

/ was probably

a teacher))

(a)

cb (f)

7 .I\037- \" ':1if6v\\-C: L J:

?0

Ano apato wa takai desho. is probably (That apartment expensive.) (b) p.y -y - 'i A \037- tJU-=Ft!. 0 ? 0 wa ski ga jozu daro. Roja
(Roger is
probably

good

at skiing.) daro.

(c)

cb (f)

A ,:1 tp OOA t!.

0 ?0 Chinese.)

Ano

hi to
man

wa

chugokujin is probably

(That

CD)

1. Daro
2.
used
with

is originally

the

informal

conjecture The

form of the formal

copula da,

but

it

is used
Probability with

as an auxiliary
adverbs daro

of

conjecture.

version is desho.
kitto sounds

tabun

or

(1) 7

\037 1/\"

as tabun, osoraku and The speaker'sconjecture with osoraku, and even more certain '/ \037\037 lv'it;:,5\037N f3 *-..tT < t:. 0 ? 0 such or desho. wa tabun
will
\037 Iv \037 Nihon probably

are sometimes more certain

kitto.

Examples:

Andason-san

e iku go < t!.

daro.
to Japan.)

(Ms.
(2)

Anderson

most

7 \037 \037
Andason-san

'/

,:1 \037? \037f3 *-..fi


Nihon

wa kitto
certain

e iku

0 ?0 daro.
will

(I'm

almost

that

Ms. Anderson

go

to

Japan.))))

102

daro

/ -dasu)
questions

3. Daro / desho with the question marker ka makes less direct. Compare(3) and (4).
:==

softer

or

(3)

* t:. .t

? \0371:
all

T b'o

!0

-)
(4)

Daijobu desu

ka.
J: ? b'o

(Is it
* t:. .t

right?)
I.,

? \0371:

Daijobu desha

ka.
all right.)
intonation

(I
4. S
daro

wonder

if it's

/ desho

with rising
rr <
f=. \037? iku

asks

for the

hearer's

agreement.

(5)

a.

\037 b

Kimi mo (You will

daTa?
too,

go

(am

I) right?)

b.

;:,tL, (Isn't

tL \037'1: \037

I., J: ? ?

Kore, kirei desha?


this

pretty?)

The
S

sentence-final particle ne also asks for the hearer's agreement, but intonation is softer or less direct. daro / desho with (t:) ne) rising
(6).

Compare (5a) with


(6)

\037brr<no
Kimi

mo
will

iku nee
go

(You

too, won't

you?))

-dasu

-W-r)

aux.

'V.

(Gr.

1))

\037\037\037\037 \037\037\037\037.......\037)

out;

begin

to; start

to

[REL. -hajimeru]
(ANT.

-owaru))))

-dasu . Key

103)

Sentence)
Subject 1ff tJ\037

V masu
-=-==0 IJJ\037

ttl L t::.. / ttl

L*

L t::.. o

' \037 , = = ,

Kuruma

ga
to

ugoki
move.))

dashita / dashimashita.

==

= D : : \037)

(The Fermation)

car started

Vmasu

ttl-r-

dasu
t\037Lttl-r-

(s.o. starts (s.o. starts

to to

talk)

hanashidasu)

1t\037ttl-rtabedasu)
Examples)

eat))

(a)

\037\037:. mtJ\037\037!J

ttl L t::.. o

ame ga furidashita. it began to (Suddenly


KytJni
(b)

rain.) Lt::.. o

-\037\037:.t\037-:J-Cm\037-CtJ;;\037ttl

/ssai

(Lit.
start (c)

ni natte hajimete arukidashita. He started to walk only after he became to walk


until

a year

old. (= He didn't

he

was a year

old.\302\273

7 Ii t!. tL 'IJ\037\037 ;t ttl L t::..lv\"'t* wa dare ga kangaedashita (Who thought out that idea?)
.-{

.:c (/) 7

.{ 7

-r- tJ\\o n desu

Sono

aidia

ka.

(d)

-Jtjr\037'

\037? \037? .:c(/)*m\037\037 Lttl (* 6 \037,tJ\037\037t-c

Lt::.. o
that

/chljikan

gurai

kakete toto
about

sono hon-

ya

0 sagashidashita.

(After spending em)

an

hour,

I finally

located

bookstore.))

1. Dasu

in

V masu+dasu
it

is used 'cause

as

an

auxiliary

verb.

When
is

it

is used

as

a full verb,

means

something to ambiguous; one


tsukuridasu

becomevisible'.
meaning

2.

Vmasu+dasu

is normally

'-

other

is 'begin
'.)))

to

-'.

Thus,

means

'turn

out' and the out' or ' begin

to make

104

-dasu)

3.

masu

+ dasu conj ugates


tet\037, \037

as a Gr. 1 Verb.)
neg, nonpast)

(inf,

==-=

sana;

DI)

L*-r
shimasu

(fml,

nonpast)

T
\037\037 Llfj-

(inf,

nonpast)

su

hanashida1t\037lfj-

it'i
seba

(conditional)

tabeda-

.:t?
s6

(volitional)

L-C

(te-form)

shite Lt::..
sh;
4. [Related
ta) (inf,

past)

Vmasu+owaru' Expression]

finish

-ing'

is

an

antonym

of Vmasu+dasu

hajimeru.

-dasu in the sense of 'begin to former indicates a non-volitional is more broadly used. Thus,
the
[1]

-'

is

different

and

abrupt

from -hajimeru beginning while

in

that

the

latter

.:to.:t0tJ;;\037tfjcY)*
Sorosoro

I.,

J:?

*tJ;;\037W

1.,*

I.,

J:?

tJ\037o

(It's
[2]

getting

aTukihajimemasho late. Shall we

/ *aTukidashimasho

ka.

begin

to

walk?)

tfjcY) f.Litt,}\037tJ;; \037 Watashitachi

t= / \037\037 W I., t= JtjJlJ

ga

aTukihajimeta to walk,
Yamada

fB it t,};* t.: o / aTukidashita

tok;

Yamada-tach;

ga

kita.

(When

we

started

and

his company

came.)

[3]

\037? L-CtJ\0377ttJ\0376tettJ\037-:Jt::..tJ\037,

.9Jfi\037f;:t3\037I.JWl.,t=
otoko

D6shite
hajimeta.

ka wakaranakatta

ga.

wa

I?? t3\037I.JtfjcY)t=o / ??okorikytJni okoTidashita

(I

don't

know

why,

but

the man suddenly

started

to

get

angry.))))

del
del

105)

-c'

prt.
hiC for

\037
! (
except . Key

at.

location

of existence

! I)

, in. , on [RE L. ni 4 ;

ni 6 ; 0 2])

\037 :!

I D

Sentence)
Noun

Topic (subject)
fLJM

(location)
-r:

Predicate (non-existential)
::l-\037kohi \037 fA

'i

\037\037\037m

Iv t!. /

fA1!-

* '- t.:: o

Watashitachi
(We

wa

kissaten

. de
shop.))

o nonda

/ nomimashita.

drank

coffee at a coffee

Examples)

(a)

\037!JT'i7.1\037-

\037-r:1t'1\037\\-C\"'\\*To

Yuriko

wa depato

de
at

hataraite

imasu.

(Yuriko
\037

is working de
wa

a department

store.)

*-\037\037\03797-r:ti+=n\037.\0370

Osutoraria

jtJnigatsu

wa natsu
in

da.

(In
(c)

Australia

it is

summer

December.))

Iv'i 1ih\037 \037 Shimazaki-san

a *-r: 'i 7C m -r:'-t.:: o wa Nihon de wa


healthy

genkideshita.

(Mr.
(d)

Shimazaki was

in Japan.)

\037 v \037 'i

Heren (Helen

m 'jJ -C. 11 -r: Gfk -:J t.:: 0 wa hajimete butai de sang on the

utatta.

stage

for

the

first time.))

aD) Del
cannot

be

used to indicate
aru

the existential verb is used, as in (1).


(1) a. Konban

'

(inanimate

location of existence. (t:)nl\"6) things) exist' occurs with


*To

However, an

if

event,

de

\0371!t.yAQ)*\"'C!

/ *1:'.I\037-7..( -t,)\037cb!J

Jimu no
party

ie de / *ni
at Jim's / *

pati

ga arimasu.

(There's a b.
Q) \037 Kino

tonight.)
-( \037 \037 96!:E Q) \037rIi t,); cb -:J t.:: 0 no

? :.
had

Q) \037m\"'C!

I:. 7

kono

(We

heya de / *ni Puraisu-sensei Prof. Price's lecture in this

koen

ga atta.

room

yesterday.))))

106

de

2)

de 2 -c'

prt.)

\037
=====)

['.\037\037\"\"\"\"\"\"\"-\037 a particle which indicates the \037 s.t. for doing s.t.
\037

use

of
\037,)

\037 ?

by;
with

for;

from; in; on;


0 tsukatte])

uSing;

Di

[REL. . Key

Sentence)
Noun

Topic (subject)
'8*\0371v
Miyamoto-san (Mr.

(means)
-r: \037t-f: kai

fi

\037a

/-( A

-..

ff<

wa

mainichi

basu
by

de

sha

/ ff\037*To iku / ikimasu.

Miyamoto

goes to his company

bus

everyday.))

Examples)

(a)

a*Afi'i
Nihonjin

'--r:\037\037\0371t\037Go

wa hashi

de

gohan

0 taberu.

(J apanese

people

eat

rice

with

chopsticks.))
hanashita.

(b) fL)ifi
(We

a *m-r:\037

'- t::.. o

Watashitachi

wa nihongo

de

talked

in Japanese.)
v mimashita.

(c) fL'i .:t:\"Q) \037roo \0377'


Watashi

(I
(d)

\037\037 -r: J! * '- t::.. 0 eiga 0 terebi de saw the movie on TV.)

wa sono

\037? Tofu

\037'i* wa
make

11.. -r:f1:: !J

* To

daizu
tofu

de tsukurimasu.
from soybeans.) J: /v -r:J( -:J t::..0

(We (e) 7

\037 'i

Q) \037'T \037 \037 +

Rar; wa
(Larry

kono

isu

0 jtJdoru

de katta.

bought

this chair for ten

dollars.)
t:. o
de

(f)

\037':I

'Y.-( -'i.:t:\"Q)

v\037-

\037 \037-a-r:.\037't::...:t:\"? ichinichi

Betts;

wa sono
that

repoto 0

kaita
in

soda.
day.))

(I em

heard

Betsy

wrote the report

one

1.

In

general,

de

indicates

something
Typically,
(c).)))

something does something. as in KS and Exs. (a) -

which is used when someone or it indicates means and instruments

de 2 /

de 3 107)

and cause, the phrase nan de, which conreason 2. Since de also indicates One meaning is 'by means sists of nan ' what' and de, is ambiguous: ' and the other is for what reason (=why) '. Thus, of what (=how)' (1) can be interpreted in two ways.) (1)

\037 . ==---= . = i ==
\037)

0 \0 \037

*JIJ

\037 lv'ifiiJ\037*\037\037-\"rr

< Iv\037TtJ\037o

Honda-san

wa nan
Why

(How /
[Related

is Mr.

de Osaka e iku Honda going to


human

n desu Osaka?)

ka.

Expression]
can the

De2
when

be used

preceding

instead of the phrase noun refers to a


1:\" \037 \037\"\":)

tsukatte

'by

using

-', except

being.

Examples:)

[1] fLJi'i?1!l\037Watashitachi (We

I -c: *

wa takushi by taxi.)
1:\"

* '- t::.. o 0 tsukatte /


L.t::.. o

de kimashita.

came

[2]

fL'iT#t\037\037\"\":)

/ *-c:*Jt\037j/JtJ\037

Watashi

wa kodomo
the

0 tsukatte / *de kagu


using

0 ugokashita.

(Lit. I moved

furniture

my children.))

de 3

-c'

prt.
;m\037\037 and;

'\037
the

because

of;

due

to ;

te-form

...............\037...........\"/............)
. Key

a weak

of desu) that causal relationship

indicates

\037

because [REL. kara

node])

Sentence)
Noun

(cause)
JIij\037 \037 \037BC gakk6 \037

\037\037\037Iv

'j:

1* Iv

Yamaguchi (Lit. cause


Exa

-san

wa

byoki

de

0 yasunda

* '- t::.. o t.: 11*;1j. / yasumimashita. ( = Be-

himself from school. Mr. Yamaguchi was ill and absented Mr. Yamaguchi was ill, he didn't come to school.)))

m pies)
cb

(a)

'-t\037'iWJ*\037\037\037*\037\037To

Ashita (I'm

wa kimatsushiken having
an

de

taihen

desu.
tomorrow's

awful

time

because of

final

exam.))))

108
(b)

de a) *
m\"'t*

trt tJ; =- b tL t::..0

Game (Lit. D!) (c)


fJ) \037

de hash; Because

ga

kowareta. rain

of heavy
bridge.\302\273)

the

bridge

broke down.

(= Heavy

rain

destroyed

the

? 'i\037,

tt:.\"'t*

-C \037

\037tLt=.o totemo

Kino

(Lit. hard
(d)

shigoto de Because of my work


wa yoru.

tsukareta.
very

I got
very

tired

last night.

(= I

worked

so

last

night

that
A\037

I got

tired.\302\273)

\037'j:\037im*tX\"'t*

L * Lt=.o

Chichi (My em)

wa

kotstJjiko was

de nytJinshimashita.

father

hospitalized

due to a

traffic

accident.))

1. Someof the
te-form

uses

of desu. (1 b) :

of de 3 (such as KS and Ex. (a\302\273 are very close to the For example, KS can be paraphrased into two sentences

(1a)
(1)

and

a.

/V'j:m1l\\\"'t* \037\037\037 Yamaguchi-san

Lt::.. o

wa byoki
was

deshita.

(Mr. Yamaguchi
b.
Iv \037\037\037

ill.) * L t::.. 0 absent


the which

'i

1*;1j. \037BC \037


wa

Yamaguchi-san (Mr . Yamaguchi


And KS can tences using
be the

gakko

was

0 yasumimashita. from school.)


result

considered te-form

to be
of desu

of combining the two senmeans 'be - and'. basically

2.

that is beyond human precedes de 3 expresses something control It is also to be (such as illness, flood, accident, rain, and fire). that de 3 co-occurs with noted noun, if a predicate expresses someany is beyond human control. If the co-occurring that thing predicate that is controllable, the particle de is no longer expresses something 2 de 3; it is de 2 of means. (t:) de ) Compare(2a) and (2b) below:
A

noun

that

(2) a.

7 \037\037-c:

-\037:. let Iv:\302\245

Go

de arerugi ni naru. (Lit. Eggs cause me allergy.


Tamago
b.
\037\037-C:*A v\037

(== I'm

allergic to

eggs.\302\273

\037f1:Go
tsukuru. eggs.))))

Tamago de omuretsu 0 (I make an omelette with

de 3 / de\037

109)

a noncontrollable (2a) and (2b) contain predicate arerugi ni naru 'be' come allergic' and a controllable make predicate omuretsu 0 tsukuru 3 and an omelette', respectively. in de and are de (2a) Therefore, (2b)

de 2,

respectively.

=
=

[Related Expression]
de is a very )oose marker kara 3 and node are clear subordinate

= z=

The particle

of cause

due to

its

origin;

in contrast,

conjunctions

of cause /

reason.
3 ;

(t:)kaTa

node))

de 4 -c'

prt.)

r \037r\037icl;\037hi;hi;di\037a;e\037\037
? ? \037

\037

when

s.t. terminates

or

? S \037

at. ,

O n. ,)

in nil])

the

amount

[REL.

of time a period of activity has taken \"\"\"\037\037\037\037............................,......,,'-\"\"\"\037/)

. Key Sentence)
Topic \037\037WJ

(subject) 'j:

Noun liJJ

(time) +B

-r:

*\037bG owaru

/ *\037b!J

*To

Harugakki

wa

gogatsu
ends

taka
10.))

de

/ owarimasu.

(The spring
Examples.)

term

on May

Kono konsato

=\037\037\037\037-\037\037+\037-r:\037b!J*To wa jilji de owarimasu.


concert

(This
(b)

will

be over

at

ten o

o'clock.)

fL\037r\037 A

\037-

\037 fi\037jJ

-r: \037 tLo


wa

Watashi

no pasupoto
expires

rokugatsu

de kireru.

(My passport
(c)

in June.)

:fJ \037:'*-CtJ\037 6\037 a -r:=:\037\037:.tct Go 7 j. \037

Amerika

ni kite kara kyo de sannen ni naru. since I came to America.)))) (It's been three years

110

de

4)

em) 1. In
===-

general,
X.)

de 4 indicates

that something

lasts

for

a period

of

time

up

to

\037

D::

2.

When

in X
rather

de

refers

of means
(1)

than

to a duration of the de of termination

time,

as

in (1), it is the
(c:>

de

time.

de 2)

\037 \037lHIJ lv'i-Jmr\037'\037.:cQ)

v\037-

\037 \037.\037,t::..o

Yamada-san (Mr.

wa isshDkan

Yamada

de sono rep6to 0 kaita. wrote the report in a week (lit. using a week).)
of de 4
in

[Related
Nil

Expression] in

can be used

place

KS Qo

and Exs.

(a)

and

(b),

as in

[1].

[1]

\037\037WHi1LjJ

Harugakki

+ a -c:/ I=i\037b wa gogatsu toka


term

de /
May

ni owaru.
10.)

(The spring
When When

ends

on

is that the spring term de is used, the nuance lasts 10. up to May ni is used, however, the sentence simply indicates the time when the
term

spring

ends.)

*Semantic

Derivations of
<

De)

Instrument>

de 2 :

.y 3 Jon

\037

'i. -c:\037:fJ ::I -.. ff -:J t::..0 wa kuruma de Shikago e itta.


went

(John
<

to

Chicago

by

car.))

Means>

de 2 :
'- t::.. o

f.Lit'i\037ilt-c:\037\037

Watashitachi de

'

wa eigo

de

hanashita.

using')

(We
< \037

talked
Cause>

in English.)
de 3 :
t:. 0 -c::. b \037'L
tadD

:c Q) * 'i am ie wa Sono

de

kowareta.
to

(That house collapsed due


<

the typhoon.)

Reason>

de 3 :
-:J t::.. o t.t. tJ\037

\037'i\037\037-c:ff.t

Boku

wa shiken

de

ikenakatta.

(I couldn't

go (there) because of the

exam.))))

de
<

/ demo

111)

Material

>

de 2 : < \"':) r
cb \037

-+

fL 'i

=e

-c:

Iv t!. 0
kutsushita

Watashi

wa keito

de

0 anda.

(I knit
Place>

socks
del:
\"',\"':)

= =
I

\"\

with

wool.)

D i))

<

-+

mT'i
Michiko

\037.\037-c:f1l%tT toshokan

G 0 de benkyosuru. at the library.)

wa itsumo
usually

(Michiko
<

studies

Required

time>
'j: =:

de 2:

-+

a 1: =- Q) v \037- \037 \037. \"\" t::..o Kimura-san wa mikka de kono repoto 0 kaita. Kimura wrote this report in three days.) (Mr.

*ft

Iv \037

<

Time>

de

-t

ft*'i1LJtj-C:\037b !J * To wa goji de owarimasu. Shigoto


(My

work

ends

at five o'clock.)

< ......

Required

cost>

de 2:
J: IV-C: J( -:J t::..o de hon 0 jtJdoru book for ten dollars.))

fLfi;: Q)*\037+
Watashi

wa kono

katta.

(I bought this

demo
f

-c't'>

prt.)

\037\037.)

the

te-form of desu

plus

mo

'even'

\037

even

112

demo)

. Key Sentences)
(A)) = i

=
0 ;)

Subject
;t\037

Predicate
\037t

:t

\037 tJ\037?

tJ\037v\\ :t To / :t \037

Sensei

demo

machigau makes

/ machigaimasu.

(Even a teacher
(B))

mistakes.))

Topic (subject)
fL

Direct

Object

Verb
\037t

'j:

IIL.t,'

ft.

TQ/I-:tTo
suru

Watashi

wa

muzukashii
difficult

shigoto

demo

/ shimasu.

(I will even (C))

do a

job.))

Noun

Prt
fJ\\ \037

- \037\037
Koko
(Even

\037t

\037:f:\037 FUJisan

tJ\037J!*.Q

kaTa
from

demo
here

ga

/ J!*.:tTo mieru / mlemasu.

you can see Mt.

Fuji.))

Formation')

(i)

\037t

demo)

96!:E

tJ\037

(subject)

-+

96!:E

\037t

(even a teacher) (even a teacher)

sensei ga
96!:E
\037

senseidemo)
(object)

-+

96!:E

\037t

sensei 0
(ii)

senseidemo)
\037t

N + Prt

demo)
96!:E

1::

\037t demo) \037t demo)))

(even

with

a teacher)

sensei to
Jfi);(
Tokyo

tJ\037 t>

(even from Tokyo)

kara

demo Example-s)

113)

(a)

T#t\037

t .:t Iv t.t.

\037\037 'j:7ttJ\037 !J

:t T

J: 0 =

Kodomo demo sonna koto wa wakarimasu yo. (Even a child can understand that sort of thing.)
(b) ;td\037v\\

=) =0 =

'- t::.. v\\ Iv \037TtJ;,

J3

PI J3 \037t tJ\037:t v\\:t -tt Iv n\037o demo


all

Q-ai

shitai

n desu

ga.
but

nichiyobi

kamaimasen to see
you

ka.
even

(I'd like to
(c)
(/) )..Jj:f!J. \302\243b

see you,
sakana
anything,

is it
:t To

right

on Sunday?))

\037t \037\037t 1t\037 wa

Ano hito
(Lit. fish

demo

niku demo
it be

tabemasu. fish

He eats and

whether

or

meat.

(= He eats

both

meat.\302\273)

em) 1. WH-word+demo
yields

the

following

meaning depending on
who what when; where which

which

WH-

word is used.)

t.:tL\037t
fPJ-c:

t t

v\\\"'?\037

\037 \037 \037t \037\037 tL \037t (1)

dare nan itsu doko dore

demo demo demo demo demo

(no matter (no matter (no matter (no matter (no matter

it is; anyone) it is; anything) any time) it is; any it is)


place)

(/) \037.M'j: \302\243b Ano

toshokan

t.:tL \037t AtL :t To wa dare demo hairemasu.


that

(Anyone

can enter
tJ\037:t v\\:t

library.)

(2)

v\\ \"'? \037t

-tt Iv J: 0
yo. be

Itsu demo kamaimasen


(Any time 2. The
will

fine.) be confused
de
with

not particle demo should de + mo, as in (1) below where in (2) where de is a particle

the

particle
location

is a particle of means (= de 2).

of

combination (= del), and

(1)

J3*-c:t-1 \0377 de mo (In Japan, too,


Nihon
.:t \037 'j:.I\037.A -c: Soko

vtJ;*\037t.t.r\037'J.fH:.t.t.-:J-Cv\\Qo
infure

ga

okina is
a

mondai

ni

natte

iru.

inflation

big

problem.)

(2)

t ff.t:t

TtJ\037o ikemasu

wa basu

de mo
there

ka.

(Can

you also get

by

bus?))

(t:) del;

de 2))))

114

do

do\037?

adv.
how;

:=='

..0 =
\037)

\037:;; in\037\037;r\037;i:e;b\037\037\037k\037! s.o. / s.t. or the about the state of \037 s.t. of doing way I < \\ I --\037 ...........\037\037'-\ -...\037'\"
. Key

in what

way)

Sentence)

Topic (subject)
j3ro:\0371v Q-ka-san
(How's

'j:

E?

(1:T

tJ\037)o

wa
your

do

(desu ka).

mother?))

Examples)

(a)

ffi '- \"\" 7 ,,.\037 \" Ij: E


Atarashi;

apato

? 1: T tJ\037o wa do desu ka.

(b)

(How's your new apartment?)) :1 -1:: - Ii E ? 1:TtJ\037o Kohi wa do desu ka. is the coffee? / Would (How
:f:PI
(How
J3

you

like

coffee?

/ How

about

coffee?))

(c)

,j: E
wa

? ?
do?
Saturday?))

Doyobi
em

about

1. The
2.

polite

version

of do is

ikaga.
to

In

very

informal

speech desu

ka

is omitted

after do

or

ikaga. used

Do and ikaga are (b) and (c).


hearer's
In

also

offer
ikaga

or suggest
are

mind
what

case, do or regarding the offer


this

asking

something, as in Exs. about the state of the


rather
than

or

suggestion

about

the

state of

is being to

offered
way

or suggested.
of doing

3. Do is also used
is usually (1)
\037 Q)\037.Ij:

ask the

something.

In this case, ikaga

not used.

Example:) TtJ\037o yomimasu word?))))

\037* ? Mfc7j.:t

Kono

kotoba

wa do
read

ka.

(How

do

you

this

do

115)

4. The

idiomatic expression do shite 'lit. manners, reasons or causes. Examples:)


(2) \037?

doing

what'

IS

used

to ask

'- -C J3 *m

\037 tll%l

'-

-C \\t'

Q Iv 1: T tJ\037o iru

Do

shite

nihongo 0

benkyoshite you

n desuka. Japanese?

\037 = -

(How (= In what way) are studying Japanese?) (3)


\037 Q)*'j: \037?

- D == -=-)))

studying

Why

are

you

- -

'-

-Ct5tLt::..Iv1:TtJ\037o shite

Kono
(Why As

ki wa
did
(2),

do

kareta

n desu

ka.
is sometimes is

this
unless

tree die?)
the

seen

in

biguous. (The interrogative less colloquial than do shite.))

context is clear, do shite t adverb naze 'why

unambiguous

ambut

116 e
\037

e)

prt.)
that

a particle
S

indicates some

the direction

to;

towards

toward which
ment

directional

move-

[REL.

made;

ni 4 ;

n;7))

=
\037 \037 ==

)\037.\037-...--...-)
. Key

or action

proceeds

\037)

\037 \037 \037

Sentence)
Noun

(location) .-..
n\037ff ryoko

fL
Watashi

'j:

96jIM

\037ts

,:. ni

ff

-:J

wa senshu
on a trip

(I

went

Kyoto to Kyoto last week.))

t::.. / ff \037:t '- t::.. o itta / ikimashita.

Exa m pies)
(a)

fL,j:fLIfl!Q)? Watashi wa
(I

\037.-..mff\0371:\037-:J

t::..o

went t.:
was
-:J

back

Sapporo no uchi home to Sapporo


node

e hikoki
by

de

kaetta.

plane.)

(b)

!&.

t::..Q) 1: '\"\\.:t '\"\\ 1: 7}'-\" m

t::.. 0

Jishin
(It (c)

datta

isoide

so to

e deta.
outside

an earthquake,

so I

went

quickly.))

m '- t::..tJ;, \037.-..\037\037\037 e tegami 0 Chichi (I sent

:t t.:\037*tJ;*t\037 \"'\\0
dashita my

ga.

mada but

hen}i ga
reply

konai.

a letter

to

father,

his

has

not come

yet.))

(Related

Expressions]

I.

The particles e, made, and point of contact, (1] 'j: QIi QJfi);('\037-c:
Harubaru (I came all

and

nP focus

on direction, course

(up

to

-),

respectively.

Thus,)

Tokyo

/ ?I= / ?\037*t::..o made / ?ni / ?e to Tokyo.)

kita.

the

way

[2]

Jfi);(1=

/ \037 / **-c:+=\037,:.\037\"'\\t::..o

Tokyo

ni / e /
in

*made }uniji
at 12:
'\"C! / *ni

ni

tsuita.

(I arrived

Tokyo

- 3- \037\037 / [3] '::'.:J.


Nyuyoku e /

00 o'clock.)
t ? bin wa
far \302\243b !J :t

1= Q)fjHj: no

-tt No

made /
any

mo arimasen.
New

(There isn't

flight

to / as

as

York

any

more.))))

e
[4]
\037 \037 *-c:

117)

Koko
(Your

/ *\037 / *1::Q)m'j:\037tJ\037 -:J t::..1: '- J: ? 0 made / *e / *ni no michi wa warukatta


way native

desho. of
contact)

here

must

have

been
and

rough.)
ni1

In
no).

actuality,

speakers
in

use e
the

(of point

almost
by

interchangeably

except
of direct

case of [3]
,
meaning

(i.e., ni
into;

cannot

be followed

II.

Even the
e as In:)

ni

contact

onto

can

be replaced

by

=E\037 = :: \037)

[5]

:tdM8 I:: / \037A -:J t::..o Q-furo ni / e haitta. I entered into a bath. (Lit.
fJLQ)

(= I

took

bath.\302\273

[6]

1:1::

\037*

-:J t::.. o

T sukue (I

no ue ni / e notta. got onto the table.)


/ \037\037*\037.\"'\\t::..o

[7]

\037fil::

Kokuban

ni /
kanji

kanji

0 kaita.
blackboard.))))

(I wrote

on

the

118

gal

gal\"/J<'
\037

prt.
wa l

whkh \037d\037h\037\037 \037;;cicl; [REL. '-- \037\"\"\"'\037\037\037...............\037\037......!.)

('i)))

. Key

Sentence)
Subject

Predicate
tJ\037

:: z= . G =)

.. ffi

-:J -C I\037\037
fu

\"\"-3

/ \"\"\"1To

Arne

ga

tte

iru /

imasu.

(Lit. Rain
Example-s)

is falling

(= It's

raining.\302\273)

(a)

fLQ)

m.MH=. ,j: A 7
heya

v;t
ni

Watashi no
(There (b)

tJ\037 N; !J :t To wa sutereo my

ga

arimasu.

is a stereo

in

room.)

tb, Q) \037 TtJ;\037 -:J -C A, Noriko ga hashitte (Oh,

\"\" -3

0 iru.

Noriko is running.)
Q) \037

(c) A:

v A \" =} \037'i{PJtJ\037;td \"\" L \"\"\"\"fTtJ\\o

Kono

resutoran
in

wa

nani

ga

oishiidesu

ka.

(What is good B:
Suteki

this

restaurant?)

A7-\037tJ\037\037\"\"LIt'\037To

ga oishiidesu.
good.))

(Steak is
CD

1. Ga

marks

the
is

subject
first

of

sentence

when

the

information

expressed

by
is

the subject
presented

introduced
is,

in

discourse.

When

the subject
been replaces
wa

topic (that duced into the discourse),


Consider \302\253\037\302\273
which

as the

the information
the

has

already

introga.

however,

topic

marker

(\037wal

the

folktales, (1) 1f k -A Lt::.. o

illustrates

following discourse, a typical the different uses of ga and wa.


Iv 1:' It'\"1

opening

in 1:

Q) 1\"3 t.: \"\" \037 Iv f.J({j:

L t::.. o

;td

-C b J(Z Iv I\037 t.: \"\" \037 \037

Mukashimukashi

hitori
binbodeshita.

no o-ji-san
lived

ga

sunde

imashita.

O-ji-san
the

wa totemo
(Once

upon
very

a time

there

an old

man.

He

(lit.

old man)

was

poor.))))

ga

119)

'old man' appears for the first time in the sentence, o-ii-san o-ii-san is the subject but not the topic in this sentence. Theretells something about fore, it is marked by ga. The second sentence in the first sentence. the old man introduced O-ii-san is now the topic; it is marked by wa rather than Note the parallelism here therefore, ga. in between and and in English. wa a and the ga Japanese
In the
first

discourse;

2. Ga is

also replaced element. For example,


(2)

by

wa in

if the

subject

is

in

contrast

with another
==

Ex. (c), B could

also say:)

7-

G i) \037
\037 'j:;td \"\"

'- \"\" 1: To

Suteki wa
(Steak

oishiidesu.

is good
but

food
Here,

at least)

(but other food is not). / (I Steak is good.))

don't

know

about

other

'steak' is newly in the discourse and is not the introduced marked This is in this case, IS wa. because topic; yet by suteki, contrasted with other food.) being
suteki
it is 3.

Since
can

WH-words
never

like

nani
they

'
are

what',
never

dare ' who'


marked
by

and wa,

doko as in

'what

place'

be topics,

(3).)

(3)

\037l!$ft.:tLfJ(

/ *1\037*:tTtJ\\o
kimasu

dare ga / *wa (Who is coming tonight?))


Konban
4.

ka.

The
trasted

subject
a.

in

subordinate

clauses
in

is marked

by

ga

unless

it is a con-

element,

as seen

(4).) \037A-..ff<
\037\037 \0371d1\037t\037tJ\037-:Jt::..o

(4)

fL'j:7'1::.-fJ(
Watashi (I

*1\03777

wa Debi

ga / *wa Furansu
Debbie

e iku

koto 0
France.))

shiranakatta.

didn't

know

that

was going

to

b.

.y
Jin

\037.j:mfJ(

/ *I\0377 r\037- \" \037 lfit::..\037:t t.:\037-C \"\"t::.. o

wa boku

ga / *wa
in

apato

0 deta

toki mada nete


my

ita.

(Gene

was still

bed

when

I left

apartment.))

c.

fLfJ(

(/) ? J!t::..\037OOHj: / *I\037\037

t: .{ \037 (/)\037Ii!Ht.: -:J t::.. o

ga eiga wa Doitsu no eiga (The movie I saw yesterday was a German film.)
Watashi
kino

/ *wa

mita

datta.

Note

that
relative

topics are
clauses,

not

presented
may

in subordinate
be

clauses.) as
in

5.

In

the subject

marked

by no,

(5).
3))))

(\037Relative

Clause, Note

120

2) gal / ga

(5)

Q) ? J!t::..\037OOHj: t: -{ \037 fLO) \037 Q)\037nmt.: -:J t::..o Watashi no kino mita wa Doitsu no eiga movie I saw yesterday was a German (The

eiga

datta.

film.)
be

6. In

some expressions,
subjects

elements and

which

are considered to
by

direct wa

objects
,.\"

are presented as
(6) a.
Boku :G==) b.

are marked
'- \"'\\0

ga.

(t::),.\"

ga)

m'i A \037(I want

\037:b

f.J(W\\

wa supotsuka a sports car.

ga

hoshii.

(Lit. To me,
0
wakaru.

a sports

car is

desirable.\302\273

Q \037T'j: A \037-{ \037\037gfJ()ttJ\037 Haruko wa supeingo ga (Haruko

understands

Spanish.
concerning

(Lit. To
ga,

Haruko,

Spanish

IS

understandable.\302\273

7.

To sum up
(A)

the

important

rules

Ga

(B)

(c)
(D)

the subject when it is newly introduced in a discourse. the subject is a topic or a contrasted element. Wa replaces ga when WH-words are always marked by ga when they are the subject of
marks
sentence.

(E)

in subordinate clauses is marked by ga unless it is element. When or stative transitive verbs, predicates are transitive adjectives in English are the elements which to the direct object correspond
The

subject

a contrasted

marked
[Related

by

ga.)

Expression]
topic

The
to

marker

wa is often mistaken

for

subject

marker.

It appears
1 and

marker because it often and Characteristics of Japanese Grammar,


be

a subject

replaces
2. Topic.)

ga.

(See

Notes

2,

l (t::) wa \302\253\037\302\2

ga

\"/J<.

con}.) coordinate

a disjunctive ! combines \037 that


()

j\037-\"\"\"\037\037
conjunction !
but

two sentences

[RE L.
keredomo;

daga; dakedo; demo;


shikashi))))

ga

121)

. Key

Sentence)
Sentence 1

Sentence2 '- t::.. \037


tJ\037 ;J.

.y3\037 ,j:
Jon (J ohn

t::..

!J

'j:

-:J t::.. *t\037 tJ\037

/ *:t

-it Iv \037'-

t::.. o

wa

kita /

kimashita

ga didn't

Meari (come).))

wa konakatta /

kimasendeshita.

came but

Mary

Fermatien)

SI

== ==

tJ\037S2

= =

ga
\0371!\037'i

i*\"\"t.:

tJ\037tX1!\037

'i
wa

i*tJ\037t\037tJ\\-:Jt::.o

(Taro swim.))

swam

but Jiro

didn't

Taro

wa oyoida

ga Jiro

oyoganakatta.)

Examples)
(a)

fL'j:

1::\" -Iv

.j:\037U

t\037 \"\"0 tJ\037i!\037Hj:\037:t

Watashi

wa b;ru

(I drink

beer

but

wa nomu ga sake don't drink sake.)


nai.

wa

nomanai.

(b)

\037ff \037'- t::.. \"\" tJ\037jo\037tJ;t\037 \"\"0

Ryoko (I

0 shitai

ga o-kane ga
but

want

to

travel

I don't have

money.)

em

1. Ga

in English, combines two sentences which express contrastive weaker than but in that it is sometimes ga is much used simply to combine two sentences for stylistic reasons even if those two sentences do not represent contrastive ideas. For example, the ga in (1) is used simply as a transition word to connect two sentences.
, like but ideas.

However,

( 1)

a.

/ \037
Pat;

7- .{

\037'-

:t T

fJ(

* :t

-it

Iv tJ \037 0 ka.
you

0 shimasu

ga

kimasen

(We'll

have a party.

Wouldn't

like

to come?)

b.

EB r:p \037 lv'ifLQ)

Tanaka-san
omoshiroi

(Mr.

Tanaka

interesting

? \037,:. t Jfifk *\"1 TIJ<jo t '- 0 \"\"A \037Tho wa watashi no uchi ni mo tokidoki kimasu hito desu nee sometimes He is comes to my place, too. person, isn't he?)
unit

ga
an

2. Ga2
start

makes

a sentence
Thus,

with

the
(2) and

following sentence.
a sentence

it is wrong
in

preceding sentence, not with the to place a comma before ga or to


(3).)))

with ga, as

122

ga

2)

(2)

*.y 3
*Jon

\037 'i

- 'i , tJ; J. '7 \037 * t::.. wa kita, ga Mear; wa

-:J t::.. o tel tJ\037

konakatta.

(J ohn

came,

but

Mary

didn't

come.)
-:J t::.. o tJ\037 konakatta.

(3) *.y3 \037'i*t::..


*Jon

o tJ; J. '7 \037

'i*tel
wa

wa kita.

Ga Mear;
But

(J ohn

came.

Mary must

didn't

come.)
or are

3. SI
GI)

and

S2 in \"SI

\" ga 82 they

be in the

informal, because stylistically


(4) awkward.

are

both

same form whether formal independent clauses. (4) and (5)


(t:) keTedomo)
-:) wa

? ?:t\037\037'i\037i< i!*

??Taro (Taro (5)

L t.: tJ;tX\037\037'i\037i<1J( fl1J' wa oyogimashita ga Jiro swam but Jiro didn't (swim).)

t.: o oyoganakatta.

?:t\037\037'i\037L\\t.:tJ;tX\037\037'i\037i!*1tN-C:

Lt.: o oyogimasendeshita.

?Taro (Taro 4. S2 in

wa oyoida ga Jiro swam but Jiro didn't

wa

(swim).)

\"SI ga S2\" is often omitted when it is understandable context and / or the situation, or when the speaker doesn't want tinue for some reason (e.g., the sentence is too direct, impolite, rassing, etc.). Examples:
(6)

from

the

to con-

embar-

:* t:- .t

\037t.: \037 \"\"\"\302\243 J\037, -t tJ;o

Daijobuda

to omoimasu
it's

(I
(7)

think

all right

but. . . )
desu

ga.

'i J: < i1ll%i-t Q 1v\"\"(*-ttJ\037o wa yoku benkyosuru n (Tom studies hard but. . . )
\"A Tomu
U

ga.

5. When
cally

SI ga

appears

wa typiS2\" expresses contrastive ideas, the contrastive in SI and S2, as in KS and Ex. (a). (t:) wa 1 ((;t\302\273))

(Related

Expressions]
and keredomo express the same idea as ga. make compound sentences like ga does; they of a sentence, as in [1]. (See Note 2.)

Daga, dakedo, demo, shikashi However, the first four cannot must occur at the beginning

[1] a. SI ga
b. c. Keredomo

S2.

*Sl
SI.
differs

daga / dakedo / demo/ shikashi Daga / Dakedo / Demo/ Shikashi


from

S2. S2. is

ga in

that

keredomo

a subordinate

conjunction)))

ga
meaning

/ -garu

123)
a

subordinate hand,

That is, in SI keredomo clause and S2 is a main clause. In both SI and S2 are independent clauses.)
although'.

SI ga

S2\", SI keredomo IS S2\", on the other

-garu

-1J'{Q)

aux.

'D.

(Gr.
to

1))

)\037\037\037\037\037) an auxiliary verb \037


\037 chological < meaning (

attached

a psy-

>

show signs of

-)

-=
G

= .)

? speak er
. Key
(A))

/ physiological a person other . h sows of signs

adjective
than

;
\037

the

.-..\037\037\037\"\"\"\"-.....,

\037\037,,.)

\037

Sentences

Topic
-\037

(subject)
'i

Direct Object
A\037-\0377J\037

Adj

(i) stem -:J t::.. / tJ\037!J\"\302\243 L t::.. o \037l, tJ\037

Kazuo
I I

wa Kazuo

supo tsuka

.
wanting

0
a sports

hash; gatta
car.

/ garimashita. wanted

(Lit. sports

showed signs of

( = Kazuo

car.\302\273)

(B))
Adj V

Topic

(subject)
'i \037
wa \037

Direct Object
/\037A\037\037-A

(i) stem

masu
\037\037t=.

l:EE

Iv \037

\037

-:J t=. tJ\037

L t.: o !J \"\302\243 / tJ\037 / garimashi

Veda-san

aisukurimu

0 of wanting

tabe ta

ga tta

ta.

(Lit. Mr. Ueda showed signs wanted to eat ice cream.\302\273)


Fermation) Adj

to

eat

ice cream.

(= Mr. Ueda

(i /

na) stem

tJ\037 Q

garu ? tL
'-tJ\037Q

(s.o. shows

signs of

being

glad))

ureshigaru)
\037Iv

C ?

tJ\037 Q

(s.o. shows

signs of

being

bothered))))

mend6garu)

124

-garu)

Examples)

(a)

- -f \037'iwa
feels

A
hitori

-:J -C \"\" \"\302\243 -c:-\037 L tJ\037 To de

StJzan

sabishigatte by herself.)
0
iru.

imasu.

(Susan
(b)
Kodomo
(My

lonely

-:J -C \"\" Q -r\037tJ\037\037t::..tJ\037

ga nemutagatte child wants to go to


a group
first

sleep.))

Gi)

laD

1. There is
quires

the
the

as
is

subject.

of adjectives which, in the present tense, usually re(or a person with whom the speaker can empathize) If the subject of a sentence in which these adjectives occur
person

not

first person

(or
o.

one

with

whom

then garu is attached of particles from (1) a.

to the

adjective.

the speaker can empathize), Observe the accompanying change

ga

into

\037'i*1J(:: b \"\"0 Boku wa inu ga kowai. To me dogs are (Lit.


'i*\037 :: b wa inu Fukada-san
Iv \037JIJ \037

scary.

(= I

am scared of iru.

dogs.\302\273

b.

-:J -C \"\" Q 0 tJ\037 0 kowagatte

(Mr.
(2)

Fukada

fears

dogs.)

a.

b.

\0377J -1J(W\\ '- \"\"0 wa supotsuka ga hoshii. (I want a sports car.) -:J -C \"\" Q -!JJ A \037- \0377J - \037W\\ '- tJ\037

m'i

A \037-

Boku

'i

0 iru.

wa .supotsuka 0 hoshigatte (Kazuo wants a sports car.)


Kazuo

If an adjective clause),the garu


and Thus,

embedded clause (except a nominalized is unnecessary even if the tense is nonpast the subject is a person with whom the speaker cannot empathize.

appears in attachment

an

(3)

a.

Iv \037JIJ \037 Fukada-san

'i*

-:J t.: o \037 tJ\037 t> L \\ \037 \037A

wa inu
that

ga kowai
he

to

itta.

(Mr.

Fukada said
supotsuka that

is scared

of dogs.)

b. -!JJ'i A
(I
heard

\037- \0377J -tJ\037\037 L L \\:t

Kazuo wa

Kazuo

? t.:o ga hoshii soda. wants a sports car.)


(\037hoshiP,

Note

3))))

-garu

125

2. Garu

conjugates as a Gr. 1 verb.


L?t.l\037' ranai

Thus,

(inf,

neg, nonpast)

\037*T

(fml, nonpast)

nmasu

Q
ru
W\\

(inf,

nonpast)

L tJ\037-

tL,;f

(conditional)

\037G=

hoshiga

reba

05

(volitional)

ro

-:J-C
tte
-:J tta

(te-form)

t::..

(inf, past) adjecti ves

3.

The

following psychological and


garu.)

physiological

are

commonl

used with

Psychology

Physiology
(Adj
(i\302\273) \037

(Adj
W\\

(i\302\273

\037,

(want)-+W\\

LtJ< \037 hoshigSTu

, 1Jfi \037

(painful)-+1JfitJ<

hoshii

ita;
1; L \037, (painful)-+1;

itagsTu
LtJ< \037

5 tL
ureshii

L\037'

(happy)-+

5 tL LtJ< \037 ureshigsTu

kurushii
tJ\037 \037\037,

kurushigsTu
(itchy)-+
tJ\037 \037tJ<\037

\037L\037'

(Ionely)-+\037

LtJ< \037

sabishii
-t::..\037\\

sabishigsTu
(want

kayui
*\037, samui Ji\037'

kayugsTu
(cold)-+*tJ<
\037

to)-+-

t.:tJ< \037

-tai
\037v\037,

- tagsTu
(scary)-+
\037 vtJ< \037

samugsTu (hot)-+JitJ<
\037

kowai
\037L\037'

kowagsTu
(envious)-+\037

atsu;
t!. Q \037, (Ianguid)-+

atsugsTU
t!. Q tJ<
\037

LtJ< \037 b L 0tJ<\037

urayamashii
j:d

urayamashigsTu

darui <' -:Jt::..\037' (ticklish)-+ kusuguttai


< T

darugsTu
< T

b L 0\037' (amusing)-+j:d

<' -:Jt::..tJ<

\037

omoshiroi

omoshirogsTu

kusuguttagsTu)))

126

-garu

/ goro)
(Adj (na\302\273 \037

J!\037t.:

(troublesome)-+J!\037tJ<

meiwakuda t!. \037,\037

meiwakugaTu)

(dislike)-+

\037 \037,\037tJ<

iyada)
4.
\037 \037 i \037 --)

iyagaTu)

IS

A limited number of -garu forms - gari (ya), meaning' a person

have who

derived shows

noun forms. signs of being)

The form
(t:) -va))

\037 '-tJ\037 \037 C\037)

sabishigari
(a

person

(ya) who always feels

lonely)

:: btJ\037 \037 C\037) kowagari


(a

person

(ya) who is easily

frightened)

*tJ\037 \037 C\037)

samugari
(a

person

(ya) who is sensitive

to

cold))

\037 \037tJ\037 (\037)

atsugari
(a

person

(ya) who is sensitive

to

heat))

goro

\037\037

suf.

\037\037;iili\037 of time)
\037

s;\037i\037oi\037

about;
[REL.

around

/\037\037\037'-\"\"\037\"''''''''''''''''''\037)

kurai /

gurai])

. Key

Sentence)
Noun 'i
wa

Topic (subject)
\037*\037Iv

(time)
=:0

Predicate
?tJ
\037

WI asa
at

-i:\037

tl:iQ
deru

/ tI:i*To
/ demasu.

Suzuki-san

shichiji
about

goro
7: 00 o'clock
in

uchi o
the

(Mr. Suzuki leaves home

morning.))))

goro
Formatien)

127)

(time)

::::

is

O\037)

goro
.=:\037

(ni))
(at

:::: is

O\037) (ni))

about

3 o'clock))

sanji
Examples)

goro

(a)

A:

\"\"\"?::::

TtJ\037o iS\037tJj('\037fT\037\"\302\243

Itsu

goro

Pekin
are

ni

ikimasu

ka.

= II G I)
-Beijing?))

(About B :
*\037Q)AJJ

when

you going
\"\302\243 To

to

\037 iSfT\037

Rainen
(rm
(b)

no rokugatsu goro ikimasu. of next going there around June

year.))

A:

'-t::..tJ\037o \037WHifiiJ\037\037iS\"\302\243-c.*ti\"\"(\"\"\"\302\243

Kesa

wa .nanji

(Until B :

about

what

ka. goro made nete imashita time were you asleep this

morning?))

is \"\302\243 -c.*\037\"\"( '- t::.. 0 \"\"\"\302\243 +\037 \037 Jiiji (I

goro made nete imashita. was asleep until about 10 o'clock.))


is 'i*\037-c.* L t::..tJ o no ima goro wa oyuki time

(c)

\037\037Q)\037::::

Kyonen

deshita
snowed

nee
heavily,

(About
C!D) 1. Goro

this

last year

it

didn't

it?))

is
*

used

with

a specific point

of time.

Thus,

the

following

sentence

is

unacceptable.) ( 1)

'7 \037 \037\037

1:# \037 '- t::.. 0 J! \"\"(\"\"\"\302\243

*Yoru

gOTO terebi
watching

0
TV

mite

imashita.

(*1 was 2. Depending exact time

about

at night.))

(a), the
In

these
the

distance in

on the speakerts time expressions other than perspective, can be as expressions perceived points in time. Thus, in Ex. month in time from the speaker's viewpoint. of June is a point if there is some cases, goro seemseasier to use grammatically between the time of the event and the time of speech,as seen
examples.)))

following

128

goro /
(2)

goto

ni)

1v'='\037\037\\\"\302\243To ??*\037Q)![\037\037JlJrp \037 no natsu gOTO Yamanaka-san ni aimasu. around next summer.)) (*1 will see Mr. Yamanaka

??Rainen

Iv ,:.\037\"'\\ \"\302\243 \037 \037 (3) 1f*\037Q)![ JlJ rp \037 To Sarainen no natsu gOTO Yamanaka-san ni aimasu. (I will see Mr. Yamanaka in the summer in a couple of

years.))

=
;;)

(4)

??

\037\037Q)![

Iv ,:.\037\"'\\\"\302\243 l., t::.. o \037 \037 JlJ rp \037

!G

no natsu gOTO Yamanaka-san ni aimashita. around the summer of last year.) (*1 met Mr. Yamanaka
??Kyonen

(5)

j:3 \037 \037'-

Ototoshi

Iv ,:.\037\"'\\\"\302\243 '- t::.. o JlJ rp \037 q)![ \037\037 no natsu gOTO Yamanaka-san
Yamanaka

ni

aimashita.
the

(I met Mr. before last.)

sometime

during

the summer of

year

(Related
Goro

Expression]

is different
quantity

from

kurai / gurai
Thus,)

about'

in that the latter

IS

used

with

specific [1]

expressions. l.,t::.. o \037 ,=.\037\"\302\243

\037'i'=:\037\037

wa sanji gOTO ni (I went to sleep at about


Boku

nemashita.

3 o'clock.)

[2]

\037'i

.::. \037rp' <.;

l., t::.. o L'ti\"\302\243

Boku (I slept

wa sanjikan

gUTai nemashita.
hours.))

about three

goto )

ni

::: c

f='

prt.)

S.t. takes after interval.)

a certain

in place regularly temporal

succession
or

every

spatial

[REL. mai;

oki

ni])))

goto

ni

129)

. Key
(A))

Sentences)

Topic
fL

(subject) 'i

Number-Counter
\037\037ra' ::\037

,.:
ni

\037

\037 -bXlvt!.

Watashi

wa
medicine

san-jikan
every

goto

kusuri

/ 0 nonda /

Lt::.. -bX1-J.\"\302\243

nomimashita.

(I
(B))

took

three hours.))

=:G=
Topic

(subject)
-

Noun

JEJJ
Shogatsu (They

'i
wa

\037

\037\037

,.:
ni

r\037t\037

\037

\"iL-cG

\"iL-c\"\302\243To

ie

goto
decorations

kadomatsu at every

tateru / tatemasu.
New

put up pine

tree

house on

Year's

Day.))

Examples)

(a)

-\037\037

\037 '.:\037Jj{tJ;cb ni

Go ga aru.
every

Ikka goto

shiken
after

(There is a test
(b) \037M\037

lesson.))

c ':.96!:EtJ;tJ\037bGo

Gakki goto ni sensei ga kawaru. change.)) (Every semester teachers


(c)

*f-t

Iv 'i\037 ? A:: \037 \037 '.:f\037f\037L -c \"\" Go wa au hito goto ni aisatsushite Kimura-san

iru.

(Mr. Kimura greets


(d)
.=. f3 \037\037 ,:.

everyone he
0 shite every

meets.))

'7

.:::. ni

A \037L -c \"\" \"\302\243 T 0 tenisu

Mikka

goto

imasu.
day.))

(I'm playing
(Related

tennis

third

Expression]
ni

Oki

indicates

usage is
amples

comparable

that something is repeated at certain intervals. Although its to goto ni, note the distinct difference in meanings in ex-

[Ia] and [Ib].


\037 Q)..'i=\037t3 =e- (=11:\"\302\243 Go wa

[1] a.

Kono densha
(This

(uta
at

eki oki third

ni

tomaru.

train

stops

every

station.))))

130

goto
b.

n;)

::.

Q)..'j:=\037\037 wa

Kono densha
(This

c.1=1l:* Go futa eki goto


at

ni

tomaru.

train
expression

stops

every

other

station.)
or goto

When a
in meaning, there is
a.

time

precedes meaning,

oki
at

ni

if an
difference time

event takes
in

place
if an

one

ni, there is point in time as


takes

no
in

diOerence
[2a].

But

event

place

within

a certain

period of
\037 \037

as

in

[2b].) =e-I=

[2]

..'iJL\037t3
Oensha (The

/ \037c.1=tI:i G 0

wa gofun train leaves

oki ni / goto ni
every

deru.

five

minutes.)
Hanako

b.

fL'i=Sa=e-l=
Watashi

/
Hanako

'::C.I=:ffiT\037\037-?-C\037'Go

wa futsuka

oki ni / go to ni
every

to atte

iru.

(I'm seeing

third

day / every other

day.))))

-hajimeru

131)

-hajimeru

-1;1.: t,

61) Q)

aux.

'D.

(Gr.

2))

to \037 5.0. I begins \037.t. \037 to be In \\ ...\037\"'\037\037\037\037\037...........---)

do s.t. some state.

or

begins !
(

begin

to
,.\"

[REL.
(ANT.

dasu;

kUTU 2]

-owaru))

. Key
cb

Sentence)

V masu
L t::..
tJ \037 \037

v\037-

\"

\037

.=e-

'j: t: WJ Q /
hajimeru

'i t: WJ \"\302\243 To
==

Ashita

kara

repo to
write

0
paper

kaki

/ hajimemasu.

(I'll begin to
Fermation)

8 \037

\03

my

tomorrow.))

V masu

'i t: WJ Z>
hajimeru

L u: \037\037

t:

WJ Q

(s.o. begins

to
to

talk)

hanashihaji
ft\037

meru)
(s.o.

'i t: WJ Q tab ehajim eru)

begins

eat))

Examples)

(a)

fL'iJ\\JJ
Watashi (I

tJ\037 'i \037 l'AU:\037\037\037lf \037\037;Tj.

wa hachigatsu

began

to read
'i 1964

The \037Q)

t: WJ\"\302\243 L t::.. o kara Genjimonogatari 0 Tale of Genji in August.)


Q) \037 !J \037to \037

yomihajimemashita.

(b)

E*

Q) \037iR

JRJi(,j-

:: is tJ\037 \037 %i < t,t !J 'i t: WJ t::..o

Nihon no koro kara


(fhe
Tokyo

keizai wa

sen-kyuhyaku-rokujuyo(n)nen

no Tokyo about

Orinpikku

no

tsuyoku narihajimeta. Japanese economy began


Olympics.)

to

strengthen

the

ti

me

of the

1964

(c)

A:

\037\\':)n'

\0371;1J-\302\245\037\037WJ'j: tWJt=./v-r!-tlJ'o

Itsu kara kitte

atsumehajimeta

n desu

ka.

(When did

you

start

to collect
WJ *

stamps?))

B:

T\037Q)P\037tJ\037\037\037WJ'j:

Kodomo no

toki

kara

Lt=.o atsume hajimemashita.


was

(I

started

to

collect

them when (lit. since) I

a child.))))

132

-hajimeru)

em)

1.

masu+hajimeru

conjugates t.t
nai \\1\\

exactly like the Gr. 2


neg, nonpast)

Verb

hajimeru.)

(inf,

\037T

(fml,

nonpast)

masu

Q
\037 '= =

(inf,

nonpast)

'i l:. \037-

ru

=8= =

hanashihajime1t\037

tL'i
reba J:5
yo -C

(conditional)

'i l:. \037-

tabehajime-

(volitional)

(te-form)

te
t::.. ta)

(inf,

past)

2.

For the sentence (1) below, there are two honorific versions, depending is changed on which into an honorific form; if part of Vmasu +hajimeru the V masu is changed into an honorific (2a) and if form, it will become the entire Vmasu + ha/imeru is changed into an honorific form, it will become
( 1) (2b).)

96!:E 'i Sensei

* a:_ \037l;t

[;

cY.> t=

wa hon 0
began
\037*

kakihajimeta.
to write
a

(The teacher
(2) a.
96!:E

book.))
cY.> t=o

'i

Sensei
b.

1= f\037 l;t [; a: I). \037 \037 wa go-hon 0 o-kaki a: 13. go-hon l;t \037

ni

naTihajimeta.)

96!:E'i

\037* wa

Sensei

? t=o [; cY.>1=f\037 0 o-kakihajime

ni natta.
(t:)

,.\",

ni

naTu))

as yomu 3. -hajimeru is normally to a non-punctual verb (such attached , ' is plural, however, and miru 'see '). If the subject read', kaku write' J 'come the verb can be a punctual verb (such kuru as tsuku 'arrive', and shinu 'die '). (t:)Appendix 2D) Thus,)))

-hajimeru

/ hazu

133)

(3) l:m
(Mr.

\037 Iv'ikfif*]

Veda-san Ueda

a:\037Jj.'i t: wa shinbun 0

\037 \037Lt::..

yomihajimemashita. a

began to

read

newspaper.)

(4)

Ak

*\037-rIJ<\037JjJ,:.\037\037

'i t: \037\037Lt::.. o
kaijo

Hitobito

/ *Hanako ga

(People / *Hanako began

to

ni tsukihajimemashita. arrive at the meeting

room.))

=
hazu
\037 r;t-r) n.)

= c=
I expect
that

= =

=)

\037;\037n\037\037h\037;;s\037\037
\037 the I

that
is

take. t\037ok IS or was In ! \037\037\"\"'\037\"\037\"\"\"\"\"\"\"'\037'\"

speakerts expectation place or place or that

s.t. will

that
fairly

-; certain

-;
that

It

is expected

expected

to; I am

s.o. /

-;

should;

s.t.

some state
......../\"'...\037...\037)

ought

to; It is
wonder

natural

that

-;

No

-)

. Key

Sentence)
Sentence

(informal)t
/\037 -7 ;{

\037=}

Iv \037\037

Kuraku-san

'i wa

,=ni

17 < iku
to to

pati
Clark

'i-r hazu
the na

t!. / \037T 0 da / desu.

(I expect that
tDa
Formation) after

Mr.

will go

party.)) and no, respectively.)

Adj

(na) and N changes

( i)

{V /
{g5T
{hanasu

Adj

(i)}

inf

Lt -r
hazu

t!..
da

/ g! Lt\037}
/ hanashita} / iNitp
\037 t\037}

'1 -r t!. hazu da 'i -r hazu


t!..

(It is expected that


(It is expected

s.o. will

talk / talked.)
expensive.)

\\ {iNi\037

that s.t. is /

was

{takai / ( ii)
Adj

takakatta}

da

(na)

stem

t.: {t.t / t.: -:J t::..} 'i f hazu da {na / datta} t!. 'if hazu da)
(It is expected

{NittJ\\t.t {shizukana

/NittJ\\t!.-:Jt::..} / shizukadatta}

that s.t.

is

/ was

quiet.))))

134

hazu)
N

(iii)

(q) / t.: -:J t::..} 'i


{no

/ datta}
q)

-r t!. hazu da
t!. -:J t\037} 'i

(9G!:t
Examples) (a)

/ 9G!:E / sensei

{senseino
*Jf9G!:ELt
Dno-sensei

datta}

-r t!. hazu da)

(I t is

expected

that

s.o.

is /

was

teacher.))

\037\037F

7 \037 1n -:J -C wa Sandora 0


Prof.

\037\\ Q shitte

'i -r\037T 0
iru

hazu

desu.

(I expect
:====
(b) (b

that

Ono knows

Sandra.)

: 8 -=\037)

\037 * ,:1: iNi tJ -:J t::.. Lt -r t!.0 Ano hon wa takakatta hazu da.

q)

(I expect that (c) 7cq)7 r\037-\"


Sono

book

was expensive.) hazu

'i\037tL\037\\t.t'i-r\037To
wa

apato
that Iv

kireina apartment

desu.

(I expect
(d) 11(Pm
Karuson-san
fairly

is clean.)

'.l \037\037 Iv

'i 1f96!:E t!.-:J t::..'i -r t.:0

wa mukashi
sure

sensei

datta was

hazu
a

da.
teacher

that

Ms. Carlson

before.))

CD

1.

not in the sense of hoping expresses the speakerts expectation, but in the sense that the proposition forward to something, when the speaker Thus, expressed by S should be true or come true. uses hazu, he is not merely guessing, but stating a proposition based on 2 or knowledge. reliable information ; yoda) (t:) daTa; Tashii; soda S hazu or

tt

looking

2. Hazu
modified

is

dependent

noun

and cannot be

used

alone.

It

is

always

or a demonstrative such as sono 'that' and by a sentence tt U a proposition is used when hazu Demonstrative 'like this t. konna from the context, as in (1).) is known to the hearer (1)

A:

-;,,-\037t*\037TtJ\037o

Masa

mo kimasu
Martha

ka.
too?)

(Is
B : 'i

coming,

\037\\t

-t (1) l;t-r\"'(* To
hazu

Hai. sana

desu.

(Yes, I expect

so.)
in

3.

Negative (A)

expectations

can be expressed
da)))

two

ways:

S (negative)

hazu

hazu

/ hodo

135)

(2)

\0377-\037

\037 lv'i.l\037-71

-\037;::fftJ\037f\037L\\I;t-rt.:o ni

Kuraku-san

wa pati
that

ikanai

hazu is not Clark

da.

(Lit. I expect that (= I dontt expect


(B)

Mr.

Clark
Mr.

is going

going to to

the
the

party.
party.\302\273

S hazu (3)

wa / ga

nai

\0377-\037

\037 lv'i.l\037-71-';::ff<

Kuraku-san (Lit.

wa pati

ni

iku

I have no expectation (= It is improbable that


The

/ fJ(trt.\"'o wa / ga nai. that Mr. Clark is going to the party. Mr. Clarl\037 will go to the party.\302\273
l;t-rl;t hazu than
the

assertion
U

in (3)

is

stronger
used\037hen In

that

in

(2).

::== = = =
reason

4.

S hazu
\"

can

also be

speaker

has discovered the

8 =-----= \037)
c=

for an event

or a state.
wonder

this

case, hazu
paraphrased

means

\"It

is natural

that
(t:)

-.\"
wake

or

No

-.\" and can be

as \"S

wake

da.\"

da)
\037'\"

Example:
kin da.

(4)

l;t-r t.: 0 ;:: tL 'i \037t.: 0 wa Takai hazu da. Kore


wonder

(No

this

is expensive.
that

Ies gold.)
is, when\"

5.

When\"

S hazu\"
no

clause, (5)

follows,

modifies a noun, as in (5). ni dashita


letter

hazu\"

is a

relative
Clause))

(t:)Relative
\"'t::.. o no

III

J:I \037 Iv,:.tij

'-t\037I;t-r(1)\037\037tJ\037UU;::1tt:>\"\"( hazu

Yamaguchi-san

tegami
to

ga
Mr.

yuka

ni ochite

(I

found

the

I thought

I had sent

Yamaguchi

ita. on the

floor.))

hodo

\037 ,\037

prt.)
which to

a particle

indicates which

an extent

to
that

the

extent

or a degree

s.o. /

s.t. does

-;

(not
bakari;

as) -

of; to the
as

extent
about

-;

s.t. or

is in

some state)

[REL.

kurai])))

136

hodo)

. Key Sentences)
(A))

Topic fL

(subject) 'i
wa

Noun T'/
Ken

Predicate 11\037
hodo
extent.

(negative) tb

%l < t.t

\037\\ /

%l <

-tt !J \037

No

Watashi

tsuyokunai / tsuyokuarimasen.
(= I'm

(Lit. I'm
= 58 g)
=

not

strong

to Ken's

not as

strong

as

Ken.\302\273)

(B))

Topic
::\"q)

(subject)

Sentence 'i \037 wa \037


is that

(informal)t

Predicate
\037\037'-\037\\ yasashii

ft*

-r\037

Kono

shigoto

kodomo

'1 \037 \"t*\"b m*g demo dekiTu hodo

/ \037\037'-\037\\\"\"fTo / yasashiidesu.
it.

job
tDa

(Lit. This job is so easy


after

even a child easy to the extent that a child can do it.\302\273) even
to

can do

( =This

Adj(na) and N changes

na

and de aru, respectively.)

Formation)

( i)

11\037
hodo (as

11 \037 tt kimi hodo

you)

(ii)

Demonstrative

11 \037 hodo)

.:t tL sore

11 \037
hodo)

(to

that

extent))

(iii)

Sinf

11\037
hodo)

*
ie

tJ\037 1ftU'L;;'

11 \037

(to

the

extent

that

houses would

fall

down))

ga taoreru

hodo)

Examples)
(a)

-tt No \037'i\037f1 \037* < \037ft \037

Boku

wa

kimi walk

hodo

hayaku arukemasen.
can.))))

(I

can't

as fast as you

hodo
(b) \037;r.

137)

=-7

7 -Ii}! hodo

J: < tll%lT\037\037!:Efi\"'t.t\"'o
gakusei

Jenifa

yoku benkyosuru
student

wa

inai.

(There is no
(c)

who

studies

as hard

as

Jennifer.)

fL'ilHB
Watashi

Iv tJ\037 \037 tbtL

J tJ\037 v. ft 11 }! 1:\302\2607\"

-:J t::.. o \037\037 t.t tJ\037 fi,\037\037b


piano

wa Nishida-san
that

ga are hodo

ga

hikeru piano

to

wa

omowana-

katta. (I didntt think that extent).)


(d)

Mr. Nishida

could

play

the

that

well

(lit.

to

Ivq) IV.{ A \037

a*m'i:t:m96!:E
wa

b\037OOAt.:

\037Y.t-0tJ\037t.ttJ\037-:Jt::..ll

}!l:\037\037To kizukanakatta

no nihongo hodo jozudesu.


Ruisu-san

Ota-sensei

mo gaikokujin

da

to

=
c=

= 8

=)

(Mr. Lewis's Japanese


was
BID 1. When
a

is

so

good

that even Prof. Ota

didn't

notice

he

foreigner.))

hodo
*fL'i

is

preceded

in KS(A), Exs.
(1)

(a) and
wa strong

(b).

be negative, by a noun, the predicate must The following sentences are ungrammatical.

as

:t:\037\037I\037 c!:.%l \"'0

*Watashi

Taro

hodo

tsuyoi. <

(I am as
(2)

as Taro.)

*7'/\"

\037-lvl\037\037iO

t '-o\"'A\037-\037'it.:

\037 Ivtb\037o

*Futtoboru

hodo
many

omoshiroi
sports

supotsu

wa

takusan

aru.
as football.)

(There are
If a sentence

which

are as

interesting

or a
clause

demonstrative

modifies
either

of

the

main

can be

affirmative

hodo, however, the predicate or negative, as in KS(B),

Ex. (d) and

(3).
'-\"'Iv\037TtJ\037o

(3)

-tq)tt*'i-ttLl\037c!:.\037\037

Sono

shigoto
job
used

wa

(Is that
2. When

that
with

yasashii n desu ka. easy (lit. easy to that extent)?)


sore

hodo

hodo is
I:\037

a quantifier,

it

means

'about'.

Example:)

(4)

Iv a: =:*'\037 Biru 0 sanbon


(I drank

\037\037Jj. \037'- t::. o

hodo

nomimashita.

about

three bottles of beer.))

[Related
Bakari

Expressions]

and kurai

also mean

'about' among

when

they are used


that

with

a number

and
be)))

a counter.

The difference

the three is

bakari

and hodo can

138 used

hodo

/ ho ga

ii)

with
in

an exact number
[1].

or

amount

of something,

whereas

kurai

cannot,

as seen [1]
7c

* = \"':) It fJ\\ I.J I I\037 q) \037 Iv \037\037 \037 / < ringo

L \\

'\" 0 < t!. \037

Sono (Please

0 futatsu bakaTi give me two of those


in

/ hodo
apples.)

/ *kUTaikudasai.

exactly

== \037

:B
\037)

speaker does not want about two apples but case, kurai cannot be used. It is a very in Japanese common practice to avoid asking for exact numbers or amounts, and the practice comesfrom the idea that being straightforward or direct is in many verbal and nonverbal expressions This can be observed impolite. in Japanese and also in the manners of the Japanese people.
In the situation two
[1]

the
in

apples,

and,

this

ho

ga

ii

,\037?

tr(L \\L'

phr.
h\037;;.;d\037\037\037

\037I;i;\037
s.t.

had
<

better
taTa

do s.t.
do

<)

[REL.

desu

ka])

. Key Sentence)
Vinf.

past 11 ? ho
books.)) tJ\037\"''''

a*m
Nihongo
(Y

q) a: * no hon 0

\037 Iu t\037 _ lIT&: yanda

ga

ii

/ \"''''-Z;i- o / iidesu.

ou'd

better

read Japanese

Formation)

Vinf.past

II?
ho

tJ\037\", '\"

ga

/1
(had

11? '- t.: \037\037 hanashita ho ga


1t..A.t:..

tJ\037'\" '\" /1

better

talk) eat)

11?
ho

tJ\037'\" '\"

(had

better

tabeta

ga

/1)))

ho ga
Exa

ii

139)

m pies')
!f\037

(a)

II ? t itA: t::.. Yasai mo tabeta


eat

\037\\ \037\\ tJ\037 J: ho

ga

ii yo. too.)

(You'd better
(b)

vegetables,

t?
Mo

\037-:Jt::..fl?

tJ\037\037\\\037\\\037TtJ\037o

kaetta

(Had
(c)

ho ga iidesu I better go home

ka.
now?)

\\ \037\\ \037 a: f!l%l '- t::..ll? tJ\037 P.o frJ-r'i t -:Jl: \037\037lf Kazuko wa motto eigo 0 benkyoshita ho ga ii nee

(Kazuko had

better

study

English harder.))

\037 = ... =
g

...)

\037)
Vinf.past

B5

1.

ho ga
a

ii is

an

idiomatic

expression

of the

comparative structure
(t:),.\" ho

and

expresses

strong

suggestion.

ga

,.\"

YOTi)

2. The

3.

in declarative sentences and the first person second person subject sentences are usually omitted. (KS and Exs. subject in interrogative When is the the third person, it is not omitted and (a) (b\302\273 subject In this case,. the unless it can be clearly understood from the context. is telling the hearer what the speaker speaker suggests for the third person. (Ex. (c\302\273 Vinf. nonpast can be substituted for Vinf. past, as in (1).

(1) a*mq)*a:\037t;'I?tJ\037\037\\\037\\o
Nihongo

no hon
better

yomu

ho

ga ii. books.)

(You'd
The
Vinf.past meaning

read

Japanese

of

Vinf.past

ho ga
ho

ii

Vinf. nonpast ho if it is used in


may

ga

ii

is almost

the same as

that

of

situations

of suggestion.

However,
ho ga
ii

ga ii

express

a stronger
following

suggestion than
example,

Vinf.nonpast is

For ho ga ii. more appropriate.) (2)

instance,

in the

Vinf.past

:t3M,
.Q Ii Omae,

:. q) \0370 ?
konogoro
??yameTu

\037 \037\037 \037-:J\"\"(

;;, -t

? t!..let. 0
so

.:c Iv let. t q)JJ:.\037 t=. I ? ?JJ:.\037

\037\\ tJ\037 \037\\-tf 0

meta / (I heard
things,

mayaku 0 yatteru ho ga ii ze.

da na.
You'd

Sonna mono yabetter

you I tell

are taking

drugs these

days.

stop such

you.)

4.

\"Had

better

not do

s.t.\" is

expressed

by Vneg

nai

ho

ga ii.

Example:)))

140

ho ga

ii

/ -ho

ga -yo';
\037iX*f\037L\\'1? tJ\037\037\\\037\\o

(3) ::J- t: K6hi


(Y Note

0 nomanai

outd

that

the

ho ga ii. better not drink coffee.) verb must be in the nonpast negative form
is ungrammatical.

in

this

expression.

The
(4)

following

*::J

- t: -

a:iX*f\037fJ\\?

t= '1

\037\\ tJ\037 \037\\o ii.

*Kohi (You'd

0 nomanakatta better

ho ga

not drink coffee.))

iii)

rIn

ho

ga

-yori

-,\037?

'/J'(

- J: t)
is in the

phr.)

\037 some

comparing two entities, one state or does s.t. more than

\037 ; ( \037 (

- be
do

more

(Adj.)

than
than

-;
-

do

s.t.

more
yori])

(Adv.)

other.)

\037\037\037)
. Key
(A))

[REL.

Sentences

Nounl
;SfH\0371v

Noun2
q)

Predicate
J:\037 yori

'1 ?

tJ\037

fk

/ \037\037\\\"t*T 0 \037\037\\ wakai

Ishida-san

no
is younger q)

ho ga

watashi

/ wakaidesu.

(Mr.
fk

Ishida

than I am.)
tJ\037

'1 ?

J:.fH\0371v

J:\037 yori

J: < yoku

1t\037\037

/ 1t\037\037To

Watashi

no
more

ho ga
Ms. Ueda

Ueda-san does.))

taberu

/ tabemasu.

(I
(B))

eat

than

Sentencel

Sentence2

(informal)t

(informal)t

Predicate
J:\037 *\037\\

!II
KUTuma
(Going

1: 0-<
de iku

11 ?

tJ\037

/'( A

\\! 17<

/ *\037\\-eT 0

ho ga
than

basu de iku
going
to

yori

yasui /

yasuidesu.

by car is cheaper

by
na

bus.))

tDa

after

Adj(na) and N changes

and de

aru,

respectively.)))

-ho
Formatien)

ga -yo';

141)

KS(A)

:
q)

11?

N tJ\037

J:
yori

\037

no 96!:E sensei

ho

ga ho ga

q) 11? no

tJ\037\037!:E gakusei

J: \037 yori)

(Teachers

are more

than

students.))

KS(B) :
(

i)

{V /

Adj

(i)}

inf

11?
ho

tJ\037;

{V / Adj

(i)}

inf. nonpast

J:

\037

ga

yori
(Talking

{\037\037T {hanasu \037 <

'- t.:} / \037\037 / hanashita}

II? tJ\037 ho ga
hearing)

/ Having talked

is more -);

\0

J:
yori

\037

(than

kiku
{itA:;;'
{taberu \037;;,

/ itA:t.:}
/ tabeta} J: \037
yori

11?

tJ\037

(Eating

/ Having

eaten is more -);

ho ga
sleeping)

(than

neru

/ \037tJ\\ -:J t.:} {\037\037\\


{takai *\037\\ yasui

/ takakatta} J: \037 yori) (than

11? tJ\037 ho ga
being

(Being

/ Having

been expensive

is more

-);

cheap)
(na) stem

(ii)

Adj

(na) stem

{t\037 /

t!.

-:J

t::..} 11? ho

tJ\037; Adj

t\037

J: 9
yori

{na /
{r;tJ\037 t\037

datta}

ga
tJ\037

na
(Being

/ ffttJ\037t!. -:J t::..}

11?
ho

/ Having

been quiet

is more

{shizukana / shizukadatta}
\\ t\037 it- \037 \037

ga
pretty))

-);)

J:!1
yori)

(than

being

kirei
(iii)

na

N {-r

(b;;' / t!.-:J t::..)


aru

II?

tJ\037; N

-r:

(b;;'
aru tJ\037

J:!1
yori)

{de
{9G!:E

/ datta}

ho ga
9G!:E

de
ho

-r:

(b;;' /

t!. -:J t::..} 11?


datta}

{sensei
\037!:E

de aru
-r: ib;;,
aru

/ sensei J:!J
yo\

ga)
student))))

(Being / Having teacher is more

been

-);)

(than

being a

gakusei de

142

-ho

ga -yori)

Examples)

(a)

(J) \037

K ono (I

7 (J)ll? tJ\037cb(J) j} j 7 J: \037 M\037\037To kamera no ho ga ana kamera yori sukidesu. like this camera better than that camera.)
j} j
no

(b)

.y

.:r. 7 (J) 11 ? tJ\037f.L J: \037 \037 < \037h Q 0 ho can

Jefu
(J eff

ga watashi yori run faster than I

hayaku

hashireru.

can.)
kimi

(c)
\037 \037
= == =B =-----==-)

f.LtJ\037\037T

\\t\\ \\t\\ \037'-.t 11 ? tJ\0378tJ\037\037T J: \037

Watashi

ga hanasu
better

h6 ga
for me

ga
talk

? 0 hanasu

(It's probably
(d)

to

than

yor; ii desho. for you to talk.)

\037 \037 Iv,

\037\\t\\ll? yasui h6

J: \037 ? tJ\037\037\\t\\

h '-

\\t\\\037T 0

Mochiron,

ga

takai

yori

(Of course,

I'm

happier

when

ureshiidesu. it is cheap than

when

it is

expensive.)

(e)

-r\037'j:

11 ? tJ\037\037tJ\037t\037 J: \037 7G \037t\037 \037JL't!.o

Kodomo
(Talking

wa genkina
about

ho

ga

shizukana
feel

yori anshinda.
at ease
when

children,

you

more

they

are lively

than

when

they

are quiet.)

(f)

f.Llj:*\037

cb;;, 11 ? tJ\037!ij\037cb;;, J: \037 \037 '- \\t\\ c!: I\037\"?0

Watashi

wa onna
it's

de

(I
aID 1. In

think

more

aru ho ga otoko de enjoyable to be a woman

aru

yori than

tanoshii to be a

to omou.
man.))

Japanese

there

are

no comparative
is

forms of
U

adjectives

and

adverbs.
yori\"
or

The idea of comparison Y yori may pattern.


situation.

expressed
if

be omitted

X no ho ga Y by the it is clear from the context

the

Example:
c!:.y 3 \037c!: \037 \037G tJ\037%1\\t\\\037TtJ\037o

(1) A: r A
Tomu

B:

to Jon to dochira ga tsuyoidesu (Who is stronger, Tom or John?) r A (J)11? tJ\037 J: \037 (.y 3 \037 ) %1 \\t\\ \037 To Tomu no ho ga (Jon yori) tsuyoidesu. (Tom is stronger (than

ka.

John).)

2.

ga S2 yori\" pattern (KS(B\302\273, Sl can be either nonpast or past. S2, however, is always nonpast regardless of the tense of SI and the main clause. There are two cases in which SI is past. First, SI can be past when the whole sentence is about a present or future action or state. In this case, the sentence sounds rather hypothetical. Example:)))
In

the

Sl ho

-ho

ga -yori

143)

(2)

fLiJ\037l!

L. t:

11 ?

iJ\0378iJ\037\037T J: !J \\t\\ \\t' \037'-

J: ? 0

Watashi

ga hanashita

ho ga
better

kimi

ga

hanasu

yorj
than

jj

desho.

(It would probably

be
is

if I

talk rather
is

if you

talk.)

SI
In

can

also

be past if the whole

sentence

about

a past action

or state.

this
(3)

case the
L. t: fLiJ\037\037! Watashi

sentence
11 ?

counterfactual.

Example:)

iJ\0378iJ\037\037T J: !J

-:J t::.. o J: tJ\037


kimi

(It
3. Y
yori

would

ho ga hanashita have been better


X (no)
ho

ga
if

ga

I had

hanasu yori yokatta. talked rather than you.) =


z= =

can (J) \037

precede
j} j

ga,

as in

(4).

(4)

7 J: !J =- (J) j} j 7 (J)11? tJ\037M\037 \037T 0 Ano kamera yori kono kamera no ho ga sukidesu. than that camera.) (I like this camera better
object,
other

=)

4.

it can also be a direct no ho is a noun phrase; therefore, indirect object, etc. However, when it is used for something U Y yori X no ho the subject, the (0, ni, etc.)\" order is
X

an
than

preferable.

Examples:
(5)

a.

fL'i 1::\037-lvJ: Watashi wa (I drink

!J

iW(J)ll? yori
than

\037J:

< \037tro

biru

sake

no ho
11 ?
yori

yoku

nomu.

sake more

beer.)

b.

\037!:Efi)lIfIJ;tG!:EJ:!J

*#;tG!:E(J)

':.J: < wr\037\":.fT<

0 ni

Gakusei

wa Kawada-sensei

Kimura-sensei

no ho
more

yoku

shitsumon

ni iku.
to

(Students go
than to
[Related
Prof.

Prof.

Kimura

to ask

questions

often

Kawada.))

Expression]
can

The idea of comparison


(t:) tern
[1]
YOTi)

be expressed

by

the

X wa

Y
U

yori\"

pattern,

too.

However, as a

when

established

topic.
used.)

this pattern is used, X must Thus, in a context like [1], the

have
X wa

already been Y
yori\"

pat-

cannot be
A:

't? G tJ\037%1\\t\\\037TtJ\037o r A l:.y 3 \037l: \037 to Jon to dochira ga tsuyoidesu (Who is stronger, Tom or John?)

Tomu

ka.

B:

* A r;t J: !J ) %1 \\t' \037 r A C1)r\037 r ? 1J( / To (\037 3 \037 Tomu no ho 9a / *Tomu wa (Jon yori) tsuyoidesu.

(Tom

is

stronger

(than

John).))))

144

- ho ga

yori hand, X

/ hoshi;l in a has

On the other

erable, because

context like [2], the U X wa Y yori\" pattern is prefalready been established in the previous sentence.)
??1ltC1)1\037?1J(.y3 Kare
\037J:

[2] r.Ldic!:-ct%!\\t\\-C::To1lt1\037/ Tomu wa totemo tsuyoidesu.


tsuyoidesu.

!)%!\\t'-C::To
yori

ws /
than

??Kare no ho 9S Jon
John.))

(Tom

is

very

strong.

He is stronger

B=)

hoshiP

,\037l., \037

L')
\037\037\037) (

r \037s;i; d;\037;;d

by\037\037s\037;e;k\037;') ( ......... r.\".....,.... _,,, .......\"\"\"\"'\037\037\037,

want

( r \"''''''''''\037)

(s.t.)

[REL.

tsi])

Key Sentences
(A))

Topic
fL

(experiencer) 'i

Desired Object
11!
kuruma tJ\037

11 '- \\t\\ / 11

'-

\\t' -c:: To

Watashi

wa
a car.))

ga

hoshii /

hoshiidesu.

(I
(B))

want

Topic
\037

(experiencer) 'i
\037

Desired Object
(J)
\037\03711! jitensha \037

-:J -c 11 '- tJ\037

o to
(My

to little

wa

boku no wants
my

hoshigatte

\\t'o / \\-'\"!To iru / imasu.

brother

bike.))

Examples)
(a)

fLfi

f3

*A(J)\037JitJ\03711

'-

\\t\\o tomodachi

Watashi

wa nihonjin

no

ga

hoshii.

(I want a
(b)

Japanese friend.)
'\\t\\ -c:: T tJ\037o nani

11 t::..'i \037fPJtJ\037 cb t\037 Anata

wa ima
you

ga

hoshiidesu

ka.

(What do

want

now?))))

hosh;i

145)

(c)

/\037 .Ld'i

7\"

v::t

11 \037

'-

tJ\037 -:J\"'(

\\t,;;, 0 iru.

Pamu

wa sutereo 0 hoshigatte (Pam wants a stereo.))

em)

1. The

i-type adjective hoshii expresses a person's desire for some object. Like other stative transitive conhoshii takes the wa-ga adjectives, where the is marked and the desired wa struction, experiencer by is also marked (In subordinate clauses the experiencer object by ga. by ga.) (t:),.\" ws ,.\" gs))

_
\037

2.

the experiencer is usually the first person in declarative sentences and the second person in interExs. (a) and (b). The third person's rogative sentences, as in KS(A), desire is usually expressed by hoshigatte iru ' Lit. be showing the sign of wanting as in KS(B) and Ex. (c). (t:) gSTU) It is noted that (s.t.)', when iru is used, the desired hoshigatte object is marked by o.
very

Since hosh;i

expresses a

\0

personal

feeling,

3. It

is, however, person experiencer

acceptable in the

to use hoshii in connection following situations:)

with

the third

(1)

In \037-

the
!J

past

tense
tJ\03711'-1J' \037 t=.o ii

A ''i \\t\\ \\t\\ A 7\" v::t

Morisu

wa

sutereo

ga hoshikstts.

(Maurice (2)
In

wanted

a good

stereo set.)

indirect

/ semi-direct
\037tl1

speech)

a.

.y 3

'-\\t\\ta\037\",(L\\.Qo
to
wants

Joi mo hoshii (J oy says she


b. Osuka

itte
it,

iTU. too.))

;t A 11- t t: o \\t'-t-? mo hoshi; sods. (I heard that Oscar wants it, too.)

11 '-

(3)

In /\037 j

explanatory

situations) '- \\t\\Ai1:-t0 ga hoshii n is that)


Pamela

f'i\037 wa

..y !J \037 ?tJq1 iyaringu

Pamera

desu.
wants

\302\253The explanation

a pair of earrings.)

(t:) no

ds))))

146

hoshii
(4)

/ hoshil'2) In

conjecture

expressions

a.

Furanshisu

? -e,;\037ittJql L \\-\\; L. L '0 wa udedokei ga hoshii Tsshii. Francis wants a wrist watch.) (It seems that
\037 \037A I'j: f'j:A\037tJ\037 11 wa

7 7

b. :J .::.
Koni

\\t,

J: ? f:o

ningyo that

(It \037) = =
I8 Ii)

appears

ga hoshii yods. Connie wants a doll.))

hoshii

,\037l., L ,)

aux.

adj.

(i))

want
!

'\037\037;;;-! than the speaker)


. Key

(s.o.) to

do (s.t.)
tsi])

to do

s.t.
\037'''-

\\ ........\"\"'\" \"\"\"'-)

[REL.moraitai;

Sentence)
Indirect

Topic(experiencer)
fL

Object
t::.. .

Vte
\037m \037

'i
.
you

cb t,t.

h:
ni

fiji\"'(

11 L \\t, / 11 L \\t,

-e,; To

Watashi (I want
Formatien)

wa
to teach

anata

eigo

0 oshiete

hosh;i /

hoshiidesu.

me English.))

Vte

11 L\\t'

hoshi;
L \0375

-c

II L \\t\\
hoshi;

(want

(s.o.) to talk)

hanashite
/tA:-c

111,\\t\\

(want (s.o.) to

eat)

tabete
Examples)

hoshii)

(a)

fLf'j:-r\037Ji':.fL c!: -a':.\0371v Watashi wa kodomotachi


(I

-e,; 11 ni live

\\t'o

watashi together

to isshoni with
me.))))

sunde

hoshii.

want

my children to

hosh\"'02
(b)

147)

t= cb t\037 Anata

fi t.:h':'*-c fl '- \\t\\ \037TtJ\037o wa dare ni kite hoshiidesu


you

ka.

(Who do

want

to come?))

am

1.

with V te to mean' want (s.o.) to do (s.t.) '. wants a person X to do something, X is marked status than the experiencer. by ni. Hoshii is not used if X has a higher is is a the sentence not when the speaker Thus, following appropriate student of Prof. Yoshida's. (See Related Expression, [2] for the correct sentence in that situation.)) Hoshii When

is used

as an auxiliary

the

experiencer

\037 (1)

\0

fL'i

,:.*-c afIJ;tG!\302\243

fll,

\\t\\o ni

Watashi

wa Yoshida-sensei

kite

hoshii.

(I want 2. When

Prof.

Yoshida

to

come.)

V te hoshii is used, the experiencer in is usually the first person declarative sentences (KS, Ex. (a\302\273 and the second person in interrogative sentences (Ex. (b\302\273.If the experiencer is the third person, V te moraitabe showing the sign of wanting the favor to receive gatte iru '(lit.) of doing s.t. from s.o.' is used, as in (2). (t:)mOTsu 2 ; tsi; gSTU) (2)

A A \037 7 \037 Iv'i Adamusu-san ga tte iru.

7 7

A \037\037

,:.

=.

Q)tt$\037
ni

'- -c t

G \\t\\t=tJ\037 -:J -c

\\t,;;,

wa Furanshisu
wants

kono

shigoto

0 shite

moraita-

(Mr. Adams
[Related

Francis

to do this

job.))
2 (t:) mOTsu ;

Expression]
can

The same idea ample:

also be expressed

by

V te

moraitai.

tsi)

Ex-

[1]

fLfi

t::..':.\037m \037\037*- -c cb t\037

G \\t\\ t::..\\t\\o

Watashi

wa anata
you can

ni

eigo

0 oshiete moraitai.

(I This
higher
morau,

want

to teach me be used
when

English.)
the

pattern

experiencer

status to do something. is used instead of morau.


fL

In this

wants someone who has case, itadaku, the humble version of

Example:)

[2]

'i a

fIJ

;tG!:E ,:.

* -c

\\t\\ t::..t!. \037 t::..\\t\\ 0 ni

Watashi

wa Yoshida-sensei

kite

itadakitai.

(I would like

Prof.

Yoshida

to

come.))))

148
ichiban

ichiban) adv.)

-\037

r\037\037I;ti;;\037'\037M_\037!

most
\037) '-'\"V\"V'

. Key
Noun

Sentence)
Subject

Adjective
tJ\037

?7'A
Kurasu (Mr.

(Q)rp)
(no naka) Okawa is the

-c:-

*)11

Iv \037

-$
ichiban

IiJi

tJ\037\\t\\ \\t\\o

de

Okawa-san
in

ga

atama

ga

II.

brightest

the

class.))

Fermatien)
\037 \037

( i)

-\037
ichiban)

Adj (i /

na)
(s.t. is /

\037

\\ ( if6 \\t

-:J t::..) / rNi tJ \037


takakatta))

was the highest))

ichiban

(takai /
t.: (\037tJ\037 (shizukada

-\037
ichiban) (

t.: -:J \037tJ\037

t::..)

(s.t. is / was the

most

quiet)

/ shizukadatta)
Adj

ii)

-\037
Ichiban)

(Adj (i) stem < / ku


\037 <

(na)

stem

,:.)
ni)

-\037
ichiban

(most

highly)
quietly)

takaku
\037tJ\037,:, shizukani)

-\037

(most

ichiban
Examples)

(a)

A:

':'Q)t:p-C:\037Q)\037lOOtJ\037-\037.t3t

'-7J\\t\\-C:-TtJ\0370 ichiban

Kono

naka

de dona eiga ga
which

omoshiroidesu

ka.

(Among these,

movie

is the

most

interesting?)

B : .:. Q) f3 *Q)\0371OO-C: '- J:

?0
I guess.)) Q) t:p -c:-, t.: \037t tJ\037-\037 (J: < )m* naka de,

Kono Nihon no (This Japanese


(b)

eiga desho.
movie,

A:

t\037*

Iv c!: ?tf! fIJ \037 Iv c!: \302\245fflk Iv \037 \037

'!T tJ\037o
dare ga
is the

Matsumoto-san
ichiban

to Ikeda-san dekimasu
Matsumoto,

to

Shimizu-san

no

(yoku)

ka.
Mr.
best)?))))

(Among Mr.

Ikeda

and Mr.

Shimizu,

who

best

student

(lit.

can do

ichiban

1 / iku

149)

B :

ltfHE

Iv -c:: T \037

Ikeda-san

desu.
is.)

(Mr.
(c)
f3

Ikeda

:. -C::TtJ\037o *-c::-\037\037 h\\t\\t\037m'i \037

Nihon

de ichiban
is the
in

kireina

(Lit. Where
most scenic
aD)

tokoro wa doko desu ka. most scenic place in Japan? (=

Which

place

is the

Japan?\302\273)

Ichiban cannot be

affixed

directly

to a noun

as

in

*ichiban

sensei,
ichiban

meaning
ii sensei.

'the esp.

best

teacher'.
meaning

It
is

should precedean

adjective,
adverbial

as in

If the

predictable,

yoku

'well,

frequently',

however, the may be omitted,

form

of adjectives,

as in

Ex. (b).)

= -= = = =) 1

iku

17

<)

v. (Gr.

1))

\037

\037 from

s.\037\037'\037\037';d\037ti;;;;\037\037j

go; come
speaker's I
(

(.

the

speaker or

the

[REL.

kuru

])

viewpoint. \037 ,

-\037\"\037\037\"'./\"\"o....\037)

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Topic
fIJq:t\0371v

(subject)
''i

Noun (direction)
*i'M
raishtJ

7)ll)tJ
AmeTika
next week.))))

-.. / ,:.
e /
ni

n<
iku

/n\037'!To

Tanaka

-san

. wa
is going

/ ikimasu.

(Mr. Tanaka

to America

150 (B))

iku

1)

Topic
fL Watashi

(subject) (location)
'i
\037wa

(location)
tJ\037 G

(means)
i:-c,; J'( A

**
Tokyo

*mi

-c,; rr -:J t:. /

kara

Osaka

made

basu

de
ff

itta

i: \037

'-

t::.. 0

ikimashita.

(I went from
Examples)

Tokyo

to

Osaka

by

bus.))

(a)
: I

fLfj:mW)J\\P!i':.\037tl:':.fT Watashi (I

< 0

:
(b)

wa

maiasa

hachiji
my

ni

kaisha

ni iku.
every

go

to work (lit.
t>

company)

at eight

morning.)

A:

\037PJffLQ)?

-c,; \037\037 -7

Konban

watashi
to

(We are going like to come?)

;{ \037'- i: T no uchi de pat; have a party at

tJ\037* i:

-tt Iv tJ\037o
ga

shimasu

kimasen

ka.
you

my

place tonight.

Wouldn't

B:

'i\037\\,

fT\037i:To

Hai, ikimasu.

(Yes, I'll come (lit.


(c)
'UJt.t.t::..f:'

go).)
'-t::..tJ\037o

t\037Q)\037G-tt'j:fT\037i:

Anata

sono shirase (Lit. Did the notice go


ni mo
\037Q)f1\"':.

wa
to

ikimashita too?

ka.

you,

(= Did

you

get

the notice,

too?\302\273

(d)

\037\037 A 'iff

-:J

-c \\t\\;;' 0 wa
village,

Sono

mura
bus

ni mo
goes

basu

itte iru.
too.))

(The
em

to the

1.

Iku

is used

when someone or

something

moves in a

direction away

from

which the speaker or in a direction away from the speaker's viewpoint, I is not necessarily the speaker's position. For kUTU (t:) ) example, in the

following
viewpoint

situation,
near

iku A.) t:::..

is used

when the speaker


B

(point

C)

places

his

point

(1)

\037 Iv'j:

B ':.fT-:J
ni

X-san

wa B

itta. B.))

(Mr.

went

to

Mr.

X\037

\037

C)))

A\037)

iku 1 / iku 2

151)

2. When

someone goes to
is

his

own

home

base\"
kaeru

' (e.g., uchi


'return'

home

'), uchi

ni iku uchi ni

ungrammatical. 'go

In this case,
kuru and
iku

is

used

as in

kaeru

home'.
can

3. Thereare cases where both of meaning. Examples:) (2) 8Q)?


Kimi

be used

with

different

shades

\037'\037,m,-rtJ\037*:it1t\037\"'C!L.t= ni

/ ff\037:it1t\037\"'C!\037t=t.Po

no uchi

musuko

ga kimasendeshita
house?)

I ikimasendeshita

ka.
(Didn't

my son

go to

your

(3)

San Francisco and is calling his friend In [The speaker lives New York who is coming to Los Angeles.] P A 7\037.y .:r.lv A ':'*.Q / ff < \037 ? -e,;-tno A \037A \037 Ivfi*Jj Sumisu-san wa raigetsu ni kUTU / iku sodesu nee Rosuanjerusu next (Mr. Smith, I was told that you're coming to Los Angeles
in

r -) l
==

l I

month.)

In (2), when the speaker uses kuru, he is putting himself psychologihe uses iku, he is not. In (3), location; when cally in the addressee's than a speaker is kuru is more appropriate iku because, in general, with a location close to his own. more empathetic The choice of iku here definitely with implies that the speaker is unusually unempathetic his neighboring location.)

iku

17 <)

aux.

v. (Gr.
state

1)) ,......,.......,.....-\"'-'....

Some

action or ing from the point

keeps

changat which

go

on

-Ing; kuru 2])))

continue;

grow;

in time describes

become

I.......,\"\"\"\"-'

the speaker first

the action.
\"\"\"\"\"'-\"\

[REL.

152

iku

2)

. Key

Sentence)
Vte

\037 tL K

tJ\037 \037

'i

*<

fJ.

? -c

ft<
iku that

/ft\037'!T .to
/ ikimasu way)

ore

kara
will

wa
colder

samuku

natte
to be

yo.

(It
Fermation)

get

(and continue

from

now on.))

V te ft <
iku \037 '- \"'(

ft <

(s.o. continues

to

talk)

hanashite

iku
ft <

II)
1t\037\"'( tabete .

(s.o. continues

to eat)

iku)

Examples)

(a)

\037 tLtJ\037\037 'ifjJ

f3

*\037-ffitMC\037\037ft
mainichi

< \037t

\037 \037T 0 yon

Kore kara

wa
to

hon

0 issatsu

de

iku tsumori

desu.

(I
(b)

intend

keep reading

one

book o

a day

from

now on.)

\037 tLtJ\037\037 'in.itJ\037

-:J \"'(ft\037 '! T.t < t\037

Kore

kara
will

(It
Sono

wa atatakaku natte ikimasu yo. warmer (and continue in that grow


-:J \"'(ft-:J t::.. o < t\037

way) from

now on.)

\037 f3 *Q)\037rR'i%t (c) .:tQ)\037tJ\037

koro kara Nihon

no

keizai

wa

tsuyoku

natte itta.

(The Japanese economy from that time on.)


(d) \037\\ J \037\037 t\037 \037 )ttJ\037 \037

grew

stronger

(and continued

to

grow

that

way)

\"

,:..\037\\\"'(ft-:J
ni

t::.. o

Wakaranai

koto

0 nota
notes

kaite

itta.

(I went

on

taking

on things I

didn't

understand.)

CD

1. The
2.

point and

In

time

at which the action

Exs. (a)
The

(b) and the

past

in

Exs.

(c) and

starts is (d),

the

present

time

In

respectively.

following examples use are not the usage of iku 2 .


(1)
fjJ f3 \037tI:,:..I\037

iku

as a full verb

meaning

'to

go',

and

A ,:.*
ni

-:J\"'(

ft < 0

Mainichi

kaisha

basu

ni notte

iku.)))

iku 2 /

iru l

153

(Lit.
work

I ride a
every

bus

every

day

and go

to

my

company.

(= I go

to

day by

bus.\302\273

(2)

(bQ)VA\" 7\037\037::z-e-\037\037\037\037fj\037,! LJ::>o Ano resutoran de kohi 0 nonde ikimasho.

(Lit. Let's drink


coffee (Related

coffee

at that restaurant

and go.
on

( = Let's drink
way.\302\273

at that restaurant

and then

continue

our

Expression]
state

When a change of
be replaced
[1]
by

is expressed

kuru 2, as in

2 by iku , as and below. [la] [lb]

in

Exs.

(b) and

(c), iku

can

a.

-:J '\"( * \037 tL tJ\037 t:> 'i n.itJ\037< t\037 Kore

'! T J:0
\037

kara
will

(It

wa atatakaku natte kimasu yo. grow warmer from now on.)


a *Q)\037rR'i%t <
Nihon

b. .:c G Q)\037tJ\037
Sono (The

;I I

!)

-:J '\"( *t::.. t\037

koro kara

no

keizai

Japanese economy

grew

stronger

wa tsuvoku natte kita. from that time on.)

sions.

2 versions here are more impersonal and objective than the kuru 2 verThe latter versions stress that some change is going to involve or has involved the speaker himself, while the former versions are impersonal state-

The iku

ments.)

iru

L'

Q)

v. (Gr.

2))

\037\037\037-=])
. Key
(A))

be; exist;
[REL.

stay

BTU I])

Sentences)

Topic
\037Q) lIfT

(location)
0:.)

Subject 'i
wa

Quantifier tJ\037

a*A
nihonjin
many

t::..< \037\037

\037\\Q iru

/ \037\\'!To / imasu.

Kono machi

(ni)

ga (=

takusan

(Lit. In this town are this town.\302\273)))

Japanese.

There are

many

Japanese

in

154 (B))

iru

l)

Topic
\037-

(subject)
,;1:

Noun (location)
::\"(1) \037 ryo

,:.

\037\\Q

/ \037\\'!To

Ri
(Lee

.
is in

wa

kono

ni

iru /

imasu.

this dorm.))

Examples)

(a)

::.. (1) i1J\037 tin:.

\\ '! \037 tJ\037 'i.l\037 \037 \037 ni

To

Kono dobutsuen

(There are pandas II


(b)

panda ga in this zoo.)

wa

imasu.

A1--7.'i\037\\'!

1=7t:\"\037(1)7 .I\037ima

\"':'\037\\Qo
ni

Suchibu (Steve

wa is
in

Robin

no apato

iru.

Robin's

apartment

now.))

em

1.

/ru

expresses

existence

plant
matical.)

life or inanimate

in terms of things. Thus,


,:. 'i*tJ\037t::..

animal

life.

It cannot

be

used ungram-

for

the

following

sentence is

(1)

*::.. (1) \037\037\037.I\037 A

\037L\\ \037o < \037

*Kono

kyanpasu
are

ni

wa

(There For
2.
plants

many

trees

takusan iTU. on this campus.)


ki ga
aru

and

inanimate

things,

is used.)

(t:)

BTU

))

sentence patterns can be used with iru l . In the KS(A) pattern, a location is presented as the topic is under focus. and what exists there In this pattern the location marker ni can optionally drop. In the KS(B) as the topic and pattern, on the other hand, what exists is presented it exists is under focus. where (t:)BTU I , Note 3)
Two
An

3.

animate
football

team

thing or a group or organization can also be in the location


0:.)
'iT{jttJ\037\037A \037\\ Q

of animate things such as position, as seen in (2).)

(2)

a.

fL

0
sannin

Watashi (Lit.

kodomo ga There are three children


(ni) wa

iru. with

me.

(= I

have

three

children.\302\273

b.

::..

(1)1- -A

0:.) 'i

\037\\ \037\\ * \037 wa

-?r

-.I\037 \037 tJ\037\037\\ \037 Qo

Kono chimu (ni)

ii kuotabakku

ga

iru.)))

iru 1 / iru 2

155

(Lit.
has

There is a good
a good

quarterback

in this

team.

( = This team

quarterback.\302\273)

iru 2 L \\ Q)
\037

aux. v. (Gr. 2))


be

s.;
some by

\037\037\037 \037\037 i;;\037:h;o\037\037

-ing;

have done
2 ])

(s.t.)

\037 \037

time ago, or is

in

a state took

an action he

or it

created some time

\037

[REL.BTU

= \037 = \037 \03

....\037\037
. Key

ago.

! )

\037I \03

\"()

Sentence)
Vte ,:1
wa ffii \037

Topic (subject)
\302\253:k*\037\037

iXAi\"t!

\037\\.\"5 / iru

\037\\'!To

Sasaki-san (Mr. Sasaki is


Formation)

sake

0
sake.))

nonde

/ imasu.

drinking

Vte

\037\\i5

iru) '- \"'( \037i5


\037\\ i5 iru

(be talking)

hanashite
ft\037\"'(

\\I'i5
iru)

(be eating)

tabete
Examples)

(a)

flJ1I
Kazue

,j: ffifJ8

\\ .\"5 \037 \"\"t:' \037 \037\037 0

wa shinbun

yonde

iru.

(Kazue
(b)

is reading a newspaper.)
\\ .\"50 -:J \"'( \037 < \037 iru.

.:. (J) !> \037.:.* 'i Kono (This

ringo wa kusatte apple is rotten.))))

156 (c)

iru 2)
*tJ\037fftJtL\"\"C\037'

Q 0

Ki ga taorete iru. (A tree has fallen


(d)

down

(and is To 0 shitte

lying

there).)

fL'j:ftJ*

Iv \0371J1-:J\"\"C\037' \037 *
wa

Watashi

Suzuki-san

imasu.

(I
Gmt

know

Miss

Suzuki.))

1.

/ru

is

used

as an auxiliary

verb
In

with

V te

and expresses

the

continua-

or state. can continue or be repeated, action. If V te is a verb


tion of an action
i

general, V te iru

expresses an action expresses the continuation

if Vte

which of the

IE)

a momentary action which cannot indicating be repeated, V te iru expresses the idea that something to X happened and X maintains the state which was created by that event. KS and Ex. (a) are examples of the first usage and Exs. (b), (c) and (d) are ex-

amples of
form
which

the

second

usage.
get

Note
to

in

Ex.

of shitte,

means 'to
the

know'

(d) that shiru, and shitte iru


got

the

dictionary

expresses

the

continuation
is that 2.

of

state

after

the speaker

to

know

Miss Suzuki,
however,

expressed

'not
iru

to know'
also

It is also by know in English. is not shitte inai, but shiranai. a habitual

noted,

(t:) shiTU)

V te
peated (1)

expresses

action,

which

is a

special sort of

re-

action. fL'i

Example:)

fiJ a 1m -;\" \037/vjE\"\":) 1:' L \\ \037 0

Watashi

wa mainichi
every

yonmairu

hashitte

iTU.

(I run four miles 3. When

day.)) as iku is not

te

return', iru

means

motion verb such the meaning of Vte iru 'to have gone to some
is a
in

and kaeru 'go', kuru 'come' 'be - ing '. For example, itte The place and to still be there'.

sentences
(2)

(2) provide

examples.) L \\ Q

a.

7 j !J :fJ ':.0'\"\":) 1:' tX\037\037'i J iro wa Amerika ni itte

iTU.

(Jiro

has gone

to

America

and is
1:' L \\a;T kaette

there.))
0

b.

\037 '/ \037\037 Iv'i

Bekku-san

t ? ;vn:.$\"\":) wa mo ie ni
already

imasu.

(Mr. Beck has

returned
V

home and is there.)) pattern


if

4. Theverb

sumu

'live'

requires the\"

te iru\"

the

sentence

ex-)))

iru 2 /

iru 3 157)

presses a
with

present

state.

Also,
require

verbs like
the\"

iu

'say'
iru\"

and
pattern

omou 'think'
if the

a third

person subject
state.

V te

sentence

a present expresses
(3)

Examples:

a.

fL'iJttJjn\037{tN1:L\\\037 / *{tt;o ni sunde iTU / Watashi-wa Tokyo

*sumu.

(I live
b. tj
;r.

in

Tokyo.)
\037'-\037,

A \" \037 \037 ,j: f3 *ZlHi\037

c ,Fi!;l\"\":) 1:' L \\ \037 / *,\037,? 0

Uesuto-san

(Mr. West

wa nihongo wa yasashii to omotte thinks that Japanese is easy.))

iTU / *omou.

=)=) iru 3 L' Q) v. (Gr.


1))

\037;t\037-\037-\037\0371 \037\037\037\037'-\"\"\"\"\037\037)

need

Key

Sentence)

Topic

(experiencer)
'i .
an

Necessary Object
\037fl]\037\037 tJ\037

\037t::..tj

\037'Q/\037'\037'!To
iru

Kimitachi

wa

eiwa-jiten

ga

/ irimasu.

(You need
Examples)

English-Japanese

dictionary.))

(a)

fL'i\037:t3\037tJ\037\037'

Qo o-kane

Watashi

wa
money

ima

ga iru.

(I
(b)

need

now.)

'! TtJ\037o fiiJtJ\037J!tAtJ\037\037'\037 Nanika

dogu

ga

irimasu

ka.

(Do you
(c)
\037 Q)1f!'i

need some tools?)


if >'
\037tJ\037t::.. \037\037, < \037 \037 Qo wa

K ono

kuruma

gasorin
lot

ga takusan iru.

(This car needs a


&ID)

of gas.))

1.

/ru

'need'

takes

the wa-ga

construction,

where

the experiencer

(that)))

158

iru 3)
is, the person or the necessary object
thing

that

needs

something)
the

is
form

followed

by

wa and

by

ga. negative

(t:),.., ws ,.., gs)


is iranai, the I (Cp. iTU
(1).

2.

/ru form

'need' is

Gr. 1 verb; thus, irimasu and the te-form


is a can

polite
;

is

itte.

iTU 2)

3. The
(1)

experiencer

also take the particle ni,

as

in

a.

\037Q)Tf::'i\037\\\037\\*\037\037tilitJ\037\037\\Qo

Kono

ko ni

wa

ii kateikyoshi

ga iru.
this

(This child needs a good tutor. (Lit. For tutor is necessary.\302\273


b.
\" . \037Q)7\302\260P\037:r.\"

child,

a good

\"f::'iAc\037tJ\037\037\\Qo

= =

Kono purojekuto
(This

ni

wa

hito
and

to kane
money.

ga

iru.

I \037) \037 4.

project
and

needs people
money

(Lit.

For this project


either
wa

people
In subordinate

are

necessary.\302\273

as

in

(2),

unless

clauses, the experiencer the sentence is contrastive.

is followed
(In

by

ga or ni,
follows.)
l (f;t\302\273

that case,

(t:) ws
(2)
Q) \037

\\ Q \037c \037 \\ '! '- t::.. tJ \037 \037 \037 tJ \037 t::.. < \037 \037 1J1-:J \"'( \037 1f! fJ( / f:: tf \037\037 0

Kono

kuruma ka.
you

gs / ni
that

gasorin

ga

takusan

iru koto

0 shitte

ima-

shita

(Did

know

this car

needs

a lot of gas?))))

jibun

159)

ji bun

(3\037

pro.

r a reflexive to a human !
\037 speaker

pronoun subject

that\037;(b;k)\037l with whom the

- self;

own

is empathizing \037\037\037\037.......,,\037\037)

!
\037

[REL.

jibun

])

. Key
(A))

Sentences)

Topic

(subject)

:l:fE Tsuchida

'i
wa

$-=f
Sachiko

tJ\037

\0377t

\037 \037 '-\"'(

\037\\ -\"5

-:J t::.. / .:. \037 \037 1i1 \037 t.(. tJ\037

ga

jibun

aishi

te

iru koto 't::.. 0

shiranakatta

1-J1 \037 *

it

\037 '1:'

shiri masendeshi

ta. himself).))

(Tsuchida
(B))

didn't

know

that

Sachiko

loved

him

(lit.

\037 == \037

= - = -

=== ===)

Sentencel
tJ\037 \037 \037

'i wa

t.(. tJ\037 \037 \037\037

\037;t\"'(

\037\\t::..o ita.

Yukari (Y ukari

arukinagara
walking

kangaete
thinking.

was

while

Sentencez

fmKen'ichi

'i
wa

\0377t

tJ\037

*\037
honto

,:. ni
myself)?))

t.(. \037 \037f

\037

t!. 0

tJ\037o

jibun
really

ga

sukina

daro

ka.

Does Kenichi
Examples)

love me (lit.

(a)

qtJIUi

\037 7ttJ\037Jj(*':'AtL-\"5

-:J t::.. o tJ\037 \037}l!,-:J\"'( \037\\t.(.


Ky6dai that

Nakagawa (Nakagawa

wa jibun ga didn't think

ni haireru he

(lit.

to omotte himself) could

inakatta. enter

Kyoto

Uni-

versity.))
(b) -\037\037'i !fTtJ\037 13

7t':.\037 \037\\ ,:.*t\037mf ? ni ai

Ichiro

wa Fuyuko
wasn't

(Ichiro

at

-:J t::.. o t.(. tJ\037 tj ,:. \037\\ ni kita toki uchi ni inakatta. ga jibun came home when Fuyuko to see him (lit. himself).))))

160 (c)

I) jib un

7tQ) 1f!'\"t*fjtJ\037-ttt::..o J!t -=f'i-\037 ,:. \037 Michiko wa Kazuo ni jibun no kuruma
(Michiko

made

Kazuo

go there

in

his

/ her own
7t \037:9:'i \037

de ikaseta. car.)
c!::\037\037L,\"(

(d)

.y 3

\037'i) 7 !J-

-:J '\"( \037\\ Q) \037c!:: \037\037, t::..o '\"(,


\0377. c!::\037\037T

Iv t!. \037 < \0371

?
Jon

tJ\037o \037 7t \037fti'\"(

Q Iv

t!. 0

? tJ\037o

0 omotte ita. Kanojo wa jibun to kekkonshite wa Mear; no koto kureru n daro ka. Jibun 0 sutete, Bobu to kekkonsuru n daro ka. Is she going to marry me (lit. myself)? Is of Mary. (J ohn was thinking

she going

to leave me

(lit.

myself)

and marry

Bob?))
back to

&ID)

1. Jibun
topic

is an

empathy marker
in

that

normally
(a),

refers and

the

subject

of

the main

clause as
is an

KS(A),

Exs.

(b)

(c), or to the

discourse

as in jibun

KS(B) and Ex.

(d).

=
\037 \037

= \037
\037)

2.

When

sentence)
is

not

(i.e., the subject of the empathy marker, its referent is normally a passive experiencer. In other words, the referent an agent (i.e., someonewho initiates and / or completes an action). 2 (t:) jibun )
an

3. Ex. (c) is
main

can refer to either the sentence, because jibun or to reference to Kazuo is not Michiko Jibun's Kazuo. subject a counterexample of jibun's to refer to the subject, strong tendency is semantically the subject of the verb iku ' go'. however, because Kazuo is to be noted that is an agent of the causative Also Michiko action, but

ambiguous

Kazuo
easier

is

passive
at

to look
but

Kazuo

experiencer of the as the object of


It

causative
the

action.

speaker's
that

Indeed, it is because empathy, empathy


Michiko.
agent

he is a passive experiencer.

is very
when

likely
it

jibun

is not an
an

marker
Other
( 1)

a contrastive ambiguous

marker
sentences

refers

to

similar

follow:) '\"(

a.

JR -=f 'i -:9} ':'13 \037Q) 1f! '\"t*fj -:J Michiko wa Kazuo ni jibun (Lit.

-:J t::.. 0 \037

no kuruma
Kazuo had

de

itte

moratta.

Michiko received from her / his own car. ( = Michiko his own car.\302\273
b. JR -=f'j: -J} Michiko (Lit.
l=.

favor

of going

there
in

In

Kazuo

go there

her

13 \037Q)1f!'\"t*fjtJ\037tLt::..o
ni

wa Kazuo Michiko

jibun
by

no kuruma
the had

is annoyed

fact that

by her / his own car. his own car.\302\273)))

(=

Michiko

de ikareta. Kazuo went Kazuo go there in

there her

jibun that jibun in (la, b) is an empathy marker when and is a contrastive marker it refers to Kazuo. when
Note it

/ jibun

2 161)

refers

to Michiko
(t:) jibun
2

4. The

referent of jibun
expressed
a.

in

a complex
main

sentence has
Compare

to be
(2a)

conscious of
and

the

situation
(2)

in the

clause.

(2b):

t{-=f'iEl\037tJ\037re\037wH:.-=f{jttJ\037*\037':'A-:J

t::..o mae

Tomoko haitta.
chjld

wa jibun ga

shinu

ni kodomo

ga

daigaku

ni

she (lit. herself) died, her (Lit. Speaking of Tomoko,before entered college. (= Before Tomoko her child entered died,

college.\302\273

b.

*t{-=f'i
*Tomoko

f.: EI \037tJ\037re\037

(b c \037-=f{jttJ\037*\037':'A

-:J t::.. o

wa jibun

ga

shinda

ato

de kodomo

ga

daigaku

ni

haitta.
child

(Lit. Speaking of Tomoko,after entered college. ( = After


is

she

(lit. herself) had

Tomoko

died, her child

died, her entered

\037 \037)

college.\302\273

The

sentence

(2b) person.)

ungrammatical

because one

can

hardly

empathize

with a dead

jibun
\037 a \037

(3 \037

pro.)

reflexive a human

pronoun

that the with

refers

to

subject,

referent s.o.

(back) of

-self. , own
\037 \037

[REL. jibun

])))

which
\037 \037'-\"-)

is contrasted

else

\037

162

jibun

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Topic

(subject)

f3*A
Nihonjin

'i
wa

S7t
jib un

(/)

00
kuni

(/)
no

Jt{\037

\037

=:1-=::..--7

t!.

\037 Ji!!..-:J \"'( to

no
'\"

bunka

yuniku da

omotte

Q / '\" * To

iru / imasu.

(The Japanese
(B))

think

that

their country's

culture

is unique.))

Topic =

(subject,

agent)

== \037

\037 \037)

;li!JMeari
(Mary does
(C)) everything

'i
wa

S7t
jibun by

\"'t*

fPJ

\"'t*b

TQ
suru

/ L*To
/ shimasu.

de nan

demo

herself.))

Topic
-\037

(subject) .
'i

S7t

\037

* 1Jl1.J

t::..

* L / 1Jl1.J

* L t::.. o

Kazuo

wa

jibun
himself.))

hagemashita

/ hagemashimashita.

(Kazuo braced
Examples)

(a)

S 7t\0371-11 Q =Jibun 0 shiru

\037 tJ\037-ii.

koto

(To
(b)
-;\".{

know -7

yourself

L \"'0 ga ichiban muzukashii. is the hardest.)


\037(/)!rom\"'t*

'i'\"

'.) b S
always

7t (/)

Maiku

wa itsumo

jibun

no

t!l %i L \"'( \", Q 0 de benkyoshite ryo no heya

iru.

(Mike is
(c)

studying

in his own

dorm room.)

IJ'*'i

L t::.. \", \037 f:J 7ttJ\037 \037 \037-:J t::.. o

Kobayashi (Kobayashi
(d)

wa jibun kara shitai voluntarily

to

itta. that

(lit. from himself) said

he

wanted

to do it.)

96!:E'i Sensei

(The

:: S 7t (/)*\"'t* fL ,:. \037-:J \"'( r \037-:J t::.. 0 wa go-jibun no ie de watashi ni atte kudasatta. met me at his own house.)))) professor kindly

jibun

163)

Note

Jibun is a contrastive is met: (1) its referent


(2)

marker is an

if at least

one of
KSs

the

following

three

conditions
(d\302\273.

agent (as in

(B), (C), Exs.

(b), (c) and

the subject
an (such
if

replaced by
pronoun

(as in KS(A) and Ex. (a\302\273.(3) jibun cannot be third implicit person pronoun (0) or by an explicit third person ' ' as kare he and kanojo 'she '). KS(C) satisfies the condition
is generic
jibun into is

(3), because

sentence
[Related

'

replaced

by

0 or kare
him.')

he

\"

the

meaning

of the

changes

Kazuo encouraged

Expression]
jibun l

Jibun is
given

if the
if

in Note;

it satisfies

referent does not satisfy at least one of them

any of the three it is jibun 2 .)

conditions

= -

iJ I

= -

=======))

164

ka

ka 1 b\\

prt.) (either)
[REL.

\\\037;

arti \037\037hkh'm-;ks \037\037-;;;;;;\037)

or

ttve ! .-..........\037 \037/\"\"'0..../'\"' \037\037\037 ......,................ \037)

soretomo])

. Key
(A))

Sentences
(subject)
\037 'i \037wa

Topic
fL

Noun
iI]f[ densha
by

I tJ\037

Noun2
J\037A (tJ\037 ) \"t*

Predicate
ff<
iku

/ ff\037*To
/ ikimasu.

Watashi
(I will
(B))

ka or by

basu
bus.))

(ka)

de

go

either

train

Sentence1

Sentence2

(informal)t
'

(informal)t
tJ\037 ;I.

=
1
\037A fJ(

\037 \037)

ft <

7 I)

fJ(

ft <
iku

tJ\037

tJ\037t!. / \"t*T 0 E t? \037

Tomu
(Either

ga iku
Tom

ka

MeaTi ga
will

ka

dochiraka

da / desu.

will go or Mary
and

go.))

tDa
Fermation)

after

Adj(na) stem

drops.)

KS(A)

: N 2 (tJ\\)
(ka) tJ\\ \037!:E

Nt

tJ\\

ka
%!:E

(tJ\\)

(either

a teacher

or a

student))))

sensei

ka gakusei

(ka)
inf
tJ\037

: KS(B)
(

i)

{V /

Adj

(i)}

ka
{8\037T {hanasu {\037\037\\/ {takai

/ 8\037 Lt::} / hanashita}

7J\\

(either

s.o. talks / talked s.t. is / was

or)

ka
tJ\037

\037ip-:Jt::} stem /

(either

expensive or)

/ takakatta} (na)

ka
N} {o

(ii)

{Adj

/ t!. -:J t::..} tJ\\

{o /

datta}

ka)

ka 1 {r/t/.p {shizuka

165)

rfttp

t.: -:J t::..}

tJ\037

(either

s.t. is / was quiet or))


a teacher

/ shizukadatta}
%!:E

ka
tJ\\ ka)

(;'G!:E /
{sensei Exa m pies) (a)

t.: -? t::..)
datta}

(either s.o. is / was

or))

/ sensei

fL'j:\037\037.y.:L

- A tJ\037 \037 Iv\037


jtJSU

\037\037tro

Watashi

wa maiasa
either

ka

miruku
every

0 nomu.
morning.)

(I
(b)

drink

tL ,j: \037

juice or milk \0377*tJ\\ -;\" tJ\037 '- * To \037


wa

Sore
(As

Bobu

ka Maku

ga
or

shimasu.

for that,

either Bob

Mark

will do

it.)
ka dochiraka

(c)

\037 \"'t':-:Jt::..tJ\037l!\037 t:JtJ\037t.:o \037tJ\037\037tJ\\-:Jt::..tJ\\-\037\037tJ\037\037tJ\037\037

Niku
(Either

ga takakatta ka Ichiro meat was expensive 0 kaku ka


write

ga niku or Ichiro
kakeru

ga

kiraidatta

da.

didn't

like meat.)

(d)

-=Fki1:\037.

tJ\037 \037* \037\037 '-\"'( < t.: \037 < tJ\037m\037\037 tJ\037Jt Q tJ\037 \"'0

Tegami
(Either

denwa 0 letter or make

ka

dochiraka

shite kudasai.

a call,

please.)

\037 \037

= 1 \03 \03

(e)

1t\037

tJ\037 ,:. '- tet. \037 Q tJ\037\037!TtJ\\l! \037\037 \"'0

Taberu (Lit.

ka hanasu ka dochiraka ni shinasai. Decide on either or talking. ( = Just eating

do

one thing, eat

or

talk.\302\273

em

1. The basic function


nouns

of ka is

to mark
marks

an

alternative.
final

It can mark
ka is usually

either

or sentences.
it

When

it

nouns, the
are

When

marks must

is, 2.
Ka

they

the sentences, be in the informal

sentences
form.

subordinate

omitted. clauses; that


wa

The

topic marker Thus, the

must

not

be used.
cannot

be used

to

connect

two

questions.

following

sen-

tences

are ungrammatical.
*=.tL'j:UJtet.t::\"Q)\037TtJ\\o

(1) a.

fJ'fLQ)\037TtJ\\o
watashi

*Kore wa anata (Is

no desuka. Ka this yours or mine?)


fJ'=.
isshoni

no

desu

ka.

b.

*fL\037-a':'**TtJ\037o

=. ':''''*TtJ\037o

*Watashi to (Will
you

kimasu

ka.

Ka koko
will

ni

imasu

ka.

come
is

with
used

me?
instead

Or

you

stay

here?)
(t:) SOTetomo))

In this case, soretomo

of ka.

166

ka 1 / ka 2) Expression]
with

[Related

Soretomo is also used


is to
appears connect

alternatives.

However, the
mark

function

of soretomo

two

alternatives,
in

not to
of ka.

an

alternative.

Thus, soretomo

with

ka, not

place

Examples:
ga

[1]

i\"nt: \037tJ\037JNjtJ\037-:Jt::..tJ\037, Niku ga dochiraka

\0371j't!.-:Jt::..tJ\037\037\037 \037tJ\037t!o t-\037\037tJ\037\037tJ\037\037

takakatta da.
meat

ka, SOTetomo Ichiro


expensive
i\"n

niku
like

ga

kiraidatta

ka

(Either
[2]
Watashi

was

or Ichiro

didn't
*
TtJ\037o

meat.))

fL \037 -tt,:.**

TtJ\037o

t:

\037\037 ,=. 1j'

to isshoni
you

(Will

come

with

kimasu ka. me? Or

SOTetomo koko
will in

ni imasuka.

you [2].)

stay here?)

Soretomo

is

optional

in [1], but not

KI)

ka 2

b\\

prt.

\037\037\037\037
the preceding \037 \037ates that. ve \037 I nterrogatl <. -\037\037\037\037-,-) . Key
(A))

ich i\037\037\037

whether;
[REL.

if (kai)])

sentence is

dai

! ,

Sentences

Sentencet

J:'-.:r
Yoshiko

'i

*\037

--

ff<
iku

/ff\037*T
/ ikimasu

tJ\037o

wa dalgaku going speech,

ka.

(Is
tIn

oshiko

to college?)) da
after

informal

Adj

(na) stem and N

drops.)))

ka 2
(B))

167)

Sentence
fL fj: wa

(informal)t
tJ\037

=r!JTeri

,:.

y -j- \037

f3*

\037

Watashi

ni

Nanshi ga

Nihon

0< e iku

tJ\037

\\ t::.. \037 pa \037

/
/

ka

to

kiita

pa\037*Lt::..o

kikimashita.

(I
tOa

asked

Terry

whether

Nancy was going to

Japan.))

after

Adj (na) stem and N

drops.)

Fermation)

( i)

{V / Adj (i)}
{\037!T

tJ \\

ka '-:t / g\037

T}

tJ\037 ka

(Will

(or Does)

s.o. talk?

(informal/formal\302\273)

{hanasu

/ hanashimasu}
1;\\

{\037\037\\/ \037\037\\ \037T}

(Is

s.t. expensive?

(informal/formal\302\273

{takai

/ takaidesu}
(na)

ka
N}

= - 1
=
\037 \037

-=iii:ii

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

{o / \037T} {o /

tJ\\

desu} ka
(Is

{RJttJ\037

/ RJttJ\\\037T}

tJ\037 ka) tJ\\ ka)

s.t. quiet?

(informal/formal\302\273

{shizuka {%!:E {sensei Examples)

/ shizukadesu} / %!:E / sensei


\037T}

(Is

s.o. a teacher?

(informal/formal\302\273)

desu}

(a)

UJt\037t::..'j:\037!:E\037TtJ\037o

Anata
(Are

you

wa gakusei desu a student?)

ka.

(b)

=-

tL'j:fPJ\037TtJ\\o
nan this?)

Kore wa

desu

ka.

(What is
(c) Tomodachi

\037ii'j:\037*tJ\037j$

'- ,,\\tJ\037\037 fif)\037\\t::..o

(My
(d)

friend

wa kanji ga muzukashii if kanji is difficult.) asked


\037,:. t.:tLtJ\037*t::..tJ\037 wa \037 t::..

ka

to kiita.

fL'j:.y.y

fh

t::.. o
ka

Watashi

Jan

ni dare

ga

kita

to tazuneta.

(I

asked

J an

who had

come.))))

168
(e)

ka 2 / ka (do ka)
(/) \037'j: \037M:$t!:EtJ\037 \037

fPJ \037 \037-:J t::.. tJ\037;gtL\"'( kino

'- * -:J t::..o

Boku
(I've

wa Yamazaki-sensei ga
forgotten

nani Prof.

0 itta ka Yamazaki

wasurete

shimatta.

(completely)
ni

what

said yesterday.)
omoidasenai.

(f)

fL'j:{Jt=':.td\037\037}t

'-t::..tJ\037 \037? tJ\037J[\"\"\\m1tt\037\"\\o

Watashi

wa Kenji

o-kane
if

0 kashita ka

do

ka

(I cannot

remember
marker

I lent

Kenji some

money.))

em

1. The question
native
thesized

ka is a special
example,

use of the
came

ka

which

marks

an

alter-

(i.e., kal). For


part

KS(A)

from

(1), with the

paren(t:) kal)

omitted.
(\037tL\037

(1) J: LT'j:*\037\037ff\037*TtJ\037o
Yoshiko

tff\037*1tlvtJ\037o)

(Is
2.

Yoshiko

wa daigaku e ikimasu to college? going

ka.

(Soretomo
is

ikimasen ka.)

(Or

she

not?\302\273

; K;;
\037 \037

an interrogative sentence is marked informal, by ka (t:) dai; kai) Note yes-no question or a WH-question. in Japanese that interrogative sentences, the word order is the same as that of the corresponding declarative sentence. Also, an interrogative sentence is pronounced with rising intonation it is a yes-no whether Unless
very

it is
it

whether

is a

question
3.
Ka When

or

a WH-question.

remains the

in indirect informal
marker

questions as
ka,

in

KS(B),

Exs. (c) and

(d).

4.

forms

the question
informal

of na-type adjectives and the da drops. A possible reason


assertion

form

the

question

of desu, expresses a strong marker ka, which expresses

precede da, the and it conflicts with


copula
is that
uncertainty

the speaker's

about
kashiTa))

something.

(t:) kai;

kamoshiTenai;

ka

(do

ka)

b\\

(Co?

b\\)

prt.)

'\037\037
!

whether or
1

not;

if (-

or

not))))

.\037\037--....,......-)

question

ka

(do ka)

169)

. Key

Sentence)
Embedded

Yes-No (informal)t

Question A

Verb (cognition)
t::.. tJ\037 (\037 ?
tJ\037)OJ:)

Iv f\037* \037

tJ\037

*\037

,:.
ni

-:J

\", t\037 1-11\037


shiranai

1-11 !J

* \"it Iv o

Suzuki-san

ga daigaku

haitta
not

ka
Mr.

(do ka) (wa)

/ shirimasen.

(I don't know whether

or

Suzuki

entered college.))

tDa
( i)

after

Adj

(na) stem and N

drops.)

Fermation)

{V /
{\037!T

Adj

(i)}

inf

tJ\037 (\037?

tJ\\)

ka / \037!L t::..}
hanashital

(do

ka)
tJ\037)

tJ\037 (\037?

(whether

or not

s.o.
is

talks

/ talked)

{hanasu /
{Mj'\" {takai

ka

(do

ka)
tJ\037)

-:J t::..} / \037tJ\037 / takakatta} (na)

1J\037 (\037?

(whether

or not

s.t.

/ was

expensive) = - \037)

ka (do
N}

ka)
/

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

{o /
{o

t!. -:Jt::..} tJ\037(\037? ka (do datta}


tJ\037) ka) tJ\\)

tJ\037)

ka)
or not

{t; tJ\037
{:$t!:E

/ ffttp t.: -:Jt::..} tJ\037 (\037? {shizuka / shizukadatta} ka (do

(whether quiet) (whether

s.t. s.o.

is

/ was

/:96!:E

t!. -:Jt::..} tJ\037(\037?


datta}

or not

is

/ was

{sensei / sensei
Examples)

ka

(do

ka)

teacher))

(a)

IJ'JII

Iv tJ\037\037\037 '-\"'( '\" \037

Q tJ\037 \037? tJ\\1-I1-:J\"'( '\" * TtJ\\o ka.

(b)

iru ka do ka shitte imasu Ogawa-san ga kekkonshite (Do you know if Mr. Ogawa is married or not?) t\037 7;t - \037 \037 -j-- Q)/J'\037tJ\037t3 b '- 0 \"'tJ\037\037? tJ\0371-I1 \"'0

Fokuna

(I
(c)

don't

ka do ka shiranai. no shosetsu ga omoshiroi if Faulkner's novels are interesting.) know


\037? tJ\\ff 1.:, * \"it Iv o 7G \037tJ\037

\0371=1 96!:EtJ\037t3

Yamaguchi-sensei

(I
em

don't

know

if Prof.

ga o-genki ka do ka zonjimasen. Yamaguchi is healthy.))

1.

When the optional do ka is used, the embedded question has to be a yes-no question. If it is not used, then the question can be either a yes-no question or a WH-question.)))

170 ka (do ka) /


(1)

kai \" =} \037\"'t* Vir \037 it \037t::..fJ'

VA

fJ' \037? fJ':Jt;t ks

Resutoran

de nani

tabeta

(Do you

remember to

what

you

\"'( \", * T tJ \037 0 *ka do ka oboete imasu / ate at the restaurant?) \"'( '\" ka

ka.

(2)

\037 Q)\037t=tL \037 -\037

,:. '\" t::..fJ' / *fJ' \037? fJ':Jt;t


isshoni

* T tJ\037o oboete

Sono

toki daTe
you

ita

ka /

*ka do
with verbs

imasu

ka.

(Do

remember

who you were

at that

time?) examining, such

2. 3.

Typical

final

verbs
asking,

include, among others,


remembering,

of knowing,

understanding,
Sinf

and deciding.

ka
and

(do ka) can


o.)

be

used

as a

noun phrase

that

takes

particles

as ga
(3)

tt$\037\037\037

Shigoto

Q tJ\037 E ? tJ\037tJ\037rJ:J'mt.:-:J t::.. o 0 yameru ka do ka ga mondai datta. or not to quit the job was the question.) (Whether E ? tJ\037 < tJ\037 \037\037#;t \"'( \", * ni iku ka
thinking

(4)
=

*\037\037':.ff Daigakuin

To
imasu.
will

do ka 0
about

ima

kangaete

\037 1 == \037 \037)

(I'm now

whether

or not I

go

to

graduate

school.))

kai

D\\L\\

prt.

f\037'\037\037
yes-no

[REL. dai (ka2)])


in

questions

informal

male
\037 \037

speech

\037\037\037\037,) . Key
(A))

Sentences

Sentence

(informal)t

a*m
Nihongo
(Is

'i

t3t

l.,\037L\\

tJ\037 \"'0 kai.

wa omoshiToi interesting?))

Japanese
after

tDa

Adj

(na) stem and N

drops.)))

kai (B))

171)

Sentence
Iv l:.IT \037

(informal)t
(/) tJ\\

Veno-san (Is Mr.

'i i:) !J 'f.1 -- 17 < wa Amerika e iku

\"'0

no

kai.

Ueno
Adj

going

to

America?))
to

t Da

after

(na) stem and N changes

na.)

Formati\037n)

KS(A) ( i)

{V / Adj (i)}

in f

\\ I; \\\037

kai)
{\037\037T

L t:J / \037\037

tJ\\

,,\\

(Does

(or Will) /

Did s.o. talk?))

{hanasu
{\037\" ,

/ hanashita}
\\ \037tJ -:J t.:}

kai
(Is /

\" \\ tJ \037

Was s.t.

expensive?))

{takai

/ takakatta}
(na)

kai
N}

\037 {o/ {o /

'

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

t!.

-:J

t::..}

tJ\\,,\\

\037 i K i) \037

datta}

kai
(Is /

{rft!p
{shizuka {16!:E {sensei

/
/

f(ftlp

t!. -:J t::..}

,,\\ tJ\037
kai) tJ\\ '\"

Was s.t.

quiet?)

/ shizukadatta}
16!:E

t!. -:J t.:.}


datta}

(Is /

Was s.o. a

teacher?))

/ sensei

kai

KS(B) : ( i)
{V

/ Adj

(i)} inf

(/)

tJ\\

\",

no
{\037iiT

kai
(/)
tJ\\

/ g\037 Lt.:}

,,\\

(Docs

(or Will) /

Did s.o. talk?)

{hanasu
{iNi'\" {takai

/ hanashita}
/ iNit.P\"-Jt.:} / takakatta} (na) (/)

no

kai)

\037\\,,\\

(Is /

Was s.t. expensive?)

no kai
N} {t\037 /

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

t!.

-:J

,,\\ t::..} (/) \037\\

{na /
{ffttJ\\ t,t.

datta}
(/)
'\" tJ\037 kai) '\" tJ\037

no

kai

/ rfttJ\\ t.!. -:J t::..}

(Is /

Was s.t.

quiet?)

{shizukana {9G!:E {sensei

/ shizukadatta}
t\037 /

no
(/) no

16!:E

t!. -:Jt::..}
datta}

(Is /

Was s.o. a

teacher?))))

na /

sensei

kai)

172

kai)

Examples)
(a)

a*m\037f1l%iT-3tJ\037\037\\o

Nihongo
(Will

0 benkyosuru study
\"

kai.

you

Japanese?)

(b)

(/) \037 Kono

/\037

\037 tJ\037 'i r; tJ\037 \\0 kai.

apato wa shizuka (Is this apartment quiet?))


(c) \037ii \037 \\0 'i\037!:E tJ\037

Kimitachi

wa gakusei kai.
students?)

(Are
(d) Sono

you

.:t (/)*'i\037

hon
book

'- \037\\(/)tJ\037\037\\o wa muzukashii no kai.


difficult?)

(Is the
(e) (b

\\ \037 (/) AJi 96!:E t.t (/) tJ \037 0

Ano

hito

wa sensei

na

no

kai.

II) CD

(Is that

person a used
form.
*

teacher?))

1. Since kai is

in

informal

the
(1)

informal

The

preceding sentences speech, following sentences are unacceptable.)


tJ\037\037\\o

must

be

In

a.

a*\037!'i13=b

*Nihongo (Is

l.,\037L\\-C:T ((/)) wa omoshiToidesu

(no)

kai.

Japanese

interesting?)
j]\037fi\037*T((/))tJ\037\037\\o

b. *l:!f\037Iv'i7J. !J
*Ueno-san

wa Amerika
Ueno

e ikimasu (no) kai.


Thus,

(Is 2.
Kai are

Mr.

going to America?)
questions.

is

used

only for yes-no

the

following sentences

ungrammatical.)

(2)

a.

*E\037\037ff\"<

((/))tJ\037\037\\o

*Doko (Where

e iku

are you

(no) kai. going?)


tJ\037\037\\o (na

b.

*(b(/)AJit.:tL(t.t(/))

*Ano

hito
that

wa dare
person?)

no)

kai.

(Who is
(In these

sentences, dai

is used.

(t:)

dai\302\273)))

kai /

kamoshirenai

173

3.

Questions respond

in

the

to questions

KS(A) pattern and those in without no desu and those

the

KS(B) pattern corwith no desu in formal

speech,

respectively.
in

(t:) no da)
in

4.

Questions

female

male

informal

informal speech can be formed by dropping kai questions and using rising intonation. Examples:)
t L 0 \037\\ (Q))? wa omoshiroi
interesting?)

(3) a.

a *\037lHijQ
Nihongo

(no)?

(Is Japanese
b.

j] -..ff\" < (Q))? l:!f \037Iv 'i 7 J. \037 Veno-san wa Amerika e iku (no)? (Is Mr. Ueno going to America?)
UJ

c.

Q) AJi 96!:E ( t.t Q) ) ?


wa

Ano hito

sensei

(Is For a
summary Expression.)

that

person of the

(na no)? a teacher?)


informal

endings for

questions,

see dai,

Related

= - \037 \037

=== \03

kamoshirenai

D\\'b

\037tL\037\037,)

aux.

alij

(i))

\037\037\037\037\037\037

( -\"I....,,\"-.\"\"',,\"\"-/'-\037,\037\037\037\037

..-,,/

\\ \"\"'-./......)

might

[REL.

daro;

ni

chigainai;

soda

])

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Vinf lf\037 jij


tJ\037 \037\037 fUTU tJ\037 t

LtLt.t

\037\\ t / tJ\037

LtL *

-tt

Iv o

Gogo

ame ga
rain

kamoshirenai
afternoon.))))

/ kamoshiremasen.

(It

might

in the

174
(B))

kamoshirenai)

Adj
u.,Q)

(i) inf
tJ\037 t Litt.t \037\\ / tJ\037 t LtL * -tt Iv o kamoshirenai / kamoshiremasen.

96!:E

Q)

f1\037

'i
wa

\"J \037\037tlL\\

Ano sensei
(That

no jugy6

tsumsTsnsi

teacher's

class might

be

dull.))

(C)) Adj

(na) stem
tJ\037 t LtLt.t \037\\ t LtL * -tt Iv o / tJ\037 kamoshirenai / kamoshiremasen.

J?:W Q)

tk

'i
wa

* t!.
mada

\037tLL\\

Kyoto no sakura

kiTei
might

(The cherry
Formatien)

blossoms

in Kyoto

still

be

beautiful.))

=
i K

(i)

{V /
{\037!T

Adj

(i)}

inf

tJ\037t

LtLt.t\037\\

kamoshirenai

/ \037!L t::..}
hanashita}

tJ\037 t

LtLt.t

\037\\

(s.o.

might talk /

might

have

talked)

{hanasu /
{takai

kamoshirenai
tJ\037t

{\037\037\\/ ifjjtJ\037-:Jt::..}

LtLt.t\037\\

(s.t. might
high) tJ\037 b

be high

/ might

have been

/ takakatta}

kamoshirenai
N}

(ii)

{Adj

(na) stem /

{0 / {0 /

t!. -:Jt::..} datta}


kamoshirenai tJ\037 t

Lit t.t ,,\\ might be quiet / quiet)


might

kamoshirenai
(s.t. been
\\ t.t \037 might

{r;tJ\037

/ r;tJ\037t!.-:Jt::..}

tJ\037t L\037tt.t\037\\

have

{shizuka
{96!:E

/ shizukadatta}
/ 96!:E

t!. -:Jt.:}
datta}

L tL

(s.o.

{sensei
Examples)

/ sensei

kamoshirenai

might be a teacher / have been a teacher))

(a)

t LtL * 1t Iv o \037lf:Q)\037'i*\037* < t.t Q tJ\037 no fuyu wa taihen Kotoshi naru samuku

kamoshiremasen.

(It

might

be

very cold this winter.)

Q).I\037-T -1' -Q)\037 \037 (b) u.,Q)A'i\037a \037\037tLt::..tJ\037t LtL*1tlv o Ano hito wa kyo no pat; no koto 0 wasureta kamoshiremasen. (He might have forgotten about today's party.)

(c)

Q) II.*:OOUi UJ \037 Kono

t.t t:: ,:. Ii eiga wa anata


movie

--::>* ni

t.t ,,\\ tJ\037 \037 t wa

L tL for

* 1t Iv 0

tsumaranai

kamoshiremasen.
you.))))

(This

might

be uninteresting

kamoshirenai (d)

175)

J: !J nnltitJ\037 t LtLt.t 1r\\0 a *mQ))(\037 wa no bunpo yori kantan kamoshirenai. nihongo be simpler than Japanese grammar.) (Chinese grammar might
qtOOmQ))(llHi
Chugokugo

no bunp6

(e)

UJtL'iffJ*96!:EtJ\037 t LtLt.t 1r\\ J: 0 Are wa Suzuki-sensei kamoshirenai (That

yo.

might be Prof.

Suzuki.))

[Related

Expressions]
probability

I. The
than

of accuracy

predicted
much

by

a kamoshirenai

that

of a daro as

sentence
low

sentence and diagrammed below:


(

lower than

that

sentence is lower of a ni chigainai

probability

kamoshirenai < The Japanese


(the formal
[1]
weatherman

daro

<

. high probability ni chigainai desho

on
in

version of daro)
UJT'i,J,jijtJ;-

radio or TV, for example, employs his forecasts as in the following:) a


qt\037Q -c!

00 JkitfrJ.1,
Kanto-chiho,

l., J: ? 0 furu probably

\037 '
desho. be drizzling
all \037 \037

asu
in

wa kosame ga
Kanto area

ichinichiju

K I!

(Tomorrow,
day

the

it

will

long.)

II.

masu / Adj (i / na) stem soda is used when based primarily on visual or other perceptual is not;

rather the latter is used


Thus,)
-:J! Q) \037

when

that

the speaker's conjecture evidence, but kamoshirenai is based on logical conjecture ho

is

reasoning. [2]
UJ

-7 -

\037('i)

jQ 1r\\

L \037? -c!T

A! Kono (Look, this

keki

nee (wa) oishisodesu cake looks good, doesn't it?)


l.,*I;\0371tNho

[3]

*UJ-:J!

\037Q)-7-\037Oi)jQ1r\\L1r\\f.\302\273\\=b

Kono keki (wa) oishii kamoshiTemssen be good, might (*Look, this cake might
*A!

nee
it

not?))

(t:)

yoda))))

176 karal

kara
tJ\\

l)

prt.) from;

J ,\037\037\037v'-\"'\037\"\"

\037\037\037'-'\037 a particle which indicates a or a source point


. Key

starting

! \037 .........,.....)

since;
3 ;

out of
0 3])

[REL. ni

Sentence)
Noun

Topic (subject)
,1\037-T.{
Pat;

'i
wa
starts

J\\ttt

tJ\037 \037

Q jir\302\243
hajimaru

!J * jf:r\302\243

hachiji
at (lit.

kara
eight

/ hajimarimasu.

(The
EXa\", pies)

party

from)

o'clock.))

(a)

\037aQ)f1\037'i-\037tJ\037\037=:\037*\037\037To

Kyo

no jugyo

wa

ichiji from

kara sanji one o'clock

made desu.
till

(Today's class is
\037)

three

o'clock.)

I!

(b)

Q),1\037 \037 A

'i;::..:I.
wa

- 3from

tJ\037 \037 \037*t::o

Kona

basu
bus

Nyuyoku

(This (c)
Koko

came

kara kita. New York.))

\037\037tJ\037\037\037:f:U-JtJ;\037;tQJ:o

kara Fujisan

ga
Fuji

mieru

yo.

(You can
(d)

see Mt.

from

here.) Iv \037T
tJ\037o

.7c Q) \037 .{ 7\" 7.{

-li \037

t\037 t:: tL tJ\037 \037 f1i \037

Sono
(Who

taipuraitB
did

wa dare kara karita you borrow the typewriter

n desu
from?)

ka.

(e)

mHi*i1\037

\037f'FQo

Sake

wa kome kara tsukuru.


is

(Sake (I) 'J

made

out of rice.) Iv tJ\037 ,:. t.t


-:J ni

* \037t.t 1j\\ \037\037tJ\037 \037 It


It became a

t::..o natta.

Tsumaranai (Lit.

koto kara kenka


quarrel

from

a trifle.

(=

We

started

to quarrel

over

a
aD)
Kara

trifle.\302\273)

basically

indicates

a temporal a cause

or

spatial

starting

point

or (c\302\273

a source
person,

(Exs. (d),(e) and


material,

As (f\302\273.

seen in
reason.)))

Exs. (d),(e) and

(Exs. (a), (b) and (f), a source

can be a

or a

kara 2

177)

kara 2

tJ\\

conj.) in time

after /
!

since a
place

point

at which

s.t. takes
. Key

!
\037

after;

having

done

s.t.; since
of
verb])

\037)

(time)

[REL.ata
Vte

de;

te-form

Sentence)

\037T
Yukiko

'i
wa

\037\037!&

\037

11t\037-c

tJ \037 t:> \037iOO

,:.
ni

ff

-:J

t:. / ff \037 * '-

t:. o

bangohan
supper,

tabete
Yukiko

kara eiga
went

itta

/ ikimashita.

(After eating her


Fermatien)

to a movie.))

V te

tJ\037 t:>

kara)
\037 L. -C tJ\037 G kara) tJ\037 t:>

(after

talking))

=
\037 \037

hanashite
1t\037 -C

\0 !!

(after

eating))

tabete Examples)

kara)

t:> ? i? \037 fL'i\037ii':..\037 '- -CtJ\037 lfj t::..o Watashi wa tomodachi ni denwashite kara uchi 0 deta. (I left home after making a call to my friend.) Iv'i \037\\\"'J tJ\037 t \037.y !7 - \037ma-c (b) \0373 - \037A. \037 t:>1i* To Jonzu-san wa itsumo shawa 0 abite kara nemasu. a shower.)) (Mr. Jones always goes to bed after taking

(a)

(c)

fLiit.J\037 \037 Q)*

\037 t:> A -:J -C tJ\037

t ?

+If:':'

t\037 Q

0
ni

Watashitachi (It's
(d)

ga kono
ten

ie 0 katte
years

kara

mo junen
this

naru. house.))
1j\\ t:> t\037

already been
,:. \037im*\037

since

we bought
\037 =}

=If:M
*1-0

\037 \037\037'-

-C tJ\037 t:>,

Iv \037

li1l!':.*
wa

J: ? ,:.

'- -C1j\\

Ninen
yoni

mae
shite

ni

kotsujiko

0 okoshite
accident

kara,

Mira-san

kuruma
Miller

ni noranai
has

imasu. two years

(Since he caused a traffic trying not to drive a car.))))

ago, Mr.

been

178

kara

2)

em) 1. Vte kara

S means'S
is an

after

doing

s.t.' or'S
karal.

since

did

s.t.'

The

usage
as a

of
2.

kara

extended use of

Te kara is not to be confused conjunction of cause / reason.


( 1)

with

ta kara in

which

kara

IS

used

3 (t:) kaTa )
f.\302\273' .; \037..y

a.

.y 3

\037 :\302\245 \037* \037'-

-c

'J

\037 mat::..

Jogingu .y 3

0 shite

kaTa
took

shawa

0 abita.

(After jogging, I
b.
\037 :\302\245 \037* \037'-

a shower.)

t.:

f.\302\273\\ .; \037..y

'J

\037 mat::..

Jogingu

kaTa shawa (Because I jogged, I took a


0 shita

0 abita.

shower.))

[Related
Kara

Expression]

in Vte kara can


volitional

be

omitted

if the

main verb does


the

not

indicate

a high

degree of
strong

control

on the
but

part of

speaker

as in the
KS cannot.

suggestion, (c) kara

determination

or a command.
in

!!)

(b) and
[1] a.

can drop,

Ex. (d), [la] and A


\037'tenisu

Thus, in [2a] it

cases of a and Exs. (a),

f1l%it.J\037\037b

-:J -C f.\302\273''; T'::'

* '-.t
finished

?0
studying.)

Benkyo

ga owatte
play

kaTa
after

0 shimasho.

(Let's
b.

tennis -:J -C,

we've

7''::' A \037L * L..t ? 0 *f1l%itJ\037\037b tenisu 0 shimasho. owatte, *Benkyo ga finished studying, and let's play (*We've
f1l%itJ\037\037b-:J-cf.\302\273\\';ilifat.t\037\037\\o

tennis.)

[2]

a.

Benkyo
(Play

ga owatte
after

kaTB asobinasai.
finished studying.)
\037 \037\\o

you've

b.

*f1l%itJ\037\037b

-:J-cilifat.t

*Benkyo

ga owatte
finished

asobinasai.
and play.)
is

(*you've
The
difference

studying,

between

te kara
volitional

and te
planning

that

the

chronological

order

and

than

former focuses more the latter does.)))

on

kara 3

179)

kara

tJ\\

conj.)
\"\",.

/\"V'..\"-\"\"-\"\"\"'-\"\"\"'-\",. \037\037\"\"\"\"-\"\"\037\" \037 a subordinate which

presses \\ \"'''\037''-\037-''''..\037''-\037\037''''''-/'\\...'''''-I''\\..-)

conjunction a reason or a cause

ex-

\037 I < )

so; since;

because

[REL. node])

Key

Sentences

(A))

Subordinate (reason /
*\037

Clause

cause)
tJ >.tJ

Main

Clause

a*

-.. ff <
iku

a*m
nihongo

\037

f1l%i L -C

1j\\ Q iru

1j\\ *

t\" 0

Rainen

Nihon e

kara

0 benkyoshi te
to

/ imasu.

(I'm
(B))

studying

Japanese

because

I'm going

Japan

next

year.))

A:
\037?

L-C

a*m

\037

\037%iL-C
benkyoshite

1j\\ Q

Do
(Why

shite
are

nihongo 0

iru

Iv {t.: / n Ida /

\037t\"

0 tJ\037}

= = 1
\037 \037

\037 \037

desu ka}.

you studying (informal) -.. IT <


iku

Japanese?))

B:

Sentence a*

*\037

tJ\037 \037j

Rainen

Nihon e

kara

t.: / da /

\037 t\"

desu.
year.))

(It's becauseI'm
Formation)

going

to Japan next

KS(B)
Sinf

:) tJ >.C J

kara)

/ {hanasu /
{B!t\"
{il1i1j\\

L\037!

t::..}

tJ>. \037J

(because

s.o. (will) s.t. is

talk

/ talked)

hanashita}

kara
tJ\037r:J kara)

/iWitJ\037-:Jt::..}

(because

/was

expensive)

{takai

/ takakatta} / r;

t.= {r; tJ\037

tJ\037 t.: -:J

t::..}

tJ\037 G kara)

(because

s.t. is / was

quiet))))

{shizukada

/ shizukadatta}

180

kara

3)

{96!:E

{sensei
Examples')

t!. / 96!:E da / sensei

t!.-:J t::..}
datta}

tJ\\

(because

s.o. is / was a teacher))

kara)

(a)

G * \037T'j:+-t; t!. tJ\037 Haruko wa jushichi

t!.jO\037

t\037 \037\037\037 \037\\o

da

kara

mada

o-sake
drink

0 nomenai.
sake

(Haruko
(b) \037 EHi

is

seventeen,

so she

can't
ashita

yet.)

desu (Please come tomorrow


Kyo

\\ \037 T it '- \037 wa isogashii

tJ \037 G UJ

\\ \037 '- t::.. * -C < t!. \037 0 kara

kite kudasai.

because

I'm

busy today.)

(c) A:

\0375

'-

Q) -C \037

\037\037\037f*1v t!.Iv\037TtJ\037o

n desu ka. shite kino gakko 0 yasunda (Why were you absent from school yesterday?) Do

B : AA t.J\037nfj -:J t::.. tJ\037 tJ\037 G \037To


Atama

ga itakatta (It was because I

kara
had

desu.
a headache.))

am
;K\037

1. S kara represents a reason or a cause. Thus, S1 kara S2 corresponds to , because since S2 / SI', 'Because / since 8h 8 2 ', or'S., so S2'. Note that the order of SI and while S2 is not always the same in English, in Japanese kara clauses (i.e., SI) always precede main clauses (i.e., S2). 2. In subordinate clauses predicates are usually in the informal form. HowU of SI in SI kara ever, since the degree of subordination or dependency form in very formal S2\" is rather low, SI may be in the formal speech, as in Ex. (b).

3.

When

a main

pattern form.
(1)

is used.

clause is known to the hearer from the context, the KS(B) In this case, the kara clause must be in the informal
sentence is unacceptable.

1'he
*Rainen

following

**If:a*\037ff\"\037*TtJ\037Gt!.

\037To

(It's 4.
In

e ikimasu kara da / desu. becauseI'm going to Japan next year.)


Nihon situations
used.

question-and-answer

as in

K8(B)

and

Ex.

(c), abbreviated
may

forms are occasionally the KS(B) situation.


(2) Rainen

For

example, speaker B

say

(2) in

*\037a*\037ff\"\037\037TtJ\037Go

Nihon

e ikimasu kara.
going

(BecauseI'm

to Japan

next

year.))))

kara 3 / In

kashira
imasu

181)

this

studying

sentence, the main clause nihongo Japanese' has been omitted.)

0 benky6

shite

'I'm

kashira

tJ\\ \037b

prt.)

)\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037, a sentence-final which I ex\037 I the that the female \037 presses

particle

wonder)

idea

\037

wonders about speaker ......,,\"-\037,,\037\037\"\"\"\037)

s.t.

\037

. Key

Sentence)

= Sentence
Iv t\037* \037

= 1

(informal)t
'i
*\037 tJ\037 '- t.J 0

\037

\0

Matsumoto-san

wa kUTU
if Mr.

kashira.
will

(I

wonder

Matsumoto

come.))

t Da after
Formation)

Adj (na) stem and N

drops.)

( i)

{V / Adj (i)}
/ B!

inf

tJ\037 '- C\"J

kashira
{\037!T

'-

t::..}

tJ\037 '-

(I wonder

s.o. (will)

talk

/ talked)

{hanasu /
{takai

hanashita}

kashira
tJ\037'-C\".J

{rtli\037\\ /;WitJ\037-:Jt::..}

(I

wonder

s.t. is /was

expensive)

/ takakatta} kashira
(na)

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

N}

{o/ {o /

t':-:Jt::..}

tJ\037'-(J

datta}
tJ\037 '-

kashira
(I wonder

{r;tJ\037

/ tffttJ\037t.: -:J t::..}

s.t. s.o.

is

/ was

quiet)
a teacher)

{shizuka / shizukadatta}
{96!:E

kashira

96!:E

t.: -:J t::..} tJ\037 '- G kashira)))

(I wonder

is

/ was

{sensei / sensei datta}

182

kashira)

Examples)

(a)

OJ(1)96!:EC1)tf\037'j:jo

t 'jugyo

Ano sensei

no

0 \\r\\tJ\037 '- Go wa omoshiroi


9

kashira.

(I

wonder

if that

teacher

s class

is interesting.)

'- Go (b) $T\037 1v':1fP1tJ\037\037\037tJ\037 Sachiko-san wa nani ga suki kashira. what Sachiko likes.) (I wonder

(c)

OJ

(1)A ,:1 t.: tLtJ\037 '- Go

Ano hito wa dare kashira. (I wonder who that person emt)

is.))

1. 2.
KI)

Etymologically,

kashira

comes

from

ka shiranai

'I

don

t know

(if)

-,)

but
Kashira

now expresses the idea \"I


is

wonder\".
speakers
the

usually

used
kana,

by

female

The male

version is
rules

which

is used only
exactly

in fairly

The 3.
Sfml

formation

of kana

are

in rather informal speech. informal situations. same as those for kashira.


very

kashira

is acceptable

if the situation

is

formal.

Example:)

(1)

\037=- ':1DfJ\\\"t:TtJ\037

'- Go

Soko wa (I wonder

shizukadesu
if

kashira. place

that

is quiet.)

4. Since kashira
be
used

mean 'I wonder' (present tense), they cannot like\" I wondered\" and\" Mr. Smith wondered \". For such expressions, \"A wa Sinf kashira / kana to omou\" is used. means 'think to omou literally Here, A is the person who wonders; that'. Examples:
and

kana

for expressions

(2) a.

fL':1t\037*

\037 1v':1*Q wa

fJ\\

l,';

c!::,I[i,

Watashi

Matsumoto-san if Mr.

-:) t=o wa kuru


would c!:: ,m

kashiTa to omotta.
come.)

(I
b.

wondered

Matsumoto
,:1

Iv ,:1 Ij,) II \037 Iv UJ* \037 Yamamoto-san wa

96!:EfJ\\ l,

.;

Ogawa-san

-:) t=o wa sensei

kashiTa to omowas

tta. (Ms.Yamamoto

wondered

if Mr.

Ogawa

teacher.))))

-kata

183)

-kata

suf.) \"\"\"\"\"\"'-\"\"'-\";

.\"'\037,,\037\037\037\037\037\037 a noun-forming a
suffix

that
in

indicates
which

> I > < \037

a way

of; a
hoho])

manner

of;

how to

way
s. t.

or a manner

one

[REL.

does

V\"../\"'.\037\037\"'v'V\"V'v') . Key

Sentence)
V

masu fF!)

7-\037 Keki

(J)

1J

\037

\037;t-c

< t!. \037 'v'o

no

tsukUTi kata
me

o oshiete

kudasai.

(Please show
Fermation)

how to make a

cake.))

V masu

1J kata
1J

= == (way /
manner

L.. \037IS

of speaking)

\037

\" \0 \0 \0

hanashikata
\037\037

1J

(way / manner

of

eating)

tabekata) Examples)

(a)

:: (J)\037*(J). \037 1JtJ\037fttJ\037 !)


Kono kanji

oft \037

No

no

kakikata

ga

wakarimasen.
this

(I don't know how


(b) &;

to

write

kanji.)

(J) A (J)\037 \037 1J'j::Jo

Ano hito
(His (c)
f3

no arukikata

manner

t '- 0 'v' 1: T no wa omoshiroidesu nee of walking is amusing, isn't it?))


-c < t.: \037 'v'o
shikata
no

*m(J)\037%l(J)ft1J\037\037;t

Nihongo

no benkyo
me

0 oshiete

kudasai.
language.))

(Pleaseteach
em

how to study

Japanese

1.

masu+kata

is in

itself ambiguous, meaning

either'

way'

or

' manner'.

Thus,)

(1)

\037Jj.1JtJ\037**1:T
Nomikata

ga

daijidesu.)))

184

-kata /
is ,

kawari

ni)

ambiguous: The manner

it means
in

either

'The

way of drinking

is important'
meanings

or

which
in

one drinks is extended

important.' The separate


1: <
1.:' \037 \"\"0

become

clearer
Kono

an

context:)
0

(2) =-(1)\037'Hj:\0377J.1itJ\037**1:T
kusuri
kudasai.

4Z,-r$tfjfH:'\0371v

wa nomikata

ga

daijidesu.

Kanarazu

shokuzen

ni
to

nonde
(les take

to know how important it before every meal.)


0

to

take

this

medicine.

Be sure

(3)

-7\302\260'j:\0377J.1itJ;**1:T

StJpu
(In

wa nomikata ga daijidesu. (in which eating soup the manner

one eats

it)

is important.)

2. Sino-Japanese

suru-verbs such
'cook',

phone', ryori-suru suIt' need the


(4)
KI)
\037%l

as benkyo-suru' study', denwa-suru 'telesetsumei-suru 'explain' and s6dan-suru' conshikata

particle

no before

as in:)

/ C\037IS / *.;J.}]! / \037IYJ(1){t1i

benkyo

/ denwa /
/ manner

ryori

/ setsumei

no shikata
cooking

(a

way

of studying /

telephoning /

/ explanation))

[Related Expression]
Kata

can

be replaced
roughly

by

hoho

but

only s.t.

when

kata

means
be

'a

way

of doing
it

s.t.'

Hoho
f3

corresponds

to the English
of doing

word 'method';
rewritten

means

a relatively

complicated way
no benkyo

Ex. (c) can


kudasai.

as [1].

[1]

*m(1)\037%iC1)n;\037

\037\037;t

-c < t!. \037 \"\"0

Nihongo

(Please

no hoho teach me a method for

0 oshiete
studying

Japanese.))

kawari
S.t.
\037

ni

jJ\\f)

I\037 \037

phr.

(including

an

action)

\037
\037

In place

of

-;

instead

of;

to
but

s. t. else. \037 \037\037\"\"-\"\"'..\037\037\"-\"\"-r\037,,,,,)

make up for -; although; [REL. keredo(mo); shikashi])))

kawar;

ni

185)

. Key
(A))

Sentences)

Noun
st!\302\243

Noun
(J)
tJ\037:b \037 I:. ni

Predicate
tJ\037 \037;t

fL
watashi

t::.. / \037;t -s=..'- t::.. o

Sensei

no kawari
in

ga oshieta

/oshiemashita.

(I
(B))

taught

place

of my

teacher.))

Sentence

(informal)t

:f:Pla
Doyobi

,:.
ni

ft*
shigoto

\037

T.Q

tJ\037:b \037 I:.

J;JPla
getsuyobi

'i

ftU/

0 SUTU

kawari

ni

wa yasumu /
0

ft7J. (To make up for working on


tDa I take na

-s=.. T

yasumimasu.
Saturdays,

Mondays

off.))

=
I

after

Adj (na) stem and N

changes to

and no, respectively.)

1 i)

Fermatien)

( i)

N (J)

tJ\037:b \037 I:. ni)

no kawari
96!:E

(J) tJ\037:b \037 ,:.

(in

place

of the teacher))

sensei

no

kawRri

ni) tJ\037:b \037

(ii)

{V

/ Adj

(i)} inf

,:.
ni)

kawar;
{\037\037T {hanasu {1t\037 {taberu {\037\\(\\

'- t::..} / \037\037 / hanashita}

tJ\037t) \037

I:.
ni

(instead

of talking / talked

but)

kawari

Q / 1t\037 t::..} tJ\037:b \037 I:. / tabeta} -:J t::..} / {&j tJ\037
takakatta}

(instead

of eating / ate

but)
-))

kawar;

ni)

tJ\037:b \037

I:.

(s.t.

is /

was expensive but

{taka; /

kawari

ni
tJ\037:b \037 kawari tJ\037:b\037 kawar;

(iii) Adj (na) stem

{t\037 / t=. \037 t::}

I:.
n;)

{na / datta}
{MttJ\037t\037 /MttJ\037t=.\037t:.}

,:.
ni)

(s. t.

is / was quiet but -))))

{shizukana

/ shizukadatta}

186

kawari

ni)

Example's)

(a)

1::. -/v(1)
Biru

tJ\\

!) ':.mi \037 1\\ \\r\\ \037'- t::.. o


ni

no kawari

sake

0 kaimashita. of beer.)
\"'(

sake (I bought (b) bt::..'-(1)tJ\037b!) Watashi

instead
':.\037tJ;ff-:J
ni

\\r\\\\r\\\"'C:-rtJ\\o

no kawari

chichi

ga itte

mo

iidesu

ka.

(Can
(c)

my

father

go

there

in place of

me?)
f3 \037\037%l '- \037 -r

\"'C: iifi Q tJ\037b !) ,:. &; '- t::.. 'j:4'- f3 'j:\037jo \037< \037

Kyo wa
shimasu.

yoru

osoku

made

odoru kawari

ni

ashita

wa ichinichiju
until

benkyotonight.)

(I'll
(d) .:F\037

study

all day tomorrow

to

make

up

for dancing

late

-:J \"'( t; \037f \\r\\ J:: 0 Q tJ\037 oft \"'( < t.: \037 b !) ,:. \037\037

T etsudatte

ageru
you,

kawari

ni nomasete

kudasai yo.

(I'll

help

so (to make up for it)

please

(lit.

let

me drink)

buy

me

a drink,

OK?)
\"fj:\037fJ!t\037tJ\037b !)

(e)
KI

\037(1)7

\",:-

,:.*.tJ;\037\\r\\o

=)

no apato wa (My apartment is


Boku

fubenna
inconvenient,

kawari
but

ni

yachin

ga

yasui.

the rent is -C t
for

cheap.)
moratta.

(f)

\037m\037\037;t

\"'(

&;'ft:.tJ\\b

!) ,:. f3 *m\037\037;t ni
(to

-:J t:. o \037

Eigo (I
(g)

0 oshiete

taught

ageta kawari him Japanese, so


tJ\037 b

nihongo
make

0 oshiete
it)

up

he taught me

English.)

(1) It! \037 Sono


(That

-:J t:. 'j: \037tJ\037

'- t:. o !) ,:. J:: < \037Jc\037 kawari

kuruma
car

wa

yasukatta

was inexpensive,

but

it

often

ni yoku koshoshita. broke down.))

aD)

In N 1
originally

no

kawari
intended

ni N 2,
item.
make

N 2

is regarded

as the
ni

substitute

In Slinf kawari
up
for

S2, an

by S2 takes
in

place to

a counter-action

for Nt, which is the action or a state identified or counter-state represented

SI.)

[Related

Expressions]
kawari

In SI
shikashi

ni S2, kawari

ni can be

replaced

Note, however, that the Thus, keredo(mo) and shikashi in [1] below cannot be ' -' because the of
meaning
making

'

but'.

, keredo(mo) although' converse is not always acceptable.


by
replaced

or
ni,

by

kawari

up

for

tions

in [2]
present

can be
there.)))

replaced

by

kawari

is missing, ni, because

but

the same

conjuncmean-

the

compensative

ing is

kawari [1]

ni /

keredomo

187)

(t) / 0 l,fJ\\ l, / *fJ\\V tJ I=ti'i%l\\r\\o 0 takusan taberu keTedo(mo) / . Shikashi *kawaTi ni ha wa tsuyoi. I have strong teeth.) (Although I eat a lot of sweets,
fL'i1t\\r\\

t (1)\037t:.
wa

< \037 Iv$t\037 Q Itn\037

Watashi

amai

mono

[2]

fL'i1t\\r\\

t
wa

(1) \037t::.. < \037 Iv $t\037

Q Itn

c!:.

(t)

/ 0 l,fJ\\

l, / fJ\\V

tJ ,=

ti

.t \037

<

M<o

Watashi
kawaTi

amai

mono
yoku

0 takusan taberu keTedo(mo) / . Shikashi


migaku.
sweets,

ni

ha 0

(Although

I eat a lot

of

I brush

my teeth

well.))

keredomo

\037)
a

11 n

\037t>

conj.)
I > I > ()

subordinate conjuncdisjunctive tion that combines two sentences


\037\037\"\"-/V''-,\",''-A./\"v'\"../-./''-.\037)

although;

though

[REL.

ga 2

(daga,

dakedo,

==

:!

demo, shikashi)])

g K !i \037 !!

=)

. Key

Sentence)

Subordinate
fL

Clause (informal)
fJ\\

Main Clause t
\"A Tomu

'i

'D\"btl

-:) t:.

.t

tL

Ii wa
it).))

\037 -:J -C \\r\\ t::..

\\r\\:t

L.. t:.

Watashi

wa iwanakatta
tell

keredomo
him,

shitte

ita / imashita.

(Although I didn't
Formatien)

Tom

knew (about

Sinf

.ttLe

t
,t tL e t keredomo .t tL e t keredomo t::..}
(Although

keredomo
{31ST {hanasu {\037\\r\\ {takai

/ :IS '- t::..} / hanashita} -:J t::..} / \037tJ\037 / takakatta}

s.o.

(will) talk /

talked)

(Although

s.t.

is /

was expensive)
s.t. is /

{r;tJ\037 t.: {shizukada

r;tJ\037 t.: -:J

/ shizukadatta}

.t tL e t keredomo

(Although

was quiet)
was

t.: -? t:.} It tL e t {96!:E t.: / 96!:E keredomo))) {sensei da / sensei datta}

(Although s.o. is /

a teacher)

188

keredomo / kikoeru)

Examples)

(a)

\037 (1)*'j:\037

\\(,.t tL c

\\('

\\('*1:

J:: 0

Kono

hon

wa

takai

keredomo

ii hon

desu
is

yo.

(Although
(b) \037'j:

it is expensive, this
\037 /'\037fttJ\037u.,\"\302\243 \037\037t

book

a good
t\037%i

book.)
'- t\037.t tL'ft\037 G t\037 \\('0

t:.{

t\037 \\(,.t \037

tL c

Boku
ranai.

wa doitsugo I don't

ga
like

amari

sukijanai

keredomo

benkyoshinakereba
have

na-

(Although

German

very

much, I

to

study

it.)

(c)

*!f\037

1v'j:iL+\037t.:.ttLc

Dno-san

wa kyujussai

-Ct JG \037t.:o da keredomototemo


t c
ninety

genkida.
very

(Although OlD)

Mr. Ono is

years

old, he is

healthy.))

1. SI
.

keredomo

S2

means
therefore

'Although
it
can \\('

S., S2'. Here, SI


be \\('*1:

keredomo

is

subordinate :1 = ever,
in

clause,
polite

is usually

very

speech, SI
tL c

in the informal in the formal form,


T
J:: 0

form.

How-

as in

(1).

;)

(1)

\037 (1)*'j:\037L

'-c:t\".t
it

Kono

hon

wa tsksidesu
is expensive,

keredomoii
(listed

hon

desu
good

yo.

(Although
2. The
formal) informal

this book is a
from

book.)

forms

of keredomo

least

formal

to most

are

kedo<kedomo<keredo.)

kikoeru

M\037;tQ)

v. (Gr.

2))

I\037\037\"'-.\"\037\"\"'-\037\"'-' \037\037.....,...\037- -......\", I S.t. is passively and spontaneously \037 5

'

audible; [REL.

(can) hear; kikeru])

it

sounds

\037 audible. \037

.....\037\"\"\"\037\"\"\"\"-\"'\037..............\037\037)

. Key Sentence)
Topic fL

(experiencer) 0:.) \037


\037

Audible 'j: wa
oj

Object
(1) -::b

<' \\('T

tJ\037

J::<
yoku

oo\037;tQ /
kikoeru

OO\037;t\037To

Watashi

(ni) the

uguisu

no koe ga are clearly

/ kikoemasu.
clearly

(Lit. To me
hear

the cries

of a

cries of a nightingale
nightingale.\302\273)))

audible.

(= I can

kikoeru

189)

Examples)
(a) \037 C')1},:t

IJ'

\037 T wa

-C \037

ml =. it tJ:\" '0

Sono

oto

chisasugite
too

kikoenai. and

(That sound is
(b)

weak

is not audible.)
tonari

Iv JlJ \037

(1)r ,:1*
no

\\(' \037

(1) \037\037(1)\037\037C1) A':.

Oyama-san
kikoeru.

koe

wa okii

node
that

t .t < f1fJ =- ;t Q 0 no heya no hito in the


neighboring

ni

mo

yoku
rooms

(Mr. Oyama's voice is so


can hear
(c)
him.))

loud

people

fLI:.

,:1

tJ\\ -:J t::.. o it t::.. tJ\037, \037':H:',:1 00 \037 ;t t\037 jo=!j: (1) 7P tJ. (1)\037 tJ\037oo\037

Watashi

ni wa

o-tera

no

kane

no ne
the

ga

kikoeta

ga,

ototo

ni

wa

kikoe-

nakatta. (I could hear the

sound of

temple

bell,

but

my

younger

brother

couldn't.)) (d) T

-=]

\037 lv(1)f'p

'?

t::..Jt':1\037I:.f1fJ wa

\037 it \037o

Tera-san

no tsukutta bun
which

hen

ni kikoeru.
sound

=
strange.))
\037 1 s

(The
[Related

sentences

Mr.

Taylor made

\0 \0

Expression]

'hear' different from the regular potential form of kiku (i.e., whereas auditory potentiality, kikeru), in that the former indicates a passive, the latter indicates that the speaker (or the subject of sentence) can hear sound not passively but actively. Thus,)

Kikoeru is

[1]

\037':11+tJ;M\037;{.tctL'

Boku

wa

mimi

/ *MlttctL'o ga kikoenai /

*kikenai.
L' /
* IV) It

(I
[2]

am

deaf.) 0 ':.1*

\037 Iv tJ: I:'\037

Q C .t
back,

< IV) \037;{. tct

tct L'.t 0

K onna (If [3]

ni ushiro ni we sit this far

suwaru

to yoku we

kikoenai / *kikenai yo. won't be able to hear well.))

- t: tJ;M It.Q / *&,\037;{..Q 0 T v;t \037 1\\ -:J t::..1.p G v::z Ii sutereo 0 katta kara rekodo ga kikeTu / *kikoeTu. (I bought a good stereo set, so I can listen to records.))
\\(' \\(' A
\037\037tJ;?

[4]

Q \037< -C\037tJ\037M\037;{.tctL'
urusakute

Ongaku ga

hanashi

(The

music

is so

loud

that

/ MlttctL'o ga kikoenai / kikenai. is inaudible the conversation

/ we

cannot

hear the

conversation.))))

190

kikoeru

kiraida both

Note that in [4] speakerts perception alterable,

kikeru of the

and

kikoeru are
if

possible,

depending

on the
in-

situation;
if

he

perceives
kikeru.)

the situation to be

he uses

kikoeru;

not,

he uses

kiraida
J

adj. (na)) \037b L't=) \037\"'-\"\037\"\"'''''''''''-,,\037\037''\"'--''\"\037 S.t. or


S.D.

is

what

S.D.

does

not
j ( (

don't

like; dislike
sukida))

\037 like. I\037\"\"\037\037\"'-\"',,\"'-\037\037)

(ANT.

. Key
= i1

Sentence)
Disliked

=
g

a)

Topic (experiencer)
fL
Watashi
,:1

Object
tJ\037 \037G \"\" t.: kiraida

7--7-..

\037G \"\" 1:

-r

.
like

wa
cheese.))

chizu

ga

/ kiraidesu.

(I don't Examples)
(a)

G \"\"t.: o \037':1\037tJ\037\037 Boku

wa fuyu ga kiraida.
winter.) Iv ,:1 \037 7 ':I \"\037-lvtJ\037*\037G \"\"1:-r wa futtoboru ga dai-kiraidesu.
0

(I
(b)

dislike

*,!J.{\"
Howaito-san (Mr.

White

hates football.))

em

1. Kiraida
tion\". the

is

ana-type
,.\"

adjective
ga)

which

requires

the
the

\"wa -ga
person by

construc-

(t:),.\" wa

The

experiencer (i.e.,

who dislikes ga.

some thing)
disliked 2.

by wa and the disliked object is marked by ga, not by o.


is marked
wa

object

Note

that

In subordinate clauses, seen in (1).)))

marking

the experiencer

changes into

ga,

as

kiraida

I koto

191)

(1)

a.

- 'XtJ; r: G \\(' t\037 '? \"'( \\(' Q 0 \037c!:: ,:1 7J./v t\037\037 fLfJ( 7Watashi ga chizu ga kiraina koto wa minna shitte knows that I don't like cheese.) (Everybody mfJ(r:
Boku
G \\('t\037\037mH:1\037-C:To

iru.

b.

ga kiraina

kisetsu
like

wa

fuyu

desu.

(The season I

don't

is winter.) as in

3.

Dislike

a lot\" is

expressed by

dai-kiraida,

Ex. (b).)

-1 == \037

= = koto 1
n.)

\037 \037

\037c!::

\037\037,,\037\037\037\037\"-'\"

a thing which is intangible ! \037\037'-/............../\"\"'/--\037

\037 !)

thing;

what

[REL. mono])

Key

Sentences)

(A))

Adj

L'L'
Ii

\037c!::

\037 \037;t \"'(

&;

'f .t

? /

'&;'f\"\302\243

J: ? 0

koto
tell

o oshiete
you

ageyo / agemasho. (=1


have

(Lit. I'll
(B))

a good thing.

a good

suggestion

for

you.)))

Relative

Clause

lax
Ronbun

1= .L't::
ni

\037c!::

\037

\037'--C

< t!. \037 \\('0 kudasai.

kaita
what

koto
you

o hanashite
in
your

(Please

tell me

wrote

thesis.))))

192
(C))

koto l)

Noun
Iv 'i '77 ? \037\037 Buraun-san wa

8*
Nihon

(])
no

*\037

(j)

\037\037 koto

\037

J: <

\037-:J \"'(' \"'\\ Q iru

/
/

daigaku

no

yoku shitte

\"'\\ \037 To

imasu.

(Mr. Brown knows a


Formation)

lot

(of

things)

about Japanese

universities.))

( i)

{V

I Adj

(i)} inf

\037\037

koto)
{\037!T

/ \037!Lt.:}

\037\037

(what

s.o. (will)

says / said))
was
interesting))

{hanasu

/ hanashita}

koto
tJ:\\ -:J t.:} \037\037 koto) \037\037

=
\037 =-

=
\037 \037

{:t3

t'L

v\\

/ :t3

t L0

(what

is /

1 =)

{omoshiroi (ii)

lomoshirokatta}
-:J t::..} {t\037 / t\037 {na /

Adj (na) stem

datta}
\037\037

koto)
(what is / was
important))

tk_t\037

/ *_

t!. -:J t.:}

{daijina

I daijidatta}
\037\037

koto

(iii)

(j) no

koto)
(j)
\037\037 koto)

7'6!:E sensei
Examples)

(things

about

the teacher))

no

(a)

*_t\037
Daijina

\037\037 'i

t ? \037$\037

L \037L t::.. o hanashimashita.

koto wa

mo zenbu
you

(I already

told

everything
\"'(' \"'\\ *

that's T
tJ\037o

important.)
ka.

-:J t::.. \037\037 \037 (b) 96!:E \037\037\037 1t;it Sensei ga itta koto 0

oboete imasu
(=the

(Do you
(c)

remember
wa

what \037 \"'\\0

thing

which) the teacher

said?))

'i\037.nt\037 \037\037(j) \037\037

Shiken

no koto

wasurenasai.
exam.))))

(Forget

about the

koto t I

koto 2

193)

..

1.

Koto

means

a thing

which

is intangible.

Thus, (1)

is

ungrammatical.

(1)

*:t3 \"'\\ '*Oishii

\"'\\ \037 'i \037

tb !J * -tt Iv tJ\037o

koto

(Lit. Isn't
2.
N

there

wa arimasen ka. a delicious thing?)

no

such
and

is 'thing of N', is often used with koto, whose literal meaning verbs as shitte iru 'know', 'talk' and wasureru ' forget', hanasu means 'know about N', 'talk about etc. N',
is

3. Koto

used

ambiguous
remember

without

as a nominalizer, too. context. proper

(t:)koto 2)

Ex.

(b),

for

instance,

is
you

the

thing

which said

the

That is, it means either teacher said?' or 'Do you

'Do

remember

(the fact) that the [Related

teacher

(it)?')

Expression]
'thing',

Mono also means and mono in the


[1]
\\ \037'\" :t

but

following
\037 \037; \037 \037;t

it means sentences:)
* '- t::.. tJ \037 0

'a

tangible

thing'.

Compare

koto
\037 \037

Kuroi

0) I * mono

= = - ===

===

(Lit.

Did

you

I *koto ga miemashita see a black thing?)

ka.

[2] :t3t

'-\037\"'\\\037\037

/ *:to)\037ms'-\"\"( < t!.\037\"'\\o

Omoshiroi

koto

/ *mono 0
interesting

hanashite

kudasai.

(Please

tell us

things.))

koto

\037c

nom.)

)\037\037\037\037\037/'v\" a nominalizer used to indicate the \037 lack relative of speaker's empathy \037 with the content of the sentence he
\037 \037

to

-. , -in g .,

that

[REL. no 3])

is nominalizing)
\037)))

194

kot0

2)

. Key

Sentence)
(informal)t
\037

Sentence

IJ,m Shosetsu

-< 0 kaku

\037\037

'i
wa

L \"'\\

(\"\\:T)o

koto

muzukashii

(desu).

(Writing a novel is hard.))

tDa

after

Adj

(na) stem and N

changes to

na

and de aru, respectively.)

Ftlrmation)

( i)

{V I

Adj

(i)}

inf

\037\037

koto / :\037'- t::..} {\037\037T


{hanasu {JRj \"'\\ {takai \037\037 \302\253the fact)

that

s.o. talks I talked)

/ hanashita} -:J t::..} I iWi tJ\037 / takakatta}

koto
\037\037 \302\253the fact)

that

s.t. is I was expensive)

koto
{t\037 /

;1; \037

(ii)

Adj

(na)

stem

t':-:Jt::..}

\037\037

{na / datta}
{V; \037\037t\037 {shizukana

koto
\037\037 \302\253the fact)

t.: -:J t::..} / tffttJ\037 / shizukadatta}

that

s. t. is / was

quiet)

koto koto
-:J t::.. / 7'6!:E I sensei t.: -:J t.:}
\037\037 \302\253the fact)

(i i i) N

{\"\\: tb

Q /\"\\:

tb atta

-:J t::.. / t.: -:J t::..} \037\037 I datta}


\"1: tb

{de

aru I de
\"\\: cY>Q

{7'6!:E
{sensei
Examples)

7'6!:E

that

de aru

I sensei

de atta

datta}

koto)

s.o. is / was a teacher))

(a)

\037\"'\\\037,:. \"'\\\"'\\\037Ji\037tFQ

\037\037 'i

\037\"\"( t::k_t.:

Wakai

toki
very

ni

ii tomodachi

0 tsukuru

koto

wa

totemo

(It is (b)

important

to make

good
ni

friends

when

daijida. one is young.)

::k\037\037\037Q.)\0377

A ':.il\037TQ 7 \037 no

\037\037 it \"\"(\"'\\* \037\037

Daigaku

yonen

toki Furansu
in

ryugakusuru

(I

am

thinking

of studying
L-

France

during

0 kangaete imasu. my senior year.)


\"'\\0

To koto

(c) a *Q.)xf\037\037\037jo
Nihon

t no bunka
that

0 \"'\\ \037\037 'i)ttJ\037 Q tJ\037, ;:J. =omoshiroi

ga

koto

wa

-? t.: \037 fi,\037,bt\037 wakaru ga, yuniku


but

da

to wa it is

omowanai.

(I

know

Japanese

culture is

interesting,

I don't

think

that

unique.))))

koto 2 (d)
-:J\"\"( \"'\\ * To =. \037 tL \"'\\ t\037 A,{ A \037\037 \037 'i\037.\\:\037 koto wa shashin de shitte imasu. Suisu ga kireina is beautiful.)) Switzerland (From pictures I know that \"'\\ \"'\\A 'b:>(j) A \037\037

195)

(e)

\\:

(b

\\: To Q =. \037 'i t::.. L tJ\037

Ano

hi It

to ga is

(Lit.
good
CD)

ii hito de aru koto wa tashikadesu. certain that he is a good person. ( = He is

without

doubt

person.\302\273)

The nominalizer turns not just a verb but an entire senkoto or adjective tence into a noun phrase. For example, in KS the sentence sh6setsu 0 ' one writes a novel' becomesa complex noun phrase. Once a sentence kaku has a noun phrase, it can be used anywhere become a regular noun phrase be used. can Thus, it can function as the subject, as in KS or Exs. (a) and as in Exs. (b) and (e), or as the direct object, (d), and so on.)

[Related
In

Expression]

contrast

to another

nominalizer

no,

koto tends

to

\037 \037 indicate

= = - -=-

;;;;;

something

the

speaker does not feel close to. Thus, in KS, the nominalizer kot,o indicates that the speaker of the sentence is not personally involved in writing a novel; in other words, he is stating the sentence in general or objective terms. The nominalizer indicates something which the speaker can no, however, 3 or empathize with. in KS is (t:) no ) Therefore, if koto directly perceive replaced by no, the nominalizer now indicates that the speaker of the sentence

is somehow

empathetic with no or koto are


[ 1]

an act of
unacceptable

with personally involved writing a novel. are

writing
A

a novel; typical

in

short,
in

he is
which

few

examples

given.)
\\ \037 \037\"\"('\" t::..0

a.

m 'i
Boku

fit

tr

\037 \037 ilk

* <. 0) / \037c.
Shizue
t\037 ':'JL'ftC ni

wa Shizue ga
watching

oyogu

no

/ *koto

mite

ita.

(I was b.

swim.)
L\"'C \"'\\ Q \"'\\ (j) ? 0) / ?? \037C. tJ\037fttJ\037 G t\037 iru no / ??koto ga wakaranai

Iv tJ\037 =.Iv :t3-a3: \037

O-ka-san
no?

ga konna

shinpaishite I am

c.

(lit. your mom is) really worried?)) * .y.:r. \037'i \037. t::..o C. \037-\"\302\245\037-:J JvtJ\037\037iiT Q 0) / \037 Jen wa Biru ga sentakusuru no / *koto 0 tetsudatta. do laundry.)))) <J ane helped Bill
(Don't -

you understand that

196

koto 2 / koto ga
d.

aru

1)

\037 Q.)1Itf\\:'i\"'\\\"'\\1f\037\037an

< \037 \037 / *O)tJ\037lti*Qo

Kono machi de wa (I can listen to good

ii ongaku music
\037 \037 /

0 kiku

in this *O)t.: koto


o

koto / *no ga town.)

dekiru.

e.

\037 I \037Q \037

*o)'iffi\" t:. Q

Miru

koto

/ *no
to

wa

shinjiru

/ *no

da.

(To see is

believe.) no is apparently due to the difsound k is used to symbolize and the nasal sound n is used to symbolize
and velar

Incidentally, the difference between koto ference in the initial sounds k and n; the
a harsh, metallic,

impersonal sound
sound.

soft,

warm,

personal

(t:) Characteristics

of Japanese

Grammar, 8. Sound

Symbolisms))

!i1

\037 \037 \037)

koto

\037\037\037\037\037'-)

1 \037c fJ'(l> Q ga aru .....\037\037\037\037\"--. There was a time when

phr.)

S.o. has
was

done

s.t.;

S.o. has

had

an experience a time

doing when -)

s.t.; There

Key

Sentences)

Sentence
fL

(informal, past)
3

,j:
wa

- P

':I.I\037

-... ff -:) t=.

\037\037 tJ\037tb -'5 koto

/ tb !J * To

Watashi

Y oroppa

itta

ga

aru /

arimasu.

(I

have

been

to Europe.)
\037tJ, -:)

v?'.:A

tJ\037 \037\"\"(b totemo

t=.

\037\037 tJ\037tb

Q I tb !J * To

Retasu ga

takakatta

koto ga
was

aru / ari masu.

(There was
Fermatien)

a time

when lettuce

very

expensive.))

Sinf.past
L-t.: \037IS

\037\037 tJ\037tb

koto ga aru
\037\037 tJ\037tb

(have

talked))))

hanashita

koto ga

aru)

koto -:J t::.. 1iJJtJ\037


takakatta

l ga aru

197)

=. <!: tJ\037tb Q koto t::..

(There

was a time

when

s.t.

was expensive.)

ga

aru
(There

t!. -:J tffttJ\037

=. <!: tJ\037tb Q
koto

was a time was a time

when

s.t.

was quiet.)

shizukadatta
7'6!:E

ga

aru (There
when

t!. -:J t:.


datta

=. <!: tJ\037tb Q koto

s.o.

was a teacher.)

sensei
Exa m pies) (a)

ga

aru)

fL'i

=. <!: tJ\037tb !J \037\037\037\\?'\037m\037\037;t t\037


wa

* To koto school.)

Watashi

chtJgakko

(I
(b)

have

taught

English

de eigo 0 oshieta at a junior high


\037'- t::..

ga arimasu.

IJ,)I(

Iv'i \037

* t!.::f)V 7
hasn't
\037J:

=. <!: tJ\037t\037 \"'\\0

Ogawa-san

wa mada gorufu played

shita

koto

ga nai.

(Mr. (c) fL'i

Ogawa

golf yet.)

a *Q.)/J'\037

tb Q 0 < Me Iv t!. =. <!: tJ\037

wa Nihon (There was a time


Watashi
(d)

no
when

shosetsu

0 yoku yonda koto ga aru. I read a lot of Japanese novels.))

== -

g1 \037)

== \03

- -f \037 'i-\037.y

t!. -:J t::..=- <!: tJ\037 \037 tb Q 0 .y ;(tJ\037 <!: \"\"( b \037f

wa ichiji jazu ga totemo sukidatta koto ga aru. (There was a time when Susan liked jazz a lot.))
StJzan
-:J t::.. =. (e) fL'i 7' p !f\037\037-\"\302\245t!.
<!: tJ\037 tb !J

* To

Watashi
(There

wa

puro-yakytJ
when

senshu
I

was a time

datta koto ga arimasu. was a professional baseball

player.))

CD 1. In

general,
when

Sinf.past

a time

someone

koto ga aru expresses the idea that there was or something was in some state or did something.

2.

More

specifically,
U

Sinf.past
koto

koto ga
ga aru is

aru an

expresses extended

one's

experience.

In

this case, Sinf. past


expression

use of the

possession

wa B ga aru\", where B is a past action rather than a possessed thing. (t:) aTu l , Note 4) This extended use of the expression of possession for the expression of experience in Japanese is parallel to
A in

that

English.

Compare (1)

and

(2).

(1)

[Possession]
fA'\037.fJ(\037Qo

Watashi (1 have

wa a
car.))))

kuruma ga

aTU.

198

koto ga aru l / koto

2 ga aru

(2) [Experience]
fA'\037 [1:7

\0377m\037f1l%t Lt::..':' \037]past action

fJ(\037Qo kotO]past action ga

Watashi

wa [roshiago 0
[studied
koto

benky6shita action)

aTU.

(1
3.

have

Russian.]past
ga

In the
in

Sinf.past

aru structure,

a past

time

adverb

can be used

S.)

(3)

t:: \037\037fJ( \037Q 0 fL'iJL\037wH:' a *-..ff -:J Watashi wa gonen mae ni Nihon e itta
(I

koto ga
have

aru.

went

to Japan

five

years

ago. (Lit. I

been

to Japan

five

years (3) expresses

ago.\302\273

U the ideas U I have been to Japan\" and It was five years in at the same time. this the time expressed ago\" However, usage, be too close to the is cannot (4) unacceptable.) present.

(4) *fL'i \037O)?


*Watashi

\037L;lJ. \0371t\037t:: sashimi sashimi

\037 \037 fJ(\037

Qo

\037 = =)

; \037 !K g

(Lit.

wa kino I have eaten

0 tabeta yesterday.))

koto

ga

aTU.

phr.) koto ga aru \037C fJ'( l> Q ...\037\037\"\"\"-\037\"\"\"-.\037\037\"-\"\"\"-\"\"'''\037../.....

-. There are when \037 -\"\"\\..\"'\037\037) ......\037\037\"\"\"\"\"\"\"-.\037\037,,,....................\"\"\"-./'

times

There

are times

when

-.)

. Key

Sentence)
(informal,

Sentence fL

nonpast)t
,:.

'i
wa

\0370 \302\245J)

AQ

.:.\037 koto in to

tJ\037UJQ

Watashi

asa
times

turo
when

ni haiTU

ga the na

I UJ 9 *1\"0 aru I arimasu. morning.))

(There are
tDa
after

I take a bath

Adj(na)

stem

and N changes

and no /

de

aru,

respectively.)

Formatien) ( i)
V

I Adj

(i) inf.

nonpast .:. \037 tJ\037UJ Q


koto

ga

aru)))

koto
\0375T \037\037 'IJ\037 tb aru

2 ga aru

199

(There

are times

when

s.o.

talks.)

hanasu koto ga
\037v'

\037\037 tJ\037tb \037 aru

(There

are times

when

s.t.

is expensive.)

(ii)

takai koto ga Adj (na) stem


t\037 fit tJ\037

t\037 \037\037 tJ\037tb

na koto
\037\037 tJ\037tb aru

ga

aru

(There

are times

when

s. t. is quiet.)

shizukana koto ga
(iii)

{Q.)

/ \\:'tbQ}

\037\037 tJ\037tbQ

{no /

de
Q.)

aru}

koto \\:'

ga

aru
\037\037 tJ\037cY>Q

{7'6!:E
{sensei
Examplt\"s)

/ 7'6!:E

tb Q}
aru}

(There is

are times

when

s.o.

no I sensei

de

koto

ga

aru)

a teacher.))

(a)

t::..tJ\037 L'i\302\245J)\037!fi\0371t\037-r':.\037\037\037ff<

\037\037 'IJ\037tbQo

Takashi

wa asagohan
when t::.. *

tabezu

ni gakko

iku

koto

ga aru.
eating

\037 = breakfast.)
\037 \037

(There are times


(b) \037 Iv? Q.),-g Q.) \037

Takashi

goes to

school without ga
aru.

\03 !!!

'i

tJ\037 ,:. it\"', \037\037 tb Q 0

K ono

mise no

miruku

wa

tamani
when

furui koto
the

(Occasionally (c)

there

are times

milk in this *\037\\:' tb

store

is

old.))

7 j !J :b\\:' a *\037Q.);lJ.\037'f\037 Jt ? de Nihon e no miyage Amerika

\037.:t tL'IJ\037a

tJ\037 Q \037\037 J: < tb Q 0 Nihon-sei

0 kau

to sore ga
a souvenir Japan.)

de

aru
in

koto ga yoku aru. (Often there are times America for someone
(d)

when in

we find

out

that in

we've bought

Japan

is made

ltlilI Q.) \"\" b Saikin no

\037Q \037 \0371t iwayuru

&di

Q.) \037 \037 \0371t

\"\" \037\037 tJ\037 t\037 tb Q 0 &t l:- \037

shizenshokuhin

wa hont6 so-called

no

shizenshokuhin

ja nai

koto ga
(There

aru.

are times
foods.))

these

days

when

natural foods are

not

genuine

natural em) 1. Sinf.

from time

nonpast koto ga to time.


of

aru

expresses the idea


'often',

that

something

happens

2.

Adverbs tamani

frequency

'occasionally'
(c).)))

such as yoku are sometimes

tokidoki
with

'sometimes'
expression,

and
as in

used

this

Exs. (b) and

200 koto

koto ga

ga

dekiru)

dekiru

\037c

f.r(W*

phr.)

\"'-\"'\037\"\"'\"''''''''''''''''''\037\037
\037 Doing

\037\037\"\"\"\"\"'-\"\"'\"

s.t. is possible.

'\"\037\037)

can; be
[REL.

able

to

rareru 2])

. Key

Sentence)
Subject

Topic

(experiencer) 'i

Vinf. nonpast
\037mm \037

.
Nom

fEQ\0371v

I!T

.:.\037 koto

'IJ\037

lti*Q!

Taguchi-san

wa

chugokugo 0

hanasu

ga

dekiru

W**To
dekimasu.

(Lit.
can

For
speak

Mr. Taguchi
Chinese.\302\273)

speaking

In

Chinese

IS

possible.

= Mr.

Taguchi

' i !1

=
== \037)

Formatien)

Vinf.nonpast

.:.

\037 tJ\037lti*Q

koto ga
\037\037T

dekiru
(s.o. can talk) can

.:. \037 tJ\037lti*Q


koto

hanasu
1t\037Q

ga

dekiru)
(s.o.
eat))

.:. \037 tJ\037lti*Q

taberu
Exa m pIes) (a)

koto ga

dekiru)

< .:. \037 \037\037\037':.*tL'f*\037* \\: =:\037rp'\\:ff tJ\037lti*Qo ni noreba Osaka made Shinkansen de iku koto ga dekiru. sanjikan (If you take a bullet train, you can get to Osaka in three hours.) {} < .:. \037 ':I\037\" \037 IJ'fE 'i\037':) C1)\037/\"\037 tJ\037lti*t.:o

(b)

Oda
(Oda
(c)

wa muttsu no toki Bahha 0 hiku koto ga was able to play Bach at the age of six.)

dekita.

.y 3 :.--- '/ :.--- \037 Iv'i Jonson-san (Mr.

a *m \\:-\302\245\037 \037 tJ\037 11 < .:. \037 m* Q 0 wa nihongo de tegami 0 kaku koto ga in Japanese.)) letters Johnson can write

dekiru.

em

1.

Vinf.

nonpast

able to

- '.

koto ga dekiru is a potential form meaning This form is used in the \"wa-ga potential

'can',

or 'be

construction\":)))

koto

ga dekffu

201

N (animate) wa
where

(-

Vinf.

nonpast)

koto

ga dekiru.

animate experiencer and the noun phrase - Vinf.nonpast koto is a subject noun phrase nominalized The meaning of the by koto. structure is C N can V' (lit. 'For N Ving - is possible.').
N is an
(t:),.\",

w a ,.\", 9 a ) (1)

2. If a verb is
below,
(1)

0 V

closely koto can

associated

with

its direct

object, as

in

and

(2)

be J

deleted.
(\037\037< \037\037)tJ\037lti*Qo

T\037\037-'j:1::\302\2607

Nanshi
(Nancy

wa piano
can

(0

hiku

koto)

ga dekiru.

play the p
\037 7ift

piano.)
\037 \037) tJ\037lti*Qo

(2)

ftfi1*

Iv'i \037

(\0375!T

wa roshiago (0 hanasu (Mr. Okamoto can speak Russian.)


Okamoto-san
The 0 V koto deletion ever, because there is

koto) ga

dekiru.

is unacceptable in the following no close association between

sentence, the

how-

verb

and its
\037
==

direct object. (3)


A\037

A\037Iv'ia*mQ.)\037an{\037\037t;\037\037

\037)
*O}tJ\037lti*Qo dekiru.

K -

Sumisu-san (Mr.

wa nihongo

Smith

no shinbun {o yomu koto / *o}ga can read Japanese newspapers.))

[Related
form

Expression]

A shorter

potential form of verb, i.e., rareru 2 can replace a change in basic meaning. koto ga dekiru without and (c) can be rewritten as [1], [2] and [3], respectively.
[1]

the longer potential


Thus,

Exs.

(a),

(b)

ffi\037\037,:.*tL'f*\037*

\037 :=\037rp'\037fflt

Qo
ikeTu.

Shinkansen
[2]

ni

noreba

Osaka

made sanjikan de
t:: 0 ga /

IJ'JE
Oda

,j: \037':) Q.) \037\037{ :/' \037\"tJ\037 {Jolt / \037

wa muttsu

no
a

toki

Bahha

0 hiketa.
Qo ga

[3]

.y

3 :.--- /' :.--- \037 Iv'!

*m\037::f\037tJ\037.,t

Jonson-san

wa nihongo
between the

de

tegami

kakeTU.

Basically, the difference is one of style; namely, than the longer one.)))

the shorter

and the longer

potential

form

shorter

version is more colloquial

and

less formal

202 koto

koto ni

ni

naru) \037t

naru

r\037\037.Q

phr.)
\"(

\037
An event
ously, I volition.

takes place as

if

spontane-

it will be
\037 \037 \037)

decided
that

that

-;
that

come -;

irrespective

of the

speaker's

about
turn

-; be arranged
out

SUTU])

[REL. koto ni

. Key
(A))

Sentences)

Topic fL

(experiencer)
'-J:

Vinf. nonpast
*\037

Nom \037=. t,t -:J

*\037 I:.
ni

fi I1rt
tenkinsuTu

\037

;:,\037

t::.. / /

Watashi

wa

rainen Osaka

koto

ni
t,t
!J

natta

i: '- t::..o

narimashita.
' I I1

=
== \037)

(Lit. It has going to be


(B))

been

decided to

transferred

that I will transfer to Osaka next year.\302\273)

Osaka next

year.

(=I'm

Topic

(place)
\037

Vinf. nonpast
'-J:

a*
Nihon

.
kuruma

'i
wa

Ji
michi

(/)

ti. {1f.'J
hidarigawa

\037

)E\037

de

wa

no

hashiTU

Nom
;:,\037

,:.

t,t

-:J -C v \\ Q

v \\ i:

-r

koto

n;

natte

iru

/ imasu. to

(In Japan cars are


Formation)

supposed

be driven

on

the

left

side of the

street.))

Vinf.

nonpast

;:,

\037

koto ts-r hanasu


1t\037

,:. {t,t Q / ni {naru /

t,t.

-:J t::..}

natta})

;:, \037 ,:.

{t\037Q {naru

/ t,t -:Jt::..}
/ natta})))

(it
that

koto
Q

ni

will be decided / s.o. will talk)


will

it

has

been

decided decided

;:, \037 ,:.


ni

(t,t Q / t,t -:Jt::..)


{naru

(it
that

be

decided
eat))

it

has

been

taberu koto

natta})

s.o.

will

koto
Examples)

ni naru

203)

(a)

fL'-J:*JJ
Watashi

tJ\037 G\037tt':..JJ\037

Q;:'

\037 ,:./et

!J ni

i: Lt::.. o tsutomeru

(It
next
(b)

has

wa raigetsu been decided

kara kaisha that I will

koto

ni narimashita.
beginning

be

employed

at a company

month.)
Q;:'
\037 ,:./et

\037 Iv'-J: a *\037\037m\037f{;t \037 \0377t.y \037\037\037

\037 L

J: ? 0 ni naru

Tabun

Jansen-san
it

(Perhaps
(c)

will

wa Nihon turn out that

de Mr.

eigo

0 oshieru koto Jansen will teach

desh6.
in Japan.)

English

*\037AJJ Rainen

,:. let !J i: L t::.. o ':'\037\037T Q ;:, \037

rokugatsu
arranged

(It's been
(d)

ni kekkonsuru koto ni narimashita. I will get married that next June.)


\037 ,:./et-:J-Cv'\037o Nihon

A \037 A \037 Iv'-J: a*\037\037m\037f{;tQ;:'

Sumisu-san

wa
is

de

(Mr. Smith
(e) 4'- a

supposed

0 oshieru koto ni natte to teach English in Japan.)


eigo

iru.

,:. let -:J -c v' \037 IlJ fH96!:E':'\037 ? ;:, \037 To Ky6 Yamada-sensei ni au koto ni natte imasu. I'm seeing Prof. that) (Today (it's been arranged

Yamada.))

=Z = = =z g K \0 \037)

em

1. This construction
by

is used

when some

decision

or

some

unspecified

the

passive,
when and than

agent. Semantically because the experiencer has


the experiencer therefore,

this no

is made arrangement is close to construction over the event.

control

2.

Even indirect, rather

himself decides to do s.t., it sounds more more humble for him to use this construction to do'. to use koto ni suru 'decide (t:)koto ni SUTU)

3.

Koto ni natte iru,


decision

as

in

KS(B)

and Exs.

(d)

and

(e),

indicates

that some

took

place
still

that decision is

the result of at some point in the past and that in effect, sometimes to the extent that it has become

rule

or

a custom.)))

204 koto

koto

ni

suru)
\037t r\037 9\"

ni suru

phr.)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037 A volitional is decide \037 \037

decision to do

s.t.

to
koto

l\037\037

\"-\037\"\"\"'-\037 ..vv.,-\",,'.v'vv,-,,-,,-'V\"

\",-\",-\"J)

[REL.

n; kimeru;

koto n;

naru])

. Key
(A))

Sentences)

Topic fL Watashi

(agent)
'j:

Vinf. nonpast
\037tt
\037 \037/t)\037 yameTu

Nom \037:. L t::..

=-\037

/ L

wa
quit

kaisha 0
my
company.))

koto

ni shita /

i: L t::.. 0 shimashita.

(I decidedto
(B))

1m)

Topic (agent)
fL

Vinf.

nonpast
4ij J3 \037+7t
<*

Nom -C v'

'j: \037 wa \037

G v' \037j}j \037

T\037
SUTU

=-\037

\037:.L

Q/
/

Watashi

mainich;

sanjuppun gurai undo 0

koto

ni shi te Li:To

iru

. (I
make

imasu. rule to

it a

exercisefor

about

30 minutes

every

day.))

Formation) ( i)

Vinf.nonpast
\0375T

=-\037 ,:.
koto

{T Q / L t::..} ni {suru / shita}


(s.o.

:. \037 \037.: {T \037 / L t::..}

decides

/ has decided / has decided

to

talk)

hanasu
-ft-:
\037

koto

ni

{suru

/ shi ta}

:. \037 \037:. {T Q

/ L t::..}
/ sh; ta })

(s.o.

decides

to

eat)

taberu
Exa m pies) (a)

koto n;

{suru

\037\037q):;)j:\037t#ij}i\0371*ffTQ =no natsu wa Hokkaido Kotoshi (I've

,:. \037

L i:

Lt::.. o koto
ni

0 ryokosuru

shimashita.

decided to

make

trip

in Hokkaido this

summer.))))

koto
(b)

ni suru

205)

Jj(tBi: Kyoto

/{ \037

\037ff

,:. '< ;:, \037


iku

i: 'far

J: ? 0
ni shimasho.
as Kyoto

made
(lit.

basu de
decide

koto

(Let's
(c) \037 a

to) go as Q ;:,
,:. \037

by bus.)

\037* \037 +1I:;t kanji


to

'- i:

'- t::o
ni shimashita.
every

Mainichi

0 to

oboeru

koto

(I've decided
(d)

memorize

ten kanji
,:. \037

day.)

fL'i
(I

cb \037\037

i: !J 1t\037 let v';:'

'-

-C

v' Q 0

Watashi

wa niku
a

amari

tabenai
very

koto
much

ni shite
meat.))

iru.

make it

rule

not to eat

em

1. If one
(1)

decides

not to

do
?

something,

the

verb before

koto

ni

suru

should

be negated

as in:
,:. ff;:, ':I \037 -:J t::..1v \037 L \\ \037 f\037 T tJ\037, ff tJ\037 \037FlJ1..
omotta to

.:=. 1:0 \037

Pikunikku

ni iko

to

n desu the

(I thought 2. Koto

I would go

;:, \037 ,:. '- i: '- t\037 0 ga, ikanai koto ni shimashita. picnic, but I've decided not to.) =
==

, make

is a more complex version of N ni suru 'decide on N', '. (t:),.., ni SUTU) The is due to a noun complexity phrase 2 nominalized An N koto. koto of ni suru is given below: (t:) by ) example
ni

suru

it N

= iii !!!

(2) A:

fpH:'

'- i:

tJ\037o

Nan
(What

ni shimasu
are

ka. to
have

you going

(lit.

decide

on)?)

B :

/'

/{ \037

- jJ (lit.

,:.'-i:To
decide on) a
hamburger.))

Hanbaga

ni shimasu.

(I'll
[Rela

have

ted Ex pressions]
Koto

I.

ni

suru

indicates someone's
a

volitional

decision,

whereas

koto

ni

Therefore, if you perceive a ven decision to be own ni suru; gi your decision, you should use koto on the other hand, if you don't perceive a given decision to be your own, should use koto ni naru instead. That is why koto ni suru and you

naru

indicates

non-volitional

decision.

koto

ni

naru

are very

awkward

in [la]

and [lb],

respectively. / ???

[1] a.

L.t.: fL'-J::;kf\302\245i':.\302\253aJJJTQ;:' \037,:.f\037\037J\037

Watashi

wa Osaka

ni

tenkinsuru

/ ???L.\037 L.t.: o koto ni naTimashita

shimashita. (Lit. It has been


I'm

decided

that

I will

transfer to

Osaka. (=

going

to be transferred

to

Osaka.\302\273)))

206

koto

ni suru /
b.

koto

wa)

-m '-J:

t::..fi ;:, \037 ,:. L. \037 L. t.: \037\037Q ;:, \037

/ ???f\037\037J \037 L. t.: 0

Boku

wa tabako
decided

yameru

koto

ni shim

ash ita / ???naTima-

shita.
(I've

to quit
ni

smoking.)
'determine
is that

II.

Koto

ni

suru

and koto

kimeru
difference

identical

in meaning.
frequently

The

to do s.t.' are virtually the former is an idiom and,

used in colloquial speech, while the latter is approthe speaker is talking about a relatively important decision in a rather decisive manner. Also, koto ni suru can be used to mean 'I hereby decide to -' but koto ni kimeru cannot. Thus, [1] below be rephrased by koto ni kimeru.) cannot

therefore,
priate

when

[1]

fA'-J:\037\037I\037\037\037Q;:' Watashi

\037 ,:.

L.\0379 /
yameru

???i!\037*90
ni shimasu

wa

kaisha
quit

koto

/ ???kimemasu.

(I've decidedto
'

my

company.))

; I1

=
\037 \037)

koto

wa

\037t

r;t

phr. X,

Speaking

of proposition true.

\037
\037 ) A./...\"..) '-\"'\"V'\"V\"-

indeed (but

one -);

f \"

tainly

does s.t. indeed - (but

alright,

-);

do

(but

-))

. Key

Sentence)
Predicatel

(subJect)
fA

Topic
VI
'-J: wa

Predicate2

inf ;:, \037 'i


wa

V2 T\037/l,\037T
SUTU / shimasu
tJ\0371:;:p t.:, J{> t.t \\t\\

::;- :::.. A \037 T\037 tenisu

/ 1: / jo-

Watashi

0 SUTU koto

ga
;:p

j6zujanai

t.:, \037 cb !J i: it Iv 0

zujaarimasen.

(I do Fermatien)

play

tennis,

but

I am not

good

at

it.))

( i ) {VI /

Adj

(i)I}

inf

\037\037 '-J:

{V 2 / Adj

(i)2} {VI

koto

wa

(where

/ Adj

(i)I) = (V2/

Adj(i)2}))))

koto tsT ;:, \037 '-J:

wa

207)

ttsT
{hanasu

hanasu

koto

wa

/ ts '- i: T} / hanashimasu} / ts

does (s.o.

talk)

ts '- t::..
hanashita
;flj

;:, \037 '-J:

{ts '- t::..


{hanashita

'- i: '- t::..}

(s:o.

did talk)

koto
'-J:
wa

wa

/ hanashimashita}) (s.t. is expensive))

v'

;:, \037

;flj

v' (\037T)

takai koto
-:J t:. ;fljtJ\037

takai(desu)) -:J t::.. ;fljtJ\037 (\037T) (s.t.

;:,

\037 '-J: wa

was expensive))

takakatta (ii)

koto

takakatta(desu) 'i {Adj

{Adj (na) steml

t,t ;:, \037/ N I }


na

(na) stem2 / N 2} {t!. /

\037T} desu}

koto
(where {Adj

wa

{da /
(s.t. is quiet)

(na) stem! / N I } = (Adj (na) stem2/ N 2}))

Ii\037\037t,t

;:, \037 '-J:


wa

fIttJ\037

It!. / \037T}

shizukana koto
\037'v'

shizuka

{da / desu})
\037T}

'-J:

v'v'
ii

A
hito

It!. /
{da /

(s.o.

is a good

person))

\"

hito

wa

desu}
stem2 / N 2}
{t!. -:J t::.. / \037'- t::..}

= =
s

\037

(iii)

{Adj

(na) steml

/ N I}

1 \0 \0

t!. -:J t::.. ;:, \037 '-J: {Adj (na) datta

koto wa
{Adj

(where

(na) steml / N I } =
{

{datta / deshita} (Adj (na) stem2/ N 2}))


(s.t.

t!. -:J t::.. fit tJ\037 shizukadatta

;:, \037 '-J:

Ii

tJ\037

t!. -:J t::.. / \037'- t::..} / deshita}


\037'- t::..} deshita})

was quiet))

koto

wa shizuka
'-J: v'v'
wa

{datta

v'v' A
ii
Examples)

t!.-:J t::..
datta

;:, \037

A
hito

{t!.-:Jt::.. /
{datta /

(s.o. was person))

good

hito

koto

ii

(a)

\0373

\037\"A. Iv '-J: \037

a *m\037tsT;:'

\037 '-J:ts

'- i:

TtJ\037t

M\302\245t,t;:, \037'- \037\037a;t i:

it

Iv o
J6nzu-san koto

shika

wa nihongo 0 iemasen.

hanasu

koto

wa hanashimasu

ga,

kantanna

(Mr. Jones doesspeak


(b)
7 \037\"A\" \037 \037\037 '- t::.. o Bosuton warui

Japanese,

but he can

say

only

simple

things.)

*.:=.

q)W\037f-J:.R;t

t::..;:, \037 'i .R;t

i: '- t::..tJ\037,

*\037\037v'm;\037

Shinfoni seki deshi ta.


buy
seat.))))

no kippu

wa

kaeta

koto

wa kaemashita ga,
alright,

taihen

(I

could

a ticket for

the

Boston

Symphony

but

it

was

very bad

208 (c)

koto
;::.

wa)

q) Ji!Hi iC v';::' \037 ,j: iC v'

-c,; T

Kono (This (d)

mise store

wa

yasui

koto

is inexpensive

J: < cb !J i: it Iv 0 tJ\037, t q) tJ\037 wa yasui desu ga, mono ga but its goods are of alright,

yokuarimasen. poor

quality.)

\037 a q)\037ltHj:jI

'-

-:J t::..;::' \037 tJ\037 'ijl


wa

'-

-:J t::.. tJ\037 tJ\037 J:

< lii*t.:.

Ky6

no shiken

muzukashikatta

koto

wa muzukashikatta
well

ga

yoku

deki ta.

(Today's exam
(e)

was

indeed

difficult,

but 1 did

on

it.)
tJ\037 -C \037 wa

'j: {IfIJ-c,; T tJ\037, fLq) 7 .,.\037 \" 'j:!1R ':.lli < -C {IflJ tet ;::. \037 *1t Watashi no apato wa eki ni chikakute benrina koto
takaidesu. yachin ga totemo (My apartment is close to rent is very high.) the

;flj

v' -c,; To

benridesu

ga, the

station

and convenient

alright,

but

(f)

7r:q)-kq)TtJ\037fjf:t:

t\037-:Jt=-;::.

\037 'j:fjf:t:-c,;

'-t::..tJ\037,

\037M'j: '-tettJ\037-:Jt::..Iv-c,;To

=
(g)

onna no ko ga sukidatta n desu. shinakatta (I did like the girl, but 1 didn't
Sono
cb

koto

wa

sukideshita

ga,

kekkon

wa

marry

her.)

\037 \037 ! 1 \037)

q) A. 'j: v'

Ano
(He

v'A. 'j: v' v' At!. -:J t::..,t tt, \037mfj!iJ t!.. -:J t::..b o hito wa ii hito wa ii hito datta keredo gankodatta nee was indeed a good person, but he was stubborn, wasn't

he?))

em

1.

In

this

construction,
first

of the
Thus,

Exs.

when the main verb is in the past tense the tense can be changed the nonpast tense. into be (1) and (2), respectively. The switched (b) and (d) could
verb

/ adjective
common

versions are more


(1) \037A ,,\037 1ffi-r:

in conversation.)
q);U\037'j:

7 \037\037

*.:=. -

'j: Jt\037 \037;::. \037

.R;t i:

'- t::..i.1\037 *\037\037v'

L. t= 0

Bosuton
taihen

Shinfoni
warui

no kippu
'-

wa

kaeTu

koto

wa kaemashita ga

seki deshita.)
L. L \\;::' \037 'ijl wa

(2)

\037 a

q)\037ltHj:. Ky6 no shiken


dekita.

-:J t::.. tJ\037 tJ\037 J:

< W*t=o

muzukashii

koto

wa muzukashikatta

ga

yoku

2. The verb / adjective / noun before koto wa is normally marked in the in the formal form. informal form even if the final predicate is marked

3.

Normally

this

construction
keredo

is followed
although'

by

disjunctive

as ga 'but',

'but,

and shikashi

' but'.)))

conjunction

such

- kudasai

209)

- kudasai \037 \037

<

t:.. \037L \\)

aux.

v. (imperative

form))

an

auxiliary request
Sentences

verb

which\037\037\037
\037\037\037)
. . .\037

please

do s.t.)

polite

Key

(A))

Vte

a*Gft
Nihongo

\037

111, '1:\"

v \\ 0 < t!. \037

de

kaite
in Japanese.))

kudasa; .

(Pleasewrite
(B))

Vneg \037m \037 Eigo (Please


Fermation) \037b

t,t v \\ \037

v \\ 0 < t!. \037 kudasai.

tsukawa
don't

na; de

= - - 1 = :=!!

5 =)

:::; \03

use English.))

( i)

V te
'\0375

< t!.\037v\\
kudasai

-c

v\\ < t!. \037

(Please

talk.)

hanashite
ft\037

kudasai
(Please

-c

v\\ < t!. \037

eat.)

tabete

kudasa;
t,tv\\ nai
\037 v\\ < t!. \037

(ii)

Vneg

de
\037

kudasa;
v\\ < t!. \037 kudasai

t,t v\\ \037 \0375

(Please

don't

talk.) eat.)

hanasanai
\037\037t,t v\\

de
\037

v\\ < t!. \037 kudasai)

(Please

don't

tabenai de
Examples)

(a)

;:, q)E\".q)ft\037\037ft;t -c < t!.\037 v\\o


Kono

kotoba

no
me

imi

0 oshiete

kudasai.

(Please tell

the meaning

of

this

word.))))

210
(b)

kudasai)

\037:td:t < t\037 Yoru (Please

osoku

'- t,t \\I' \037< t!. \037 \\1'0 denwashinai de kudasai. don't call me late at night.))

em

1.

Kudasai

of

kureru

is the '

the honorific version polite imperative form of kudasaru, is as an verb the te-form and used with give (me)' auxiliary

of verbs. 2. D6zo
(1)

(t:) kUTeTu
speaker's

emphasizes the

request

and makes

it

more

polite.

-c < t!. \037 \037? -ff{;t \\1'0 D6zo oshiete kudasai.

(Please tell
3. In
very

me.)

informal
by

speech,
female
0

kudasa;

may

drop.

(This

form

of request is

often used
(2)

speakers.)

a.

1f! < *-c Hayaku

\037 =

; \037 . K =)
b.

kite.
quickly.)

(Please come
i:
Mada

t!.\037 G t,t \\I'\037 0

kaeranai
go

de.
home

(Please don't 4. The


(3)
negative cb

yet.)
in

question

form, seen

(3),

makes

a request

more

polite.)

'-t::\"I\\\037':'*-C

< t:.\037 L\\\0371tNf.J\\o


ni

Ashita

hachiji
you

kite

kudasaimasen at eight

ka.

(Would
5.

please

come

o'clock tomorrow?)
can

Kure, the imperative form of kureru, male speech. {Vte kudasai in informal

also

/ Vneg

be used nai de} kure

in

place

of

is the

least

polite
(4)

request

form.)
\037 \037 -a,:.*-C

a.

Boku to isshoni (Come with me


b.

< no kite kUTe. (please).)


< no

/\037-

\"':'fj:*f\037L\\1:
ni

Apato

wa

konai
my

de kUTe.
apartment
(please).))))

(Don't come to

-kun

211)

-kun

\037

sui.)

,\037\037\037,,\037\"\"\"\"-' a suffix attached to


name or last or

of a male equal

the first or to
whose the

or the

last first

\037 \037 (. ? \037)

[REL.

-sarna

(-chan;

-san)])

rank

name of a person is lower than

status

speaker's

Fermation)

( i)

Last Name

tt
kun)

IlJfH

\037

(Mr.

Yamada)

Yamada-kun

( ii

First

Name

\037

kun
\037\037\037 \037

(Taro)
== \037 \037

Taro-kun

_ -

(iii) Last
IlJfH

Name

First

Name

fi
kun)

== ;;;

!!!!)

\037\037\037 tt

(Mr.

Taro

Yamada)

Yamada
Examples)

Taro-kun)

(a)

t L,
Moshi,

t L,
is

i: TtJ\037o -\037\037\037v\\

moshi,
Ichiro

Ichiro-kun imasu ka.


in?))

(Hello,
(b)

fHQ\037tJ\037*\037\037MTQ:t?t!.o

Taguchi-kun

(I (c)

heard

that

ga rainen kekkonsuru soda. Mr. Taguchi will get married


If.jjgtd
\037\"t*\037?

next year.)

fH Q -\037\037t!,

Taguchi
(Mr.

Ichiro-kun, shoshin
Taguchi,

omedeto.
on
your

Ichiro

congratulations

promotion.))

CD) A male may address females of lower rank by -kun. A female student may address males of equal or lower rank by -kun. Such addresses are comused in situations such as schools and monly companies.)))

212
kurai

kurai)

< b

L,

prt.)

approximate

quantity or

extent) \037)

approximately;

about
(bakan)])

[REL. gOTO; hodo

. Key

Sentence)
Number-

Counter
JRJj{

A:J tJ\037 t> \037\0377 =} \037\037

i:\037

mrr\037
hikoki

\037

n\037ra'

tJ\037 Q / tJ\037 < t> \037\\ tJ\037

Tokyo

kara Sanfuranshisuko

made

de

kujikan

kurai

kakaru / katJ\037 i: \037

To

karimasu.

(It's
Formatien)

about

nine

hours

by plane from

Tokyo

to

San

Francisco.))

= \037 \037 1 \037) \037

( i)

Number-Counter)
\\ < t> \037

<

t> \037\\

kurai
1lQ ffit

(about

four volumes)) a hundred

yonsatsu
Ef

kurai)
< t> \037\\

(about

people))
<
t> \037\\

hyakunin

kurai
{Pronoun

(ii)

Demonstrative
(

/ Adjective})

kurai =..tL / =. Q) } < t> \037\\


kurai

(about

this much / to that much / to


to an
and

about

this

extent))

{kore
(\037.tL

/ kono}
Q)} / \037

< t> \037\\


kurai \\ \037 < \037J kurai)

(about

about

that

extent)) from both


much

{sore
{ (b

/ sono}

tL / (b Q) }

\302\253referring

object
the

that

is removed

{are

/ ana}

the speaker to about that


\037\\

hearer)

about
what

that

extent)
about

}! tL

{dore (iii)

/ }!Q)} < t> / dono} kurai

(about

how much? / to

extent?))

Interrogative

Pronoun)

<

t> \037\\

kurai
\037\\ < t>

< t> \037\\


kurai)))

(about

how

much?))

ikura

kurai

/ kureru

213)

Examples)
(a)

A:.:t

wa ikura (About how much was


Sono

< Q)$:'i \037\\ kuruma

\037\\\037 L t::.. tJ\037o \037 \037 <\037

gurai
that

deshita
car?)

ka.

B : ali+JJfIJ

<
about

\037\\\037 Lt::.. \037

Hyakugojiiman'en

kurai deshita.
1,500,000

(It
(b) A
Sumisu-san

was

yen.)
L
t::.. o

A \037 \037 Iv

'i

JjrMH:.llQ

i: tJ\037,ij < \037 \037\\ff -:J \"\"(\037\\

(Mr. Smith (c)

wa Kyoto ni yonkagetsu kurai itte imashita. was in Kyoto for about four months.)
L \037\\\037 L.t

Iv <\037 \037 I-U fB \037 \037\\\037mtJ\037m*tL.f\037

? IJ o
as

Yamada-san gurai
(It

eigo

ga dekireba
able

must
the

be fun to
extent

be

to

tanoshii desyo nee speak English as well


T.t
o

Mr.

Yamada

(lit. to
Watashi

of Mr.Yamada).)
i: \037

(d) fAt!. -:J\"\"(.:t

\037\\Q)=. l: 'i7ttJ\037 tL <\037 \037

datte

sore gurai no
that

koto

wa

wakarimasu

= yo.
g

(Even I can understand


CD) Kurai may

sort

of thing (lit. things

of
in

\037 that

\0 :i

extent).))

be

freely

replaced

by gurai

without

a change

meaning.)

kureru S.o.

< tt Q)

v. (Gr.

2)) /'J\"'o/\"'-/\"'\037( \037 S \037

status is not higher than the speaker's gives s.t. to the first or to s.o. with whom the person
whose

give

[REL.

ageru

morau

])

speaker empathizes.) < \037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037)

. Key

Sentence)
Indirect

Topic (subject)
Iv :kJII \037 Okawa-san

Object
) \037\037:. ni) \037

Direct Object *
hon
\037

'i wa
gave

(fA

(watashi
me a
book.))))

< tLt::.. / < tL i: L t::.. o kureta / kuremashita.

(Mr.

Okawa

214

kureru

l)

Examples)

(a)

\037.. Iidi

Biru
(What (b)

(tt,:,) (PJ \037< tL i: '- t::.. tJ\037o wa (kimi ni) nani 0 kuremashita
did Iv \037

ka.

Bill give
'fh

to

you?)

Jllft

,;t fL (1) U-r

,:. v:J

J-: \037< tLt::.. o

Kawamura-san

wa watashi
gave

no

musume

ni rekodo

0 kureta.

(Mr.

Kawamura

my daughter a record.))

em)

1. Kureru,
,

is one of a set of giving and receiving verbs, means is used only when Unlike the English give, however, kureru the speaker whom the receiver is the first person or someone with of the a member (1) is Thus, speaker's in-group). empathizes (usually unacceptable. (If the speaker empathizes with Mr. !to, (1) is considered U is too formal in Addressing someone as Mr. Ito \", however, acceptable. which

give '.

such
KI)
(1)

a *

situation.)) Iv JII r=t \037

'i

\037\\\"\":) Iv t WKi \037 wa

,:. t::.. fi =. \037< tL

*Kawaguchi-san
(Mr. 2.

itsumo

Ito-san

Q0 ni tabako 0 cannot be

kureru.

Kawaguchi

always gives Mr.


first

!to cigarettes.)
used.)

When
(2)

the giver is the


*fL'i\037\037

person, < tLt::.. o


ni

kureru

\037 Iv':.mi\037

*Watashi

wa Nakajima-san
Mr.
ageru

sake

0 kureta.

(I

gave

Nakajima
must

sake.)
used.)

In this case,
(3)

be

fL';t

Iv \037 \037\037

Watashi

':.mi \037(b \037jt::..o wa Nakajima-san Nakajima

ni

sake

0 ageta. kureru-sentences the are not

(I Note
with, that grammatical

gave

Mr.

sake.)
first is

when even

the subject is the if the receiver

person, someone

speaker empathizes

as in (4).)

(4)

*fL'iJl\037
*Watashi

Iv

':'1-

3 :J vni

J-. \037< \037'Lt::..o

wa ni-san
my

(I

gave

elder

0 kureta. brother chocolates.)


chokoreto
Kureru when

The
of
person,

reason

for

this

is as follows:

requires

the receiver's point

view

when

describing

an event, and
described

an event
first

involves the
person's

first of)))

the event is

normally

from the

point

kureru

215)

view.
a
this

viewpoint

Therefore, if the first person is the giver In kureru-sentences, the sentences conflict arises, making ungrammatical. case, ageru must be used.)
polite

(In The

3. The
(5)

(honorific)

version of

kureru

IS

kudasaru

(Gr.

1 verb;

masu-form

is kudasaimasu). 96!:E'i Sensei

Example:)

(fA':')*\037 < t=\037 (,\\* Lt: o wa (watashi nl) hon 0 kudasaimashita.

(My teacher gave


4.

me a
the

book.)

The
clarative

indirect object is
sentences

often

omitted
hearer

if it
in

refers

to

the

speaker
and

in deEx.

or to

interrogative

sentences.
(a).))

(See KS
[Related Expressions]

I. [1]compares
ageru,
[1]
kureru

the and

differences morau

among the three in terms of viewpoint


which

giving

and when

receiving verbs A gives X to B.


requires.)

The eye sign


a.
A

\"y\"

indicates
\037:.X X

viewpoint the sentence

=
\037

= 1

A 'i B y (or
(A

(b \037jt::..o \037

wa B ni
neutral)

0 ageta.

=)))

\03 \03

gave X
li

to B.)
\037< tLt::.. o

b.

B
y

\037:.X ni

wa B

X 0

kureta.

(A

gave X

to B.)

c.

B
y

-:J t::.. o 'i A \037:.X \037t \037 wa A ni X 0 moratta.

(B

got X from

A.) speaker empathizes


which

If
in
in

the a

first

person

or a person the situation,

with

is involved

giving-receiving

the NP

refers

to him must

occur

with \"y\". The reason for this is as follows: When the first person or someone the speaker empathizes is involved in with a giving-receiving the situation is normally described from his situation, viewpoint, and if the NP which refers to him occurs in the positions without arises. \"y\", a viewpoint conflict
the

positions

II.

[2] summarizes
verbs:)

the

plain

forms

and polite

forms of

giving

and

receiving

216 kureru 1 / kureru


[2])

2)

(I) give Plain form


CD \037-5

(s.o.)

(s.o.)gives
@ < n-5

(me)

(I) get /
(from

receive
s.o.)

CD

tt:J?

yaru
fJ) fJ)

kureru
status)

morau

(to s.o. of
lower

u C

.\037

<5

\037)

(b

'j -5
CD

ageru
Polite

-5 < t!. \037

CD

It't::.. t!. <


itadaku

kudasaru
form

\037'-

(b ,j -5

(honorific)

(humble)

sashiageru
+) Gr. \302\253!):
' t (very

(masu-form :
kudasaimasu))
verb) politeness

humble)

1 verb;

@: Gr. 2

=
1
\037)

Note ageru

the different

degree of

in each

verb

(particularly,

yaru,

and sashiageru).)

kureru

2 < tt Q)

aux.

v. (Gr.

2))

S.o. does s.t. as a person or to s.o.


speaker

favor
with

\037 to the
whom

first

\037

do
or

s.t.
s.o.

(for

me

or s.o.);
by

do me
s.t.
;

the
\037 < \037)

a
2

favor 2

doing
l

empathizes.
\"''''\037\037''-'\"'-'''

[REL.
morau

ageru ])

; kUTeTu

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Topic
\037

(subject)
li

Indirect Object
(fA
\037;:) \037

Direct

Object
\037

Vte
A-:)'\"( < tL t::.. / < n \037'- t::.. 0 kureta / kuremashita.

\"IJj7

Chichi
(My

.
father

wa

(watashi

ni) \037

kamera
me.))))

katte

bought

a camera for

kureru
(B))

217)

Topic Jii:9J Michio

(subject)

Direct Object
fA \037

Vte

'i
. wa

fJ. <.\037\037-c

< h t::.. / <


kureta

h i:

'- t::.. 0

wa tashi .

nagusamete

/ kuremashita.

(Michio consoled me.))


Fermation)

Vte

< h.'!>

kureru
L- -C g\037 < tL.'!> (s.o.

(will) talks for

my

sake)

hanashite
1t\037 -C

kureru
< tL.'!>
kureru)

(s.o.

(will) eats for

my

sake)

tabete
Examples)

(a)

-aJ:'i (fA':') 7-\037\037m\037\\-C < tLt::.. o Haha wa (watashi nl) keki 0 yaite
(My

= 1

kureta.
<

\037 \037

=) h -C\037\\.'!> 0

\03 \03

mother

baked
Iv \037

a cake for

me.)
\037\037x. -C

(b)

rj;t

\"IJ -

Woka-san (Ms.
(c)

'ifAQ) U-r- =. ':.\037m wa watashi no musuko is kindly teaching


t,t. my

ni son

eigo

0 oshiete

kurete

iru.

Walker ((b
did

English.)

-=f#tJi'i

t::..,:.) (PI \037'- -C < hi:

'- t::.. tJ\037o


0 shite kuremashita
you?))

Kodomotachi
(What

wa (anata your

nl)

nani
for

ka.

children do

em

1. Kureru
kureru

is

used
U

is

someone

as an auxiliary verb with V tee The meaning of V te does the first person whom the (or someone with

Like sentences with speaker empathizes) a favor by doing something\". V te kureru are stated from with the kureru as a main verb, sentences of the person who receives the favor and the receiver must viewpoint with be the first person or someone the speaker empathizes (usually a but (1b) member of the speaker's in-group). Thus, (1a) is grammatical, is not. (t:) kUTeTu l )
(1) a.
\037 '? t,t. \037\\AtJ\037fA':':J

-7

\037 J\\ -:J -C ni

< tLt:. o

Shiranai
(A

hito ga watashi bought

kora
me.))))

0 katte

kureta.

stranger

cola for

218

kureru

2)

b.

*fA'i\037
*Watashi

t.t. \037\\ \037 A\037:.

- 7 \037 J\\ -:J \"\"( < tL t::.. o wa shiranai hito ni kora 0 katte kureta.
:J cola

(I
(In
that
the

bought

for a stranger.)
must

case

in (lb),

ageru 'give'
the

be

used.

if the

subject
even
empathizes

is

first

person, sentences
who

Note (t:) ageTu \302\273 V te kureru are with


favor

ungrammatical

if the
with,

person
as in tLt::

receives

the

is
l

someone
, Note

the speaker
(2)

(2).
o

(See kUTeTu
kUTeta.

2.)

*fA'i-a'=7-\037 *Watashi

< \037m\037\\\"\"(

wa haha
a

ni be

keki

0 yaite

(I
In

baked

cake

for my

mother.)
(t:) ageTu
2 ))

this

case, ageru must

used.)

2.

As in

KS(B),
object,

if

the

direct

the

of the action is the person receiving the benefit indirect object is omitted. Therefore, (3a) and (3b)

are ungrammatical.)

= ' =

(3)

a.

*Jii:!ij

\037\"\"(< \037'L t.t. <\" \037 t::..o 'i\037l\"=fA \037

!1

*Michio

wa watashi
wa watashi of the

ni ni

watashi

0 nagusamete

kureta.

\037)

b.
3. If the
main

*Jii:!ij

\037\"\"(< 'i\037l\"= t.t. <\" \037

tL t::.. o
nagusamete

*Michio verb of

kureta.

the

benefit

the

sentence is intransitive, action is not marked by ni.


< tLt::.. o

the

person receiving
(4)

Therefore,

is

un-

grammatical.)
(4)

*Jj.lvt.t.'ifA'=1t1J\037\\\"\"( *Minna

wa watashi
'

ni

hataraite

kureta.

(Everybody
In

worked for me.)


ni

this (5)

case, no tame

for the
<

sake of'
tLt::.. o

is

used,

as in

(5). (t:) tame))

Jj.lvt.t.'ifAO)t::N:>'=1t1J\037\\\"\"(

Minna

wa watashi

no tame ni
my

hataraite

kureta.

(Everybody 4. The
(6)

worked for
version
'-\"\"( ni

sake.)
V

polite (honorific)
96!:E'ifA\037:.*\037i( Sensei
(My

of Vte kureru is
< t=\037 -:) t:: o hon

te kudasaru.

Example:)

wa watashi
teacher

0 kashite

kudasatta.
A bought Mr. imply that the speaker should be used,))) kudasaru)
\",

kindly
like

lent me a
U

book.)
me

5. Note
me

that

in sentences
U

Mr.

\"

and

Mr.

A lent me
of

A taught
kureru

\", which

usually
(or

received some sort

favor,

Vte

kureru

1 / kuru

219

though
without

convey

in English this is not usually In Japanese, explicitly expressed. the verbs kureru or kuda saru , such sentences don't auxiliary the idea that the speaker received a favor.
often

6. The
clarative

indirect object is
sentences

omitted
hearer

if it
in

refers

to

the

speaker

in de(c).))

or to

the

interrogative

sentences.

(See KS(A),Exs. (a) and


[Related

Expressions]

Ageru,

and morau and all their polite and non-polite versions kureru are V tee used as auxiliary verbs with verbs kureru and morau (Auxiliary ageru, are explained under ageru2, kureru 2 and morau 2 , respectively.) When these
verbs

are

used as auxiliary

verbs, the
except

same

viewpoint

rules stated
no

in

kureru

Related

Expression

apply,

that

there is

neutral

viewpoint.)

K I) \037

\037 . ' = = .

kuru

*Q)

v.

(Irr.))

.....\" \037,,\"'-\"-\"-\"'-\"-\"

\037 \037\037\"\",,\037\037r-. in a direction

S.o. or
wards

s.t. moves

to-

come;

visit; show
iku l ])

up

the

\037 ...,,\"\"\"\"\",,\037\"\"-\"\"\"\"'-\"'\"'-\"'\" \037\037\037\"-\"'\"'-'\

viewpoint

or the speaker's speaker or area of empath y.

[REL.

. Key

Sentence)
Noun tJ\037(b

(place)

.fB\037\0371v

'- t::..

-5-; uchi

Tanaka-san ga (Mr.
Examples) Tanaka

ashita

-.. / e /
home

\037=. ni

*-5 kuru

/ **To / kimasu.

will

come

to

my

tomorrow.))

(a)

-;- \037\037-'i
Nanshi

\037 Q)?

\"\037-7,f -\037:'*i:

'-t::..tJ\037o

wa kino
Nancy

pati

ni

kimashita
party \037 ?

ka.
yesterday?)

(Did
(b)

come

to the

*}]M*r=t

\037 IvtJ\037\037i;liH:'*-5

t!.o
ni kuru

Raishii Kiguchi-san ga Nagoya (I was told that Mr. Kiguchi

is coming

soda. to Nagoya

next

week.))))

220 (c)

kuru

I)

l\"

l\"

*\037tJ\037*t::.. t:J T <.\037Q


kitara

-:J\"\"( < t!. \037 J: ? \037:. \"'0 \037

Moshi,
to (d)

moshi, kanai ga
tell

sugu

kaeru
home

yo ni itte
right

kudasai. comes

(Hello, please
see 4- f]

my

wife to

come

away if she (lit.

you) drops

by.)

'i i: t.= ffifIfI tJ\037*t.l \"'0 Kyo wa mada shinbun ga konai. hasn't come (Today's newspaper
'- t::..*\"\"( < t!. \037 \"'0
ni

yet.))

(e)

tb \037(1)li)f\037\037\037:.

Boku

no kenkyushitsu
my

ashita

kite kudasai.

(Please come to
CD)
Kuru physically

office tomorrow.))

commonly exists,
in a

describes as in
direction

movement
and

towards (d).

place
it

where
can

KS

Ex.

However,
has

also describe his

the speaker a

movement
where

where

the speaker

placed
(a)

viewpoint

or

he

KI)

apparently who

feels strong empathy. For example, did not attend the party, is taking attend.
he

in Ex. the

the

viewpoint

speaker, who of the hearer,


at the

hearer's house, yet taking typical example of the In Ex. (b), it is possible that psychologicalfusion between than Mr. Kiguchi does and feels that Mr. the speaker lives nearer Nagoya is entering his (the speaker's)territory or area of strong empathy. Kiguchi And again, in Ex. (e), the use of kuru indicates that the speaker's office as well as his house can be considered his territory or area of empathy.)
did speaker is phoning
not

In Ex.

(c) the

and is

is

the hearer's viewpoint, speaker and hearer.

[Related Expression]

If
kuru

movement is used,

is towards

place

where

but
and

if

movement
iku

is towards

place

his viewpoint,

is used.
iku

In Exs.
the

(a)
it

(c) both kuru and

use of kuru shifts the


to

focus of the
viewpoint.)))

the speaker can place his viewpoint, a place where the speaker cannot 1 (t:) iku ) are acceptable. The difference is that sentence to the hearer's viewpoint while

iku shifts

the speaker's

kuru 2
aux. v. (Irr.)) kuru' *Q) , ,,\037\037\"'--\"-\037,,\"\"-\"-\"-\"-\"-\"/\" I An auxiliary verb which indicates the !

221)

come
begin

about;
to

grow;

come to;

beginning

of some

process

or

con-

tinuation
I -.
rent \"\"\"\"-

of some action up of time. point


Sentences

to a cur\"-\"-\"-/\"\\. \"-\"-\"-\"-)

[REL.

-hajimeru])

. Key
(A))

V te
fA

(process)
-:) -C

'i wa
have

:J

.:l. \037\037o

?7

tJ\037

\037L

\037 tJ\\

Watashi

conpyuta
begun

ga

sukoshi

wakatte

*t::.. / ** Lt::.. o kita / kimashita.

(Now I (B))

to understand

computers.))
= *t::..
kita

Vte

- -

\037 g K -=-)

\03 -=-

fA Watashi

'i
wa
now

\037\\0\037\\0

a*
Nihon

(j)

\037\037.

\037

\037A,\037 i3i:

** Lt::.. o

iroiro
I've

no

rekishisho

yonde
histories.))

/ kimashita.

(Up to
Formation)

been

reading various Japanese

( i)

te

*-5

kuru
\037 < \037 Iv

fukuran \"* \037<

\037 *-5 / *t::.. de kuru / kita

(s.t.

begins

/ has

begun to

swell)

t,t. -:J\"\"(

-5

* t::..

(s.t.

begins

/ has

begun to

grow

big)

okiku Examples)
(a)

natte

kuru

/ kita)

7- =- A \037L -C It' t::.. \037 \037,:. mtJ\037\037-:J -C *t::.. o Tenisu

0 shite

itara

kyuni

ame ga
playing Lt::.. o

futte

kita.

(Suddenly,
(b)

while we were

tennis,

it began

to

rain.)

Lf\037tJ\037\037jJitJ\037\037<tcl-:J\"\"(**

kara atama ga itaku natte Gogo (Lit. My head began to ache in in the afternoon.\302\273)))

kimashita.
the

afternoon.

(=

My

headache

started

222 (c)

kuru

2)

fL tt

Q) \037 0 \037

Watashi

i: -:J -C * * '- t::.. 0 wa konogoro futotte kimashita.


to

(I've
(d)
UJ

started

gain weight

these

days.))

t,t -:J -C *t::..tJ Q) \0370 -r \037\\\037 Iv \037 tL \037\\\037:. Q)\037,:t \037


wa

o nee

Ano ko (That

konogoro

zuibun

kireini natte
pretty

kita

girl has

becomevery

lately,

hasn't she?))
!J\037t\"o yonde

(e)

4'*\037t::..<

\0371v*\037MfIv\037**

'-t::..tJ\037,

\037tLtpGt\037lv\037ff<\"'?t

Ima

kimashita takusan hon 0 yonde ga, kore kara mo tsumori desu. (Up to now I have read quite a few books and I intend to read

made

iku

from

now

on, too.))
(I)
\037t\"o '-t::..tJ\037, \037tLtJ\037G,:t-!:E\0371frt\037%tt\"Q\"'?t!J 4'*\037iilv\037** Ima made asonde kimashita ga, kore kara wa isshokenmei benkyosuru

tsumori

desu.
to

=
\037

=
\037)

(Up to now I haven't from now on I intend

been working hard (lit. work very hard.))

have

been

playing),

but

CD)

1. V te

as in Exs. (a) through kuru expresses inception (d), or continuation of In the former and in Exs. as of a to current s.t. up (f). (e) time, point casethe V is a verb that indicates a process that takes some time to complete,

such

as naru

'

become', wakaru

yaseru 'lose weight', fukuramu latter case the V is any non-punctual

futoru gain weight', understand', In the and chijimu 'shrink'. 'swell'

'

'

verb.
more as a
is the
full

2.

In

the

following
and

sentences

kuru

is used of

verb

than
that

as an
of

auxiliary verb.

The

meaning

V te

kuru

same as

V te

(i.e., 'V and')


(1) Watashi

of kuru.
-:J -C ni

1 (\037 kUTU ))

fL'j:\037\037fJ:',,.\037

A ,:.* wa kaisha a bus

**
basu

t\" 0 ni notte
to

kimasu.
company.

(Lit. I
by
(2)

ride

and come

my

(= I come

to

work

bus.\302\273

\037\\o 1lQJt1* \037,:. ,:tmt -:J -C *-C < t=. \037 kite kudasai. Yoji made ni wa kaette

(Lit. Pleasereturn
by

and

come

here

by

4: 00.

(=

Please comeback

4:

00.\302\273)))

kuru 2
(3)

223)

\037\037\\ '- \037\\?\"


Oishii

\037\037 '- t::.. o J\\ -:J '\"( * -\302\243 keki 0 katte kimashita. bought

(Lit. I
(4)

a delicious
cake.\302\273

cake and came here.

(= I

bought

you

a delicious

;&ii \037? \037,:.\037tL '\"( *t::.. o Tomodachi 0 uchi ni tsurete (I brought


my

kita.

friends

to my

house.)

(5)

UJ

Q)*\037 -:J '\"( *t\\:?

Ano hon
(Did

motte

kita? that

you bring

book

(lit. carry that

book

and

come)?)

(6)

\037J:-:J\037J!'\"(*QJ:o

Chotto
a

mite

kuru
look

yo.
and

(Lit. I'll just


look

come

back here.

( = I'll

just

go

and take

at

it.\302\273 -\302\243 t\" 0

(7)

\037 IN -:J '\"( * Kasa 0 totte

kimasu.
my

(Lit. I'll get


my
3.

umbrella

and come back

here.

( = I'll

go

and

get

\037 \037

= ;;; =)

umbrella.\302\273

Note

that the experiencer of the the action must be the speaker


In

inception

himself

speaker empathizes. 2 involves by Vte kuru


[Related

other words, the speaker in

of process or the continuation or someone with whom the in this usage, what is expressed very

intimate

way.)

Expression]
kuru 2

of a process, that inception (the beginning is), it is very ' Exs. hajimeru 'begin to (a) through (d) can all be parakuru implies that s.t. happens to using Vmasu hajimeru. phrased However, or whomever the speaker he can empathize with, whereas V masu hajimeru means

When

close to

V masu

lacks

the speaker's

involvement

with

a process

of inception.

(\037lWhajimeTu))))

224
mada

mada)

\302\243 t:.

adv.)
\"-/V)

,
! \037

S.o. was
\037r

s.t.

is

some
\037n

state

he or

it j

still;

(not)

yet

In some time
Sentences)

ago.

\037\037\"'V'\"\ \037

[REL. mo])

Key

(A))

Topic *tttt
Kimura-kun

(subject) ,:t
\037wa still \"\302\243 t!.

Predicate
\037\037!&

(affirmative)

\037 \037\"'\"'(

L\\g
iTU

L\\\037\"to

mada
eating

hirugohan
his lunch.))

0 tsbete

/ imssu.

(Mr. Kimura is
(B))

Topic

(subject)
,:t t!. \"\302\243 .7c(J)
\037c!: koto

Predicate (negative)
\037 L \\ / \037 1,) \037 it Iv 0 \037; t\037

\0371H\0371v

Ota-san
=

: !

.
Ota

wa

mada

sono about

0 shiTsnsi

/ shiTimssen.

iM

=z \037 ==)

(Mr.

still doesn't know

it.))

Examples)

(a)

t.: UJ !J \"\302\243 t\"tJ\037o \037mH:t\"\302\243 O-sake

wa mada arimasu
still

ka.

(Do you
(b)
t!. fL':t\"\302\243 Watashi

have sake?)

(I

have

\037c!: tJ\037 t,t \037\\o a *-..ff -:Jt::.. wa mada Nihon e itta kOlO ga nai. not been to Japan yet.)

(c) A:

t ? \037\037!&\0371t\037\"\302\243 '-t::..tJ\037o
Mo

hirugohan
you

0 tabemashita your

ka.

(Have
B1 :
\\ \037 \\ .it \037

eaten

lunch yet?)

\\ \"\302\243 -it Iv 0 \"\302\243 t!.1t \037-c \037

ie,

mada

tabete imasen.
eaten t\" 0

(No, I
B2:
\\ \037, \037 .it

haven't

it yet.)

t.: -r: \"\302\243

ie, mada

desu.
yet.))))

(No,

not

mada

/ made

225)

em

1. Mada
that

expresses he

the idea
in

that

someone

or something

is

in

the

same state mada

or

it was

some 'still an

time '.

ago.

In

affirmative

sentences,

always corresponds to responds to 'yet' when


in

In negative sentences, however, it coraction has not yet been taken, and' still '
and KS(B), respectively. in B 2 of Ex. (c) is used only

other

situations,

as in
is a

Ex. (c)

2. The

abbreviated sentence response to a question


Expression]

seen

when

the

negative one.)

[Related
The

is opposite concept which mada expresses the difference between the idea conveyed by
mo.)

to that mada

of mo.

[1] illustrates
conveyed

and the

one

by

[1]

a. mada

is in

the state

A)

. ti me)

point of
(X b.

reference in

is still
I)

the

state

A)

mo)

is in

the state

. ti me)

A
any

point of
(X

reference in

= = :::: =z \037 M \03 \037 \03


====-)

is not

the

state

more.))

made

\302\243 \037

prt.) a spatial, limit

to indicate poral or quantitative expected animate /


a particle

tem-

as

far

or an unobject)

through;

as; till; even

up

to;

until;

inanim3-re

[REL. made

ni])))

226

made)

. Key Sentences
(A))

Noun

Noun

(time)
\037 Q)?

(time)
tJ\037 G kara :n\037 -\302\243\037

'i

.=.\037

\037ii

c!:

T ==- A \037 '- t::.. /


tenisu

Kino wa

sanji

goji

made

tomodachi

to

0 shita

'- -\302\243 '- t::.. 0


shimashita.

(Yesterday

I played tennis from

three

to

five

with

my

friend.))

(B))

Noun

Noun
(location) tJ\037 G

(location)
JKJil

Jilts

-\302\243\037

fT\037\037 shinkansen

--c:

=: Jt1 r\037' tJ\037 tJ\037 Q /

Tokyo
\037=

kara

Kyoto

made

de

sanjikan

kakaru /

! !
!

tJ\037tJ\037 !J -\302\243 To

\037)

\037 M \037

\037

kakarimasu.

(It takes

three

hours

by bullet

train

from

Tokyo

to Kyoto.))

(C))
Subordinate Vinf.

Clause

Main
nonpast
-\302\243\037 ?\037 uchi \037 \037-:J-C

Clause
\037\\-C \\ \037 < t=. \037 0

fL
Watashi

tJ\037

ff<

ga
at

iku
home

made
until I get
there.))

de

ma tte

ite

kudasai.

(Pleasewait
(D))

Number-Counter - Iv Ii Q) \037 \037


Kono

horu
hall

wa
can

==fA nisennin
hold up to

-\302\243\037

:AtLQ
haireru

:AtL-\302\243To

made

/ hairemasu.

(This

2,000 people.))))

made
(E))

227)

Noun

(unex-

pected object)
'UJ(J)

Ano

hito

,:t hf;lj. wa nezumi

\037 Aj]\037\037 ya

sukanku

'i t\03701v wa mochiron

te

-\302\243\037

hebi
sukida

made
0

t\037/ f;.f \037 \037 f;.f \037 T

/ sukidesu.

(He even
Fermati.n)

likes

snakes,

not to

mention

rats

and

skunks.))

( i)

Noun (time / location)


/ \037\037
\037 -\302\243

\037 -\302\243

made
JL\037

(until

five /

as

far

as school)

goji / gakk6

made
\037 -\302\243

(ii)

Vinf.

nonpast

made
\037\037T hanasu 1t\037 taberu \037 -\302\243

(until

s.o. talks / s.o. eats /

talked)

=z \037 .\037 == -

made Q
\037 -\302\243

y -) \037

(until

ate)

made
\037 -\302\243

(iii)

Number-Counter
1lQ+ A
yonjtJnin

made
\037 -\302\243

(up

to forty

people)

made
\037 -\302\243 made)

JLtt

(up

to five sheets

of paper)

gomai
Examples)

(a)

7;'!J

j]

A'i\037jlM\037

PI a tJ\037 G\037PI a -\302\243 \0371fJ < 0 getsuy6bi

Amerikajin
(Americans

wa

maishtJ

kara kin'y6bi
Monday

made

hataraku.

work every

week from
wa

through

Friday.)

(b)

lRtJ\037 G*\037-\302\243 \037,:t\037\037\\-C+\037

<. G \037\\\037T0

Eki

kara daigaku

made

(Lit. It's about (= It's about a

10 minutes

ten-minute

gurai desu. the station to the university on foot. walk from the station to the university.\302\273)))
aruite

juppun

from

228
\037

made /

made

ni)

\037\037\037\037\037tt\037\037ttt\037\037\037,

\037-:J\037\037\037\037*\037\037\037\037\037\037o

Sum;su-san

wa sashimi

wa

mochiron, soybeans,
\037 \037 '-

natt6

made taberu

desu

yo.

(Mr. Smith even eats


(d)
mfT\037tJ\037m \037t1 \037 -\302\243

fermented

not to

mention
ita.
the

raw

fish.))

1:.-\037;&ii

-c

\"'t::.. o

Hik6ki
(Until

ga deru
the

made rob; de
left I was

tomodachi

to hanashite

plane

talking

with

my friend

in

lobby.))

1m ,X a
that

made'
duration

and 'until
of

time.
will

the speaker
'until

X ' do not have the same meaning when X represents For example, in (1) ra;shtJ no getsuy6bi made means be absent next Monday; therefore, the corresponding
Tuesday'.)

English is
(1)

next

fL':t*JmQ) \037 iii a -\302\243 \037f*;Tj. -\302\243 \037 0 wa raishtJ no getsuy6bi Watashi

made

yasum;masu.

(I'll be

absent

until

next

Tuesday.))

= \037 y \037

=
\037 \037)

made

ni

\302\243\037I:

prt.)
time

\037\037\037\037rv\"\037
\037

a particle

on / for an action \037 \"\"\037\037./\"\\.\037,,,./V'\"V\"'V\"'V',J)

that.

indicates a

limit

i
\037

by;

by the time

(when)
de;

[REL. made;made

mae

ni])

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Noun
fL

(time)
\037:. -\302\243\037

'i

+\037

mtQ kaeru

/ mt

t) -\302\243To

Watashi

wa

jiiji
by

made
10
o'clock.))))

ni

/ kaer;masu.

(I'll come home

made (B))

ni

229)

Subordinate

Clause
Main

Clause

Vinf. nonpast
\037\037 tJ\037

taa:g

\037\037 \037(/) -\302\243\037

Gakko (Please

ga

hsjimsTu

made
(in

ni

kono

* hon

\037 MCIv\037

\037\037\\-C

\\ \037 < tf. \037 0 kudasai.

yonde

oite
starts.))

read this

book

advance)

by the time

school

Fermation)

KS(A) :

N (time)

\037 \037=. -\302\243

made
\037 \037=. JLn\037 -\302\243

ni) (by

five o'clock)

go}i made ni
tb

'- t::.. -\302\243 \037 \037=.


ni)

(by

tomorrow)

ashita made
KS(B) :

- \037 \037=. -\302\243 :::z \037 \037

Vinf.nonpast

::::: ::::: ===

made
\037\037T \037 \037\037 -\302\243 ni

ni
(by

the time

s.o.

talks

/ talked)

hanasu made
1t\037 taberu

\037\037:. -\302\243

(by

the time

s.o. eats / ate)

made

ni)

Examples)

(a)

A:

\037,:,\037\037'=.fT,t Mn\037-\302\243

\037''i'\037\\ \037\\

J: oj tJ>.o

Nan}i
(By

made
what

ni ktJk6 ni ikeba time should I go


no ichljikan
one

ii desh6
to

ka.

the

airport?)

B :

\037,:.*-c m\037(/)-n\037r\037'fliJ-\302\243

< t!. \037 \037\\o

Shuppatsu

mae made ni
before

kite

kudasai.

(Please come (b)


(/) \037'j: \037 Boku
naranai

hour

departure.)
\037 \302\243t;Jftet.t tLfftet

v\037n da.

\"

\037- \037 =+

\037,:.:& -\302\243

G tet \037\\lvt!.o

wa kono

rep6to 0
writing

ichigatsu

hatsuka

made

ni kakiagenakereba

(I have

to

finish

this

paper

by January

20.))))

230 (c)

made
.y;:r.

n;)

'/

,,\037tJ;\037{ \037 ,:.tf

\037,:.*\037 =ffl}\037Iv\037 < -\302\243

\037\\ L -\302\243 L t::.. o -\302\243

Jettoki

ga Pari

ni

tsuku

made
to

(By the time the


[Related

jet

got

ni hon 0 sansatsu Paris, I had finished

yonde reading

shimaimashita. three
books.))

Expressions]
ni

I. Made

cannot

be used
continuously

with

verb

that X'

indicates
is
used.)

continuous

action.

Instead, made' [1]


11HIHj:*\037

until/to
*\037 1:,= \037\\ Q

1: \037

Yamada
(Yamada

wa raigetsu made will stay here until


wa goji

/ *made ni
/ *by

iru.

next month.)
matte

[2]

fL'j:JLIt1\0371:

/ *\0371:'=\037-:J-C\037\\Qo

Watashi

made / *made ni
/ *by five

iru.

(I'll

be waiting ni

until

o'clock.)

II.

by' is precededby an informal nonpast verb, it may be ni 'before'. The difference between the two is the as the English 'by' vs. 'before'. Thus, same if made ni in Ex. (c) is replaced by mae ni, the sentence means 'Before the jet got to Paris I had finished three books.' More examples of the different uses reading
When

made

'

replaced

by

mae

follow:

\037)

MI

[3]

a.

*\037\0371:'=

Raigetsu

/ *M'=::Q)tt.\037 made ni / *mae

L-\302\243To

ni

kono

(I

will

finish

this

work

by

/ *before < 0
ytJbinkyoku

0 shimasu. shigoto next month.)


ni iku.

b. fl*M'= / *\0371:,=jtHJ!\037';:fT Jugyo mae ni / *made ni


(I will III.

go

to

the

post

office

before

*by

class.) until/up

Made de,

particle

which

means 's.t.
continue

continues

to X (and

stops
The

made ni

can be seen in the examples because Lesson 10 is not the is Lesson 20). In [5] made de is unacceptable because (which portant items appear after Lesson 10.) is unacceptable

it although differences in meaning


at

X,

can

beyond

X)'

is similar

to made ni. below. In [4] limit of domain


no im-

[4]

::Q)\037f4.'j:=+it-\302\243\037UJ!J b!J-\302\243To

-\302\243TtJ\037\037\037WHj:+it\0371:1:

/ *\0371:'=\037f

Kono

kyokasho

made
(There

we

will

wa nijukka made arimasu ga kongakki wa jukka de / *made ni owarimasu. in this textbook, but this semester are up to twenty lessons at Lesson 10.)))) stop

made

ni /

mae

ni

231)

[5]

::

Q)\037\302\273.,:t

=+iI

\037&; !J -\302\243 -\302\243 t\"tJ\037,

*.fct::

,:t \037

+it\037-c! 1= /

???

\037-c!-c!\037$m-c*-\302\243

t\" 0

Kono kyokasho wa nijukka made arimasu ga. daijina wa koto dete kimasu. jukka made ni / ???made de zenbu but the (There are (lit. up to) twenty lessons in this textbook, important items are introduced (lit. appear) by Lesson 10.))

mae
)
S

ni

;jiJ1:

conj.)
.....) \037'-/V

in

front

of or before about

some situation
\037\037)

\037

\037 comes ()

before; in front of [REL. made ni; uchi (ANT. ato de; ushiro

ni] ni))

= \037 \037 \037

\03 \03 \03

Key Sentences
(A))

Subordinate

Clause

Main Clause
Vinf.

nonpast
\"II

.y

Iv \037'/ \037\037 \037

'i

13* .-...
Nihon

17<
iku

,=.
ni

a*m
nihongo

\037

t!l%t '- t::.. /

Jakuson-san

wa

mae

0 benkyoshita
t::.. 0

'- \037'(Mr.

shimashita.

Jackson studied Japanese

before

he

went

to Japan.))

(B))
Noun

(event) Q)

\037ff

wI

,=. ni

JE.$ kaze

\037

'- t::.. o 51 \037\\t::../ 51 \037-\302\243

Ryoko

no
trip

mae

hiita / hikimashita.

(Before the

I caught

cold.))))

232 (C))

mae

ni)

Noun IR

(place)
(f) no

M mae

\037:.

Eki

ni
in

t::..ff ::: m tabako- ya

tJ\037N;Q

ga

/ N;!J *\"'0 aru / arimasu.

(There is
F.rmation:)

a tobacco

shop

front

of the

station.))

( i)

Vinf. nonpast M
mae

,:.
ni)

\037..,
hanasu

M
mae

,:. ni

(before

s.o. talks / talked)


s.o.

it'\" Q
taberu

M ,:.
mae M ni) ,:.
ni) (f)

(before

eats /

ate)

( ii)

(f)

no mae
\037\0371Jj = == ! \037 ! M \037 . ==

,:.
ni)

(before

breakfast))

asagohan
Examples)

no mae

====)

(a)

Nihonjin before
(b)

E*A':t\037IJj\037it\"'QM':. wa gohan 0
cc say

taberu

r\037\\t::..t':\037*\"'oJ II

\037\037?o

mae

ni

Itadakimasu.\"

to iu.

(The Japanese
eating
7- \0377 Teira-san

Jtadakimasu\"

(lit.

I humbly

receive

(this

food\302\273

their meals.)

Iv \037

,:t E *\"'ff < M\037:..I' !7 ..{ ,:.\037 !J * '- t::.. o wa Nihon e iku mae ni Hawai ni yorimashita.
in

(Mr.
(c)

Taylor stopped wa shiken the exam I


no

Hawaii

before

he

went

to Japan.)

f.L':t\037\037(f)M ':.\037iOO \037 Jt ,:.ff -:J t::..o

Watashi (Before

mae to

went

ni eiga 0 mi see a movie.))

ni

itta.

em

1. Mae ni
place.
(1)

is used when the speaker knows when uses of mae ni Thus, the following
?mtJ\037\037Q

something
are

is going to

take

marginal.

MI=\037 !J * '-.t
furu home

?Ame ga

mse before

?0 ni kaerimasho.
it
rains.))))

(Let's go

mae
(2) ? ?\037tL ??

ni /

mai

233)

Q ;}jjl= \037-:J -c ::td =. ? 0

Wasureru

mse
it (in

ni itte oko.
forget.)

(I'll say
(See

advance) before 1

Related

Expression for proper expressions.))

2.

The
verb

verb before
is past,

mae ni

is always

nonpast, even

if

the

tense of the

main

as in

Ex. (b).) to
does not know

[Related
When
exactly

Expression]

the speaker knows that something is about C when it is to happen, uchi ni before' mae
[1]

happen

but

Thus,

ni

in

(1)

and

(2)

of Note

as

in

and [2].
? -; r = \037 !J \037L .t uchi
before

instead of mae ni. should be replaced by nai uchi ni, (t:) uchi ni)
is used

[1]

L \\ m 1,); \037 G t\037

?0

Ame ga furansi (Let's go home


[2]

ni kaerimasho.
it rains.)

:gtLt\037

L \\

? -; r= \037-:J -C::t3 =. ? 0

Wasurensi (I'll

uchi ni
it

itte

oko.

say

(in

advance)

before

forget.))

= E

\037 \037

= \03

z::i iCi

mai.

\037L \\

pref.)

\037\037\"'-\"'-/'-\"-\"\"\037
a prefix of
I

which means

'every

(unit ! ./V'\"V\"\

every;

per
ni])

\"'\037\037
. Key

time)'

[REL. goto

Sentence)
Noun

of

time
fL

,:t

\037

--;\"

\037Iv

\037 T 0 1;]< <\037 / 1;]<\342\202\254

Watashi

wa
one

mai nichi
mile every
day.))))

ichimairu

oyogu

/ oyogimasu.

(I

swim

234

mai-)

Formatien) fii: mai) fii: WJ)

of time

(every

morning))

mal sss)
fii: \037

(every

month)

mai tsuki)
Examples)

(a)

5L'j:4ii\037mT':' m\0378 L

-C \\t\\ Q:t

Hiroshi
(I heard
(b)

wa that

maiban Hiroshi

Michiko

? t:. o ni denwashite iru soda. calls Michiko every evening.)

\037 ti!l 'j: 4ii\037=+ \037p (f) \037\037 \037t ':.)! Iv -c: \\t\\ Q 0 Taifu wa maiji no hayasa de kita ni susunde iru. nijukkiro is moving north at a speed of twenty kilometers per (The typhoon

hour.)

(c)

f.L'j:4ii\037-lt'j: Watashi wa

E *\037ff

< 0
ichido

maitoshi

wa
every

Nihon
year.)

e iku.

(I go
\037) = =

to

Japan

at least

once

!! !!
!!

-==-==)

\037 \037 \037

(d)

\037- \037'j:4ii1t\037 Jin

7 \037\0371t\"'Qo 0 taberu.
meal.))

wa maishoku sarada (Jean eats salad at every

em

1.

a unit of time. Nouns like shoku express be used, as seen in Ex. (d). In this case, shoku implies the time at which one eats. However, the following phrases are all unbecause the nouns following mai do not indicate a time or acceptable of time. are given in parentheses.)) (The correct expressions period
Mai C

is prefixed

to nouns which

meal'

can also

(1) a.

*4iiA

'every

person'

(T

'\" -C (f)

*mai-hito

nin

(subete minna)
C

A / A 'j: 1J-1v no hito / hito

t.t,

wa

b.

*4ii96!\302\243

every

teacher'

(T'\" -C(f)96!\302\243 /

* mai

-sensei

(subete
sensei

no

sensei t.l ) minna)

'i 1J-1v 96!\302\243


wa

c.

*4ii* *mai-ie / ka /

every
ya

house'

(T'\" -C(f) * / *Ji 1J-1v ie / ie no (subete


minna))))

t.l )
wa

mai Mai

235)

cannot

be used

when

nouns

of time

thus,
(2)

the
a.

following *fii:=.. J3

phrases

are unacceptable.
'every

are preceded by numbers; (t:) go to ni)

three

days'

*mai-mikka)

b.

*fii:=\037

'every
C

other

year')

*mai-ninen)
c.

*fii:-JIM

everyone

week')

*mai-isshu) (See Related Expresssion


[Ia]
with

for correct

expressions.)
words of one

2.

Mai

is usually

used

Japanese-origin Thus,

or

two

syllables
in

or shorter
awkward.)

Chinese-origin words.
???fii:1*;Tj.

compounds

like those

(3) are

(3)

a.

'every
'every

holiday')

???mai-yasumi

b.

???\037?!J A -;\" A ??? mai-kurisumasu)


*\037.:r{JtQ) J3

Christmas')

c.

'every

Children's

=== \037
Day'

*mai-kodomo-no-hi)
(See Related

-= \0 E \0 \037 \0 \037)

Expression [Ib]

for

correct

expressions.))

[Related Expression]

Goto
goto

ni

also

means
prefix

'every',
but

but its usage


a
suffix.

differs

from

that
with

of

maio

First,

ni is not a
by

Second,

it is
in

used
[1].

nouns

of time

preceded

numbers

or specific

dates, as seen
three days' hour'

(t:) go

to ni)

[1] a.

Period =.. J3 mikka

of time r:. =: \037 goto

'every ni 'every ni
C

,:. --\037r\037' =: \037


ichijikan

goto

b.

Specific date

!J

A -;\" A =: \037 ,:. goto

every

Chris tmas

'

Kurisumasu

ni
'every
ni)))

\037:. .:r{JtQ) J3 =: \037

Children's

Day'

Kodomo-no-hi goto

236

mai - / mama
J3

(Cf.

=: \037 ,:. ni

'day

after

day';

,:. \037=: \037

year

after

year ') noun phrases, as

hi-goto

toshi-goto
mai,

n;
with

Third,

unlike

goto

ni can also be

used

other

seen in
[2]

[2].

.y 3
Jon

\037 'i \037 ?

,:. J3 *ia\"t* NJ A =: \037 wa au hito goto ni nihongo

\\t\\ \037 ':) \037L t::.. o

de aisatsu
in

shita.

(J ohn

greeted

every

person

he met

Japanese.))

mama
An .

\037\037

n.)

. : ,

\037 -

M \037) !

already given situation . tlon remains una I tere d .

or

cond\037

(
turbed; 5)

as

it

IS;

leave
nai

undisunchanged; as is, remain


zu ni])

[REL.

de;

. Key Sentences
(A))

(subJect)

Topic

Direct

Object
7-

Vinf.past
-:> It t=.
\037\037 \037-C \\t\\ \037'- t::.. 0 L \037-:J t::.. / '- \037 shimatta

m
Ototo

,:t
\037

v 1::\" E \037 0 \037


went

wa

terebi

tsukets
to sleep

mama

nete

/ shimaimashita.

(My younger brother


(B))

leaving the TV

on.))

Topic
(subject)

Direct
Object

Vinf.past
-:> It t=.
\037\037 \037.: ni

mE
o to
(My

,:t
E wa

7-

v 1::. E \037
E

L -c shi te

::t3 \\t\\ t::..

\037L t::.. o ::t3 \037

to

terebi

tsukets

mama
on.))))

oita / okimashita.

younger

brother

left the TV

mama
(C))

237)

Topic m

(subject)

Direct Object 7- v 1::.


\037

Vinf.past

Ot6to

'i wa

-:> It t=.

\037\037 mama

t!. / -r: T 0 da I

terebi
has

0
left

tsukets
the

desu.

(My younger brother

TV on.))

(D))

Topic (subject)
-::\"(1)

Noun

$M

'i

\037O)?

(1)

\037\037

t!. /

-r:T 0

Kono heya
(This

wa

kino

no

mama

da I desu.

room

is as it was yesterday.))

(E))

Topic
(Direct '-- '--

Demonstrative

Object)

Pronoun
\037O) \037\037

.,...,..

'i
wa
this

,:.
ni

-C

::t3

< / ::t3\037\037To

= \037 !!! -= !!! -= == M iii

Koko

kana
place as it

mama is.))

shite

oku /

okimasu.

\037)

(I'll
(F))

leave

Subject

Vinf.past
tJ\037

7- v 1::.
Terebi

-:> L \\ t=.

\037\037 mama still

,:. ni on).)

-:J -C t\037

\037\\ Q

\037\\ \037 To

ga
was

tsuits
turned

natte

iru / imasu.

(The
(G))

TV

on and is

Vinf.past
\037T \037

Noun
\037\037

? t=. 1)\\ ..\037t

(1)
no

\037!:E

tJ\037

\037\037

\037\\t::../ \037\\\037 \037:. Lt::.. ni

86shi

ksbutts
who

mama
kept

gakusei on

ga ky6shitsu

ita /

imashita.

(A

student

his

hat

was in the

classroom.))))

238

mama)

Formatien)

( i)

Vinf.past

\037\037

mama) '0.tt.: (,\037\037\037)


(denki \037 \037

(leaving

(the

light) on)

0) (i)

tsuketa
\037 \037

mama

(ii)

Adj

mama)

*.

\\t\\ \037\037 \037 mama)

(as

s.t. is big)

okii
(iii)

(Adj (na) stem

t.(.

/ N

Q)}

\037\037 mama)

na
\037{J!t\037 fubenna .:f:f:. \037 \037

no
(leaving

s.t. inconvenient) s.t. as it

mama) Q)
\037\037) mama)

(leaving

was))

mukashi
Examples)
\037M\037

no

\037

(a)

m\037\037'0.tt::..\037\037\037-C L

\037 \\t\\\037 Lt::..

Denki 0

tsuketa

mama

nete
light

shimaimashita.
on.)

(I
(b)

fell

asleep

leaving

the

Iv a: A -:Jt::.. \037 \037 t.(. tp -:J t::..o \037\037 Biru 0 katta mama nomanakatta.

1::\"

(I (c)

bought

beer,

but

1 didn't L

drink it.)
hanashimashita.

\037\037li:1i':,:\037 \037\\t\\t::.. \037

\037L t::.. o ni

Kiita

mama
my

0 tomodachi
friend

(I told
(d)

exactly

what I heard.)

(b Q) A 'i N;tLtJ\037 \037 t.:. o -r -:J \037 \037t::.. \037\037 Ano hito wa are kara zutto neta mama

da.
then.)

(He's been in
(e)
;ej

bed

(lit. all along)

since

7 j !J tJ -..ff -:J t::..\037\037 t.(. tp -:J t.: o Wi \037 wa Amerika e itta mama kaeranakatta. (Mr. Takayama went to America never to return.))
Iv 'i JlJ \037

Takayama-san

(f)

1f!Q).:r.

\037 \037\037 ,:. \037 tJ\037.t t::..\037\037

-C ::t3 \\t\\ t::..o ni

no enjin 0 kaketa mama (I left the car engine on.))))


Kuruma

shite

oita.

mama
(g) \037:. L. -c ::t3 \\t\\ -c < t!. \037 \\t\\o .!;Q) \037\037

239)

Ima

no mama
it

ni

shite

(Please leave

as it

oite kudasai. is now.))

CD

1. The (1).
(1)

verb

before

mama has

to

be

nonpast

if the

verb is

negative

as

In)

a.)

J-: 7

\037 fJ. L \\ \037\037 ill M \037

Doa (I left
b.)

0 shimenai

tp ,t -C '- \037-:J t::.. o mama dekakete shimatta.


with

my house

the

door open.)
'- \037-:J t::.. o

J: \037

Sayonara

? tel G Q)t\037w t 'no aisatsu


went

fJ. L \\ * \037 ff -:J -C

mo

shinai

mama
saying

itte shimatta.
goodbye.)) be

(She
If a verb nonpast (2) a.
that if

away

without mama

even

precedes the

even

main

the verb can 0 is non-volitional, transitive verb is past, as shown in (2):

ftbnQ
(I

IwaTeTu

/ ftbnt:: \037\037\037fb-:J t::..o mama 0 haratta. /lwaTeta paid money as I was told to.)
iTU /
exactly

\037 =

b.

,!},

-:J -C L \\ Q / L \\ t:: \037\037\037 =- \\t\\ -C Jt t::.. 0

Omotte

ita mama 0
as
directly

i M ;

kaite

mita.

====-==

(I wrote

I felt.)
by

2. When mama is followed


and

a verb

(other
follows:

than

suru)

as in

KS(A)

Exs.
Thus,

(a), v

(b)

and

verb.
(3)

KS(A) '0 1::\" \037

(e), de can be can be rephrased ,t


t::.. \037 \037 1: \037-C

inserted

between

mama

and the

as

\037H:t '7

'- \037-:J t=.o

Ototo

wa terebi
younger

tsuketa

mama

de nete
on,

shimatta.
and the

(Lit. My
My

brother

left the TV

went to TV

sleep. (=

younger

brother

went to

sleep leaving

on.\302\273

The
minimal;

difference
the

latter

between the mama version and the mama de version is sounds more like a coordinate construction as illustranslation

trated [Related

by the

literary

of

(3).)

Expressions]
mama

Vinf. nonpast. neg


[1]
J-: 7

can be paraphrased / -r I = ill


t,p

using nai de
.t -C '- \037-:J t::.. 0
dekakete

or

zu

ni, as

in:)

fJ. L \\ \037\037 / fJ. L \\ 1: \037 M \037

Doa

(He

mama / nai de / zu ni left his house with the door open.))))


0 shimenai

shimatta.

240 The

mama

mash6)

mama

version focuses on

the
C

unaltered
He

versions of the

focus primarily
the

on

the

negative

former and the latter are


door.',

situation, but the nai de / zu ni aspect of the verb. The translation left with the door open.' and C He left
(t:) nsi

without closing

respectively.

de))

-masho
\037

l., J: \302\243

aux.)

'\"'\\.\"'-\037\"'-\037\"\037\037\"-I\"\\.\"''''-''a verb ending which indicates first

the

I I We

will

do

s.t.;

volition person's \037 in formal speech


<

or

invitation

Let's do

s.t.

\037

\037)

[REL. -masen ka])

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Subject
II)
fL

(first

person)
tJ\037

V masu
fIt
kare

,:. ni
I

I!L
hsnsshi

\037Lot

50

Watashi
(I will
(B)) talk

.
to

ga
him.))

mash6.

V masu
\037iOO

,:.

ft\037

\037L

ot 50

Eiga

ni
to

iki
a
movie.))

mash6.

(Let'sgo
Fermation)

Vmasu

\037Lot

mash6)
L. \037L. \037\037 ot 5

(I /

We We

will

talk;

Let's

talk.) eat.)

hanashimash6
-ft'\" \037L

ot 5

(I /

will

eat;

Let's

tabemash6)))

-masho
Examples)

241)

(a)

fLJit,);=F\037\\t\\ Watashitachi

\037'-

.t ? 0 tetsudaimasho.

ga help

(We
(b)

will

you.)

\037L .t fL t,);ff \037

tJ\037o

Watashi
(Shall

ga ikimasho
f go

ka.

there?)
.t ? 0

(c) 1::.
Biru

Iv \037 \037;Tj. \037'-

0 nomimasho.

(Let's drink beer.)


(d) 1f!-c:ff\037 \037'-

.t ?

t,)\037o

Kuruma
(Shall

de ikimasho
we

ka.

go by

car?))

em

1.
2.

Masho

is used to express the is a formal verb ending which volition (KS(A), Exs. (a) and (b\302\273 or invitation (KS(B), Exs.
which

first

person's
(d\302\273. X

(c) and

sentence in the KS(A) implies that' not others but


The

carry such the subject


(1 )

an is

subject ga, pattern, do something'. If the sentence doesn't but simply states the first person's volition, implication sentences: omitted. usually Compare the following
X will

includes

the

-=

\037 ==

= = !! z)

a.

:t

Q) t,) \037 If

Iv

\037'-.t \037 \037\037

Sono

kaban
carry

? 0 0 mochimasho. bag.) ?
0

(I'll
b.

that

fLtJ\037:t

Q) tJ\037lf Iv \037\037 \037L..t \037

Watashi

(I
3. In
4.
invitation

will

ga sono kaban that bag.) carry like KS(B),

0 mochimasho. the
subject

situations

is usually

omitted.

(Exs.

(c) and
Masho

(d\302\273

with the question


volitional

marker

ka

asks whether the

the speaker's
5.

action
usually

or invitation.
expressed

hearer will accept (Exs. (b) and (d\302\273 nonpast


negatives,

Negative seen in

volition is

by simple

as

(2).
- ,:.ff wa pati
ni

(2)

fL':t.r\037-7..(

-tt \037 \037

Iv o

Watashi

ikimasen.

(I won't

go

to

the

party.))

242

-masho)

(The 6.
U

negative

volitional

ending

commonly
Let's Vinf
Example:

used

in

modern

mai, as In ikumai colloquial Japanese.)


by different
yoshimasho.

won't

go',

IS

not

not do

s.t.\" is

expressed

constructions.
(Lit.

(A)

no wa

yamemasho /

Let's

stop doing

s.t.)

(3)

Pat;

,1\037-T..( - ,:.ff ni iku no


not

< q\037Hi\037b? wa

i: '-.t

? / J: '- i:

'- .t ? 0
(t:)oku))

yamemasho

/ yoshimasho. -

(Let's
(B)

go

to the

party.)

Vneg

naide

okimasho (Lit.

Let's leave
?0 okimasho.

undone.)

Example:)
(4)

7 v

\037t:

\\t\\-c: jO \037 ,:. ':t\037b t\037 i: '-.t

Fureddo ni wa (Let's not tell


7. In indirect

iwanaide Fred.))
in

speech kesshinsuru ' make

or

sentences

up

one's

(For the
(5) \037)
MI
f;tfE

informal N \037 ,:t

volitional
::1

with verbs like omou volitional mind', the informal forms of verbs, see Appendix ? c!: \037-:J t::.. o
itta.

'think' form is
1.)

and

used.

1::

\037AXt

Murata-san

(Mr.
(6)

0 nomo to Murata suggested we drink


wa kohi

coffee.)

\\t\\ i: To a *\"ff \037? c!: l\037, Watashi wa rainen Nihon e iko to omoimasu. (I think I will go to Japan next year.)

fL':t*\037

8.

Unlike

English,

in Japanese the by different

volitional U Thus,

future I think

and the I will

are

expressed

forms.
(8).

simple future see a movie.\"

is expressed

by either
\037 J!

(7) or

(7)

fL':tP.*:OOi

Watashi
(8)

J: ? c!: ? 0 I\037' wa eiga 0 miyo


c!:1\037'?0

to

omou.)

fL':tP.*:OOi\037J!Q Watashi

wa eiga

miru

to

omou.

(7)

is

an example

of
while

the

tion is expressed, [Related Expression]


An

future, (8) is an example

volitional

in

which the

the simple

of

speaker's future.)

voli-

invitation

by the
[1].)))

speaker

can

also

be expressed

through

negative

ques-

tions,

as in

-masho/ [1]
\037\037-T -1

mieru

243)

-,:.fji!*1tAifJ'o

Pat; ni
(Wouldn't

ikimasen ka.
you

(like to)

go

to

the

party?)

In invitation situations, sentences because the


something the

former

negative questions are are asking whether

more or not
the

polite

than

masho-

the

and,

hearer's

are therefore, volition and are

hearer-oriented, while more speaker-oriented.)

latter

will do do not consider


hearer

mieru

J!;i

Q)

v. (Gr.

2))

)\037\037\037\"-/'..\"'-\"

5.0. or
ously

s.t. is

i
\037 ....

passively

I spontane\037\037)

\037 \037

be visible;

(can) see; look

-=

\037

visible.

[REL.

======
mirareru])

== \03

. Key
(A))

Sentences
Visible Object
J!<
(j)

Topic
fL Watashi

(experiencer)
0:.) ';1

b(j)

tJ\037

.1:<
yoku

j!;tQ
mieru

(ni)

wa

toku no mono
objects

. ga

/ j!;t *1-0 / miemasu.


objects

(Lit. To me
very
(B))

distant

are

very

visible.

( = I can

see distant

well.\302\273)

Topic
\037 Mado

(location)
OJ:)

Visible Object
#ij
tJ\037

tJ \037 t:>

j!;t
mieru

Q I j!;t

* To
can see the

kara

.
the

(wa)
window

umi

ga is

/ miemasu. (=We

(Lit. From
from

the ocean

visible.

ocean

the

window.\302\273)))

244
(C))

mieru)

Visible

Object
tJ\037

Adj (adverbial

form) /
lli<

+ni

\037 a Kyo

'i
wa

\037

j!;tQ
mieru

/ J!;t*To
/ miemasu.

yama

ga

chikaku
near.))

(Today the mountains look


Examples)
(a)

fL':'

'i*Q)
could

1: Q) Ij\" \037 tll\037tJ\037 J!;t


ni wa ki
see

t::.. o

Watashi

no ue

no

chisana
the

tori ga

mieta.

(I
(b)

small

birds on

tree.)

JRJi(?1?

tJ\037 \037 'iJRJi(Q)lRTtJ\037

Tokyo Ta wa (From Tokyo


(c) ib

kara

J: < J!;t Q 0 wa Tokyo no machi ga yoku mieru. Tower view of the towns of you can get a good
-r -:J \037 \037 < J!;t

Tokyo.)

Q) A

'i

\037J: !J

Q0
wakaku

Ano = ! ;c; ! 1 -. = = =)
= (d) -fr:

hito

wa

toshi

yori zutto
than

mieru.

(He looks much younger


Q) A

his

age.)

'i
no

n \\t\\ ,:. \037\037 hito

J! ;t Q 0
yoru

Onna

wa

kireini at

mieru.

(Women look
(e)

beautiful

night.)

N ,:t\037!:E ':.J!;t rp \037\037 Nakajima

Q0
ni

-san

wa gakusei

mieru.

(Mr.

Nakajima looks like

a student.))

8m

1.

Mieru

can

mean
in

'look

-'

if

it is

preceded

by

the

adverbial

form of an
ni

Adj (i) as Ex. (e).

Ex.

(c) or of an Adj

(na) as

in

Ex.

(d) or by a N

as in

2.

Mieru (1)

can

be used

as

polite

version
t=: J: o

of kuru

'come

as in:)

IVt jOm: \037 O-ka-san. (Mom,

jO$

\037 NtJ\037\037;t

o-kyaku-san we have
':t1:fE96!:E

ga mieta
t=:o

yo.

company!)
t\037;t

(2)

\037\037,:.

Gakkai
(Lit.

Ueda

Veda-sensei mo mieta. To the academic meeting appeared Prof. Ueda, too. also attended the academic conference.\302\273)))
ni wa

(= Prof.

mieru

245)

Mieru can be
reference

used

as an

to a superior's

is referring phenomenon

to a superior's
of

'

honorific polite verb because it is a more indirect act of ' coming In other words, the speaker '. as if it were a spontaneous, natural appearance
not by
o.)

visibility'. is marked
by

3.
[Related

visible

object

ga,

Expression]
different

Mieru is
that

from

the regular potential


or

mieru

indicates

that s.t.
mirareru,

tion of the or the sively.

speaker; subject of the


Thus,
B tJ;\037;t fl

sentence

form of miru, i.e., mirareru, in visible regardless of the volion the other hand, indicates that the speaker can see s.t. or s.o. actively rather than pass.o. is passively
L '0 *miTsTensi.

[1]

\037'i

Boku
(I'm

L' / *\037';i1,fl wa me ga miensi /

blind.)
1::*\037 J( -:J

[2]

T v
Terebi

t::..tJ \037 T v 1::*tJ; \037.; i1,.Q \037

/ *\037;t
watch

.Q 0

terebi ga miTSTeTU (Because I bought a TV I can now


0 katta kara

/ *mieTu. TV.) \037

* \037 -c: \037';i1, *1\" / \037\037 [3] ib Q)P.*:OOH:t\037 *1\"tJ\037o Ano eiga wa doko de miTsTemssu / *miemssu (Where can we see the movie?)
[4]
Yoku

\037 \03 ;ii M \03 ;;: ==

ka.

==-)))

J: < \037;tflL' / *\037';i1,flL'tJ\037\037AT-yQ)lli< ':.ff\037?o miensi ni iko. / *miTsTensi kara suteji no chikaku
see

(We can't
[ 5]

it well,

so let's go closer to
tatta

the

stage.)

\\ \037,:. \037\\t 1::*Iv tJ; \037-:J t= Q) -c: JlJ tJ; \037;t / \037.; i1, tl <

tl -:Jt::.. 0
natta.

Tonari ni
(Because

takai

biru ga
building

node

yama ga

a tall
any

was

built

mie / miTsTenaku next door, the mountains


mountains

are not

visible

more

/ we
mieru

can't see the


and

any more.)

Note that in [5] both speaker perceives the


his

visible

control

and has
mirareru.)

to

give

are possible, depending on how the if he thinks that is beyond the situation object; if up looking at the mountains, he uses mieru;
mirareru

not, he

uses

246
miru

miru)

h?J)

aux. v. (Gr. 2)) or what


\037

\037\037\037\037\"-\"-,,\037 do s.t. to see what it's like


will
j

do

s.t. and
yo

see;

try

to

do s.t.

\037

happen

\037 \037) \"\"'\"\"-'\"'\"'

[REL.

to suru])

. Key Sentence)
Topic fL

(subject) ,:t

Vte 13*
(j) IJ\"\037 shosetsu \037 i1CAi\"'t! 1-J..Q

1-J..*

Watashi

wa
read

Nihon no

0 they

yonde are
like).))

miru / mimasu.

(I

will

Japanese

novels (to

see what

Formation)

V te

1-J..Q

miru)
'\0375

-c

J.J.

(try

to

talk))

hanashite
\037 = \037)
\037 iCi M \037 \037 1t\037

miru) J.J.

-c

(try

to

eat))

tabete
Examples)

miru)

\037t'-\037\037\037\037\037\037\037-\037\037-:J\037(j)\037ff-:J-cJ.J.*\037\037o

Om oshiro

son a konsato
seemed

datta

node

itte mimashita.

(Since it
(b)
Koko
(Sashimi

interesting, L
\\t\\-C:T.1:

I went
o

to the

concert

(to see

what

it was

like).)

\037\037 (j)JPIJJt':t\037\\t\\

ft\037-c 1-J..* TtJ\037o

no sashimi
here

wa

oishiidesu
Will

yo.
you

Tabete mimasu ka.


it?))

is good.

try

CD)

Miru is

used to

as see

an auxiliary what

verb
or

with

doing s.t.

it is

like

what

meaning 'make will happen'.)


V te

an

attempt

at

[Related
these

Expression]

A similar

expression,

yo

to

suru,
in the
means

means
that

simply

'try

to do
their

s.t.'

When

not

two expressions are used the same. For example,

past tense,
Mr. Brown

however,

[Ia]
or

Mr. Brown
to

did
put

meanings are on Tom's put it on,


with

undershirt,
implication

whereas [Ib] that he couldn't

means

that

didn't

tried do it.))) actually

the

miru

/ mol

247)

[1] a.

77?
(Mr.

\037 N':t \037

\"A

Q) \037\037 \037 \037..\"C ht::

Buraun-san
Brown \037 N \037

wa Tomu
tried

no

shatsu

0 kite

mita.

Tom's

undershirt

on.)
to shita.
on.))

b. 77?

,:t \"A Q) \037\037 \037\037.. \037.:; /:; l., t:: 0

Buraun-san

wa Tomu
tried

no

shatsu

0 kiva
undershirt

(Mr. Brown

to put

Tom's

mol

t>

prt.)

a particle
proposition ment similar

which

indicates

\037 that a

\037 \037 \037 \037)

too;

also;

(not)

either)

about

the preceding

ele-

\037 =

-iii

X is also proposition

true

when

another

\0 !i == M ==--..::)

is true

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Subject

fL
Watashi
(Lit.

\037!:E

t!. / -C:T 0

.
I, too,

mo

gakusei da / desu.

am a student.

(= I'm

a student,

too.\302\273)

(B))

Topic
fL

(subject)
,:t

Direct Object
A\037-{\037m
supeingo
too.))))

t
mo

Watashi

wa

\037T / \037 L * To hanasu / hanashimasu.

(I

speak

Spanish,

248
(C))

mol)

Topic
fL

(subject)
,:t
wa

Indirect Object
ft
Iv \037\037 ,:.

Watashi

Murayama-san

ni

t mo

7\302\260v-t!\037 \"

Q \037 ib \037f
ageru

/
/

purezento 0
ib\037f*

To

. (I will give a
Formation)

agemasu.

present

to

Mr.

Murayama,

too.))

(i)

t
mo)

fL

t
mo)

(I, too / me (as

direct

object),

too)

watashi
( ii)

N (Prt)

t
mo)

' \037 \037 !!! : .M \037

Oc.) t
(ni)

(in

/ to

Japan, too)
too)

Nihon

mo
(-..)

===-)

7 j !J tJ
Amerika

(to

America,

(e) mo

(iii) N Prt

t
mo) 'Co ni

:it\037

t
mo)

(to / for the

teacher, too

(indirect

object\302\273)

sensei

7 7 :\"--.A tJ\037 t?
Furansu

t mo)

(from

France, too)

kara -c: de

,{ =\302\245 !J.A
Igirisu ti:\037

t
mo
c!:

(in England, too)


t

(with

my

friend,

too)

tomodachi to
Examples)

mo)

(a)

\037,-\"

\037Iv':ta*-..ff-:Jt::..o

/v-{ A
e itta.

\037lvt

(a*-..)ff-:Jt::..
(Nihon went

o e) itta. to Japan.))))

Hato-san

wa
went

Nihon

(Mr. Hart

to Japan.

Ruisu-san mo Mr. Lewis also

mol
(b)

249)

Iv ,:t ** \037
Hayashi-san

Iv 7 t l.,i: To T'::' A \037'- i: To (tgH:t)::f wa tenisu 0 shimasu. (Kare wa) gorufu tennis. He plays golf, too.)) (Mr. Hayashi plays

mo shimasu.

(c)

(/) IRT-c:,:t \037 Kono

ffi

'- '-I\\f!J.tJ;

R;l atarashii

i: -tt Iv o

\037(/)IRT-Z;

(ffi

'- '-I\\f!J.tJ;)
Tonari

J(;l

i: -tt Iv o
no

machi
(atarashii

de

wa

sakana

ga kaemasen.
You

machi next

de mo

sakana fresh

(You can't buy town, either.))

ga) kaemasen. fish in this town.

can't

buy

it

in

the

taD)

1.

In

general

t when

sentence

with

the element X the element Y (plus


For example,

mo

particle
when

appears in a sentence, a if necessary) in place


a speaker

related

of X

mo
like

is

presupposed.

states (1), a

sentence

(2) is
fL

presupposed.
3

(1)

,:t.::. .::z.-

-.. \037

t ff -:Jt.:. 0

Watashi (I (2)

wa Nyuyoku

e mo
too.))

itta.

went

to New York,

fL':t \037A \" \037-..ff -:J t::..o Watashi wa Bosuton e


(I

= \037 -!! itta. \037 \037

\037)

M !! !!

went

to Boston.)
X mo

Thus,

when
focus

appears
which
Y

In

a sentence,

X mo

is

always

the element

under
2. There
replace
can

in that

sentence.)
X mo is

are cases in
the element spoken a. after

used,

although

it

does

not

exactly

in

the presupposed

sentence. For example, (3b)

be (3)

(3a).) '-1\\0 wa

fL(/)*':t.@'r\037'tJ;-tti:

Watashi

no ie
living

(The
b.
-t:

room

ga sernai. of my house is small.))


ima

tL ,:. iH\037r t \037fJ! t.: 0

Sore (On

ni daidokoro top of that,


the and

mo fubenda. the kitchen

is inconvenient,

too.)

In this case,
he says
the
U

speaker this

implies implication
the used

(3a),

when that his house is inconvenient is the presupposition of (3b), where

speaker

elaborates on

inconvenience. to

3.

X mo

A da\" cannot be

mean

'

is also

At

in

the

sense

that)))

250

mol /

m02)
well as something
A

X is A as

else.

\"X mo A
the
o

\"Y wa I

ga fact, (4) is nonsensical


da (4)
fL':t\037\037t.:o

is presupposed. if it

da U can be used Thus, (4) does not mean


same
person.))

only

when

(5).

(In

is stated
*fLt

by

96!:Et.:

Watashi

wa isha

da.

*Watashi

mo also
well

sensei

da.

doctor. I am (5) I am a (medical) The idea that someone is a doctor as


in

a teacher.
as a

teacher is expressed as

(6).

(6)

fL'i\037\037t.:o

-t:'--c96!:E\037ti).Qo

Watashi (I am a

wa isha

da. Soshite senseide mo


and

BTU.

(medical) doctor

also a teacher.))

=
\037 \037)

II)

mo

t>

prt.)

\037

'.\037\037..)
. Key
(A))

\"'\"''''\037\037,,\037 a marker which indicates emphasis

\037

even; as
...as;
(not)

many

/ much

/ long /
any)

even

(one); (not)

Sentences)

Topic v \037.

(subject)
Iv \037
\037'i \037 Iv fJ.

Noun
II l.,L\\ \037*

\037b?\037 yomeru

/ Mtb?*-To / yomemasu.

Gure-san (Mr.
,,\"' !J Gray

wa \037 can ,:t

konna read even


\037 Iv fJ.

muzukashii
difficult

kanji

mo

kanji

like this.)

A \037 Iv

\037\037l.,L\\

\037*

\\t\\ \037b? t\037 yomenai

/ \037b? *- -tt Iv o / yomemasen.

Harisu-san

wa
cannot

konna
read

yasashii kanji
even easy
kanji

mo
this.))))

(Mr. Harris

like

mo 2

251)

(B))

Topic (subject)
fL

Quantifier

Predicate

(affirmati ve)
/ \\t\\*To

'i
wa

\037\037*\037

J\\=f

\\t\\Q 1-JJ-:J-c shitte

Watashi

kanji

hassen

mo

iru /

imasu.

(I
(C))

know

as many

as eight

thousand

kanji.))

Topic
fL

(subject)
'i
\037\037*\037

One
kanji 0

Counter

Predicate

(negative)
/ 1-JJ !J * -tt Iv 0 / shirimasen.

-:>

Watashi

wa

hito

tsu

t mo

\\t\\ 1-JJ \037 t\037 shiranai

(I don't know even


(D))

one

kanji.))

Topic fL
Watashi

(subject) ,:t
.

WH-word
fPJ

Predicate

(negative) / ft\037 * -tt

-:J t:.. ft\037t\037 tJ\037


tabenakatta

N -c:L t::..o
=
\037 \037

wa

nani

mo

/ tabemasendeshita.

!!! !!i

(I didn't eat
(E))

anything.))

=======)

Topic

(subject) ,:t wa
fL

masu
M\037

-r\037\037Nanshi
(Nancy

(j)

\037\037 \037 hanashi

watashi no
even

kiki

mo

\\t\\ / '- * -tt N 0 L t\037 shinai / shima sen.

doesn't

listen to me.))

Formatien)

KS(A):

See mol

Formation.

: KS(B)
Quantifier

t
mo)

Ji:+ t gojiJ mo

(as many

as

fifty))))

sA
hyakunin

t
mo)

(as

many

as a hundred

people)

252

m0

2)

KS(C)

One Counter

t
mo)

-A

t
mo) --::>)

even \302\253not)

one person)

hitori -

t)
mo)

even \302\253not)

one -))

hitotsu
KS(D) :

WH-word

t
mo) \302\253not) anything)

fPJ t nanimo)

t.:tL t
daremo) KS(E):

\302\253not) anybody)

Vmasu t === '. =


\037) mo
Z\037L -=\037 \037

Lt\037\\r\\

shinai) t Lt\037\\r\\ mo shinai)

(don't even (don't even

talk))

hanashi :tt-: tabe Examples)

\\r\\ L t\037

eat))

mo shinai)

(a)

\037:9J'i-\037!:EQ)t::..

L_

'\302\243 \037 t ,\037tfi*t\037\\r\\o tashizan first-year

Haruo

wa ichinensei
cannot

no

mo

matomoni
addition

dekinai.
correctly.))

(Haruo
(b) \037 a

do

even the

Ky6
(As (c)

t7etLt::.. o ga judai mo ureta. many as ten cars sold today.))


'i.tJ\037+#
wa

kuruma

7cQ)/\037-7;(
Sono

pati ni
(lit.

-'\037'i::9:Q)-r'i-A wa no ko onna
even

t*t\037tJ\037-:Jt::..o wa

hitori

mo konakatta.
party.))

(No
(d)

Not

one)

girl

came

to the

t.: tL t 7c Q)::: \037 it No \037?31!) '\302\243 Daremo sono koto 0 shirimasen.

(Nobody knows

about

it.))))

m0 2
(e)

253)

fL'i*tt\037 Watashi

IvtJ\037 <

tLt::..*\037 *t.:\037

'--c\",t\037\",o mi

wa Kimura-san
even

(I

haven't

seen

ga kureta hon 0 mada the book Mr. Kimura gave

mo

shite

inai.

me

yet.))

..)

1. Mo

use of mol. (t:) mol) as an emphatic marker is an extended following examples show the transition of meaning from the original ' , use even'.) also' to the emphatic

The
idea

(1) a.

v\037.

Iv 'i\037F\037 ,;:jit \037

'- \"'\037*t
muzukashii

.'5 0 \037\037

Gure-san

wa
Gray

hijoni

kanji
difficult kanji.\302\273

(Lit. Mr.
can b.

can
very

read very
difficult

kanji,

mo yomeru. too. (= Mr.

Gray

read even

/\"' \037 A \037 Ivfi\037F\037';:\037\037

L\"'\037*tMG\037t\037\"\"o
kanji

Harisu-san

wa hij6ni yasashii
Harris

mo

yomenai.

(Lit. Mr.
Harris 2.

cannot

read
very

very easy kanji, either.


easy
negative kanji.\302\273

(= Mr.
WH=
\037

cannot
are

read even
used

Nanimo

and daremo
with

only
in

in

sentences.

Other

words
(2)

mo

can be

used

both

affirmative

sentences and

negative

sentences.)

i: := 1 \0

\"'--:)b

(always;

anytime))

itsumo

)! \037t
dokomo)

(everywhere;

anywhere)

)! t> \037t do chira m0

(both; neither of
(somehow)

the

two

-)

)! ? t
domo

Note
(3)

the
a.

following

examples:

o **tt'iL\\-:>tA';:tJlWlt.: hito ni shinsetsuda. Oki-kun wa itsumo (Mr. Oki is always kind to people.)
IJ'\\11Hi L \\-:>

b.

\037*

t\037 \037 \037\037 \"'0

0 mamoranai. wa itsumo yakusoku (Koyama never keeps his promise.)

Koyama

3. Vmasu

mo

is

always

followed

by a negative form

of

suru

'do'

as In

KS(E) and Ex. (e).)))

254

mo
adv.)

me) t>?
S.o.
\037

, \"\"\"-\037\"\"\"-A..\037\",\037\"-\"\",,,,,,-,,

or s.t.

is

no it

longer was

in the

same

(not)

any more;

state

that he or

in some time
I

already;

(not) yet; now

any

longer;

\037\"-,\037\037\037\037)

ago.

[REL. mada])

Key

Sentences)

(A))

Topic
fL

(subject)
'i

Predicate
b?
\037\037!fi hirugohan lunch.)) \037

(affirmative)

ft.,.:.. t=. / ft.,.:.. a; l., t=.o

Watashi

wa
already

mo
eaten

0 tabeta

/ tabemashita.

(I
(B))

have

my

Topic
=

(subject)
'i wa is not

Predicate
b? mo
studying

(negative)

! !

M \037)

\037 -=-

t: /v \037 Iv Hiru-san
(Mr.

L \\ / L \\ a; it Ai 0 a*rn \037 t!l\037l.,-c L \\ f\037 inai / imasen. nihongo 0 benkyoshite

Hill

Japanese

any

longer.))

Examples)

(a)

A:

b?
Mo

m&\037

'- '\302\243 '-t::..tJ\037o

shukudai
you

0 shimashita
done

ka.
yet

(Have
B : 'i
\037\\,

your

homework

(or

already)?))

b?

'-

L t::.. o '\302\243

Hai,

mo shimashita.
already

(Yes, I've
(b)

done

it.))

fL'i
(I

b ? won't

it Iv o \0377J. '\302\243 jfj \037

Watashi

wa mo

sake 0

nomimasen.

drink sake any


b ?
is all

more.)) 0

(c)

\037:9J tt'i

J: ? \037-c,;T :* 1.:
daijobudesu. now.))))

Haruo-kun
(Haruo

wa mo right

mo

/ -mo

-mo

255)

em

1. Mo expressesthe
state

idea
in

he or
in

it was

some

or 'now'
ative

affirmative

is not in the same someone or something ' to time ago. Thus, mo corresponds already' in affirmdeclarative sentences, 'yet' or 'already'

that

interrogative

sentences, and '(not)


of mo is

any

more'

or '(not)

any

longer'

in negative

sentences.)
concept

2. The opposite

expressed by

mada.)

(t:) mada))

-mo
the
\037

-mo
repeated

t>

- t>

str.)

ing'
to

\037

\"'-\037)
. Key
(A))

meanuse of a particle also' to list elements belonging the same part of speech

both
!

and

-;

neither

nor)

- \037 !!!!
\037 \037

\"'!!!! iiiii

\037) I

Sentences

Noun
m\037\037A,

Noun t
\037\037\037A,

t
mo

\037{- \"

,;:

\"'( JJJ \037

\037,\037 / iru

\037'*To

Tanaka-san (Both Mr.

mo Nakayama-san
Tanaka

depato

ni tsutomete
for

I imasu.

and

Mr. Nakayama

are

working

a department

store.))

(B))
Noun \037

Prt

Noun

Prt
-c:

Jj(\037

'i
wa

J'( A
basu to

-c:
de

t
mo
by

.
bus

!Ii

t
mo

ft

\037 / \037t

ft

* \037t

To

Kyoto e

densha

de

ikeru

/ ikemasu.
by

and electric

(We

can

\037o

Kyoto

either

or by electric train (lit.

both

bus

train).))))

256

-mo

-mo)

(C))
Adj

(I) ste\037
\037 \037<

Adj

(i)

ste\037 \037 \037<

=-(1)

?t>

'i
wa

t mo

\\r\\ t\037 nai

/ /

Kono

uchi

hird:.ku

sema'iku

mo

it Iv o (b !) '\302\243 . arimasen.

(This

house is neither big

nor

small.))

Fermatien) ( i)

N(Prt) t
mo) 96!:E

N(Prt)

t
mo)

(N(Prt)
t

t))
mo)
and

\037!:E

(both teachers

students)

sensei

mo gakusei mo
<
ku

(ii)
= = == -=\037 - \"' \037 \037

Adj

(i) stem

b Adj mo

(i) stem < t


ku
(s.t.
mo)

Neg

\"*

t! <

IJ' \037<

\\r\\ t\037 nai)

is neither

big nor

small))

===)

okiku (iii) {Adj

mo chisaku

mo

(na) stem / N}\"'t:

t
mo) \\r\\ t\037 nai)

{Adj

(na) stem /

N}

\"'t:

t
mo)

Neg

de
fj!flJ -c,; benride

de
(s.t. is

t \037fj!-c,; mo fubende
\"'t: t de mo \037!:E

neither

convenient

nor

Incon-

mo
-c,;

venient))

96!:E
sensei
Examples)

t
mo

\\r\\ t\037

(s.o.

is neither

a teacher

por

gakusei de

nai)

student))

(a)

a *A Nihonjin

t 7

!J

11 A

t J;.< 1111<
mo

mo

amerikajin and

(Both Japanese
(b)
JlJ

yoku hataraku. Americans work hard.)

Iv 'i \037 t t::.. Ii =- t \037 !) '\302\243 it Iv 0 }I( \037

Yamakawa-san

wa sake
neither J\\ 'J\"'(\037
ni

mo
drinks
!)

tabako

mo

yarimasen.

(Mr.

Yamakawa

nor smokes.))
0 katte

(c)

l\302\245H\037 t\037,\037

t*\037

* '- t::.. o

Ototo

ni mo

imoto
for

mo

hon

yarimashita.

(I bought

books

both

my younger

brother

and

younger

sister.))))

-mo (d)
0 fQtt'j:\037A -r: t\037\037A -r: t t,f. \037\\ demo wa bijin demo fubijin nai. beautiful nor ugly.) (Kazue is neither

-mo

/ mono

(da)

257)

Kazue

(e)

Q) ij!\037'j: \037 Kono

tL\037\\-r: \037

t:sLim

-r:

it Iv o '\302\243 NJ \037
rippade

tatemono

wa kireide mo

mo

arimasen.

(This building

is

neither

pretty

nor

magnificent.))

em

1. Noun
object way

mo

as in in

2.

Although normally

mo can be used as the subject as in Ex. (a), as the direct Ex. (b), as the indirect object as in Ex. (c) or in any other which a regular noun phrase is used. (t:) mol) Noun mo Noun mo can be an indefinitely long noun phrase, Noun mo is not repeated more than three or four times.
Noun
that as in

3. The predicate
affirmative

corresponds

to the Noun mo
(c)

Noun in

mo Exs.

Exs. (a)

and

or negative

as

phrase can be (b), (d) and (e).)

mono (da) 'b (1) (t::))


The as if
!

n.)

= ==

:!!! ==: \037 \"' ==) \037

= -

speaker

presents some situation\"l it were a tangible object.

because; to;

\037 \"\",,,-,,-r.!)

should

[REL.

could -!; like to; should kara; no da])


how

used

. Key
(A))

Sentences

A:
\037?'-\"'( fftJ\037t,f.\\r\\

B:
Q)?

t!.

-:J

\"'(, it

'-

\\r\\

Doshi

te

ikanai
you

no?
don't

Datte,

isogashii
busy.))

t Q)o mono.

(How come
(B))

go there?)

('Cause I'm

Vinf

ct<
Y oku

NJ

Iv t,f.

\037

\037

7'-\"

W*-l>
dekiTu

tQ)
mono

t!./ -r:T!
da /

anna could

otoko to deto you date


that

desu f

(How

kind

of

guy!))))

258 (C))

mono

(da))

Vinf. past
\037

'i
wa

ct<
yoku

\037OO \037

J! t::

tQ)

Mukashi

eiga

mita

mono

t!. / \"'C:' T 0 da / desu.

(I
(D))

used

to see

movies a lot.))

V .:.

masu J! mi
t::.. \\r'

Iv t,f.

\\r' \\r'

? t>

,::

-gr

\0371v\"'C:' sunde

tQ)

Konna

/I to

uchi

ni ichido

tai

mono

t!. / -c,; -r 0 da / desu.

(I'd like
(E))

live in

such a

nice

house.))

Vinf.

nonpast tQ)

tm
= = \037 -=\"' \037 \037 ===--==)

,::

\037 -:J t::.. t:J

r tHi
II

ct ? .J
\"

\037

\037?

Asa
(Y

hito ni

a ttara say
U

Ohayo Good

to

iu

mono
see people

t!. / -c,;-r 0 da / desu. in the


morning.))

ou should

morning\"

when

you

(F))

V masu
\037 \037

J&.'5
toru

\037

\037

Q) .:. \037 \037

gl.,

t::.. tJ\037 .'5 tagaru

tQ)
mono

t!. / -c,; -r 0
da /

Tosh;
(When

to

mukashi

no koto 0
wants

hanashl

desu.

one

gets old, he

to

talk about his

past.))

Fermation)

( i)

{Vinf /

masu

tail

Q)

t!..
da)

mono
u-r

t
t::

Q)

t!.
da)

(s.o. should talk)

hanasu mono
\037 '-

t
t

Q)

t!.

(s.o. used

to

talk)

hanashita '- t::.. \\r' \0375

mono
Q)

da
t!.
da)))

(s.o. would

like

to

talk)

hanashitai

mono

mono (ii)

(da)

259)

(Adj

(i)

/ Adj

inf (na\302\273)

Q)

(t!.)

mono
rf1i \\r\\ takai

(da)

Cf)

('Cause

s.t. is expensive)

mono tQ) mono

\037tJ\037-:Jt::.. takakatta

('Cause

s.t. was expensive)

-:J t::.. \037tJ\037 takakatta


1(fttJ\037t!.

t Cf) t!. mono da t


Q)

(s.t. used

to be

expensive)

('Cause

s.t. is quiet) s.t. was

shizukada mono
r;tJ\037t!.

-:J t::..

Cf)

('Cause

quiet) be
quiet))

shizukadatta

mono) t::..

t!. -:J 1(ft tJ\037 shizukadatta Examples)

Q)

t.!.. da)

(s.t.

used to

mono

(a)

A:

\037oj

L\"'(1tr-:t\037\\r\\Q)?

Doshite
(Why

tabenai no? don't you eat it?)


'\302\243 -r \\r\\

= = -=\037 \037

\037 \037 \037

B:

t!.-:J \"'(,
Datte.

Q) 0

mazui
it

mono.
taste

('Cause
(b) A:
\037oj

doesn't

good.)
t!. \\r\\?
n dai?

L\",( -t: Q)*,

\\r\\ Iv t\037 Mf'\302\243 yomanai

Doshite

sono

hon.
you

(Why don't
B : t!. -:J\"'(,
Datte.

read

that

book?)

\\r\\ Iv t!. ct < 7ttJ\037 \037 t\037

yoku
don't

t Q) 0 wakaranai n da mono.
understand
\037Lt::..

('Cause I
(c)

it

well.))

ct <
Y oku

=.l: -t: Ivt\037'1.tJ\037t\037

t Q)t!.!
shita

sonna

bakana koto 0
you

mono

da!

(How could
(d)

do
\\ 1f! \\r

such t
Q)

a foolish

thing!)

J) a

Q):ll-? Q) 'i

t!. 0

Tsukihi flies

no

tatsu

no of

wa hayai days

mono da.
is

(Lit. The passing


I\302\273\037)))

and months

so

quick!

(= How

fast

time

260
(e)

mono
tr'i:::

(da)
cry}IU;:

t1!J.tJ\037It't::.. t

(/)t:.o
ni

Mukashi

wa kono kawa
to

mo

sakana

ga
o

ita

mono

da.

(There used
(f)

be

fish in this

river, too.)
desu

A \037'- t::.. It' t (/)\"\"t:TtJ mono zehi isshoni tenisu 0 shitai Ichido tennis with like to (I'd you once.) play
-lft\037\037F-\037';: 7-.::. A(/)* ,;: fj < n\037 'i jQ 7J.\037 'f \037 \037 -:J \"'( fj <

nee

(g)

(/)\"\"t: To

Hito no

ie
you

ni

iku

toki wa someone, It'.'5

(When
(h)

visit

o-miyage 0 motte you should take


to byoki
you

iku a gift

mono

desu. with you.)


da.
ill.))

\037 \037f t\0371t* \037'-\"'(

It' \037 t\037 \037 m\037 ,;: t\037


iru

t (/) t:.o
naranai

Sukina

shigoto
you

0 shite doing

ni

mono

(When

are

work

love,

you don't

become

em

1. Because

= = :!! -=:!!\"' \037 ..

=)

presents a situation before mono (da) as if it were of tends to convey differing structure degrees object, KSs (A) through emotion. (F) represent emotive excuse, exclamation, redesire, indirect command and conviction, reminiscence, nostalgic is not an that the emotion expressed here spectively. Note, however, instigated by a current event but an instantaneously appearing emotion in one's mind for a relatively long period time. emotion nurtured
the

speaker

a tangible

this

2. 3.

When

mono

indicates

a reason

or
very

an

excuse

it is used

only

in

very

informal speech.
Mono

is contracted
usage

into mon in KS(A)

in

colloquial
take

speech.

4. The
(1)

of mono

does not

da /

desu,

unless

it appears

in a subordinate

clause,

as in (1).

It' t Iv\\:! \037OO t \037 \037 tLt\037 It' Iv t:. o \037tJ\037t\037 n da. Kane ga nai man de eiga mo mirarenai (Because I don't have money, I can't see even a movie, you know.)

(Related
In

Expression]

KSs(A),

slightly to the
nalizer version

(C), (D), (E) different meaning.


of

and

(F)

mono mono'

can be
more

replaced

by

no, but
probably and

with

a due

Mono sounds
between

emotive

than no,

semantic difference

a tangible

object'

no

'

a nomi-

or action'. a directly perceptible state Thus, the mono (da) is more indirectly emotive, and is not necessarily geared to the current no (da)

moment, whereas the


the

current

moment.

version is more directly Observe the following:)))

emotive

and is geared

to

mono

(da) /

moraul

261)

[1]

\037 t:\"

)vtJ;\0377J.

t::..\037\\N /
nomitai

Ima

biru ga
like

n /

t (1)-e,;T 0 *mono desu.

(I'd [2]
\037T

to

drink

beer now.)
iku

<\037\037\037\\ '\037ff

< N

Ima
(You

sugu
should

ai

ni

/ *t (1)\037T 0 n / *mono desu.


him

go see

at

once.)

Note that mono in KS(A) can be replaced by kara, but the latter is free from the emotive overtones which are attached to mono.)

morau The

t> \037?)

v. (Gr.

1)) -)

..../\"-\"'-..\"\"-' \037\037\"'\"'-\"\"\037\037'\"

first person

empathizes s.o. whose

or s.o. the speaker with receives s.t. from status is not as high as the
\037\037\"'-\"-'\

get; receive;be gi
[REL.

ven l

kUTeTu l

=
)])

(ageru

== == \037

= = = !!

receiver's.) . Key

Sentence)
Gi ver

Topic(subject)
(fL

(Receiver)
\037'i)

Direct Object
,:. \037 ni \037

D-J*\0371v

*
hon

\037\037

t:J

-:J t::.. /

(Watashi

wa) \037 a book

Yamamoto-san from

0 \037

moratta

t t:J \037''1 L t::.. 0 / moraimashita.

(I

got

Mr. Yamamoto.))

Examples)

(a)

Iv D-J}II \037

'itl*

Iv'\037 \037

?.{

A:\\=-

\037t

t:J ni

-:J t::.. o

Yamakawa-san

wa Hashimoto-san
got

(Mr.
(b)

Yamakawa

whiskey

from

uisuki 0 moratta. Mr. Hashimoto.)

( (b It (Anata
(What

t:: 'i)

\037 !J

-:J t::.. (f) ? A \037 Iv '\037fiiJ\037t \037

wa) Morisu-san ni nani 0 moratta no? did you get from Mr. Morris?))))

262

morau

l)

em

1.

Morau,

which
Unlike

is the

one

of a set

get'.

English
person

of giving get, however,


or someone

and
morau with

receiver
pathizes

is the
(usually

first

receiving verbs, means is used only when the whom the speaker emin-group).

a member

of

the

speaker's

Thus,

(1)

is

unacceptable.)
( 1)

U-J*

Iv \037

Ii

fL

-:J t::.. 0 ,:. m \037b \037

*Yamamoto-san

wa watashi
got

ni

sake

0 moratta.

(Mr.

Yamamoto

sake from

me.)

for The reason of view when


first

this

is as follows: an event,
normally

morau
and

requires when

the an

receiver's

describing
if

event
first in

point involves the


point
(The

person,

the event is

described

from the

person's

of view. situation

Therefore,
conflict in

the

first person is the giver making

morau-sentences,

a viewpoint

arises, (1)

seen

is usually
version

the sentences ungrammatical. described using ageru.)


is itadaku.

(t:)ageTul )

2. The humble :== =

polite

of morau

Example:

(2)

fL

L \\ t=. t=. L \\ t=. 0 'i 96!:E ,:. * \037

: , ty

z=\037 \037 =-=-===)

Watashi

wa sensei
given

ni

hon

0 itadaita.

(I

was

a book by my
by

teacher.)
the

3. The giver
(3)

can

also be marked

source

kara

'from'

(i.e.,

karal). (\037 n/\037))

b fL'iU-J*\037 Iv I:: / tJ\\';*\037 Watashi wa Yamamoto-san

-:J t::.. o \037

ni / kaTa

hon

0 moratta.

(I got a

book

from

Mr.

Yamamoto.)

However, as seen in
(4)

if

the

giver

is not human, kara is

more

appropriate

than

ni,

(4).
f3

fL'i
(I

*\037JfftJ\\';

Watashi

-:J t::.. o / ? ?I:: t3 \037\037b \037 wa Nihonseifu kaTa / ??ni o-kane 0

moratta.

received
be

some

money

from
fact direct

the Japanese
that

This seems to
while

ni
in

tion
the

(3),

conveys the speaker


in

due to the the idea of


in

karal

government.) carries the idea of source,


That

contact.

is,

unlike

the

situagiver,

(4) does

not

have

direct

contact
Rather, money

with the

Japanese

government,

government
4. In

(4) is merely

when receiving money. the source of the


the

the Japanese

received.
it

declarative sentences, if

subject

is the speaker,

is

often)))

morau

2 I morau

263)

omitted.
hearer,

Similarly,
it is

in omitted.

interrogative

sentences,

if the
(See

often

KS

subject is the and Ex. (b).))

aux. t> b ?) \037\"-\"'\037\037'\" )\"\"\"\"\"'-\"-\"\037

morau2
The

v. (Gr.

1)) \"''--''''', \037 5 1

first person or s.o. the speaker with receives some beneempathizes


fit

recel ve benefi

t from
s.t.

an

action

by s.o.;
have

have

done

by s.o.;
2 )])

from

\037 status I) -..

an action by is not as high

someone as the

whose

s.o.

do s.t.
2

( \037.../\"../'v\"\"'\037\"\"',\",v'-)

receiver's.

;.

[REL.

kUTeTu

(ageru

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Topic (subject) (Recei ver)


(fL

Giver
\037

Direct Object
,:.
ni

Vte

'i)

iJJ.=j
kamera

\037

A-:J-c

t;,

-:J t::.. I

\037 =
\037 \037

(Watashi

wa)

chichi

katte

moratta I

E M !!! ===-)

i!! !!i

b
father bought a camera

t;, \"\" i:

t::.. o

moraimashita.

(My (B))

for

me.))

Topic (subject)
(Receiver)

Giver
:.&\037

Vte

(fL
(Watashi

'i)
wa)
my

,:.

*-c
kite

t;,

-:J t::.. I b t;, \"\" i: L t::.. o

tomodachi come (for


my

nl

moratta

I moraimashita.

(I

had

friend

benefit).))

Formation)

Vte

t;,

morau)
'- -c \037\037

\037?

(have

s.o. talk for

my

sake))))

hanashite

morau)

264

morau

2)

it\"'-c

b\037?
morau)

(have

s.o. eat for

my

sake))

tabete
Examples)
(a)

*f1

\037 lv'i:kJf

\037 Iv':..\037it

L
ni

-C

-:J t::.. o b \037

Kimura-san

wa Dno-san
had

kuruma
him

0 kashite
his

moratta.

(Mr. Kimura
(b) (\037'i)\037

Mr. Ono lend

car.)

':I \037\037 \"\"'! L t::.tJ\037o 1v':'fPJ\037 L -C b \037


ni

(Kimi

wa) Bekku-san
did

nani

0 shite moraimashita
for

ka.
(= What

(Lit. What Beckdo for


(c)

you have

Mr. Beckdo
f3*m\037\037;t ni

you?

did Mr.

you?\302\273

.y 3
(Mr.

\037'.J \037\037 Iv'iffi*\037

Iv':.

-C

b \037 -:J-C\"\"Qo

Jonson-san

wa Suzuki-san has Mr. Suzuki Johnson

nihongo teaching

0 oshiete him

moratte

iru.

Japanese.))

em

1.
=

\037 \037 !y 5

=-)

used as an auxiliary verb with The meaning of Vte Vte. receive some benefit from someone's action' or ' have someone do something for s.o.'s sake'. Like sentences with morau as a main when the auxiliary verb morau is used, the of the favor verb, recipient (i.e., the person in the subject position) must be the first person or someone with whom the speaker empathizes (usually a member of the speaker's in-group). (1a) is grammatical, but (1b) is not. Thus,
Morau

is

morau

is

'

(1)

a.

fk l;t \037Q) A
Watashi

\037\037 \037:. \037 it

'-

-C

-:J t::.. 0 b \037

tonari no hito ni pen 0 kashite moratta. (Lit. I had the man next to me lend me a pen. (= I borrowed a pen from the man next to me.\302\273
wa
b.

*\037Q)A'ifkl=\037 *Tonari no hito (Lit.


man

\037\037it wa

-:J t::.. o '- -C b \037

watashi

ni pen
pen first

kashite him

moratta. a pen.

The
next

man

next

to me had me lend
from

(= The with Vte

to me

borrowed a
favor

me.\302\273

Note

that if the giver

of

the

is the

person,

sentences
l

morau are ungrammatical the speaker empathizes


(2)

even with,

if the as

recipient of the favor in (2). (t:)mOTau moratta.


a radio.))))

is someone
, Note

1)

-:J t::.. o 7.y;t \037it '- -C b \037 *Ot6to wa watashi ni rajio 0 kashite brother had me lend him (My younger *t(UifL':.

morau

265)

3. The

humble

polite

version

of morau

as

an

auxiliary

verb

is itadaku.

Example:)

(3)

fL'i96!:E':.*\037it

Watashi

wa

sensei

L -c L \\t= t::L \\t=o ni hon 0 kashite lend

itadaita.

(Lit. I had my teacher from my teacher.\302\273


4.

me a book.

(= I

borrowed

a book

Unlike sentences with sentences with morau In declarative


Similarly,

morau 2.) the

, the

giver cannot be

marked

by

kara

In

5.

sentences, if

subject
if

in interrogative

sentences,

is the speaker, it is often omitted. is the hearer, it is ofthe subject (KS(A) (B)
and

ten

omitted.

Ex.

(b).))

iiiii

M=

=o

====)))

266

na)
prt.) /\"\037,...\"...,-./\"',. \"./\"\"...,.. \037'-\"\"\"'\037\"\"\037 \037 \037)

na t;;.
a

\037\037\037./'../\"'\037/\"

negative imperative marker used \037 a male speaker in very informal by \037
\037 speech

Don't

do -)

\037\037'-/\".-\037-\"\"\"',.....\037)

. Key

Sentence)

Vinf. nonpast
t::..fi\037 \037

I!&?

! t\037

Tabako

suu

na!

(Don't smoke!))
Formation)

Vinf.

nonpast

t.t,

na)
\037\037t\" t.t,

(Don't talk!)) (Don't eat!))

hanasu

na)
t.t,

it'\" Q '\037 \037 = \037 N \037 -)


taberu

na)

Examples)
(a) Mi\037 OJ

* !> \037ut\037 !

Sake
(Don't (b) \037Iv

0 amar;
drink

too much
!

nomu na! sake!)


iku

Sonna

t.t,m':' b ? ff < t.t, tokoro ni mo go to

na!
any

(Don't (c)
OJ

such a place
Q
t.t, !

more!)

Iv t\037.9Jc!: 'i\037\037t\"

Anna

otoko
marry

to

wa

kekkonsuru

(Don't (d)

that
t\037!

kind

na!) of man!)

b?
Mo

\037-:J

--C*Q

kaette

kuru na!
any

(Don't come home em)

more!))

1.

na

is a

strong

negative

imperative

and is seldom

used except in

highly)))

na I nado
emotional soften

267) to

situations. the

the addition However, force of the statement.)


* \037 \037Uf\037 J:o

of

yo

after

na serves

(1)

Mi\037 OJ

Sake

0 amari
drink

nomu na yo.
too

(Don't

much

sake, OK?)

2.

female

Vneg

speaker normally nai de, as in hanasanai

does
de

not

use

the na
talk.'

' Don't

or

tabenai (t:)
,.\",

imperative. She uses ' de Don't eat.'


kudasai,

Note

3))

nado

fJ:.

prt.)

\037..........\"\"-\"\"\037./'..../\"'\037\"\"\"\"'\" \037./',......./''''''\"....\"......,...,...., ( a marker ficaexempli S \037 l tion ? \"\"\"\037 \"\\...'-......\037\037 \"\"\037 I) \037\"\"\"\"

that indicates

and

so on;

example;

things
nanka])

and the like; like

for

[REL.

. Key

Sentence)
Noun

Noun
\037 ya

f3*
Nihon

(/)

1t\037\037

(/)

qt
naka

1:' 'i
de

Tl.,

= =
t,t
\037 tJ\037 Jf\037

-r \037,5t; tenpuTa

\037

\037

= \03 N \03

no tabemono

no

wa sushi

nado ga

suki0

1:' T t!.I \0371\037 da I

sukidesu.

(Among Japanese
Examples)

foods

I like

things like sushi and

tempura.))

(a)

A:

\037f*lj.

'i c.* \037 ,;:ff

* \037

L J: ?
ni

tJ\037o

Fuyuyasumi

wa doko

ikimasho the

ka. winter

(Where shall we go B:

during

vacation?)

/' 'J ..{ t,t


Hawai
(How

\037 c.*

? 1:'TtJ\037o

nado
about

do desu ka.
Hawaii,
for

example?)

(b)

*\0371:\"'i 7 7 \037:A ilt\037 t:..{ \037\037t,t c.* \037\037%t L t.: o de wa furansugo ya doitsugo nado 0 Daigaku

benkyoshita.
like.))))

(In college I

studied

French

and German and the

268
(c)

nado)
=. Q):k\302\245':, 'i qtOO\037\"OOt\037
K

E tJ\037 \037\037!:EtJ\037:k\037* * To

ono

daigaku

ni

wa

Chugoku

ya Kankoku
and

nado

kara

gakusei

ga 6zei
college.)

kimasu.
(A

lot

of students

from China, Korea


Q 0 b !J \037T tJ\037o

so on

come to

this

(d)

A:

\037 J!f\037t\" tI\037\302\245

K eizaigaku
(Are

0 senk6suru going

tsumori desu ka.


in

you

to major

economics?)

B :

\"\" \",,;t,

c!:\037 tI\037\302\245t\037 J!f\037T

Q0
of

b !J'i
tsumori

lb !J

* -it Iv o wa

ie,

keizaigaku (No, I have (e)

nado senk6suru

arimasen.
like

no

intention

majoring

in things

economics.)

A: =. Q) ft\037
Kono

\037L

\"\" * -it Iv tJ\\o -c < t.: \037

kudasaimasen ka. this for me?) B : =.Iv t\037 ,:. 'i m* * -tt Iv o ji L \"\" t Q), fLt\037 c!:\037 Konna muzukashii mono, watashi ni wa dekimasen. nado me like cannot translate such a difficult (A person thing.))
hon'yaku 0 shite

(Could you

kindly

translate

em

1.

particle
nado

normally
{wa

follows nado, as in:

/ ga /

(0) /

(ni)

I kara
and

/ de I
wa

el yori

I etc.} depending meaning.

'N I

Particles

other

than

ga, 0,
order

on the

context, this
C \037-c: f\037 Hashi

gives the

nado, but, sentence a more derogatory

can precede

Examples:
(1)

tL t\037 \"\"0 1tr-:. \037 de nado taberarenai. eat

(We (2)
Hashi

can't

with QA

damned chopsticks.)
hito

c-c:1t'\" \037f\037

b \"\" Q 0
taberu

nado de (Some people eat


main

mo iru.
the

it with is

chopsticks (and
as in Exs.
especially

like).) (e),
is

2.

If the

predicate

negated,

(d) and

nado
the

often
speaker

conveys a senseof humbleness or a member of his in-group.


(Related Expression]
Nanka

when the

subject

In other

cases, it

is generally

derogatory.)

is the
that

except
emphasis

informal, colloquial version of nado. It is used as nado is used a context conveying or contempt there is more undesirability on the derogatory meaning.)))
in

nagara

269)

nagara
a the

fJ:. '/J'(

conj.)

\037\"-\"-) \",-\037\037\"\"-\"\"\",,-r,,,,. \"'-\"-\"-

which indicates that conjunction action expressed by the preceding takes place
concurrentl

while;

over;

with

verb

y or

si -

;
>

[REL. aida])

multaneously

with

the action ex\037\037V\037)

?\037in

t\037\037\037\037n\037\037,,-

Key

Sentence)

Topic

(subject)
'i . \037\\0b

Secondary Action
ffiflfJ \037

V masu
\0373j. tJ\037 t\037 \037 nagara

EB\037\0371v

Taguchi-san

wa

itsumo

shin bun 0

yami

Primary
iWJ\037!1i asagohan \037

Action
Q /

it'\"

1t'\" * To
reads a newspaper
while

taberu
always

/ tabemasu.
eating

(Mr. Taguchi
Formatien)

his

breakfast.))

= =
i
N tJ\037 t\037 rJ

i)

V masu

nagara)
';1\037
hanashi

tJ tJ\037 t\037 nagara)


tJ\037 t\037 \037J nagara)

(while

talking

/ talk

while doing

s.t.)

1tr-.::

(while

eating / eat

while

doing

s.t.)

tabe

Examples)

(a)

tfi;\037 t\037tJ\037 6*\037\037UQ)\037ilb\037t\037\037\\-C:-T.to

Aruki

nagara
dangerous

(It
(b)

is

hon 0 yomu to read

no
while

wa abunaidesu
walking.))

yo.

JlJ \037\037 Ivfi\037\037\\t\037 tJ; \037fLQ)\037\037 flfJ\037\\-c \037\\t::..o

Yamaguchi-san

wa warai nagara
was

(Mr.

Yamaguchi

listening
listening

0 kiite ita. watashi no hanashi to me with a smile. (Lit. While smiling,

Mr. Yamaguchi was

to

my

story.\302\273)))

270
(c)

nagara)
t.: fL'i\037t\037tJ\037 \037/J'f\037\037\037uQ)tJ\037\037\037 o

Watashi
(I like (d)

wa ne to read

nagara

sh6setsu in bed.

0 yomu

no ga
in bed,

sukida.

novels

(Lit.
wa

While

I like

to

read

novels.\302\273

Q) \0371t\037t\037 tJ\037 \037 \037 '-

-c 'i

\"\" ,t

* -tt Iv o
ikemasen.
You

Mono

0 tabe nagara

hanashite
in your

(Don't
eating (e)

talk

with

food

mouth. (Lit.
-:J -c \"\" Q 0 nagara
while

must

not talk

while

things.\302\273 t\037 tJ\037 \037 \037\037f5c':.ff

*f1\"\037'i\037\037.t\0371tJJ

Kimura-kun

wa kaisha
works

de hataraki

gakko
going

ni itte iru.
to school.))

(Mr.
em

I{imura

for a company

1.

taneously

expresses an action that occurs concurrently or simulanother action. The action expressed by Vmasu nagara is always secondary to the in the main clause. action expressed Thus, in (1), B is acceptable as a response to A, but C is not.
V

masu

nagara with

(1) A:

\037J: -:J

!: \037\037tJ\037 '- t::.. \"', Iv \037 1\" tJ\037o

Chotto

hanashi

ga shitai n desu

ga.

\037 = i \037
i

(I'd like to have a little talk with you.) B: 1:\037, :1 - \037- \037 '- * '- J: ? 0 \037lj. fllJ< ; \037\037
Ja,

N \037)

k6hi

0 nomi let's

nagaTa

hanashimasho.

(Then,

talk over a

cup

of coffee.)

- \037- \037\037lj. * '- J: ? 0 C : * 1:\037 '- fllJ< ; :1 , \037\037 *Ja, hanashi k6hi 0 nomimash6. nagaTa (Then, let's drink a cup of coffee while talking.)
Note
2.
that

in English,

while
used

ing\"

is not

always the secondary action.

di

V masu nagara cannot as in (2). fferent,

be

when

the subjects

of

the

two

actions

are

(2) *Iv-

j.

\" tJ\037.A T

v::t

tJ\037 t\037 \037 \037 fi8 \037 fL'i\037%t

'-

t::.. o

*Rumumeto

ga sutereo
while

kiki

nagara

watashi
listening

(I
(In
this

studied

my roommate

was

wa benky6shita. to the stereo set.)

case,

aida

is used.

(t:) aida\302\273)))

- nai -nai

de

271)

de

-\037L

'--c'

phr.)
verb) ./'./'J\037J ) \037 \037)

a negative

te-form of a

do

not do

s.t.

and;

without

do-

Ing

zu

[REL. nakute; . Key Sentence)


Adverbial

ni])

Clause

Topic

(subject) Vneg
'i
wa

T\037\037-

\037Q)? kino

1NJ =:!&

\037

f(\037

t.t. nai

\"', 1:' de

.-.. \302\245\037

ff

-:J

t::.. / /

N anshi

asagohan

tabe

gakko
ff\037

itta

* Lt::.. o

ikimashita.

(Nancy
Formation')

went to

school

yesterday

without

eating her

breakfast.))

V neg

t.t. \"\"

-r:

nai
t.t. \"\" \037 \037\037

de
1:'

(without

talking) eating)

hanasanai de

\037

it\" t.t. \"\"


tabenai
Exa

i
(without

I)

1:'
de)

m pies)
a:ftEB \037 lv'i*\037':.fftJ\037t.t.\"\"1:'Jj(tlH:.ff-:J t::.. o

(a)

Nakada-san

wa Osaka

ni to

ikanai Osaka;

(Mr.
(b)

Nakada didn't go

de Kyoto he went

ni

itta.
Kyoto.)

to

\037\037.\037\037bt.t.\"\"1:'MfIv1:' < t!. \037 \"\"0 Jisho

0 tsukawanai de yon de kudasai. (Please read it without using a dictionary.)

(c)

* t!. t.t. \"\" 1:' \037\037


Mada

\"\" 0 < t!. \037

kaeranai

de kudasai. yet.)

(d)

(Pleasedon't go home .\037L t.t. \"\" -r:\037 L \"\"0


Denwashinai

de hoshii.
you

(Lit. I

want

not to

call

me.

(=

Don't

call

me.\302\273)))

272 (e)

-nai

de)

L \037tJ\037\037

< Lt\037\037\\\"t* t \037 \037\\t::..\037\\o

Yakamashiku

shinai
you

de moraitai.

(Lit. I
(f)

want

not to make

noises. (= Don't
Lt::.. o

make

any

noise.\302\273)

\037t.:cbQtJ\037\037A:bt\037\037\\\"t*to\037\037

aru kara kawanai de okimashita. I still have (Because it, I didn't buy
Mada mD 1. If a nai
where

it (in advance).))

de

clause

expresses

something
that

there

is the

expectation

lation
in

is 'without (a).
de (b)

- ing',
to

Nancy

but

if

not,

one is expected to do, as in KS should eat breakfast, the transit is 'do not do - and -', as

Ex.
nai

2.

and

is often but

used

combine
used

two sentences kudasai

as

in

KS

and Exs.

(a)
Ex.

(c), hoshii

'

can also be
want',

with

as in

and te 3.

oku

'do is used
where

s.t. in

Ex. (d), morau advance', as in


verbs.

'please do s.t.', as in a favor', as in Ex. 'receive


(f).

(e),

Ex.

nai

de

only
no

with

It cannot
kudasai,

be

used

with

adjectives.

4. In
oku

cases
are

auxiliaries

such as

hoshii,

morau

and te

= =

\037 \037

because
contrary

N \037) \037 [Related

that the speaker is emphasizing negation, used, nai de implies somehow the proposition expressed in the nai de clause to his expectation.)

is

Expressions]
retains replaced by - zu ni, if de of nai de somehow the ' of and', as in KS, Exs. (a), (b) and (f). meaning the senThus, tences in [1] are all grammatical, but those in [2] are all ungrammatical:
nai

I.

de can be

original

[1] a.

T \037\037Nanshi

'i \037q) ? \037.:.\"!!i a:1t\037\"f I::\037BC-..ff -:J t::..o wa kino asagohan 0 tabezu ni gakko e itta.
'i*\037 ':.fftJ\037\"f wa Osaka
I:: Ji(t(H:.ff
ni -:J t::.. o ni

(Cp. KS)
(a\302\273

b.
c.

Iv fB \037 \037 Nakada-san

ikazu

ni Kyoto

itta.

(Cp. Ex.

\037. a: \037:b\"f I:: MCIv \"t* < t.: \037 \037\\o Jisho 0 tsukawazu ni yonde kudasai.
\037 t.: cb

(Cp.

Ex.
Ex.

(b\302\273

d.

Q tJ \037 \037 \037L t::.. 0 A :b\"f I:: to \037

Mada [2]

aru kara kawazu


< t.: \037 \037\\o

ni

okimashita.

(Cp.

(f\302\273

a.

*\037 t.:\037 \037\"fl::

*Mada

kaerazu

ni kudasai.

(Cp. Ex. (c\302\273)))

- nai
b.

de

273)

*m\037-tt\"f f::\037 L \037\\o ni hoshii. *Denwasezu

(Cp. Ex.

(d\302\273

only difference between nai de and zu ni is that of style: zu ni is used in formal or written Japanese. The formation is exactly speech the same as nai de, namely, Vinf. neg zu ni. However, the zu ni form for suru-verbs is not shi zu ni, but se zu ni, as in benky6sezu ni ' without
The

studying' .

II. -nai de can


some

be replaced
human

cause for
the

emotion

by nakute only which

when

the nai

de
in

clause

indicates

is expressed

the

main

clause.

Otherwise,
[3] Boku
katta.

nakute

version

is unacceptable,

as

in

[5]. LtJ\037-:Jt::..o

\037'i\037mt.J\037\037-tttlL\\\037

/ ???\"ff::

/ tl < -cJK;-rtJ\037

wa eigo ga hanasenai

de / ???zu
9

ni /

nakute

hazukashi-

(I

felt ashamed -.y


felt

because I
konai

couldn

t speak

English.)

[4]

- tJ;JHVq:.*tlL \\\037 /
ga asobi
relieved,
ni

?? ?\"ff::

-:J t::.. o / tl < -c JJJJtJ\037

StJji

de /

(I
[5]

because

???zu ni / nakute tasukatta. Susie didn't come see me.)


/ \"ff:: de

a.

-\037\037'imT\037JBttJ;tlL\\\037

Ichiro

wa boshi

0 nuganai
the

(Ichiro entered
b.
\037tl L \\\037

room

/ *tl < -ctmm':'A-:J t::.. o / zu ni /*nakute heya ni haitta. without taking off his hat.)
\037 \037\\o kudasai.

= =

Minai (Please

/ *\"ff:: / *tl < -c < t!. de / *zu ni / *nakute 9 don t look at it.)
\"f

N \03 \037

c.

1t'\"tl L \\ \037 /
Tabenai (I

f:: /

\\ t::.. tl < -c:l'd \037 0 oita.

left
that

zu ni / *nakute it uneaten.)
de /
the

It

is also
than

noted
nai

idea of'

is not

Y but

is expressed

by nakute

rather

de, as in
< -c

[6].
/
*tlL\\\03796!:E\037To

[6]

fL'i\037!:E\037'itl

Watashi

(I am

wa gakusei de wa not a student but a

nakute

/ *nai

de sensei desu.

teacher.))

274

- nakereba

naranai)

-nakereba

naranai

-\037ljtLlt\037b\037L\\)
I
\037 S

phr.)

i \"'-\"'-\037\"'\037\"'-\"''''\037\037/\"-./\"\\./'\\.../''- \037\"''''\037 It won't do if s.o. does not take some \037 action or if s.o. or s.t. is not in some <
\037 state.

have to;
[REL.

must;

need

-nai

to ikenai;
-nakute naranai;

-nake-neba -nakute -te

\037\037

\037 ( ./'-.\037\"'''-'''-''J'.\037\037'-''''-\037\037\037)

rebaikenai;
-nakute
naranai]
wa

wa ikenai;

(ANT. -nai de mo ii; mo ii; -te wa ikenai;


naranai))

wa

. Key Sentences)
(A))

A:

.!;fI
Kyo

'i

t,t fj/j tJ \037

< \"(

\037\\ \037\\Iv /I

\"(*T desu

tJ\037o

wa hatarakanakute
you

mo

ka.

(Don't
INi
=======)

have

to work

today?))

B:
\037\\\037\\;tt

Vinf.neg
ifJ tJ\\ it Iv o t,t ,t h ,i t,t!J \037 nakereba narimasen.

ie,

hataTaka
have

(Yes, I

to

work.))

(B))

Topic

(subject)
(/)
\037\037

Adj (i) stem


'i
wa

/{ .A -7

\":I

,,\037-)V

*\037
oki

< ku

Basukettoboru

no senshu

t,t ,t h''! nakereba


t,t
-tt !J \037

t,t \037 t,t \037\\ / naranai

Iv o

narimasen.

(Basketball

players

have

to

be

big.))))

- nakereba (C))

naranai

275)

Topic (subject) \037.tii Toshokan (Libraries


(D)) \037

Adj

(na)

stem
\037

'i

DtJ\\ shizuka
to

t.t ,t

h'i

t.t \037 t.t


naranai

\037\\ /

-tt Ivo t.t !J \037

E wa have

de

nakereba

/ narimasen.

be quiet.))

Topic

Noun

=.(/) ft* Kono shigoto

'i
\037

\037!t:

\037

t.t ,t

h,i

t.t \037 t.t


naranai

\037\\ /

-tt Ivo t.t !J \037

wa

gakusei it has

de

nakereba
students.

/ narimasen.
can

apply

(Lit. Speaking of this job, for this job.\302\273)

to be

(=

Only students

Formatien)

( i)

Vneg

t.t ,t

h'i

t.t \037 t.t \037\\

nakereba t.t \037 \0375 hanasa

naranai
t.t \037 t.t \037\\

,t h'i nakereba

(s.o.

has to

talk))

naranai
t.t \037 ti \037\\

it'\"
(ii)
Adj

t.t

,t

h'i

(5.0.

has to

eat))

\037

=)

tabenakereba (i) stem

naranai <
ku

t.t ,t

h,i

t.t \037 t.t \037\\ naranai)

nakereba
t.t C'J t.t \037\\.

!;< < t.t ,t \0371-'i yasu kunakereba

(s.t.

has to

be

inexpensive)

naranai
N} \037

(iii)

{Adj

(na)

stem /

t.t ,t \037t'i

t.t \037 t.t \037\\

de

nakereba
(s.t.

naranai
has to

,r;l.p\037t.t'th'!
shizukadenakereba

t.t \037t.t\037\\

be

quiet)

naranai
t.t \037 t.t \037\\
naranai)

%1:
sensei Examples)

\037 t\037 ,t \037t'i

(s.o.

has to

be a

teacher)

de nakereba

(a)

-tt Ivo fL'i cb L t::..\037JL\037':'\037 \037t.t ,t h'it.t !J \037 Watashi wa ashita asa goji ni okinakereba narimasen. (I have to get up at five tomorrow morning.))))

276
(b)

- nakereba
cb q)tml\037Ui

naranai)

t ?
wa

\037 L\037

-tt Ivo < t\037 Jt h'i't\037 !J \037

Ano
(That

heya

mo sukoshi
bit

hirokunakereba
larger.)
\037 t\037 Jt

narimasen.

room
\037 T

has to be a
Q
t::..\"th

(c)

\037 q)tt*

,:. 'i\037mtJ\037l:\037
ni

h'i

t\037 '? t\037 \037\\o

Kono

shigoto

0 suru tame

wa

eigo ga

jozu de

nakereba

naranai.

(To do this
(d)

job,

your

English

has to

be good.)
naranai.

\037q):f)v7m\037\037? Kono (To

t::..\"th':\"ij

\037/\037-\037t\037Jth'it\037'?t\037\037\\o

0 tsukau tame ni wa menba de nakereba gorufujo use this golf course, you have to be a member.))

BID)
1.

V neg forms

nakereba
Vneg

naranai

expresses naranai

the idea

of obligation.
naranai if

The

contracted

nakerya

and Vneg

nakya(a) omitted

are also

used

in

conversation.

Sometimes,

naranai /

is

the

context

is clear.

Example:

(1) t? (I 2.
= = \037 \037 N \037) \037 Negative

Jt \037 '? t\037

h'i

Jt !J \037 / \037 '? t\037 \037 \037 '? t\037 \037(cb)o

Mo kaeranakereba
have

to

/ kaeranakerya / kearanakya(a). go home now.)


be expressed
by

obligation,

negative
all

form if

i.e., \"do not have to\" cannot of this pattern. It is expressed by


do

the

nakutemo (t:)\",.,

ii te

' mo

It is
ii))

right

doesn't

s.t.'

[Related

Expression]

In addition to
pressions

nakereba

naranai

/ ikenai
follows:

there are

at

least

four

other ex-

of obligation.

They are as
L \\ I\037 t\037 .; t\037

[1]

a.

\037 t\037 < \0375

-c

L \\ 0 / L \\ It t\037

Hanasanakute

wa

naTanai / ikenai.
/ *
L \\ 0 t\037 .; t\037

b. c. [lc] is
nakereba the

L \\ t; L \\ It t\037 L \\ t\037 \037 \037

Hanasanai

to ikenai

/ *naTanai.) / *ikenai. -nakereba


essentially
naranai. [lb] and hanasa [la], the same meaning. Nakute wa is

\0375\037iJ'it\037.;t\037L\\

/ *L\\ltt\037L\\o

Hanasaneba written naranai

naTanai version of
carry

/ ikenai

often contracted into

nakucha,

- nakucha,

nakutcha,

and

nakutcha.)))

- naku

naru

277)

- naku
It

naru

f;j.

< t:I. Q point

phr.)

has reached the


or

where some

not

any

more

state
any

action

does

not take place


(

[REL.

yoni naru; mo

naIl)

more.)

\037\037\037\037)

. Key

Sentence)

Vinf. neg
\037\037L\037\\

\037*

Yasashii

kanji
even

t mo
write

.It kake
easy kanji

t\037 < naku any

t\037 -:J t::.. /


natta more.))

t\037 \037L t::.. 0 \037

/ narimashita.

(I

cannot

Formation) ( i)

Vinf.neg

t\037 <

t\037 Q naru) t\037 <

where

V is often a potential

verb)

naku
{\037\037

/ \037-tt}

t\037Q naru)

(s.o.

doesn't

/ can't

talk

any

more))

{hanasa
{ft\037

/ hanase}

naku

/ 1t\037 \037h} tet. <

Q t\037 naru)
tet.

(s.o. doesn't /

can't

eat

any

more))

{tabe /
( ii)

taberare} <
t\037 Q naru)

naku t\037 <

= =z =z -

Adj (i) stem

- N=
-)

= =

ku naku
rf6

naru)

<

t\037 <

(s.t.

isntt expensive

any

more))

takaku (iii)

naku

{Adj (na) stem /

N}

{\037

'i

/ l:

< \037} t\037

Q t\037
naru

{de wa / ja}
{r;tJ\037\037

naku
Q t\037
naru

'i

r;tJ\037

l: \037}

t\037 <

(s.t. isntt quiet

any

more)

{shizukade
{;'G!:E

wa / shizukaja} naku
t\037 < naku

{sensei Exa m pies)


(a)

\037 'i / %!:E l: \037} de wa / sensei ja}

0 t\037 naru)

(s.o. isn't a

teacher any

more)

wHimi\037 ct < \037Iv\037 \037\\t::..tJ\037t;: q)tJHi\037\037

t\037 \037Lt::.. < t\037\037 wa

Mae wa (I

sake 0 used to drink

yoku

nonde

ita ga.

konogoro

nomanaku
any

narimashita.
more.))))

sake

a lot, but now I dontt drink

278
(b)

naku

naru)

tJ\037 tJ\037 Jt \"( * \037L t.: tJ\037, t? Jt \"( *t\037 < t\037!J \037L t::.. o \037'iWI J: < iI\0375 \037 Kare wa mae yoku 0 kakete kimashita denwa ga, mo kakete konaku

nari-

mashita.

(He used

to

call

me

frequently,

but he doesn't
t.: o narimashita.

call

me

any more.)

(c)

t3

*\037lHi

Nihongo
<J

t ? it L < tet. < tet. !J \037L wa mo muzukashikunaku


isntt difficult
for

apanese

me

any

more.))

(d)

\037 t!Hrf\037tJ\037*\"(\037f!\037'itet. q)\0371S\037

< tet. -:J t.: o


wa

Kono kogai

mo

chikatetsu

ga

kite fubende
inconvenient

naku

natta. there is a subway

(This suburban area now (lit. the subway

is no has

longer
reached
tet.

because

here).)
naku am

(e)

\037-:J c!: *\037 \037 l!l ,,(\037!:E \037'i

< t\037!J \037L t::.. o

Yatto

daigaku

(I finally (Related

gakusei de wa graduated from college and


0 dete

narimashita. not a student


any

longer.))

Expressions]
naku

Compare
sentences:)

naru,

Vinf.neg

yoni

naru

and

mo

-nai

In

the

following

[1]
= = \037 \037 i N i)

\"':)t::. o t3 *\037HtJ\037\0375-ttt\037 < t\037

Nihongo

ga hanasenaku
speak

natta.
any more.)

(I
[2]

cannot

Japanese

L \\ J: t3 *\037HtJ\037\0375-ttt\037

\"':)t::. o ? I:. t\037

Nihongo (rve

natta. ga hanasenai yani reached the point where I cantt


?\037\037-ttt\037L\\o

speak

Japanese.)

[3]

t3*alftJ\037=&

Nihongo

ga ma
speak

hanasenai.
Japanese any more.)

(I
[1] and

cannot

on both processand result, but [3] focuses only on result. the period of change, Thus, [1] and [2] can take time expressions indicating ' a year', such as ichinen no uchi ni within kytJni' suddenly', toto 'finally', from [2] in that the latter focuses on an inbut [3] cannot. [1] is different on a focuses the cause for circumstantial change, whereas the former direct, more direct one. Thus, Japanese speak [1] implies that the speaker cannot any more because he has simply forgotten Japanese but [2] implies that he is such that there are no native cannot speak Japanese because the situation around to speak with. (t:) yani naTu)))) speakers
[2] focus

- nakute - nakute

279)

f;j:

< --C

phr.)

\037

\037'te-form

a
or

of the

negative nai, which cause / reason for a state

j \037 \037

action ....\037\"'-\037\037\037\037)

indica\037es

do not do s.t. and -; is not - ; because - do not do s.t. and nai [REL. nai de; nai kara; node; nakute mo])

Key

Sentence)

Sentence

(cause)
Vinf.

Sentence
t\037 < \"( \037tI:

(effect)

neg
,:.
\037ht::..

\037

-t\037

,:.

\037\037;n

/ \037tLi: Lt::.. o

Asa

shichiji
couldn't

ni
get

okiT8Tenakute

kaisha

ni okureta

/okuremashita.
my

(I

up at seven and was late for work (at

company).))

Formation)

(i)

Vinf.neg

t\037 < \"(

where

V is often a potential (s.o. doesntt / (s.o. doesn't /

verb)

naku
\037 {\0375

te) tet.

/ \037!-tt}

< \"(

can't

talk

and

-))

{hanasa
{:tt\037

/ hanase}
/ 1t\037 \037 h}

nakute
tet.

< \"(

cantt

eat

and

-))

{tabe

/ taberare}
(i) stem

nakute
tet.

= \037 =z = =N= =

=)

( ii)

Adj

<
ku

<

\"(

nakute)
(s.t.

rf6

<

tet.

< \"(
te)

isn't

expensive and -))


'j: / l: \037} tet. < \"( wa / ja} nakute
t\037 < \"(

takaku

naku
(na)

(iii)

{Adj

stem /

N}

{\037

{de
{r;tJ\037\037 {shizukade

(t wa
\037

/ f;n\\

l: \037)

(s.t.

isn't

quiet and

-) -)

/ shizukaja} nakute / %1: / sensei

{;'G!:E

(t

l: \037;)} tet.
ja}

< \"(

(s.o.

isn't

a teacher and

de wa {sensei
Examples)

nakute)

(a)

t\037 \037 i: L t::.. o < \"( m \037 96!:Eq)\037JyJ tJ\037\037tJ\\

Sensei

no setsumei

ga
the

wakaranakute

komarimashita.

(I didn't

understand

teacher's

explanation

and had a

difficult

time.))))

280
(b)

naku

te)

t3

*\037 'i t3 *\037lftJ\037\037-ttt,t < \"( 1J\037\037 L t::..o

Nihon

de wa

nihongo ga
that

hanasenakute

zannendeshita.

(Ies (c)

regrettable

I couldn't

speak

Japanese

in

Japan.)

\037\037'iil

-:J t::.. \037TiJo L < t,t < \"( J: tJ\037

Shiken
(Lit. glad (d)

wa muzukashiku the exam


nakute wasn't

The exam wasn't that

difficult

nakute yokattadesu nee and it was good, wasn't


difficult
i\302\273\037

it?

(= Arentt

you

*tJ\037l:\037

l: \037 t,t < \"(JHl-rtJ\037 L \037\\Iv\037T 0 hazukashii is so poor

J i

ga jozuja (My handwriting


V \037

n desu. that I feel

ashamed.)

(e)

\037\\;t!:E

-:J t::.. o l: \037 t,t < \"( J: tJ\037

Kibishii

sensei
wasn't

(Lit. He
[Related

ja nakute yokatta. a strict teacher and


teacher.\302\273)

it

was

good.

(= rm

glad

that

he

wasntt a strict Expressions]


mo

I.

Nakute

means

'(even)
atama

if

not

-'
J: o
Todai

\037f1l%i [1] IJ'JIUiilJ!tJ\037\037\\\037\\tJ\037

Lt\037

< -c=&JR*':'Ah.'5

Ogawa
yo.
' = \037 \037 iN

wa

ga ii kara

benkyoshinakute mo
enter

ni haireru

(Ogawa is bright,

so

he

can

Tokyo

University

even

if he

;) [2]

doesn't
;:
q)Jft

study.)

L\037\\\037*'ijtx.t\037

< -c=& \037\\\037\\\037TtJ\037?

Kono

muzukashii
all
and

(Is it
I I. The

right
effect

kanji wa oboenakute if I don't memorize this


relation

mo

iidesu ka?
kanji?)
is much

difficult

cause
indirectly

more
[3]

presented
in

indicated by than that of nai


-c /

nakute kara
nai

weaker and
Thus, in

or nai
de,

node.

KS [3].)

can be rewritten

four

versions,

including

as shown

h t\037< \037-t; \037,:. \037\037\037


':.Jl!\037'L \037L t::.. o

L \\ \037 / t\037 tJ\\ t\037

':) t:. tJ\\ i:;, / t\037 tJ\\ ':) t:. 0) \037 \037U:

Asa

shichiji
kaisha

ni okirarenakute / nai
ni

de / nakatta

kaTa

/ nakatta

node

okuremashita.

The most direct of the cause-effect relation is nakatta presentation kara, and the presentation becomesmore indirect in the following order: nakatta node, nai de, and nakute. For an excuse for one's lateness the least direct one is of course preferred, because the more indirect, the
politer

the expression.

(t:) kaTa; node;

-te))))

nara

281)

nara
\037

f;j.

conj.)
\"') \"\"V'-......

a the

conjunction

which indicates sentence


IS

that

preceding speaker's supposition about the truth of a present or past fact or the actualization

the

if it is true that; if it is the case that; if; would; could 4 taTa t0 (ba, )]) [REL.

of something

in the future \037)

\037

. Key

Sentence)
Sentence I tJ\037*

Sent ence 2

t\037EB

( q))
(no)

t\037 t:J

\037

'i
wa

\037\\ / fftJ\037 t\037

Matsuda ga

kuru

nara
will

boku

ikanai

-tt Ivo ff \037\037 / ikimasen.

(If
Formation)

it

is true

that Matsuda

come,

I won't

go.))

( i)

{V / Adj (i)}

inf

(q)) (no)

t\037 t:J

nara (q))
t\037 \"J nara

{gIST {hanasu

/ glS L- t:::.} / hanashita} (q))

(if

it is true

that

s.o.

talks /

talked)

(no) (no)
nara

{\037\037\\/iNitJ\037-:Jt::..} {takai

t\037t:J

(if it is

true

that

s.t.

is twas

expensive) iHI

/ takakatta}

( ii)

{Adj (na) stem /

N}

{0 /

t!. -:Jt::.. (q))}

tet. nara

rJ

{o / datta
{r;tJ\037 {shizuka {9G!:E

(no)}

/ trfttJ\037t!.-:Jt::. / shizukadatta / 96!:E

(q))}

t\037 t:J

(if it is

true

that

s.t.

is /

was quiet)
is /

nara) (no\302\273)
t\037 t:J nara)

t!. -:Jt::..(q))}

(if

it is true

that

s.o.

was a

{sensei
Examples)

/ sensei datta

(no)}

teacher))

(a)

\037j}

::f -..ff

Shikago

< q) e iku

.A -c:ff \037 t\037 t:J r\037 t\037 \037 \037\\o

no

nara

basu

de ikinasai.
by

(If
(b)

you

go to Chicago,

go
0

bus.)

EB tJ\037* t::.. q) t\037 t:J \037fj: \037Q t\037

Sugita

ga

kita

no

nara

boku

wa

kaeru.

(If Sugita

has come, rll go home.))))

282
(c)

nara)

-t:-

it No N t,t \037:. rflj \\t' C1) t,t t:J \037;t \037


ni

S onna

takai

(If
(d)

it

is that

no nara kaemasen. expensive, I can't buy

it.))

\037fB \037 NtJ\0379.f\037 t,t t:J-=FkiJ;\037.\\t't::..

Yamada-san

(If
(e)

you

like

t:J E ? -C:TtJ\037o 0 kaitara do desu ka. ga suki nara tegami Mr. Yamada, why don't you write a letter to

him?)

\037fljt!:E

t,t t:J -t:- C1) =- \037 \037 1dJ -:J -C \\t' Q -c: '- J:

(Lit.

Takahashi-sensei nara sono If it is Prof. Takahashi,

?0 koto 0 shitte iru


he

desho.

probably

knows about

it.

(= Prof.

Takahashi would probably know about


CD) 1. Basical1y, S of a present
2.
nara

it.\302\273)

expresses
past

the speaker's or the


actualization

supposition concerning
of something

the

truth
future.

or

fact form

in the

Nara is the da. (t:) ba)


nara

simplified

of naraba,

In modern Japanese,
is the
noun

the conditional form of the copula ba is usually omitted. however,

3. Since

a noun or a

Hi)

noun, it is modern Japanese. (The stems therefore, they can precede nara
mation

simplified conditional form of the copula, it requires is not a Thus, if the preceding element equivalent. 3 this no is optional in nominalized by no (t:) no ), although
of na-type without

adjectives behave being nominalized.

like

nouns;

See For-

(ii).)

4. When
suppose

if it is nonsensical to SI nara S2 cannot be used of SI. Thus, the sentences in (1) - (3) are all unfails to become ten (1) is unacceptable because it never acceptable. (2) is unacceptable because one can never tell whether it is o'clock; it will rain tomorrow; (3) is unacceptable because the true or not that

SI

is

nonpast,

the

truth

speaker (1)

already

knows t,t Q

it is true
/\037 A tJ\037*Q

that

he

wants
0 hazu
if

to go.)
desu.
it is true

*+\037,:.

fJ.;

'if-C:T

*Juji

ni

naru

naTa

basu

ga

kuru

(Lit. The bus ten o'clock.)

is expected

to come

that

it

becomes

(2) *cb

'- t::..fijtJ\037\037Q fJ.;

*Ashita

(If
no

it

\037it'i t,t \\t'-C: '- J: ? 0 ame ga furu naTa shiai wa nai desho. is true that it will rain tomorrow, there

will

probably

be

game.))))

nara
(3)

283)

t::..\\1\\f\037 ;, *\037 tJ\037fT\037


*Boku

ga is

(If it

-:J -c \\1\\Q 'i f-c: To t::. tJ\037 fn-=f t fT \037 naTa, Kazuko mo ikita gatte iru hazu desu. to go, I expect that Kazuko also wants true that I want

ikitai

to go.)
As seen above, SI nara S2 cannot be used (A) if SI never fails (B) if one can never tell if it is true or not that SI will knows SI is the fact. (C) if the speaker already

to happen,

happen,
(4)

or

If SI

is

counterfactual,

SI nara

S2 can

be used. For
is

example,

is

acceptable

because SI expresses the


in

speaker's

counterfactual
preferred.)

feeling.

Note
(4)

that

this case the nominalizer

no

t::..\\1\\0) f\037 \037 ; t.J\037fT

t!

tL

,:.

t
dare

b \037

Boku

(If

it

ga ikitai the were


telling

no

naTa that

-r ,:. -A -c:fT< J:0 ni mo iwazu ni hitori

de iku yo.
go

case

I wanted

to go, I

would

by myself

without

anybody.)
used

5. SI nara S2 cannot

be -

if the

completion or

actualization

of SI

brings

about 8 2.
(5)
*\037-=f C1) 7

/{

\"\037fT

< / fT -:J t::.. f\037 ; / itta

\\1\\t::..o R\037t.J\037 ita.

*Haruko
(When

no apato e iku I went to Haruko's


?i'''

naTa Ichiro ga
Ichiro
-:J t::. f\037 ;
tepu

apartment,

was there.)
tL t::.. 0
\037

(6) *T -

v ::I 7\302\260

\037 A?

Jf.

7\302\260 \037<

*Tepurek6da

0 kau / katta
tape-recorder,

naTa

0 kureta.

\037 i N = \037

(When I bought a

they

gave me a

tape.)

If S2 does not

express state,

pressesa present
request or
(7)

habitual a past event or a present event, but exthe speaker's opinion, volition, command, judgment, SI

suggestion,

nara

can be

used

as in (7).
\037\037?i'-tJ\037:t3t

a.

:::';:2.-3-\037\037fT< (O))f\037;!J\037j]-\037.
-C:T J: 0
Nyuy6ku

'-0\\1\\

(Opinion)
e iku go

(no) naTa

Rinkan Lincoln

Senta Center

ga omoshiroidesu
is interesting.)

yo.

(If
b.

you

to New
\037 \037fT

York,

:::. ;:2. -

j] < (0)) f\037; !J \037

\037\037?i'- \037fT \037 \037 \302\267 \037 To

(V olition)
Nyuy6ku

e iku New

c.

(If I go to v ::I T - 7\302\260


(J udgment)

(no) naTa Rinkan York, I will go


\037 \037?

Senta
to

e ikimasu. Center.) tL Q 'i


hazu

Lincoln

?i'.
kau

/ A

-:J

t::..f\037 ;

T-

7\302\260 \037<

-r -c: T0
desu.)

Tepurek6da 0

/ katta

naTa tepu 0

kureru

284

nara /

nasai

(If
you

you buy / have


a tape.) SI

bought a SI
must

tape-recorder,

they

should

give
For

6. When

S2 in

nara

S2 is past,
represents the

example,

in (8), SI

a past truth

be a past event or state. event, and SI nara indicates

that

the speaker supposes


(8)

of SI.

t::.. (0)) fj. ;\037-g.'j:tcttJ\037-:J t::..'j:f-C:To mt.J\037\037\037-:J

Ame ga

futta

(no)

naTa
it a

shiai

wa

nakatta

hazu
have

desu.
been
it

(If (8)
can

it

is true

that
in

rained,

there

should
situation
have

also

be used
that

counterfactual

where

no game.) ' If it means

were true

it

case the 7.
No

nominalizer

rained, there should no is preferred.


nara

been

no game.'

In this

nara

often

becomes n

in

conversation.)

-nasai
/-

-\037\037

t,)

aux.

v.)

\037\037,
a polite

-...../\"\"-..\"\"-\"\"\"\"\\..\"-\"\"-\037\"--\"'...'

\037
,N

\037 \037)

imperative used by superiors such as to their parents or teachers \037 \037 inferiors (= people of younger age and of lower rank) \037

-.../\037

\037 \037

Do

s.t.

[REL.

-kudasai])

\037\"\"'/'....\"\"'\"'\"\"-\"-\"\"-\" \037\"-)

I,

Key

Sentence)

V masu
t-:J\037

t::.. < \037 Iv

\037\037

tct \037 \\1'0

Motto
(Eat

takusan
more.))

tabe

nasai.

Formation)

Vmasu

\\I' tct \037

nasai)
\\I' \037i5l.,tct \037

(Talk.)

hanashinasai)))

1t\037 \\I' t,t \037

nasai

285)

(Eat.))

tabenasai)
Exa

m pies)
jQf'-f't,t \\I' \037\037%l '-

(a)

t,t \037 \\1'0

Asobanaide

benky6shinasai.
Study.)

(Don't
(b)

play.

!f! < ? Hayaku

,:. \037-:J -c \037

*t,t

\\I' \037

J: 0

uchi

ni

kaette

kinasai

yo.

(Come home
(c)

early,

OK?)
\037 \\1'0

t?
M6

:td\037\\I'tJ\037 \037ti\037M\\I'-c\037t,t

osoi kara ha

migaite

nenasai. your

(It's

late now,

so brush

teeth

and go

to

bed.))

&!D

' 1. -nasai is the imperative form of the verb nasaru do' (polite honorific). 2. - nasai is the polite version of nonpolite imperatives. (t:) Appendix 1, Basic Conjugations)
(1)

a.

fvCJ.}.t,t

\037 \\1\\0

(a polite

imperative)

Y ominasai.

(Read

it.)
(a nonpolite

b.

= = i N I)
imperative)

foefh!

Yome! (Read it!)


(2)

a.

:tt\037t,t \037 \\1'0

(a polite

imperative)

Tabenasai.
(Eat

it.)
nonpolite

b.

1t\0376! (a
Tabero!

imperative)

(Eat it!))
[Related

Expression]
to

In contrast
he

nasai,

kudasai latter.)

is used

by

an inferior

towards his superior

when

asks a [1]

favor

of the

;t!:E,
Sensei,

:)C\037\037ft\037

-C < t=\037 L' / *ft\037f\037\037 L'o

bunp6 0
please

oshiete kudasai/ *oshienasai.


teach me
grammar.))))

(Professor,

286

ne)
prt.)

ne tJ

English
r-;\037;\037;;;\037\037\037;;I;\037\037h;;i;di\037\037\037\037l confirmation the speaker's 5 \037 or agreement from about

tag
it?;

request for the hearer knowledge


\037

isn't

is it?;
you

question (such as don't you?; do

you?);

know)

some
!

shared

! \037 \037'\"'-\"-\"'/ ()

. Key

Sentence) Sentence
#i*\0371v

'i

t:. 'I =-

\037

\037bt,t\\t\\
suwanai

\037\\t\\\037-ttlv

tJ. o

Sakamoto-san

wa tabako 0
smoke,

/ suimasen

nee
you

do

(Mr. Sakamoto doesn't


you?))

does he? /

Mr. Sakamoto,

don't

smoke,

Examples)

(a)

A:

\037 J3

'i \\t\\ \\t\\:X\037 \037 T tJ. o


ii

Ky6 wa

tenki
fine

desu
day,

ne.
isn't

(Today is a
B : ==
\037 \037 *\037

it?)

,:. \037 ? \037TtJ.o


ni

N i)

\037

Hont6

s6

desu

nee

(Isn't it!)
(b) cb

t,t t::.. 'i\037!:E \037 T tJ. 0

Anata
(You (c)

wa gakusei desu
are a student,
-f:.\\t\\\037-:J

nee you?)

aren't

/{-=j-.{ Pati ni
(You

'-\037\\t\\\037TtJ.?

irasshaimasu ne?
going

are

to the party, aren't

you?))

em

1.

In this the sentence construction formal sentence except nonpolite (1)

preceding

ne

can be Thus,

any

informal

or

imperative.

a.

*\037\037no

*Yome

nee
will

(Read it,
b. Yominasai

you?)

\037.7j. t,t \037 \\t\\no

nee
will you?))))

(Read

it,

ne
c.
MfN\037

287)

< t.: \037 \\t'no

Y onde

kudasai ne.
it,

(Pleaseread
2.
Ne

will you?)

the addressee.

as a request for either confirmation or agreement from When a sentence expresses the speaker's strong impression of something, the speaker's request for agreement from the ne indicates hearer, as in Ex. (a). When a sentence expressessomething emotively for confirmation from the ne indicates the speaker's neutral, request hearer, as in KS and Exs. (b) and (c). Here, however, KS can also be a request for agreement, if the speaker is surprised that Mr. Sakamoto doesn't smoke. These two uses of ne have different intonations: the ne uses of agreement uses falling intonation and the ne of confirmation The ne of agreement becomes ne if the speaker is rising intonation. In other words, S ne is an excited about the content of his statement.
can

be used

exclamatory (2)

sentence, as

in

(2).

A::td t L 0 \\t'\037nm\037 l., t::..n;i ! Omoshiroi eiga deshita nil (It was such an interesting film, wasn't it!)

B:

\037? \037 L

t:. n;i
nil

!
!!!!E
\037

So

deshita

(Wasn't

it!)
overtones; confirm it?'

On the other hand, the ne of confirmation has no exclamatory X but can you it implies something like' I am assuming Thus,
reason those in

N \03

KS

the speaker

doesn't
to

like

people

or

other,

he

wants

confirm

that Mr.

who smoke, and for some is not one of Sakamoto

people.

3. Ne is
attention

sometimes used
to something

has been
telephone (3)

said

up

to

non-sentence-final position to draw the hearer's confirm that the hearer has understood what that point. Ne is typically used in this manner in
in a

or to

conversations.)

t Lt
.1:0

L,

\037\037n,

mJM\037\037N\037tJ\037\037fmQtJ\037\037n,

+-\037\037IJH:.t.tQ

Moshi
juichijihan

moshi, konban ne, Ginza ni naru yo. goro


tonight,

de

nonde

kara

kaeru kara ne,


in Ginza,
tonight
30.\302\273))) you

(Lit.
go to

Hello,

OK?

I go home
around

after

drinking

understand?,
the

so I'll
Ginza

be

home

11: 30.
home

( = Hello,
around

I'll

to drink,

so I'll be

11:

288

ne) 4.

speaker's

(- te / kara) ne is state of
follow: cb

specifically
mind

used to give a feelings

reason
indirect

or

a cause

for

the

or

in a

very

and vague fashion.

Examples
(4)

a.

q)jt!:E'i

-C \037 wa

a \037
totemo

'- < -c /

a \037

l.,

v\\fJ';

no

Ano sensei
\302\253It's because)

kibishikute
very

that

teacher is

/ kibishii kSTS nee strict, you know?)


;no

b.

\037P? \037,qi\0377J.-r\037-C

/ \0377J.-r\037t::..fJ'

Yube
here
on

wa

nomisugite 1 drank

/ nomisugita

kSTS nee
last

\302\253It's because) Ne

too
request

much

night,

you know?)
from

indicates
shared

the speaker's
knowledge.
or

for

agreement

the hearer
sentence-

based
5. The
final you

ne of
particle agree?

confirmation

agreement
Yo

is used means

after

another
that

yo of assertion. / am I

ne
is

' 1 assert

but don't

right?'.
J:no
wakaru that

This ne
yo

pronounced

with rising intonation

(5) a.

\037mtJ\0377ttJ\037Q

Eigo ga

nee
you

(Lit. 1 assert

understand

( = You
=
\037 \037

English but am 1 right?


you?\302\273)

understand

English,

don't

b.

cb

q)jt!:E'i

v\\ v\\jt!:E \037-r J:no


wa

i N \037)

Ano sensei
(That

ii sensei is a or

teacher

desu yo ne. good teacher. Don't


Ka

you

think

so?)

6. The ne of
'final

confirmation

agreement

is used after
ne

particle,

the question

marker ka.
\037 -rfJ'no ni

means

another sentence' 1 am not sure if


falling

-,

am I right? '.
(6) a.

The ne of ka

ne is pronounced

with

intonation.)

\037r\037'i\302\273:*'\037AtL

Yamashita-kun

wa Ky6dai
sure but

hairemasuks
Yamashita

nee
can
not

(Lit. I'm
University, Yamashita

not

whether am

Mr.

1 right?

(= I'm

sure What

get into whether do you

Kyoto
Mr.
say?\302\273

can

get into

Kyoto University.
desu ks nee
teacher.))))

b.

cb

q)jt!:E

'i

v\\

v\\jt!:E
wa

\037 -rfJ'no

Ano sensei

ii sensei

(I

doubt

that

he is a good

nil

289)

nil,\037
}
>

prt.)
a point
place

particle at which s.t. \037\037\037\037)


time

\"'\037\037\037\037\037\037\"-\"'-\"-\"-\037\037 a that indicates takes

of

\037 \037

at., in.,) on
[REL.

de

])

. Key

Sentence)
Noun 'i . .
at wa \037W)

Topic (subject)
fL

(time)
,:.
\037\037Q /\037\037\037To

. /, .L.\037* TO

Watashi

maiasa thirty

kujih

an

ni

okiru /okimasu.

(I get up

six

every morning.))

Examples)

(a)

fL'i

1m JJ

Watashi

J3 ':.!:E '* tL '* L t::.. o wa shigatsu tsuitachi on

ni

umaremashita.

(I was
(b)

born

April

1st.)
o

\037W)'i3i\037\037':'?

t:J \037l:fj\037 Lt::.. ni

Kesa wa gojihan

uchi

0 demashita.
at

(This
(c)

morning

1 left

home

five

thirty.)
\037 \037) suru

*\037q)J[o:.)\037m1*fT\037TQ0 Rainen

t !J \037To

= \03

no natsu (ni)

gaikokuryok6 0
abroad

tsumori

desu.

(I intend
(d)

to

make

a trip

next summer.)
ni

TgttJ\037\037\037

\037 ,:.fT -:J -C \\1\\Q r\037' ,:.-=\302\245kiJ; .\\1\\ t::.. o

Kodomo

(I
(e)

wrote

ga gakk6 ni itte iru aidao a letter while my children


,:. \\1\\Q \0370:.)
ni

tegami 0 kaita. were away at school.)


-:J t::.. o
okusan in

fB q:t

'i*\037

Iv \037 l:fj\037 \037q) \037\037 iru

Tanaka

wa daigaku

(Tanaka met his present


&!D 1. There are a number ones are asa
ototoi

toki (ni) ima no wife when he was

to deatta.

college.))

'

of

time

expressions
C

that cannot take


t, kin6

morning',

ashita

tomorrow

'
yesterday

ni;

the

t, ky6

'

typical

today',

etc.

'next saikin 'lately t, yesterday', rainen year', if a time expression can be specified uniquely in terms of digits, the adverb can take ni; otherwise, it cannot. Getsuy6bi , Monday' is the 'first' day of the week, so it can take ni. So can))) 'the

day before

Generally

speaking,

290

nil)

kurisumasu
cannot

'

take

ni, because
with

Christmas', because it is t 'today cannot


certain

December

25.

be uniquely
natsu

But ky6 'today' specified by date.


'summer'

2. Ni is optional

time
(as

Ex.
3. The
in

and (c\302\273

toki
time

' time
more

nouns, such as
The (e\302\273.
without in

(as in
ni

in Ex.

version
ni the

with

stresses

the point
time

of

than

the version
if the

does. main clause

noun

aid a also

takes ni

event
event

continue

for the entire duration

of

the

in the aida

Ex. (d). I f the event in the main clause covers the event in the aida clause, ni cannot be used. (1)
T\037tJ\037\037\037':.fT

does not clause, as seen the same duration as (t:) aida (ni\302\273
ita. at
in

-:J -C \\1\\Q ra,-=\302\245ki1; \037 if\\l\\


ni

-C \\1\\t::..o

Kodomo (I was 4. When a

ga gakk6
writing time

itte

letters

tegami 0 kaite while my children were away


iru aida takes

school.) ni may

specific

expression

goro 'about'

as

(2),

drop. (2)
.l;W)3i\037*1:}1

0:.)

\037'- t::.. o \037\037

Kesa

5. Ni
=
\037 \037

N \037) \037

(I got as a particle for a point of time can time expressions, as long as it occurs with be uniquely specified in terms of digits.
(3) a.

gojihan gOTO (ni) okimashita. up at about five thirty.)

be used
a time

freely

with

various
that

expression

can 1)

(t:) Note

-\0373i7tf=
ichiji

gofun

ni

(at 1: 05)

b. =:JJ1m J3 f=
sangatsu
(on

yokka ni
4)

March
J3 f=

c.

JJ PI

getsuy6bi

ni

(on
d.

Monday)

=fiL13/\\+Im\037f=

sen-kyuhyaku-hachijuyo(n)nen
(in

ni

1984)
f=

e.

= +-iitkC
nijuisseiki

ni

(in the

21st

century))))

nil / 6.

ni 2

291)

Ni is optional
(4)

with

the '- \037To

names

of the four

seasons.

Thus,)

\037(f=)\037\037

Haru

(I'm

(ni) kekkonshimasu. in the Spring.)) married getting

ni

I\037

prt.)
\"\"\"-\"\"\"\"-\037 (

-...\037\037....,..\037\037'-\"\037\037,,-\"'... > an indirect object marker


( \"\037

> \037\"-\"-\"\"\"-\"\037)

to;

for)

. Key

Sentence)
Indirect

Topic (subject)
fL

Object

Direct Object
-=\302\245kiJ; \037

'i
wa

-a
haha

,:.
ni

.1:<
yoku

_<
kaku

Watashi

tegami

/.\037\037To / kakimasu.

(I

often

write

letters

to

my

mother.))

= = \037
Examples)

i) N
<
tLt::.. o

(a)

\037'i\037'\037\037Gt\037

Chichi

wa boku
father

ni

tokei

0 kureta.

(My (b)
1JQKi

gave

me a watch.)

jt!:E 'i

Kata-sensei

(Prof.
(c)
Watashi (I
(d)

Kato

\\ ,:. f3 *X\302\245 \037 7 j !J :b A q) \302\245!:E \037;t -C \\I \037 0 ni nihonbungaku wa amerikajin no gakusei is teaching Japanese literature to American '-\037 !J \037L t::.. o ni

0 oshiete iru.
students.))

fL'i\037'::td\037\037\037

wa imato

o-kane

0 sukoshi
younger

yarimashita.

gave a little money

to

my

sister.)

\\1\\'* it Iv \037 '- t::.. o Iv ,:. m\037i5 '- \037'- t::.. tJ\037 \037# \037

Imai-san (I called

ni denwashimashita ga imasendeshita. Mr. Imai, but he wasn't there.)


t.t\037_\037 ni

(e)

*Jlljt!:E'i\302\245!:E'\037t5k

,J!-ttt::.. o iroirona

Okawa-sensei

wa gakusei
showed

jisho

0 miseta.
his

(Prof.

Okawa

various

dictionaries to

students.))))

292
Notes) 1.

ni 2 /

ni

3)

2.

transitive and construction, as seen In KS, the verb is typically to an action that involves something that can be transferred ' ve \" hanasu ' from one person to another J such as ageru gi talk', kureru , ' ' ' teach' and yaru give', miseru show', nageru' throw', oshieru give'. in transitive verb used the or Vte construction Vte kureru Any ageru can take ni, if the verb does not take a human direct object. For example,

In this

is related

read', which in the Vte ageru or


yomu

'

does Vte

not take a

human

object,

can take
in (1),

nl\"2,

if used

kureru a human 'if!'::


wa my

construction, as shown

praise',
(1)

which

takes

object,
watashi mother

cannot

take

but homeru ni, as shown in (2).)


kureta.

Iv IJ'\\ \037 \037\\fP.ji3\037 \037 Chisai

J: < *

\037 \037Iv \037< tLt::.. o

toki o-ka-san I was


\037 /

ni yoku often

hon 0

yonde

(When

small,
I:: '1

read me books.)

(2)

96!:E

'if!

\037 -c

\037\\ * '- t::.. o < t.: \037 kudasaimashita.

Sensei (My
An

wa watashi teacher

0 / *ni homete praised me.)

intransitive
or

ageru

V te
\037 'i

verb can never take ni kureru construction. Thus, j 7 !J to (])

even

if it is

used

In

the

V te

= =
=

(3)

.y 3
Jon

-7 / *,:: .r\037
ni

1\"

= ==a

- ,:.*-c ageta.
her

N.>\037:ft::..o

wa Meari

N \037) \037

no / *ni pat;
Mary's

kite

(J ohn

came

party

(for

sake).)) (t:) ageTu

2;

kUTeTu

))

ni 3 r:. a particle

prt.)
\"'\037\"-\"\"\"..\"\"\"'\",)

that indicates an
in

agent

or

by; from

a source

passive,
and

causative,

te morau

other

morau / conreceiving
J

[REL.

karal))))

structions
\037\"V\"-'\037\037)

ni 3

293)

. Key Sentences
(A))

Sentence

(passive) Object
\037

Topic (subject)
-\037

Agent

Direct

Verb (passive)
\037\037tLt::..

'i
\037wa

1.ii! tomodschi\037 read his

. ,.:

\037\037

/ \037\037tL*

Lt::.. o

Kazuo
(Kazuo's

ni

tegami \0370
letter

yomsreta Kazuo

/ yomsremashita. was unhappy).))

friend

(= Kazuo's)

(and

(B))

Sentence
Topic

(causative)

(subject)
fJ\\

Agent :!:f:. IC HiTOshn Hiroshi


-

Direct Object
,:. '- IJi.
\037\037

Verb

(causative)

-1- \037'i wa \037 made

: :

\037

fF\037-ttt::.. / fF\037-tt*

Lt\037o

Akiko
(Akiko

nl
fix

gohan
a meal.))

\0370

tsukUTsseta

/ tsukUTssemashita.

(C))

Topic fA Watashi

(subject)
Lt \037 wa \037
had

Agent
:x: chichi\037 ,.:

Direct Object
!ff
\037

Vte

- =
= -

N \037) b G
-:J

A?-c

t::.. / b

tJ \\t\\ * L

t::.. o

ni

kuru ma \0370
by

kstte

moratta / moraimashita.
My

(Lit. I
(D))

my

car bought

my

father.

(=

father

bought
.)

me a

car.\302\273

Topic

(subject)
'i wa 1lJ1f

Source
;t\037 -sensei\037

.y;r.-\037\037

,.: ni

!:E It:ffi

\037 \037

f1-:J t::.. / f1 \\t\\ * L t::.. o

Jen (J ane

y smsno
in

ikebana from

0 \037

naratta
Yamano.))

naraimashita.

took lessons

flower

arranging

Mrs.

Examples)

(a)

Sono

-tq)T'j:jO\037\037Iv,.:ptGtL* Lt::.. o ko wa o-ka-san ni shikararemashita. (The child was scolded by its mother.))))

294
(b)

ni 3)
A:.:c
(7)

-1 'i t.= tL ,;: b G -:J t::..1v -r: T tJ\037o * \037\037

Sono

nekutai

wa dare

ni

moratta

n desu
tie?

ka.
(= Who gave
you

(Lit. From
tie?
\302\273)

whom

did you

receive that

that

B : \037,;: b

tJ \\t\\ * L t.: 0
ni

Chichi
(Lit.
(c)

moraimashita.
it

I received

from

my father.

(=

My

father

did.\302\273

-C b tJ -:Jt.:0 j] A '\037\037m \037 tt;t -m 'i 7 } \037 wa amerikajin ni eigo 0 oshiete moratta. Boku (I had an American teach me English.))
JL'ifA'\037JL\037r\037'

(d)

-tt * L t::.. o b \037fi \037


ni

Ani

wa watashi
brother

gojikan made

mo untensasemashita. me drive for


? \"\"C:T.t o

(My older
(e)

as

long

as

five

hours.))

A:

sEE
(I

L t::..7c \037 /vtJ\037\037\037

Yoshida-san

ga kekkonshita

s6desu
got

yo.

heard
-r:

that Mr. Dare

Yoshida

married.))

B : \"C?
S6

* L t::.. tJ\037o T tJ\037o t.= tL,\037 fI8 \037

desu

ka.
right?

ni

kikimashita

ka.

(Is that

Who

told

you so?)

!NI

em)

1. Ni 3 is
narau ing

typically used and with verbs such


' the

in

passive,

causative,

morau / te
kiku

morau

constructions

as kariru

learn

\"

osowaru

'

'borrow',
which

'hear',

morau

'receive',

learn'

require

a noun ssseTU;
(C) (B)

phrase representmOTSUi ; mOTsu2 ))

source

of the

direct object.
(t:)

TSTeTU;

2.

Nouns
the and

that take
verb's

ni

as

in KSs

main (3), (1)

action.

(A), (B) and Thus, KSs (A),


of their
meaning.)

and

all represent agents of (C) include (1), (2)

respectively

as part

\037 \037Iv t.= 0 Q:fft tJ\037:=f.\037

Tomodachi (His

ga tegami

yonda.

friend

read a letter.))

.::*!OC\037 (2) r*tJ \037 {'f -:J t::..0 Hiroshi ga gohan 0

tsukutta.

(Hiroshi

fixed a

meal.))))

ni3 /

ni 4 295)

(3)

\037tJ;*

\037 J\\ -:J

t::..o 0 katta.

Chichi

ga
father

kuruma

(My

bought

a car.)

3.

Ni 3

of source

as in
as

but

ni 3 of

agent,

KS (D), Exs. (b) and (e) can be replaced by karal, in KSs (A), (B), (C), Exs. (a), (c) and (d), cannot.)
ni 3

(Related Expression]

The
the

and karal is that the former indicates (of source) a human to closeness speaker's psychological source, whereas the latter This difference explains why ni 3 is ungrammatical if the source is doesn't. an impersonal institution to which the speaker can hardly feel close, as shown
difference

between

in

[1].

[1]

JV\037 1v'j:)Cfi6\037fJ\\;

*f::\037\037\037\037

\037\\* Lt=.o b \037

Hiru-san

(Mr.

Hill

wa monbusho kSTS/ *ni sh6gakukin has received a scholarship from the

0 moraimashita.
Ministry

of Education.))

ni 4 I:.)

prt.)
the

\037

\037)

a particle that indicates of s.t. upon which some


rectly

surface

on; onto

action

di-

[REL. del; e (made,

nP);

ni 6 ))

takes

place)

. Key

Sentence)
Subject -1-\037 tJ\037 fj\302\243

Direct ,:.
\037t

Object
\037

Verb (action)
\\ t::.. ftli \037

* ftli \037

t::.. 0

Kodomo
(A

ga

ksmi

nl on

e the

.
paper.))

kaita / kakimashi ta.

child

has drawn a

picture

Exampl\037s)

(a)

\037 \037 ,\037 t::..(7) 1. fjiJ \037 OJ t\037 fi:m

\037 =-\037, to

-c < t!. \037 \037'o

Koko

ni anata

no namae
your

jilsho

0 kaite
here.))))

kudasai.

(Pleasewrite

name

and address

296
(b)

ni 4) - tJ\037 A..!1::1 7' ?1 UJ (7) J: ,;: to !J i: '- t::.. o


Herikoputa

ga yama

no ue
the

ni

orimashita.

(A helicoptor

landed on

top

of the mountain.)

(c)

;t-.r\037-'j:.I\"

\037jl-';:tJ\037ft-C
ni

< t!. \037 \\t'o

Dba

wa hanga
hang

kakete

kudasai.

(Please
(d) Sonna

your

overcoat

on the

hanger.)

\\t' \"'(*T J: 0 :lz: -:J -C \\t' -'5 !: m: t\037 .:t Iv t\037 m ,\037

tokoro

ni tatte
to

iru

to abunaidesu

yo.

(It's dangerous

keep

standing

in such a place.))

(Related
I.
in

Expressions]

Ni 4 should
which

not be confused some

with

del,
(t:)

meaning

action takes place. between [la] and [lb]:


mf=\037\037Wi\\t't::..o

a location a particle that indicates Consider the difference in del)

[1] a.

Michi (I b.

ni e

kaita.

drew

a picture on de e

the

street.))

m-c:\037\037Wi\\t't::..o

Michi
= = \037 \037

kaita. in

(I drew

a picture

the

street.)
a particle

! N \037)

1I. Ni 4 should not be confused with nl\"6, where someone or something exists.
[2]

that indicates the


Examples:)

location

6 (t:) ni )

a.

-t(7)\037'j:*\037f=N.>-'5o

Sono (That

tera

temple

wa Kyoto ni aru. is in Kyoto.)

b.

fA'j:filt\037f=\\t't::..o

Watashi

wa heya

ni

ita.

(I was in the

room.))))

ni 5

297)

ni S r:
a

prt.)

when

which indicates particle s.o. moves from one

purpose

\037 to I

to do

s.t.;
tame

in

order ni))

to do

s.t.

place

[REL.

another)

. Key

Sentence)

(subject)
fA

Topic

masu

Verb
,;:
ni

(motion) fi
'- t=. 0 '\302\243 \037

,j: wa \037 to

/\037

\"

'\"

!J \037 \037\037

\037

At,\\

fi

-:J

t::.. /

Watashi

depato

e okurimono 0

kai
gift.))

itta

/ ikimashita.

(I

went

a department

store

to

buy

Fermation)

V masu

,.:
ni)

'\0378

,.:
ni)

(to

talk))

hanashi
1t\037

,;:
nl)

(to

eat))

= \037

= E
i)

tabe

N \037

Examples)
(a) \037L \037!:EtJ\037\037r\037'

Gakusei

,;:*t::.. ga shitsumon

0 shi

ni kita.

(A student
(b)

came to

ask

questions.))

:t;:\"'fPJ\037 Soko

L,;:fi( e nani 0 shi


do

Iv-r:TtJ\037o

ni iku

n desu ka.
there?

(Lit. To
there?
(c)
))

what

are

you going

(= For

what are

you

gOing

tt#\037

1v'j:\037;:*!OC\0371t\037,;:?

\037\"'\037-:Jt::..o

Murai-san

wa hirugohan
went

tabe

ni

uchi
lunch.))

e kaetta.

(Mr. Murai
em

home

to eat his

1.

masu

ni, meaning'
which

to do s.t.', can

be used

only

with

verbs

of motion,
such)))

(i.e., verbs

express

a movement from

one place to

another),

298

ni 5)

' ' enter' and deru ' leave'. hairu come', kaeru return', ' ' Verbs like aruku run' hashiru and walk', oyogu 'swim' are not considered motion verbs because they express a manner of movement rather than a movement from one place to another. the following Therefore,
as iku

'

go

\"

kuru'

sentence
(1)

is ungrammatical.)
*fL'j:t\037(7)-m\037 .\037J\037\037fiJ \037\037\037\\t::..o

*Watashi (I

wa sakura

no

hana

0 mi

ni koen 0
of the

aruita.

walked
in

through the park to


V masu

see cherry

blossoms.)

2. If the verb
such

as shigotosuru

a question', (2)

ni is a compound verb ' work', benkyosuru study' suru is sometimes omitted.) '
ni itta.

structure N suru, and shitsumonsuru ' ask

a.

*UJ\037Iv'itt*(L),\037fj-:Jt::..o

Oyama-san (Mr. Oyama b.


Gakusei

wa

shigoto(shi)

went

to work.)

\037!:EtJ\037\037r\037' (L)

,\037*t::..o ni

ga shitsumon(shi)

kita.

(A student (Related

came

to

ask

questions.))

Expression]
nonpast

\037 =
I

N i)

tame ni is also used to express purpose in an action. However, the uses of Vinf.nonpast ni and Vmasu ni differ in some ways. tame First, unlike Vmasu ni, Vinf. nonpast tame ni can be used with any verb. ExVinf.

amples :)
[1]

fL'j:-1-\037(7)\037. \037tio t= \037f:' j} j 7 \037 J\\ -:J t::..o Watashi wa kodomo no shashin 0 toru tame (I bought a

camera
amerikajin

to

take

pictures

of my

ni kamera child.)
L
-C \037\\ 0

0 katta.

7j [2] fL';!
Watashi
benkyoshite

!1 A(7)Q:ji
j}

\037 \037tTt= \037f:.\037m\037t!l%i

wa

no

tomodachi to speak

to hanasu with
ni
my

tame ni eigo 0
friend.)
verbs

iru.
in

(I'm

studying English
Vmasu

order

American
with

Second, motion,. tame ni


[3]

when V

ni and

Vinf.nonpast
without

tame

are used

of

masu

ni can

be

used

a directional
is clear

cannot,

unless that

information

from

phrase, but Vinf. nonpast the context. Examples:)

m'j:\037 \037\037Jj. f:.fj -:J t::..o Boku wa sake 0 nomi ni itta. (I went

(somewhere) to

drink.))))

ni 5 / ni 6 [4] a.
\037'j:\037 \037\037ut= cY) f::\037ii(7)*'\037ff -:J

299)

t::..o

wa sake 0 nomu (I went to his friend's


Boku

tame

ni tomodachi

no ie

ni

itta.

house
-:J

to drink.)
ni itta.

b.

*m'j:\037

\037\037ut=

cY) f::ff nomu

t::..o tame

*Boku

wa sake 0
to

(I
Third,
motion, while when

went

drink.) tame

Vinf.nonpast

ni and Vmasu
expresses

ni

are

used

with verbs of

Vinf.nonpast V masu

tame
used

ni

usually

a rather important

purpose,
Ex-

ni can be
\037::r

even

to express

something

insignificant.

amples: [5] a.
\037*Jj!f

- e

\037\037Jj. f::ff

-:J t::.. o

Kissaten

e k6hi

nomi

ni

itta.

(I went

to a

coffee

shop

to drink

coffee.)

b. ??\037\037Jj!f\037::r ??Kissaten

(I

went

to

e - \037\037ut=cY) f::ff-:J t::.. o e k6hi 0 nomu tame ni itta. a coffee to drink coffee.)) shop

= \037 \037 E N i) \037

ni 6 I:. a particle

prt.)

,..\"\"..-\"...\037.-../\"...-\037../\"\"'\\..;I\"\"\\./\"\037\037/\"\"'\\../\"'.J\"\"\"'/\"J\"Vv\"\"\"'./'../\"-

which indicates

the

loca-

tion where s.o. or exists ! \037\"\"\"\"'./'/\"'./''''./''/'''.J'''''\037\037\037v\037)

s.t.

\037 < (

in. , at.,)
[REL.

On

del;

ni 4))

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Topic

(subject)
Iv \037

Noun (location)
\037

Verb

(existence)

e Iv

'i
wa

:; :I './ ')

Hiru-san

ima

'./ \037 Iv Jonson-san


apartment

(]) 7/'( - f-. no apato


now.))))

,.:
ni

\\t'o /
iru /

\\t'*To
imasu.

(Mr.

Hill

is at

Mr. Johnson's

300 (B))

ni 6)

Topic fk
(])

(location)
? \"5 A
kUTSSU

Subject
'i
wa
in \037mA

Verb

(existence)

,=. \037 ni \037

q)

\037!:E gakusei

tJ\037

\037,\037 /

\037'*To

Wstsshi

no

chugokujin no
my

ga

iru /

imasu.

(There is
Examples)

a Chinese

student

class.))

(a)

.:c

q)*'i
hon

\037 \037!J q)\302\245:\037q)\037=i=\037'\037

* To ni arimasu.

S ona

wa
is

kono
in

(That book
,=. 'i (b) ::.q)$f5c K ono gakko

gakko no toshokan this school's library.)


puru

- Iv tJ\037 7\302\260 t\037 \\t'o


ni

wa

ga nai.
pool at this
\\t' \"* To

(There
(c)
nQjjJ

is

no

swimming

school.))

\037 Iv'i*\037li':.ttlv\037

Kato-san

wa Osaka
lives

ni

sunde

imasu.

(Mr. Kato
(d)

in

Osaka.)

M'\037\037q)*tJ\037:lz:

-:J -C \\t' 0 0

'\037 \037 = ! N \037)


(e)

Niwa

ni sakura
is

no

(There

a cherry
,:t)C\037q) ni

ki ga tatte iru. tree standing in

the

yard.)

::. q)lf)c'='

tJ\037 t::.. < \037 Iv J! G \037'1 Q0 * t:> tJ\037\037,

Kono sakubun (Lit. (=


(f)

wa

bunpo

no machigai ga
mistakes

takusan in

mirareru. this

A lot of

grammatical lot

can be seen

composition.

There are a

of grammatical

mistakes
iru.

in

this

composition.\302\273

:mTtJ\037Jj.q)

-:J -C \\t' Q 0 Q q)\037'\037J1\302\243

Hanako

ga Minoru

no

tona\".

ni suwatte

(Hanako is sitting next to em

Minoru.))

1.

Ni

indicates

the

such as iru '(animate sumu ' live'


typically

location where someone or something exists. Verbs and exist' things) exist', aru '(inanimate things) I I occur with the locational ni. STU iTU (t:) ) ;

2. The verb aru often event, 3. Noun

takes
ni

the In

particle this

ni cannot be used.

ni, but case, de is


topics,

when

aru

is used

for I ;

an del)
(b).)))

used.

(t:)STU

phrases

with

often

occur as

as in

KS(B) and Ex.

ni 6

301)

4. If a location

phrase

which

indicates

the existence

of someoneor
in
New

someYork',

thing modifies a noun phrase, as in 'an apartment ni cannot be used. In this case, no is used.
(1)

(t:)nol)

'::'.:L

- 3-

(]) \037

/ *,:: 7

/\037-

\"

Nyuyoku (an

no /

*ni
in

apato

apartment

New

York))

(Related

Expressions]
location, in the

I. Del also indicates exists. Thus,


[1]

location where someone sentences de is ungrammatical.) following


but not a
/ *1:'i7

/ something

a.

fL(7)? \037,::
Watashi

e\037tJ\037t\037\\t\\o wa

no uchi
is

ni / *de
in

terebi

ga nai.

(There
b.

no

TV set

my

house.)

A \037 \037 Iv 'i\037\037\037\037'::

/ *1: \\t\\ 0 0

Sumisu-san
(Mr.

Smith

wa ima kaigishitsu ni / *de iru. is in the conference room now.)


ni exists, is

On the other hand, someone / something


sentences,

used

only to
an

indicate

the

location

where

but not

event;

therefore,

in the

following

ni is ungrammatical.)

[2] a.

fL'i \\t\\\".) b
Watashi

\037.tif1: / *'::\0375i Too wa itsumo toshokan de

== ==a \037 -

/ *ni

benkyosuru.

- -

= = == N -)))

(I

always

study a
wa

at

the

library.)
fIJ wa

b.

.:: (7)

7 J;- ':I \"'i

'i JL7J *1: / *,::


Nihon

<' G \\t\\ t!. 0 goman'


in

Kono raketto

de /*ni

en gurai

da.

(This
c.
Sono (The

racket .{

costs

about

50,000 yen

Japan.)

-7 7c (7) /\037

- 'i \" A (7)*1: / *,:: \037-:J t.: o wa Tomu no ie de / *ni atta. pat; party was held at Tom's.) the locational
[3]
ni

II.

used.

In some sentences, both For example, in


[3]

and

the locational
appropriate.

de

can

be

both
\037 J!\".)

ni and de are
It t.: o
ii

fL'i\037W'::

/ 1: \\t\\ \\t\\*
Kyoto a good

Watashi

wa

ni /

de
in

ie

0 mitsuketa.

(I
However,

found

house

Kyoto.) with
ni

the nuances of a
Namely,

sentence

ni and that\"

that

with

de are dif-

ferent.

the

sentence

with

implies

I found a

good house)

302

ni 6 /

nj7)

which a good

is in

Kyoto \", while the one with de means\" house\". Therefore, in [4] the ni version
things.)

and

In Kyoto I found the de version

mean
[4]

di

fferent

t::..o fL'iJR)j(f= / \"'C:tt*\037 J!\037 \037t Watashi wa T6ky6 ni / de shigoto (I found a job in Tokyo.) in the
found

0 mitsuketa.

Namely,

sentence
it might
means

with

ni,
have

the job is in
been

Tokyo

and

the

place the
hand,

speaker
sentence

not
that

Tokyo.
work

On the other
found

the

with de
the

the

place the speaker

the

job

was

Tokyo and

place where he is

going to

is not

necessarily Tokyo.)

nP r:.

prt.)

\037 toward \037

\037\037\037\037> a particle which which s.o.

\037\037\037\037)

indicates a place .: or s.t. moves \037

to;

toward

[REL.

e])

\037 = . Key Sentence) I N i) Topic


(subject)
'i wa \037 to
fL

Noun (place)
\037(7)?

it:,l75:,1\037A::J

,:.
ni

ff

-:J

t::.. / ff \037 '* '-

t.: o

Watashi

kin 6

SsnfuTsnshisuko
yesterday.))

itta

/ ikimashita.

(I

went

San Francisco

Exa m pies) (a)

.y A 'i*\0377
Jimu

j.

!J

j} ':'\037\037o
ni

wa rainen Amerika is going

kaeru.

(Jim

back

to

America

next

year.)
ka.
house

(b)

\\,\\\037tJ\037fL(7)

? 't? 1:'*

Itsuka

watashi
you

(Wouldn't
(c)

'* -tt Iv tJ\037o no uchi ni kimasen like to come to my


-:J

sometime?)

'i 1lJ (7) v A \" '7 \037 ':'A t!i \037

t::..o

Karera

wa kado
entered

no

resutoran

(They

the

restaurant

ni haitta. around the

corner.))))

ni1

303)

*Semantic

Derivations

of
<

Ni)

Direct
\037t&

Contact>
r=

ni 4

\037

\\ \037\037 fIB v t\037o

Kokuban (I

ni e

kaita.

drew

a picture
Locational

on

the

blackboard.)

<

existence>

n,\"6

l-!
r

=. =. r=tI\037iJ;UJ \037o

ni

<

contact

>

Koko ni
\037 (Here

denwa ga

aru.

is a

telephone.)

< --+

Direction> fL'i

ni1
\037r-: \037 r=ff -:J

t::..o
itta.

Watashi
(I

wa Rondon ni went to London.)


<

Purpose>
1J!fi\037 \037 R

ni 5
v\\ r=ff -:J t:. o
kai

wa sakana 0 (I went to buy fish.)


Boku Object> wa Hanako
lent

ni

itta.

\037 mi < -+

N ==

= =

Indirect

nt'\037it '- t::.. o

:t\037\037'i:tETr=* Taro

ni

hon

0 kashita.

(Taro
<

a book

to Hanako.)

Source

/ Agent>

n,\"3

-+

7!J -r=mrf\037 t \037-:Jt::.. o Bobu wa Mear; ni kippu 0 moratta. (Bob received a ticket from Mary.)
\037:tfij
<

Point

of time>

nil

-+

=\037r=\037]iiJ;*t::..o Niji ni tomodachi (A friend of mine

ga kita. came at

2 o'clock.))

304

ni chigainai)

ni chigainai
The is no
i

r: -; fJ'(L
his

'\037L ,
\"\" that

phr.) /\"\"\\../'\"....\037 >

-\"\037r/'\\\"\"\"\"'/'.\037/\"../\"'\"\",,\",/\"\"v\"\" \037

speaker

is convinced
part

there

there is no

doubt

that

-;

must

mistake on

in guessing

5
\037

be

-;

no

doubt

\037 ,,\037\"\"'\037./\037\037/\

something.

[REL.
renai])

dar6;

hazu;

kamoshi-

. Key
(A))

Sentences
(subject) 'i \037
\037 wa \037f3 (J)

Topic

Vinf
=.c
\037 \037

Iv fE \037

\037nt=

,:.

i?iJ\037v\\t\037v\\ chigainai

/ /

Shimoda-san

ky6 no

koto

0 \037

wasuTeta

ni

i?iJ\037v\\&;!)

*-ttlv

chigaiarimasen.

(Mr. Shimoda must


(B))

have

forgotten

today's plans (lit. about things

of today).))

Topic &;(J)
=

(subject)
(J)

Adj (i) JlL.L'


muzukashii
be

inf

96!:E

'i \037\037 \037


wa \037
must

,:.
ni

i?iJ\037v\\t\037v\\ chigainai

/ i?iJ\037v\\&;!)

*-ttlv

=
\037)

Ano sensei

no shiken

/ chigaiarimasen.

iN

(That teacher's exams


(C))

hard.))

Topic

Adj (na)

(experiencer)
\"-{!J-\037Iv\037

stem

'i
wa \037 must

::;-

:::..A \037 tJ\037 J:.\302\245- ,:. i?tJ\037v\\t\037v\\ / i?iJ\037v\\&;!)


E at

*-ttlv

Beiri-san

tenisu be good

ga

j6zu
tennis.))

ni

chigainai

/ chigaiarimasen.

(Mr.
(D))

Bailey

Topic (subject)
&;(J)

Noun

'i
wa

8*,A.
nihonjin

,:.
ni

i?iJ\037v\\t\037v\\

/ i?iJ\037v\\&;!)

*-ttlv

Ano hito
(That

chigainai / chigaiarimasen.

person

must

be

Japanese.))))

ni chigainai Fermatien)

305)

KSs

(A) and

(B):
inf ,:.
ni
v\\ v\\ t\037 tJ\037 \037

{Vinf

/ Adj(/)}

chigainai
,=ni v\\ t\037 v\\ tJ\037 \037

{\037T

'- t::..} / \037IS

(s.o.
doubt

will no
talked))

doubt

talk

/ s.o.

no

{hanasu

/ hanashita}
/1t.-:t\037}

chigainai)

{1t-:\037
{taberu
{rf1i v \\

,:.
ni

\037iJ\037v\\t\037v\\

(s.o. will
ate)

no

doubt

eat /

s.o. no

doubt

/ tabeta}
-:J t::..} / rfJJ tJ \037

chigainai
V \\ V \\ t\037 iJ \037 \037

,:.
ni

(s.t. is / was

no

doubt

expensive))

{takai

/ takakatta}

chigainai)

KSs
{Adj

(C) and
(na)

(D):
stem /
N}

{0 / t=. -:J t\037} ,:. {o /

v\\ t\037 v\\ iJ\037 \037

da tta
,:.
ni

ni

chigai nai
(s.t. is /

{\"tJ\037

/ \"tJ\037 t.: -:J t::..}

v\\ t\037 v\\ tJ\037 \037

was no

doubt

quiet)

{shizuka {96!:E

/ shizukadatta}

chigalnai
v\\ t\037 v\\ tJ\037 \037

/:%!:E t.: -:Jt::..} {sensei / sensei da tta}


Examples))) (a)

,:. ni

(s.o.

is /

was no

doubt

a teacher)

chigainai)
\037

ij N
TJ..{ \037\037'-

=A'i4-\037'\" Futari (The

< \037v\\\037v\\\037 ,:. \037iJ\037v\\t\037v\\o


tanoshiku

-)

\03

wa imagoro Hawai de two must now be enjoying


\037\037OO\"'ff<

oyoide

iru ni

chigainai.

swimming

in Hawaii.)

(b) -A
Hitor;

(7)'i*\037':'

\037iJ\037v\\t\037v\\o

de gaikoku

e
to

iku

no

wa taihen

ni

chigainai. alone.)

(It must (c)

be

hard

go to a foreign
\037iJ\037v\\t\037v\\o

country

UJ 1=1\037 lv'ijJitJ\037v\\v\\':'

Yamaguchi-san

wa atama
must

ga

ii

ni

chigainai.

(Mr.
Are

Yamaguchi \037 7

be bright.) ,:.
v\\ t\037 \037 tJ\037 v\\o ni

(d) UJtL'i\"
(That

'/

\037\037 Iv

wa Tonpuson-san

chigainai.

must be Mr.

Thompson.))

306

ni chigainai)

aD)

The sentence-equivalent
in

that
yielding

precedes
more

ni

chigainai

written Japanese,

credibility

Examples:

can be nominalized by no to the speaker's assertion. 3 (t:) no )

(1) a.

< a*(7)t!iR'iJ:

t\037-:Jt\037(1.H:.\037tJ\037v\\t\037v\\o wa

Nihon

no keizai

yoku

natta
must

no
have

ni

chigainai.

(The

Japanese economy
?
(7)

really

improved.)
ni

b. *

\037 R

'i

&;

v\\ t\037 v\\(1.H:. i? tJ\037 !) Jim '- < t\037 v\\o

Ie 0

(Buying
(Related

kau no wa amari a house is no

muzukashikunai
doubt

no
difficult.))

chigainai.

not so

Expressions]

I.

There are cases where ni chigainai can sometimes be replaced by hazu In such cases, however, the former is always a conjecture da. and the latter is the speaker'sexpectation based on objective facts. (t:)hazu)
The degree of probability nai is as follows:)
Least implied

II.

by daro,

kamoshirenai, and

ni chigai-

probable) dar6)

Most probable) ni chigai nai)))

= = =

--)

= --

kamoshirenai)

-nikui

307)

-nikui
I

,\037<

L')

OUX.

adj.

(i))
\037\037 \037 ?

S.t. or s.o.

is

hard

to)

hard to
do

\037,....,..)

- ; difficult

to

s.t. easily; prone to -

not readily;

- ; don't not

(ANT. - yasui))
. Key

Sentence)
V masu

Topic (subject)
:\"(J)

'i
wa

*\037

\037\037,:.

< It \\ / ,:. < It \\ \"'C? i\" 0 / nikuidesu.

Kono hon

taihen hard

yomi ni kui to
read.))

(This book is
Fermatien)

very

V masu

,:. < It\\


nikui (s.o. is hard

ffiS

'- ,:. < It\\

to

talk

to)

hanashinikui)

it-: ,:. < It\\


tabenikui)

(s.t. is hard

to

eat))

\037

i) N

Examples)
(a)

:.. (J) r-: 7 'if*] \037 ,:. < It\\'''C?i\".P. Kono

doa
door

wa akinikuidesu nee
doesn't
;{.

(This
(b) UJ (J)

open easily,
,:. < It \\ 0
wa

does it?)

A (J) \037 wUi:Jt

Ano

hito

no namae

oboenikui.

(His name
(c)

is
wa

hard

to

remember.)
0

tV.> (J)96!:E'i\037

'- ,:. <

It\\ \037 i\"

Ano sensei (That

hanashinikuidesu.
hard

teacher is

to talk

to.)

'i\037 !J ,:. < It\\ \037i\" 0 (d) :.. (J)\302\245ft Kono kutsu wa hashirinikuidesu. to run (These shoes are hard

in.))))

308

-nikui)

em)

1.

masu+nikui

conjugates

exactly

like

an

Adj

(I).)

Informal

Formal
'g\037 ,:. < v\\\037T

Nonpast
Aff.

\037'-,:.<v\\
hanashi nikui
'g\037 -:J t=. ,:. < tJ \037

hanashinikuidesu
\037 '-

Past

-:J t=. \037T ,:. < tJ\037

hanashinikukatta

hanashinikukattadesu
L. g\037 ,:. < < tV.>\037 it Iv \037 masen

Nonpast
Neg.

\037 '-

v\\ ,:. < < t\037

hanashinikukunai Past
-:J t::.. tJ\037 '- ,:. < < t\037 g\037 hanashi 2.

hanashinikukuari ffiS

'- ,:. < < UJ !J \037 it Iv '\"t: '- t=.

nikukunaka

tta
subject

hanashi nikukuarimasendeshita)
of the

be

=
II)

IN

nikui-construction can Ex. (a) where kono doa ' this door' is the subject of aku open'. It can also be the direct object ' of a transitive verb, as in Ex. (b) where ana hito no namae his name' ' It can be the indirect remember'. is the direct object of oboeru object teacher' is of a transitive verb, as in Ex. (c) where ano sensei' that the indirect object of hanasu 'talk'. Finally, the subject can be N + in Particle such as kono kutsu de 'with these shoes' corresponding in N. In this as Exs. and to construction, (c) (d), English Preposition + the preposition in the English sentence is retained but the note that in the sentence is deleted. particle Japanese corresponding
In both English and the subject of an ,

Japanese
intransitive

the

verb,

as in

3. -yasui

'easy

to do

-'

is

an antonym
identical

of -nikui.

the yasui-construction

is

to the

nikui-construction.

The basic formation of (t:) -yasui))))

- ni -ni
a

shite

wa

309)

shite
phrase

wa

- r: \037\"t' I\037
(The

prt.)
.........,\037\037v) generally entire ? ( ? (

\037\037\037/\"'../'\037

that indicates a
upon standard that includes some

for

agreed sentence expresses

-; [REL.

considering that
,.\", to

shite

wa])

deviation

this phrase from that

< standard.) -...........\"\" \"\"'--.) \"\"-\037\037

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Topic
reiUJ\0371v

(subject) 'i
wa for

Noun
8*A
nihonjin a Japanese

,:.

'-\037

'i
wa

*\037\\,\\

/ *\037\\'\\\037To

Takayama-san

ni shite
person.))

6kii

/ 6kiidesu.

(Mr.
(B))

Takayama

is big

Topic

(subject)
\0377\"

Vinf
f3

'i
wa

\037lt \037

J:<

J!!\037L.-c

L \\;Q iTU

,.:.

L\037

'i

r.:Ft.:

= = \037 \03
\037 -

Bobu

nihongo

0 yoku

benky6shite

ni shite

wa

hetada /
r.:F\037To

\03 -)

hetadesu.

(Considering

that Bob

is

studying

Japanese

hard, he is poor

at

it.))

Formatien)

KS(A) :

N (t.: -:J t::..),:. '- \037 ni shite (datta)


96!:E

'i
wa \037

(t.:

-:J

t=.) I:.

'-

'i
wa)

(considering

that

s.o.

is /

was a teacher)

sensei (datta)
KS(B) :

ni shite

Vinf

,:. '- \037 'i ni shite wa)))

310

-ni

shite

wa

/ -ni ,:.

suru)

{\037\037T {hanasu

L t::..} / \037\037 / hanashita}

L\",(

'i
wa)

(considering that

s.o.

talks /

talked)

ni shite

Examples)

(a)

J\\J) ,:. L\",( Hachigatsu

'iVj(
ni

v\\

'1: T.P.o

shite

wa suzushiidesu

nee

(For
(b) \037 'i \037t

August f3

it is cool,
(J)

isn't it?) *- \037v \\ '1: T


is big,
.P. 0 nee

1f! ,:. L \"'( 'i

Kore (For

wa Nihon a

no kuruma Japanese car this


L
ni \"'(

ni shite

wa 6kiidesu isn't it?)

-:J t,:J:. (c) t!i'i v A=}-t!.

v\\o 'i1*tJ\037/J' \037

Kare

wa resura datta
that

shite

wa karada

ga chisai.
is small.) tJ: v\\o !) l:.:F t:. \037

(Considering (d)

he was a

wrestler,
ita ni
ten

he

w*

Iv \037

'i 7

j. !J j}
that

,:. +\037v\\ t::.. ,:. L \"'( 'j:\037\037lttJ\037 UJ *


ni

Aoki-san
(Considering

wa Amerika
good.))

jtJnen

shite
years

wa

Mr. Aoki

spent

ga amar; j6zujanai. in America, his English is


eigo

not
&D)

very

-ni
\037 =
I

shite

wa

is the

te-form of
is 'if

ni

suru

'make

it
-')

-, decide on

- '

plus

wa

'if'.

The

literal

meaning

one makes it

\037)

NI

-ni
S.o.

suru

-'\0379\037

phr.)

-\".....,. ....\"\"\037,..\"\"\"\"\"..-.\"..\037/\"'\\.../\"'/\"\037../\"'../'\037\"\"\037 ) ) .\037\037./\"\"\037\037\"\"\"\"\",\

has decided

on s.t.

'\\
<

decide

on
ni

-;

make

it

[REL.

kimeru])

. Key

Sentence)
Noun

Topic(subject)
fL

'i
wa

\037(!)

7/'(spito

t-

,:.

Watashi

kana this

ni

T\037/ L*To suru / shimasu.

(I've decidedon

apartment.))))

-ni
Examples)

suru

311)

(a)

A:

t::..'i fPH:. UJ t\037 Anata

'- *
ni

tJ\037o

wa nan
What

shimasu

ka.

(Lit.

have

you decided on?

(= What

will

you

have?\302\273

B : fL'i A 7\" - :t- ,:. '- * wa suteki Watashi

T0
ni on

shimasu. steak.

(Lit.
(b)

I've decided
'i 7

( = I'll

have

steak.\302\273

Iv fMj fE \037

j. !J j}

(7).

,:. '-

* '- t::.. o

ni shimashita. Okada-san wa Amerika no kuruma (Mr. Okada (has) decided on an American car.))

em

1.

Ni

suru
SUTU) (1)

is usually
However,

preceded
a noun
;::. .:z. -

by with

a noun

or a noun equivalent.

(t:) koto

ni

a particle * To

is also

possible.)

Example:)

\037lt (7) 1*ff

'i

\037 * \037,:. L.

Kondo no
(Next

ryok6

wa

trip, I'll make


is

Nyuy6ku made ni shimasu. it as far as New York.)


implies

2. If

the

tense

nonpast,
and

ni suru
(a).
that

that

a decision
is used,

has

just

been

made,
ambiguous;

as in

KS

Ex.

If the

past

tense

the sentence is
no action action

it means
taken

either
that

a decision

has been made but


an

\037 =

has been

or

a decision was made and

was

also

taken. (Ex. (b\302\273)


(Related

N ==:)

Expression]

Ni kimeru

also

means

'decide

interchangeably,

although
used.)))

on' and ni suru ni kimeru is usually or important.

and ni kimeru can


used

be

used

in situations
in

decision is considered (a), ni kimeru is not

significant

Thus,

situations

where a like Ex.

312

not)
prt.)

no 1 (J)
a particle noun modify

a preceding which, with forms a phrase to phrase, a following noun phrase

\037 \037

's.,

of.

. , in. , at. , f o r. , b y ,

fr

om

[REL. no 2])

j)

. Key
(A))

Sentences)

Noun

Noun
f/) no

::tL

'i
my

;t\037

*
hon

t!. /
da /

\037 T

Kore wa

sensei
teacher's

desu.

(This is
(B))

book.))

Noun

Particle
fJ\\\037 f/) no

Noun
\037\037

::tL 'i
Kore wa
\037 : = -=

:&\037

tomodschi
letter

kSTS
friend.))

tegami

t!. / \037To da / desu.

:N

-=)

(This is a

from

my

Formation)

( i )

Nf/)N

no
JIJqt\0371v Tanaka-san

f/)* no

(Mr. ie

Tanaka's house)
in America)

7 :) 1) 'j] f/) Amerika no


( ii ) N Prt
f/)

*\037
daigaku

(a

university

no

13*
Nihon

\037f/)

ft*

(a job in

Japan)
for

de
1)

no shigoto) -..
f/)

:) 7
Mear;

7v-t!\037\"
purezento)

(a present

Mary))))

e no

not
Examples)

313)

(a)

fL f/) * watashi
(my

\037\037f/)\037M

4-J3f/)\037f18

no hon

gakko

no

namae
school)

kyo no
(today's

shinbun paper)

book)

(the name of the


\037f/)m\037

(b)

J3*f/)\037 Nihon

no tera
in

eki

no

denwa
at

(a temple
(c)

Japan)

(a telephone

the

station)

\037*f/)*

bijutsu no (a book on
(d) \037f/)\037

hon

nihongo

J3*mf/)\037\037 no shiken

fine

arts)

(an exam on
f/) #\037

Japanese)
/\037 A f/)W\037

*
no

sakura

no hana

(a cherry blossom)
tJ\0371ff/)\037

momo (a peach

ki tree)

basu

no kippu

(a bus ticket)

kaze

no kusuri

(cold medicine)
(e) nihongo

J3*mf/)96!:E no sensei
0

\037\037f/)\037!:E

ongaku
student

no

gakusei

(a teacher
(I)

of Japanese) (a

of music)
7;t--rf/)1tf

=
Fodo

t. j} \037 f/)\037 Pikaso

\037-\"-\037\037f/)\037\037

no e by Picasso)

(a picture

Betoben no ongaku (music by Beethoven)


\037\037f/)\037JIJ\0371v

no

kuruma by

=N= i
Ford)

(a car made
j}7-f/)\037.

(g)

\037Jif/)**\037Iv

tomodachi
(my

friend

no Oki-san isha no Morita-san Mr. Oki) (a medical doctor,

kar8 no

shashin
in color)

Dr.

(a

photo

Morita)
+\037f/)T\037

jussai

no kodomo
child) f/) * tL Iv tJ\037

(a ten-year-old
(h)

*tlf/) r

A doresu

kinu no

renga

(a

silk

dress)

no ie brick (a house)
c!::f/) \037'-

(i)

'? 1\\\037tJ\037 hachiji


(a

f/)/\037-7 which

\037

96!:E

kara no

pati
starts

sensei to
teacher))))

no

ft \\t\\ hanashiai
the

party

(a discussion with

at eight

o'clock)

314

nol)

em)

1.

Generally,

no

combines

A no among
in

B, A no modifies all the members ways,

various

two noun phrases into a larger noun phrase. In B and indicates a specific member(s)of B of B. A and B in A no B relate to each other are determined and these relationships by context.
follow.)

Some common
(A)

relationships

A is

B of (B)

the possessor of A; A's B)

B. (Ex. (a\302\273
B exists.

A is the
B in

location
at

where

(Ex.

(b\302\273

(c)

B is about / on A. (Ex. (c\302\273 B on A; B about A


A is a AB;

(D)

specific kind of B. B of A; B for A


and

(Ex. (d\302\273
subject.

(E)

A is AB;

the object B of A
B.

B is the

(Ex.

(e\302\273

(F)

A created A's

(Ex.

(f\302\273

===

\037 (G)

B; B by A; B

created
is A)

by

i N \037 \037)

A is A,

an attribute of B. B; B, who / which made of /


from

(Ex. (g))
(Ex.
(h\302\273

(II)

B is AB)

A.

2. In A
and

as in KS(B) a particle, is sometimes a noun phrase with in this that be omitted Note cannot no (i). case, because it with a particle modifies the that the preceding noun indicates phrase the particle Without noun phrase. no, the noun phrase with following in is interpreted as an adverbial phrase which modifies the predicate ' the clause. For example, in (la) hachiji kara from eight o'clock' modi' fies ikimashita party'.) pati' went', while in (lb) hachiji kara no modifies

no B,

Ex.

(1)

a.

J \\ \037fJ\\ ;;

,r\037

7' .-(-\037:.
ni

* ff \037

t:: \037

Hschiji
I

kSTS pati

ikimsshits. i

(I went

to

the

party

at (lit.

from) eight

o'clock.))))

nol I n0 2

315)

b.

J\\\037fJ\\';

(])

/'(

Hschiji
I

kSTS

no
party

- T -t pati ni
i

\037:.

'1 L t::.. o ff \037 ikimashita.

(I went

to

the

which

had started

at

(lit.

from)

eight

o'clock.)

3. The \"A
Examples:)

no

\"

construction

can be extended

as in

\"A no B

no C no.

. .\"

(2)

a.

fL

(]) 96!:E (]) *

watashi no
(my

sensei no
book)

hon

teacher's

b.

a *m (]) 96!:E (]) JE qt 96!:E nihongo no sensei no Tanaka -sensei (the Japanese teacher, Prof. Tanaka)
be omitted

4.

In A no B, B can

if it

is

apparent

from

context.

Examples:)

(3) :: tL'ifL(])
Kore

(*) -c:-t 0 wa watashi no

(hon)

desu.

(This (4)

is mine (=

my

book).)

:: Q) v A \" 7 \037(]) (A 7\" - \037) 'i J: < \037!) '1-it No Kono resutoran no (sutek!)wa yokuarimasen. (This restaurant's (steak) is not good.))

===- =
\037 \037

\03 \03

n0 2 (J)

pro.)

\037,....\",.\"\"-\"\"-\037....\",.....r\"\"\"\",\",\"\"\"\"\"\"\"\"'\037\037.) \" \037\"\"'\037\"\"\"\"\"...;\037\"\"\"'''''''''''''''\037''''''-'J'''''''''''\037''''...)

a dependent

indefinite pronoun

one

[REL. . Key
(A))

no l ;

n0 3])

Sentences

Adj

fL
Watashi

'i
wa

*\037L\\

Q)

t::.. I Jfl. \\1\\'1 \037 Jfl. \037

t::.. o

okii
one.))))

no

katta

I kaimashita.

(I bought a big

316 (B))

n0

2)

Relati ve
fL

Clause
H \"':)t=. f/)
no \037

'i wa
the

\037\037

{t -:J t::.. / {t\037\\ '1 '- t::.. o

Watashi

kyonen

katta
year.))

o tsukatta

/ tsukaimashita.

(I

used

one I bought last

Formation)

KS(A) : ( i)

Adj (i)
\\ r@j \037 f/)

inf.

nonpast

f/)

no)

(expensive one))
stem
t.t. f/)

takai

no)
(na)

(ii)

Adj

na

no)

t:, .t ?
jobuna

\037tet

f/)

(durable one))

no)

KS(B):
Same = = \037 \037 i

formation

rules

as those for

relative

clauses.

(t:) Relative

Clause))

N \037)

Examples)

(a)

A:

E Ivt.t.Jt!tJ\037ll
Donna
(What

'- \037\\\037TtJ\037o

kuruma
kind

ga hoshiidesu ka.

of car

do

you

want?)

B:

IJ,\037\037\\f/)tJ\037\037'-\037\\\037To

Chisai

(I
(b)

want

no ga hoshiidesu. a small one.)


-:J t:.. f/) \037\037 f/) oj M -:J t::..f/) \037 J.j. t::.. tJ \037 If:j '- t:.. 0

!7 \037\037 \037 ftA \037Ji tJ\037

Tomodachi (My

ga wain

nomitagatta

node

kino katta

friend

wanted to

drink

wine,

so I served the

no 0 dashita. one I bought yesterday.))

em)

1. The
by

indefinite

pronoun

itself.

It must
in

be

modified

be used no is a dependent pronoun; it cannot an a clause. or relative adjective by


when

2. No

is

used

place

of a noun
Things

what

it refers to by no

context tangible.

or the

situation.

referred

to is clear from the are not necessarily

Example:)))

n0 2
(1) \037 t::..7 \037-1' 7 Q) qt \037'i JIJ tttttJ\037 fI8 \037\\ 4- \037

317)

-:J t::.. 0) tJ\037-m= \037

J: \037 \037? t!. 0


itta

Ima

made
the

kiita aidea

no

naka

de wa

Tamura-kun ga
the

no

ga
told

ichiban yosa
(Among

soda. so far,
one

us seems

ideas we've heard the best.))

Mr. Tamura

[Related
The

Expressions]

pronoun no (i.e., n0 2 ) is different from the particle no (i.e., and the nominalizer no (i.e., n0 3). First, [1] shows the difference benol) tween nol and n0 2. Namely, in [la] Tomu no is the omitted form of Tomu no pen. On the other hand, [lb] is not an omitted form; that is, if a noun is inserted after kuroi no in [lb], the sentence becomes ungrammatical as seen in [lc]. In fact, what [lb] means is [ld], if no 'one' refers to a pen.
indefinite

[1] a.

nol

(particle)

fL'i
(I

Watashi

\"A 0) (\037\037) tJql '- \037\\o wa Tomu no (pen) ga want Tom's pen.)
(indefinite
\037\\ 0) tJ\037 '1

hoshii.

b.

n0

fL'j:m
Watashi (I

pronoun) L \037\\o

wa kuroi a black

no ga
'-

hoshii.

want

one.)
\037\\o hoshii.

=
=-

c. *fL'im \037\\ 0)
*Watashi (I

\037\037 11 tJ\037

N =)

wa kuroi a black

no pen ga
\037\\o

want

pen.)
'-

d. fL'im \037\\\037 \037 tJql


Watashi (I

wa kuroi a black

pen ga

hoshii.

want

pen.)
of
n0 3

Next, [2]shows the difference between n02 and n0 3. That is, the meaning the sentence depends on whether as n0 2 or the no in [2] is interpreted as shown in the two English translations. [2]
Iv \037JIJ \037 Takada-san
\302\253A) [Indefinite

tJ;it

-:J -C \037\\ t.:

0)

-C \037\\ jO I\302\243;t * \037 ita

ga tsukatte pronoun] Do

no

T 0 oboete

tJ\037o

imasu ka.
the one
Mr.

Do

you

remember

Mr.

Takada

was

using?)
\302\253B) [Nominalizer]

you remember

that

Takada

was using

(something)?))

318

n0

3)

n0 3 (J:) a

nom.)
\"i\"\"\"\\.\"'-\"'-\"\"\"\".....

,\037-\"\".\"\"'\"\"-\037\"-\037\037\037-....\",., \037

\037 which is used when the nominalized sentence expresses ! i ( a directly perceptible event \037

nominalizer

that

-;

to do s.t.;
ko to 2 ;
no 2])

doing

s.t.

[REL.

\037\037..;\"\"'../\"'./'
.

\"\"-V\037I)

Key Sentences
(A))

Sentence

(informal)t
\037

a*m
Nihongo

ft;{\037

\037

,:t
wa

JI

L\037\\

/ JI '-\037\\\037To

0 oshieTU
is

no
difficult.))

muzukashii

/ muzukashiidesu.

(Teaching Japanese
(B))

Topic
(subject)
fL

Sentence

(informal)t
\037

'i \037
wa \037
Yukiko

\037T\0371v

tJ\037\037\037-Jv \037

fiXe

\037

J!t::.. /
mita

J!

'! '- t::.. o

Watashi

Yuklko-san
drink

= =
= =

ga

biru

o nomu

no

/ mimashita.

=)

= ... ...

(I saw

beer.))
to

tDa

after

Adj

(na) stem and N changes

na.)

Formation) ( i)
{V

/ Adj

(i)} inf

(/)

no)

{giST
{hanasu {\037\037\\/ {takai

giS

'- t.:}

\037

(that

s.o. talks /

talked)

/ hanashita}

no
\037

t6tJ''''J t.:}

(that

s.t. is I was

expensive)

/ takakatta} (na)

no
N} {t\037 /

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

t!.

-:J

t.:}

\037

{na /

datta}
\037 no)

no
(that

{r;tJ\\t\037
{shizukana

/ f{ft tJ, t!. -:J t::..} / shizukadatta}


t\037 /

s.t. is / was

quiet)
teacher))))

{jIG!:E {sensei

96!:E

t!. -:Jt::..} \037


datta}

(that

s.o. is / was a

na /

sensei

no)

n0 3
Examples)

319)

(a)

EI*-..ff
Nihon

<

Q)';tft1jlti\037To

e iku

no

wa

kantandesu.

(Going
(b)

to Japan is

easy.)
piano

fL'i

\037o -C \037\\ t::..o Iv tJ\037 7 J \037 -'5 Q) \037 \037\037\\ 1]-,4* \037 \037\037\\

Watashi
(I
(c)

heard

wa Kobayashi-san ga Ms. Kobayashi playing


IvtJ\0377 \037

0 hiite

iru no

kiita.

the

piano.)

\0377-\037

Kuraku-san

(Do you CD

7 \037A-..ff< Q)\037\037-:J-C\037\\'1TtJ\037o ga Furansu e iku no 0 shitte imasu ka. know that Mr. Clark is going to France?))

1. No

makes

a noun
sentences

equivalent

from

a sentence.

KS(A)

and used

Ex.

(a) are

examples of
sentences

where

nominalized

sentences are

in subject

nominalized position, and KS(B) and Exs. (b) and (c) are examples where A nominalized sentence can occur are used as direct objects. in any position where a noun phrase can appear, except in the position of the nominalizer koto (i.e., kot0 2) B in \"A wa B da\". In that situation, is used as in (1).

(1)

:: '1 -:Jt::.. Q) / :: c!:: 'i\037 tJ\037* '? tL tel \037\\:: c!:: / * Q) t!. 0 no / kota wa kare ga korarenai koto / *no Komatta (The trouble is that he can't come.)
sentences
cannot '(} OT

da.
the topic (t:) gal) 0 kiita.

\037
\037

= \03

; N

\03

2.

ominalized
wa

marker (2)

are subordinate clauses, and, occur, as seen in (2).


/ *,;t playing
\037o7 J -C \037\\ -'5 \037 \037\037\\

therefore,

\037'i

IvfJ( \037

Q) \037 t::..o fI8\037\\


iru

Boku

wa Hiroko-san
Hiroko

ga / *wa
koto.

piano

0 hiite

no

(I

heard

the piano.) No and koto are sometimes mutually Exs. (a) and (c) can be restated example,

3. Thereis another
interchangeable.
as:)

nominalizer,

2 (t:) koto ) For


< =. J= 'i Mlti \037 To

(3)

EI

*-..ff

Nihon

e
to

iku

koto

wa kantandesu. is easy.)
=.J=\037\037-?-C\037\\'1TtJ\037o

(Going (4)
\0377-\037

Japan

\037lvtJ\03777\037A-..ff< ga Furansu that Mr. know

Kuraku-san

(Do you

e iku koto 0 shitte imasu ka. Clark is going to France?))))

320 n0 3)
in general, no is used when the preceding clause expresses someconcrete or perceptible, while koto is used when the preceding rather In KS(B), Ex. clause expresses something abstract or imperceptible.
However, rather

thing

(b) and
(5)

(5), for these

example, koto
examples

cannot

be

used

because the nominalized


perceptible

clauses in

all express

concrete,
*

events.

fL'i B 7tQ)1*tJ\037\037 -3 X. -C \\1\\-3 (J) / \037J= \037 \037 1.:,t::.. o Watashi wa jibun no karada iru no / *koto 0 kanjita. ga furuete (I felt my body trembling.) there are a number of idiomatic with koto where koto Also, phrases be replaced by no. cannot (t:) koto ga aTU; koto ga dekiTu; koto ni ni SUTU) (6) lists verbs and adjectives and their appropriate koto naTU; nominalizers.)

(6)
J!-3
miru

no

koto

see '

* *
*

J!x.-3
mieru fJ!1<

'be visible'
,

kiku
fI8\037x.-3

hear' audible'

v v v (v.t.)'
v

ki koeru
= =-

'be '

=N=

\037 \037

\037 1.:,-3

feel'

kanjiru
J!:\037-3

tomeru
\037':)

'stop ,

matsu
It -3 J! \"\":) mitsukeru
\037-tt <\037

wait'

,
,

discover'
protect' to know'

?
?
v

fusegu
\037-3

shiru
:gtL-3 wasureru
o=-) \037 tJ;' \"\":)< tsuku

'get

,
,

forget'
notice' recall

(ni) ki ga
\037,\\I\\ If:j

v
v)))

'

omoidasu

n0 3 no
:W:*--'5

321

koto
v

oboeru
\037-'5 \037g

' learn'
' admit'
,
,
qUI

mi tomeru J;f It -'5

sakeru
J!:\037-'5

avoid'
. ' t

ya meru
\037mT-'5

v
v

kokaisuru
(tJ\037) 7ttJ\037-'5

regret'

(ga)

wakaru

' understand' ' like' ' dislike' , afraid'

v v v
v

t:!. \037 (tJ\037) \037f

(ga) sukida (tJ\037) \037'? \"'t:!. (ga) kiraida


(tJ\037) 1m'\"

v
v

(ga) kowai (tJ\037 ) ? tL '(ga) ureshii


(tJ\037) \037 '- '\"

'\"

'

happy'

(ga) kanashii
\037\037'-

' sad'
,

v
v

=N= \037 I

\",

. '-

yasashii
\",

easy

v
v

'

muzukashii
WJ\037T-'5

difficult'

v v
v

kitaisuru
m

expect'
ieve

?
?? ??

1.:,-'5

' bel
,

'

shinjiru

TT\037-'5
susumeru
\037;t-'5

advise'

' think' ' ask'

* *
*

kangaeru
\037tf

tanomu
1frr

v
v)))

1.:,-'5

meijiru

, order'

322

n0 3 /

no\"

no
(tJ\037)

koto v

m*iS

(ga)
(tJ\037)

dekiru
(biS
aru

can

do'

'there
ti mes

(ga)
0:.)

are / were when'

* * *
*

TiS
t,t. naru

(nl) suru
0;::) is

decide' decided'
due

(nl)
0:.)

'be

J: is

(ni) yoru

'be

to'

v)

n0 4 (J)

prt.)

\037 -

I N _)

\037\037\037\"'v'a sentence-final particle used by a female speaker or a child to indicate an explanation or emoti ve emphasis I
. Key
(A))

it is that
j \037 ..!)

da])

[REL. no

Sentences

A: C?'--c

Vinf
\037n\"\\-C \" \\\037

B:
Q)? no?
jQ!I}\0371v tJ\037

Vinf \" \\ tl \" \\

Q)o

Doshi te
(How

naite

iTU

Q-ka-san

ga

inai

no.

come

you are crying?)

('Cause mommy's gone.))

(B))

Topic
(bQ)

(subject)
A

Adj (i)

inf

''i

c-ct
totemo

\037\037L.\"\\

Q)o

Ano hito

wa

yasashii

no.

(He is

so gentle,

you

know.))))

n0 4
(C))

323)

Topic
-a}

(subject)
'i

Adj (na) stem *- t!.

Haha
(My

wa
mother

mada
is still

c-ct totemo
fine.))

A:::r :n:\037

t\037

(])o

genki

na

no.

quite

(D))

Topic

(subject)

Noun

:l:A
Shujin
(My

'i
wa
husband

I.,:/:;=-7
enjinia
is an

t\037

(])o

na

no.

engineer.))

Formation)

( i)

{V /

Adj

(i)}

inf

(])

no)
{\037I5T {hanasu

/ \037 '- t::..} / hanashita}


(]) no)

(])

(s.o.

talks /

talked)
_

no
(s.o.

H
_)

{tt-\";s / \037-\"t::..}
{taberu

eats /

ate)
/ was
big))

/ tabeta}

/ *\037 tJ\037-:J t::..} (]) tk\037 \037\\

(s. t. is

{6kii

/6kikatta}
(na)

no
N} {t\037 /

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

t!.

-:J

t::..} (]) no)

{na /
{r;tJ\037t\037 {shizukana

datta}

/ ffttJ\037t!. -:J t::..} / shizukadatta}


t\037/

(])

(s.t. is / was

quiet) teacher)

no
(]) no)

{;'G!:E

%!:E

{senseina
Examples)

/ sensei

t!. -:Jt::..} datta}

(s.o.

is / was a

(a)

A:

c?

L. -ctt-\"t\037\037\\(])?

D6shite

tabenai

no?
don't

(How come you

eat

it?))))

324

n0

4)

B:

jot\037tJ\037(tJ\037)\037\037\\-C(\037\\)t\037\037\\Q)o

Onaka

(ga) suite (I)nai


not .hungry.)

no.

('Cause I'm
(b)

A:

c?

Q) ? '- t::..

D6shita

no?
with

(What's the matter


B :
1mtJ\0371Wi\037\\Q)o

you?)

A tama

ga

itai

no.

(I have a

headache.)
mada

(c) ? \037Q)-r-''i\"*
Uchi no
(My (d)

t.: IJ'\037!:Et\037 Q)o


wa

ko

sh6gakusei

na no.)

child

is still

in grade

school.)

*\037'i

A \" \037 \037 t!. -:J 7\302\260!J

t::..Q)o

Daigaku
(My

wa Purinsuton

datta no.

university

was Princeton.))

CD

1. The sentence-final of da / desu.


= = \037 !!!!

no

is derived

from

no da /

no

desu

through

deletion

2.

This

no

is

used

i N \037 \037)

There are times


Exs.
in

by females when adult


they

(a) and
Exs.

(c) and

(b), but (d).)

in an informal situation. children only male speakers use no in questions, as In do not use it in declarative sentences, as

or

[Related
The

Expression]

sentence-final

particle n0 4

IS

the

same

in its

meaning

as no

of no

da.
da))))

(t:)no

no no

da

325)

da

(J)t=.

phr.) The
\037 \037 reason

;\037\037\037;\037d;;g\037hi;hi;\037\0371 > that the speaker is explaining or askfor an explanation about someinshared with the hearer, or \037 formation
;

explanation is that

is that

-; The
fact

-;

The
-)

is

ing

that

-;

It

is that

'
\037

\037 is \037 \037

talking

as if the

about something emotively, it were of common interest speaker and the hearer)

to
I

. Key Sentences)
A:

Sentence
fPJ \037

(informal)t
L-C
\037\\Q iru

Iv / (/) n /

-c:-t

tJ\037to

Nan;
(What

0 shite
are

no desu

ka.

you doing?)

B:
Sentence

(informal)t
\037

\037 =
\037 \037\\Q

\0

a*m

\037%iL-C

lv/(/)

-c:-t:o

N i) \037

Nihongo 0
(I'm

benky6shite

iru

n /

no desu.

studying
after

Japanese.)) (na) stem and N


fPJ \037

t Da

Adj

changes to
\037\\ Q iru \037\\Q iru \037\\Q

na. (male))

tInformal

form:

L -C

Iv
n (/)? no') Iv

t!.\037\\o

Nani
fPJ

0 shite
\037

dai.
(female))

(t:) dsi))

L-C

Nani :Informal

0 shite

4 (t:) no )) t.:.o

form:

...\037%iL-C
...benky6shite

(male))

iru
\037\\Q

n da.
(/)0
(female))))

...ff!l%iL-C
.\"benky6shite
Fermation)

iru no.)

( i)

{V I

Adj

(i)}

inf

(/)

t!.
da)

no

326

no

da)

{\0375T

'- t.:} / \03715

(])

t!.

(s.o. (will)

talk

/ talked)

{hanasu / hanashita}
\\ \\ {j@j \037 / j@j tJ -:J t.:} {takai (])

no da
t!. (s. t. is I

was expensive)

/ takakatta} (na)

no da
N} {t\037 / {na

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

t!.

-:J

t::..} (])

/ datta}

t!. no da

{fit tJ \\ t\037

/ f(Jt tJ\\ t!. -:J t::..

(]) t!.
no

(s.t.

is

/ was

quiet)
a teacher)

{shizukana I shizukadatta}
{:it!:E
t\037/ na

da
is (s.o.

;'6!:E

{sensei
Examples)

/ sensei

t!. -:Jt.:} (]) t!. no da) datta}

/ was

(a)

A:

oj '--Cjo\037\037AX\"*t\037\037\\Iv\037TtJ\037o

D6shite

o-sake
you

0 nomanai
drink

desu

ka.

(Why don't

sake?)

B : fL'i\"* t!.+-t:;t\037 Iv\037T 0 Watashi wa mada jtJshichi na


reason \302\253The '
\037 \037 iN

desu.

is that)

I'm

still

seventeen.))

=
i

\037)

(b) -m'i4-a(]).I\037-T1-':.ff\037t\"*-ttlvommtJ\037t\037< \0371v(bi5Iv\037To aru n desu. Shukudai ga takusan Boku wa ky6 no pati ni ikemasen. (I can't go to today's party. I have a lot of homework.))

(c)

\\ Iv \037 t::.. C \037\037L t::.. \037 (b t\037 T

0 desu.

Anata

to kekkonshitai (I want to marry you.))

em

1.

In

conversation,

speech,
informal

n da / desu. In informal becomes no da / desu often use no. (For the male speakers use n da and female speakers see kai and dai.)) forms of no da in interrogative sentences,
S

2.

Basically,

used when the speaker is explaining or asking shared with the hearer. The inabout information what the speaker and the hearer have observed or F or example, in KSs, A uses no desu because he is asking for heard. an explanation about what he sees B doing. B also uses no desu beIn this situation, (1) is odd.))) his actions. cause he is explaining
no da is
for

an explanation is often formation

no (l)A:
fij\037 '--C\037\\\"!TtJ\037o

da

327)

Nani
(What

0 shite imasu
are

ka.

you

doing?))

B:

a*m\037\037%t'--C\037\\\"!To
imasu. Nihongo 0 benky6shite (I'm studying Japanese.)

If, the

however, question

A is only in
(2),

assuming

that

B is doing

something, A can ask


(1).)

and

B can answer

as B does in

(2)

t\037 'J: (b t\037

T tJ\037o 4-M \037'- -C \037\\\"!


nani

Anata
(What In

wa ima
are

0 shite

imasu ka.

you doing

now?)
n desu
explanation about

Ex.

drinking

(a), as in sake and


n

KS,

uses
an

because

observes

that

B isn't

wants
explaining

for that. what

desu

because

he is
desu

And, B also uses n A observed. In Ex. (b), the


because in

speaker uses
about the

in the
which

second
no

sentence given

it is an explanation

information

has been

the first sentence.


by

3. S

no

da

is

also

used
the

when

information

is shared

the
for

and the hearer planation about


information

and

anything.

or asking speaker is not explaining In this case, the speaker is talking

speaker an ex\037

as if some

were

shared

with the hearer

and

the

effects

of this

are,

for

i)

example,
(A)

to

involve

the hearer

in

the

affairs

he is

talking

about

(See (3) and

(4) below.),)
and

/ or to

(B)

impose his idea upon the hearer idea emotively. (See (5) below.))

or,

at least,

to

emphasize

his

Examples:

(3)

4- a
Ky6

';I

\"\037-IV

tJ\037 (b

is Ai -C:T tJ\037-a

\"! -tt Iv tJ\037o '=-ff \037 isshoni

futtob6ru
with

ga aru n desu ga
football

ikimasen
you

ka.
like

(There is a
gether) (4)

game

today.

Wouldn't

to go

(to-

me?)
\037 \037\\o

;'6!:E, Sensei,

is Ai-C:T 0 JJ1Ht -C < t=. W -:J -C \037\\ Tasukete komatte iru n desu.

kudasai.
me.))))

(Teacher,

I'm

in

trouble.

Please

help

328

no da /

node)

(5) a *mQ)xl1Hi. '- \037\\\037TtJ\037jQt '- \037\037\\N-C:T J: o ga omoshiroi n desu Nihongo no bunp6 wa muzukashiidesu
(J apanese

yo.

grammar is

difficult,

but

it is interesting,

you

know.))

node

(J) \037

conj.)

\037\037\037\037\"'/'\037 a subordinate conjunction which i I a or a cause reason presses

ex!

so;

since;

because
kara 3])

(../'\"'V'/'V\"V)
. Key

[REL. de3 ;

Sentence) Clause (causeI reason)


Main

Subordinate

Clause

Sentence (informal)t
jQ\037 \037

t:. < \037 Iv

f1.1v f=.

Q)\037

\037< nemuku

t,t.

-:J t::.. I t,t. \037 \037'- t::.. 0

\037 = \037 \037 i N i)

Q-sake

takusan
drank

nonda
a lot of
and

node
sake, I got
N

natta

I narimashita.

(Because I
tDa

sleepy.))

after

Adj (na) stem

changes

to

na.)

Formation) ( i)

{V /

Adj

(i)}

inf

Q)\037

node
{\0375T

'- t::.} / \037\037


hanashita}

Q) \037

(because

s.o. (will)

talk

/ talked)

{hanasu /

node Q) \037 (because s. t. is

\\ -:J t::.} {j@j \037 / \037tJ \037 {takai

/ was expensive)

/ takakatta} (na)

node
N} {t,t.

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

I t.: -:J t::..} Q)\037

{na /
{ffttJ\\t,t. {shizukana

datta}
Q)\037

node
(because

/ ffttJ\\t.:

-:J

t::..}

s.t. is / was

quiet) teacher)

/ shizukadatta}
t,t.

node
(because

L$t!:E

I ;'6!:E / sensei

{senseina

t.: -:Jt::..} Q) \037 node))) datta}

s.o. is / was a

node
Examples)

329)

(a)

mmtJ\037

(]) 'T! r\037-=r t::.. < \037 Iv \037\037

-{

';:ff\037t\"* ni

it Iv o

Shukudai

ga takusan aru I have a lot


-:J t::.. (]) tJ\037

node pat;

ikemasen.

(Since
(b)
\037(])

of

homework,

I can't

go to

the

party.)

*'iit16

-:J t::.. o tJ\037 'T! \037b t\037 node

Sono

hon

wa
that

takakatta

kawanakatta.

(Because
(c) Watashi -

book

was expensive,

I didn't
To
yoku

buy

one.))

fL(])tf61\037Hir;tJ\037t\037 (])'T! J: < \037%tm*\"*

no
is

heya

wa

shizukana

node

benky6
well.) \037\\o

dekimasu.

(My room
(d)
.y.:r.

quiet,

so I can study

(there)
kuruma

\037'i\"*

t!.qt\037!:Et\037

(])'T!.\037\037fim*t\037
na

Jen

wa mada

chugakusei
still

node

unten can't

dekinai. drive

(Because CD) modern

Jane is

a junior

high student, she

car.))

Etymologically, node is the te-form of no da. (t:)no da) reason Japanese it is used as a conjunction to indicate
Expressions]

However,

in

or

cause.)

[Related

I. The

conj unction and node differ

kara in

also expresses

reason
Node

or

cause.

However,

kara

= ==

=
!)

==

when the speaker way. believes that the provides in SI node as cause or reason for S2 is valid and is also evident and acceptable to the hearer. (Exs. Theredoes not involve that assumption. (a)-(d\302\273 SI kara S2, however, in the following sitube used and kara must be used fore, node cannot
the following he information
is used
ations:) (A)

; N

Sl (i.e., reason I cause clause) about something.

expressesthe
/
*C1)\0371t\037

speaker's

conjecture

[1]

AtJ\037t::..

< \037 Iv*\037 t!. \037? '/J\\;

(]) \037 t::.. < \037 Iv \037-:J-C

jo

\037\\ t::..o kuru

Hito ga takusan katte oita.

dar6

kaTa /

*node
come,

tabemono

0 takusan

(Becausemany
of food.)
(B)

people

will

probably

I've

bought a lot
or

S2 (i.e., the invitation.)))

main

clause)

is a

command,

request,

suggestion

330 node)

[2]

Command

,=. t,t..Q '/J\\;; I *(J)-c:ff\037 t,t. \037 \037\\o eiga wa tame ni naru kSTS / *node ikinasai. this movie is good for you, go (see it).)) (Because
\037 Q)!I.*:OOUit::..'dJ

Kono

[3]

Request (b

'- t::.. Q) \0373

- 'iiQ
wa

t '- \037\037\\'/J\\;;
omoshiroi

Ashita

no sh6

-c < t!. \037 / *(J)\037 1ft} J!':'* \037\\o kSTS I *node zehi mi ni kite

kudasai.

(Tomorrow's
[4]

show

is interesting,

so please
*

come to
ME Iv

see

it.))

Suggestion Q) *'i \037 c -C t


\037\\ J:

to

t '-

\037\\ \037 '/J\\;;

(J)-r! J.J.1v t,t. t

t.:11 ?
mo

\037\\ tJ\037

0 totemo

Kono hon wa h6 ga ii yo. (This book

omoshiroi

kSTS / *node
better

minna

yonda

is very

interesting, so you'd
/ *(J)\037-a
':.AXJ.J.

read

it, too.)

[5]

Invitation \037\\ \037t \037\\\037 t:J

-:J t::..'/J\\;;

\"*

'- J: ? tJ\\o

Ii sake

0 moratta kSTSI

*node isshoni

nomimash6
it

ka.

(I got =-=== \037 Ni

some

good

sake,

so shall we drink volition or personal

together?))

(0) S2 expressesthe

speaker's

opinion.

\037)

[6]

Volition

Iv tJ\037ff < '/J\\;; fIPP \037

*(J)-C:\037

t ff

\037?

Tanaka-san
(Since

ga iku kSTS / *node boku mo ik6. Mr. Tanaka is going I'll go, too.) (there),
Opinion

[7]

Personal mtJ\037J:

Boku

(I
I I.

/ *(J)\037*r.., J: ? \037-c,;To iru shitte kSTS / *node daij6budesu. yoku ga it well, so there will know be no problem.)) < \037-:J-C\037\\.Q'/J\\;;

The particle
Semantic

de

is

also

used

to express a

reason

or

cause.
only

3 (t:) de ;
nouns,
and

Derivations
and

while node
[9].)

of De) De, however, are used only with kara

can

be used

with

sentences.

Compare [8]

[8]

am-c: /

*'/J\\;;

I *(J)-c:*tJ\037t::..

Ivt::..iQht::.. < \037

*kSTSI *node ie ga takusan taoreta. (Many houses fell down due to the typhoon.))))
TaiftJ de /

node

/ noni

331)

[9]

%t\037\\mtJ\037\037\037\\t::..tJ\\;

/ (/)-c: kSTS
fell

< \037Ivt::..\037ht::..o / *-c:*tJ;t::..


taoreta. blew.))

Tsuyoi kaze (Lit.

ga fuita Many houses

/ node / *de ie ga takusan because a strong wind down

nani!

0) I='

conj.) I
S

\037\037\"'v\"'v,-,\",\037\037\037'/'\037 )V\"V\"'
\037 Contrary

to everybody's on the

expectation
noni,

.\037\037...,.-......\",)

sentence preceding the proposition in the sentence noni is the case. lowing
based

fol1 5)

though; despite the fact -; although; but; in spite of the fact that even that

[REL. ga;

keredo(mo)])

. Key Sentences
(A))

\037 -Subordinate

Clause

\037)

= = :::

Main Clause
Vinf

fiI:a

\037*

\037

\037\037L.-C

L\\\037 ITU

Q) ,-=-

J:<

jt;t

\\ / \037 G.l'L t\037

Mainichi

kanji 0

benkyoshite

non;

yoku

oboerarenai I

jt;t Gh*-t!'lv o
oboeraremasen.

(Although (B))

I'm

studying

kanji

every day, I cannot

memorize them

well.))

Topic (subject) :'Q) A7-\037

Adj

(i) inf
\037L\\ Q)

'i
wa

,=.

\037\037\\ '-

Kono (In
spite

suteki

tsksi

non;

'- < (b!J *-t!'lv o < t\037\037\\ / \037\037\\ oishikunai / oishikuarimasen.

of the

fact that this

steak

is

expensive,

it isn't

delicious.))))

332 (C))

noni

l)

Topic
iff7k\0371v

(subject)
'i
wa =f

Adj (na) stem


Iv 7
tJ\037 \"'f\302\245fi-

Q) ,=.
noni

*\037f\037

t!. /

Shimizu-san

goru fu

ga heta

na

dai-sukida
*M-\037\037To

dai-sukidesu.

(Although
(D))

Mr. Shimizu is not good

at

golf,

he loves

it.))

Topic

(subject)
.

Noun

*-lv\0371v
Horu-san

'i
the

7;1.UnA.
ameTikajin
fact

fi-

Q.>'=,

\037 niku

tJ \037 ;t

\\ t!. \037

\\ \037T \037\037

wa \037

na
Hall

noni

ga

kiraida

/ kiraidesu.
like

(In spite of
Formation)
KSs(A)
{V / Adj

that

Mr.

is an

American, he doesn't

meat.))

and

(B):
Q)

(i)} inf

,=.

'

=
N
{\037T {hanasu {\037,,\\

noni)
/ \037 L- t::..} / hanashita}
/\037tJ\037-:Jt::..} takakatta}

I i ======)

Q) ,=noni)

(although

s.o. talks /

talked)

Q)'=, noni

(although

s.t. is / was expensive))

{takai / KSs(C)
{Adj

and (D):
stem/ N}
{na /
t::..} Q) ,=. {t,t / t!. -:J datta} noni

(na)

{r;tJ\037t,t {shizukana

/ r;tJ\037 t.: -:J t:.} / shizukadatta}


t,t

Q) ,=.

(although

s.t. is / was

quiet)
a teacher)

noni
,=.

{96!:E
Examples)

/ 96!:E

t!. -:Jt::..} Q)
datta}

(although

s.o. is /

was

{sensei na / sensei

noni)

(a)

t\037m\037\037\037 \037f3C\037:A\037r\037\037 J:fJ\037 \037

L-

t::..Q) ,:. * t!.\037mtJ;\0371t*

-it Ivo noni

Chiigaku to koko eigo ga hanasemasen.)))

de

rokunenkan

mo eigo

benkyoshita

mada

noni t

333)

(I studied
high,

English for as
I still
-.I\037

many

as six it.)

years

at

junior

high

and senior

but

cannot

speak

(b)

\037\\ (/)'\037;t

t::..o \037 \037t tfj tJ\037 tft\037 \037\\\"'t:

Samui

noni oba
it

kin

a ide

dekaketa.
went

(Although
(c)
Ano

was

cold,

he

out

without

wearing

an

overcoat.)

J tJ\037J:\037t\037 (/)'\037 \037-:J t::.. ':.W \037 \037 * -it Ivo (/).A 'i t:\302\2607

hito

wa piano ga
at piano,

jozuna

noni

metta
plays.)

ni hikimasen.

(He is good
(d)
\037'i

but seldom

it

(/) +\037 t\037

,:. * t.:fifJ \037\\ -C \037\\ * To

Chichi wa (My father


old.))

kyujussai
i.s

na noni mada working

hataraite the

imasu. fact

still

in spite of

that

he

IS

ninety

years

CD 1. Noni
IS

the

nominalizer
fact

contrast
supposed,

to the

that

no plus - '. The


action tends
the

the noni

particle clause

ni

'to',

meaning

'in

expresses

a highly

pre-

speaker-oriented
noni

or state.
involved

(t:) noS)
with

speaker of SI

S2 is

personally
content

In other words, the the proposition of SI.

This personal
2.

involvement
if

to create

some emotive
main

overtone.

In colloquial speech, the clause often drops.


discontent

of the

clause

In this of

on

the part

case, the the speaker.

sentence

expresses

is predictable, a feeling of

\037

= \03
i)

N \037

(1) A:

\037lvt\037t(/)\037Gt\037\037\\J:o

Sonna

mono
need

(I

don't

iranai yo. that kind of to


I'll noni.
kindly

stuff.)

B : it -:J tJ\037 G \037 \037f < \037 \037? 0) 1=0 Sekkaku

ageru

iu

Although (= I'm saying


(Lit. (Related

I'm

saying

that
you

I'll give

it

to

you.

give it

to

you,

know.\302\273)

Expressions]
the

I. Becauseof
types

speaker-oriented
involving

character
the

of the
main

of

constructions
in

hearer

noni clause, cannot be used


is a

certain

in

the

main clause
gestion,

this

construction. command
above

If the

clause

request, sugkeredo(mo) [1] through

question,

or request for

can be used. [5]


below:)))

Examples of the

categories

permission, only can be seen in

334

noni

l)

[1]

iEL-\037\\ltn\037

/ *0)1= L--C\037-C

< t::\037\037\\o mite

Muzukashii

keTedo
but

(It is

difficult, jo\037\\L-

/ *noni shite try it, please.)


keTedo but

kudasai.

[2]

\037*!J

< t\037\037\\ltn\037 / *o)l=1t\037-C\037*-itlvtJ\037o

Amari oishiku nai (Ies not so good,

/ *noni do you want

tabete
to

mimasen

ka.

try it?)

[3] a.

*\037\\Itn\037

/ *o)l=\037,:.tfj*TtJ\037o

Samui keTedo / *noni soto ni demasu ka. (Ies cold, but are you going outside?)

b.

*\037\\Itn\037

/ o)l=71-,:.tfjGIv\"'t:TtJ\037o

Samui keTedo / noni

soto ni
that

deru
you

n desu
are

ka.
outside?) are
you

(Ies cold, but


going

(lit.

is it

going

outside?)
/ *o)l= \037t \037t\037\037,,\\o
yominasai.

[4]

\037*

Gt\037\037\\ltn\037

Tsumaranai (Ies

keTedo

boring,

/ *noni but read it.)


*r\037t\037

[5]

\"\"f\037t::

/ *Hetana non; shite mo iidesu (rm not good at it, but can I do it?)
Hetada ====-= \037 \037 :: ;ca

Itn c!:. / keTedo

\037\\ 0) 1= L- -C t \037\\ \"'t:TtJ\037o

ka.

[3b] is
verb

acceptable,

because
but

the
the

N \037 \037
\037)

deru
main

'

go outside'
cannot
directed

whole

is not the scope of the question sentence nominalized by n.

main

II.

The

clause

be an expression not towards the


/ *0)1=.1: <

of

intention but

as in [6], towards

because
hearer.)

the expression is
[6]
\\ * \037 \037 ,\037,

speaker

the

fttJ\037 Gt\037\037\\ltn\037

#x. -C\037G\037 t !J\"'t:T / #x. -C \037 .1:?


yoku

Wakaranai
kangaete

keTedo
miyo

/ *noni

kangaete I intend it.))

miru

tsumori
think

desu /
about

to omoimasu.
it,

(Although it / I think
I I I.

I dontt understand
I will

to

really

really

think

about

Due to
with tively

the

which free

to express something nominalizer no, the noni clause tends But keredo(mo) is relainvolved. the speaker is emotively in short, it is more from the speakerts emotive involvement; noni.

objective IV. Noni


in

than

(t:) noS)

Exs.

(a) through
For

(d)

can

also

be replaced Ex. (d) can

by

the
rewritten

disjunctive
as [7].)))

conjunction ga 'but '.

example,

be

noni 1 / noni 2

335)

[7]

\037'iJL+\037t.:tJ\037,

* t.:ft1Jv'\"'(v'

Go
hataraite

Chichi
(My The

wa

kyujussai
ninety

da ga. mada
years of ga

iru.

father is
from

old, but he

is

still than

working.)

that of noni, and the restrictions imposed on noni. The style of the noni clause is always informal, but depending on the style of the second the style of the sentence informal sentence, preceding ga can be either or formal, as shown below:)

disjunctive
free

meaning

is much weaker

ga

is

Sinf

ga

Sinf /
Sfml)

fml

vs.)

Sinf noni Sinf /

fml)

Sfml

ga

nani!

(J) r\037

conj.

\037\037ess s.t. expressed doing nalized clause


j \037I\"V\"..)

or for the purpose of1


in

the

no-nomij (

in the process of doing -; (in order) to do - ; for the purpose (

of

s ; tame
(nl)])

[REL. ni
Sentence)
Subordinate

= =

\037

. Key

\037 ! =======

= \0

Clause
Main

Topic

(subject)
'i

Clause

Vinf. nonpast

fL

a *m

(/) no

ffif18

\037 \037t; i7t

(/) ,\037

\037$. \037

\037?

/ /

Watashi

wa

nihongo

shinbun

0 yomu

noni

jisho 0 tsukau
\037v'*To

tsukaimasu.

(I

use

a dictionary

to read Japanese

newspapers.))

Formation)

Vinf. nonpast

(/) ,\037

noni) \037T (/) ,:.

(in order

to

talk))))

hanasu

noni)

336

noni
-3

2)

1t\037

q) ,:.
noni)

(in

order

to

eat))

taberu
Examples)

(a)

\037 \037 \037\037 f'F

-3 q) ,:.

,:1

MtJ;\037 !J * T tJ\037o nani

Sukiyaki
(What

0 tsukuru
do

you
\"

noni wa need to make

ga irimasu

ka.

sukiyaki?) * L-t::.. o tJ\037tJ\037!J kakarimashita.

(b)

q) \037 Kono

v\037repoto

\037. < q) ,:.-tJ\037jj

0 kaku noni ikkagetsu this (It took me a month to write


(c)

paper.)
0
tsukatte to

\037tt,:.fj

< q) ':'.r\037 A \037 It:$:

-:J -C \037\\ -3 \037\037

Kaisha

ni

iku

noni

basu
and

to densha
the

iru. (lit.

(I am using the

bus

train

to get

my company) work.))

em

1.

In

the

noni

construction,

only

informal, nonpast,
as the

volitional

verbs

can

precede noni.
2. When the

(Cp. noni l )
clause

noni
in

is

used

topic (i.e., S

noni

wa),

no

is

often deleted

conversation,

as in

(1).)
ga

\037 = IN i)
(Related

(1)

T\037\037\037 \037fF-3

f::f;tMtJ;\037!J

*TtJ\037o nani

Sukiyaki

0 tsukuru
you

ni wa

irimasu

ka.

(What do
Expressions]

need

to make

sukiyaki?))

I.

When the
trasts

main

verb

is a verb
ni

of motion, the noni 2


J (t:) nt )

construction con-

with

that

of Vmasu
-:J

V(motion).

Examples:)

[1]

\03700i \037 J!f::.\037---fj

t::..o

Eiga 0

mi

ni

Ginza

e itta.
movie.))

(I
[2]

went

to

Ginza

to see a

\03700i\037J!-3

(1)f::mJM---fj-:J

t::.. o

Eiga

0 miru

noni
*

Ginza

e itta.

(I went [3]

to

Ginza

for

the purpose
t::.. o

of

seeing

a movie.)

\03700i\037J!f::

J!-3
/*miru

o)f::fj-:J
noni the
*for

Eiga

0 mi

ni
is

itta. purpose of seeing a

(I went

to see /

movie.)
constructions
the

If a destination be used. However,

as in [1] and [2], specified, the noni version implies

both
that

can
the)))

subject

of

noni 2 /

-no

wa

-da

337)

sentence made a

lot

out

of the entire used

process. [2] can


money

imply

that

the

speaker
movie. construction-

shouldn't

have

time and
specified,
shown

going

to Ginza
masu

If

a location
can

is

not

only
in

the

ni

to see a V (motion)

be used,

as

[3].

II.

Non,\"?

The latter

tame ni 'in order to '. Vinf.nonpast but the former retains the meaning of 'in the process of', even when it means 'purpose'. Thus, in a sentence such as [4] below in which the verb in the noni-clause is incongruous ' the of with cannot be
is similar purely

in its

meaning

to

means

'purpose'

meaning

process',

noni

used.)

[4]

Q t=\037 f= / *o)f=1t\037Q 0 !:E \037 Ikiru (We

tame eat in

ni / *noni taberu. order to live.))


-Cv' < t=\037f=
ikite

Cpo

\037 q)1IfT\"'t*!:E\037

/ o)f=\037 =+JjPHj:\037,\037t.:o

Kono

machi de

iku

tame
in

ni / non;
order

tsuki

nijiiman'

en

wa

hitsuyoda. (We need 200,000

yen a month

to keep

living

in this town.))

-no

wa -da

-(J)I\037

-t:.

str.)

\037

= E
i)

a structure

portant

that indicates new, Iminformation by placing it bewa

tween no

and

is

an

indefinite

replaces 'place'

'time', or 'reason'.)

da (No (no 2) that pronoun 'thing', 'person',


the copula

\037 \037 \037 <)

-; the one who is - \302\267 the lace , P where - is -. , the the reason why - is -; - is -; what - IS) time when
it is
that

N \037

-)

[RE L.

noS])

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Important

Vinf
fL tJ\037 JfJOO

Information
t=

,:.
ni

fj\"':)

q)

Ii

=\037

t!. /

\"'t*T

Watashi

ga Chiigoku
three
was

itta

no wa

sannen mae

da I desu.
I went

to

(It

was
China

years ago that I went to China. / three years ago.))))

The

time

when

338

-no

wa -da)

(B))
Important

Adj

(i) inf
(/) f j:

Information
sfB\0371v
Yoshida-san

=.(/) ?7A
Kono kurasu

\"'t:

-fB:

\037

tJ\037

L'L'

t.: /
da /

\"'t: T

de ichiban
one

atama

ga

ii

no
Yoshida.))

wa

desu.

(The brightest
(C))

in this

class is Mr.

Important Adj (na) stem


.,.. .,.. \037\037 \"'t: Information

-fB:

\037tLL'

ti.

(/) no

'j: wa

\037

t!. / \"'t:T 0

Koko

de ichiban
beautiful

kiTe;
things

na
here are

yama

da / desu.

(The most
Formatien,)

mountains.))

( i)

{V

/ Adj

(i)} inf

f/) no

'i
wa
(/)

- t!.
da) tt wa) t!. da)

\037 =
i

{ZIST

/ alS L t::..}

t!.
da)

(it

is

who talks /
eats

talked))

\037 \037

N i)

{hanasu
{ it,.;:

hanashita}

no
(/)

-'5 /

it

\037t::..}

, ;t
wa)

(it is

who

ate))

{taberu / tabeta}
-:J t::..} {iWi \037\\/ \037tJ\037
{takai

no
(/)

'j:
wa {t\037 / {na

t!.

t!.
da
-:J

(it

is

that

is /

was expensive))

/ takakatta} (na)

no
N}

(ii)

{Adj

stem /

t::..} (/)

'i
wa

- t!.
(it

/ datta} (/)

no
'j: -

da
is

t\037 {fit tJ\037 {shizukana {96!:E t\037/

t.: -:J t::..} / r; tJ\037 / shizukadatta}

- t!.
da) (it

that

is /

was quiet)

no
'j:
wa

wa

%1:

{senseina
Examplrs)

/ sensei

t.: -:Jt.:.} (/) datta} no

- t!.
da)

is

- who is / was a teacher)

(a)

fB \037 Iv, \037

t\037 t::..tJ; \037:tJ \037

::f,:.fj

-:J

t::..(/) ,j: \037\\\037\"'t: TtJ\037o

Yamada-san,
(Mr.

anata

Yamada,

ga Shikago ni itta no wa itsu desu when was it that you went to Chicago?))))

ka.

-no

wa -da

339)

(b) jo \037\037 Iv\"'t*To \037\\iHVq:.*t::\"q)'if)(-r\037 Ototoi asobi ni kita no wa Akiko-san desu. was Akiko who came to see me the day before (It
(c)

yesterday.)

.:c

\037 7

Iv

-:J t::.. q) ,:. t\037 \" tJ\037*\037\037

'i*\037-\037q)\037\037T 0

Motsuaruto no wa daigaku ichinen no toki desu. ga dai-sukini natta fond of Mozart.) (It was during my freshman year that I became very

(d)

q) t\037 \037tJ\037 \037G \037\\

'i T that

1::\037 t.: o

Chichi

ga

kiraina

no

wa terebi

da.
hates.)

(It
(e)

is

television

my

father

*\037

q) ':1*!fo/J t.: o L- \037\\ jo \037\\

de oishii no wa kudamono da. (What is delicious in Japan is fruit.))


Nihon

CD

1. The particle
the

used
if

with the noun


the

or

noun have

phrase any

between concrete
the

no

wa

and

da
in

usually drops
cases

particle

does not
if the

meaning (as
sentence

of ga and i? ,:. *

0),
t::.. q)

or

meaning of

entire

is

somehow predictable.
(1)

Examples

follow.

I\\\037':'?
Hachiji (It

ni

was

Iv (*tJ<) t.: o 'i\037fB \037 ni kita no wa Morita-san (*ga) da. Mr. Morita who came to my house at eight otclock.)

uchi

= = \037 N \037)

(2)

-:J -c Iv tJ\037\037 \037fB \037

Morita-san
(It (3)

was

*t::.. q) ,:1-7kita motte no ga cake that Mr. Morita


\037<

=\\7(* \037) t.:

wa keki
brought

(*0) da.
here.)

IvtJ\037-7-=\\7\037fB \037

Morita-san ga keki 0 (It was to my brother


(4) Iv tJ\037 ? \037fB \037 Morita-san

\037tt\037q)'i.m(f=)t.:o kureta no wa ototo


that

Mr.

Morita

(ni) da. gave cake.))

i? ,:.*t::.. q) fi$1:

t.:o
kuruma

(It was

by

ga uchi ni kita no wa his car that Mr. Morita t.: 0

de

da.

came

to my

house.)

(5) a.

Iv tJ\037* t::..q) ,:1 JtiJj(tJ\\; \037fB \037 Morita-san

ga kita
from

no

wa

Tokyo

kaTa

da.
came.)

(It
b.

was

Tokyo
t::..q)

that Mr.

Morita

Iv tJ\037tfj\037L\037fB \037 Morita-san

'iJtiM (tJ\\;)

t.:o
wa

ga shuppatsushita
from

no

Tokyo

(kaTa)

da.

(It

was

Tokyo

that Mr.

Morita

departed.))))

340

- no
(6)

wa

-da)

a.

\037fE \037 IvtJ\037\037lvt.:q)'ifE\037

Iv 1::. t.:o \037 wa


that

Morita-san

(It b.

was

with

ga nonda no Mr. Tayama


tf. q)

to da. Tayama-san Mr. Morita drank.)


(1::.) t.: o wa Mr.

Iv tJ\037-\037 ':.AXIv \037fE \037 Morita-san

'i

Iv fE \037\037

(It
drank.)

was

ga isshoni nonda no Mr. Tayama that with kara and


isshoni

(to) da. Tayama-san Morita (lit. together)


because shupdrop, generally co-occur with a manner

In (5b) and (6b) the particles patsushita 'departed' and kara and to, respectively.

to

normally

'together'

3. The element
following

between sentences

no wa and

da

cannot

be

adverb. 1'he

are all unacceptable.

(7)

t::..q) *\037-rtJ\037\037\037\\

'i

tP \":)

< f,J t!. 0

*Hanako

ga

aruita

(*It
(8) *Taro

was

slowly

wa yukkuTi da. that Hanako walked.)


no

\037 *::t\037\037tJ\037* ti

\037\\ t::..q) kaita

'i
no

\037 tL L \\ f=

t!. 0

ga ji

wa kiTeini

da.
construction is normally
in

(*It was 4.
=
== \037 Unlike

beautifully

that

Taro wrote characters.)


in

English,

the

copula da

this

the

= \037
\037)

present

tense.
\037q)?

(9)

\037-:Jt::\"q)':tAT

v;t1:T
sutereo
that

Kino

katta
was

no

wa

desu
I

(It 5. The
sentence number

a stereo of no

set

/ ???1: l.,t.: o / ???deshita. bought yesterday.)


which

is limited
no

between
deri

wa

wa -da sentences only by the number and da. For example,


:,I

of elements
four

can be produced from one can be placed which such

sentences

can be

ved

from
:;:1:,1 Jon

(10).
tJ\037:; %

Uo)

':.JkJii\"'t.* J\\JJ ,:.\037 -:J t::. o Tokyo


in

ga Jen ni met Jane ohn (J


a.

de hachigatsu in Tokyo.) August


I\\\037 ,=-\037 -:J t::.. qj hachigatsu

ni

atta.

(11)

.y
Jen

;I:

\037 ':.JR*\"'t.*

'i:;

:I

:,I t.: 0
wa in :,I

ni Tokyo

de
who

ni atta

no
-

Jon Tokyo.)

da.

(It was John


b. Jon

met

Jane in August 'i :;


%

\0373 \037tJ\037JRJi(\"'t.* I\\\037 ,=-\037 -:J t::.. q)

t!. 0
wa in

ga Tokyo de (It was Jane whom

hachigatsu

ni atta

no

Jen

da.

John

met in August

Tokyo.))))

-no
c.

wa -da

341)

.y 3

\037tJ;.y;I:

\037':'/\\\037

'\037\037-:Jt::\"q)'iJR\037 wa

(1:) t.: o
Tokyo

Jon ga Jen ni hachigatsu ni atta no (It was in Tokyo that John met Jane d.
.y

(de)

da.

in August.) t.: o
hachigatsu
in

3 \037tJ\037.y;I: -

\037,:.*Jj(\"'t*\037

-:J t::..q) 'iJ\\JJ

Jon

ga Jen
in clause

ni

Tokyo

de atta

no

wa

da.

(It was
6. Normally

August takes

that

John met Jane

Tokyo.) as presupno

the no

posed, old, unimportant

wa, marking the entire clause and the element between information,
But important da

wa and informa-

da

important piece of information. the no clause takes ga, marking the clause as new, tion. In this case the element between no ga and
represents

a new,

sometimes

indicates

unim-

portant
(12)

information.) \"\"'t*

\037 -:J -C \037 \\ G (J) tJ( p iN' 'l fL \037 f'F

T 0

Watashi

ga tsukutte
f m
9

iru

no

ga robotto

desu.

(The one

making

is a robot.)
-:J -C \037\\ '1 To ga rm

Cpo p \037'l

\"r;tfL\037\037f'F

Robotto wa

watashi robots,

tsukutte making

imasu.
one.))

(Speaking of
(Related

Expression]

==

No in the present construction should not be confused with the no used as a nominalizer. Sentence [1] is the no wa -da construction and [2], the nominalized sentence. (t:) noS)
[1]

i N

\03

\037 Mf

tr (J) 'i

\\ -C \037 t::..

\\ \037 1X t:: 0

Hon

0 yomu
is

no

wa

taitei
that

(It
[2]

usually

at night

yoru da. I read books.)

*
(It

\037 Mftr(J)

'i

\037\\ \037\\ \037\037 t:.

Hon

0
is a

yomu

no
thing

wa ii
to

koto da.

good

read books.)

between the two constructions is to see if the sentence no wa and da and placing the element before no wa in an appropriate position. For example, [1] can be restated as [3], but [2] cannot be restated, as seen in [4].
way

One

to differentiate

can

be

restated

by deleting

[3]

t::.. \037\\-C \037\\\037*\037Metro

Tai tei

yoru

hon

(I

read

books

usually

0 yomu. at

night.))

342

-no

wa -da

[4] a.
b.

*\037\\\037\\::. \037*\037\037tfo

*/i koto

hon 0

yomu.

**\037\037\\\037\\::.\037Mftfo

*Hon c.

0 ii

koto
ii

yomu.

**

\037 Me

tf It \\ It \\ ::. \037 0 koto.)

*Hon

0 yomu

====' = : -=! N !)))

0-

343)

0-

tQ

pref.)

-\037\037../\"'...-.....,-.\037\037\037./'../\"\"t.J\037\"\"'j a prefix that expresses politeness \037 \037


\037/\"\"t..,J\037\037............,..\037./'\037\037)

[REL.

go-])

. Key
(A))

Sentences

V masu

;fiEE96!:E
Ishida-sensei

\037i

\037m \037

\037 l., \037\037\037 o-\037hanashi

,:. ni

t\037 -:J t::.. I t\037 :t L \037 natta

t::.. 0

wa eigo
talked

de

I narimashita.

(Prof.
(B))

Ishida

in English.))

V masu \037
fL \037i

\037q)?

w\03796!:E

,:.

\037\037\037L\\ o-\037ai

L t\037I L:t shita

t\037o

Watashi

wa
Prof.

kino Yamazaki-sensei ni
Yamazaki yesterday.))

I shimashita.

(I
(C))

met

Adj

(i I na)

4'1t

Iv \037

\037i

::f Iv

tJ\037

\037\037\037\037t= I \037\037-r:To o-\037sukida

= -=-

Imamura-san

wa gorufu
likes

ga

I sukidesu.

= 0 = \037)

= ==

(Mr.
(D))

Imamura

golf.))

Noun
\037\037iX3I-\037 \037i {PI tJ\037J:

0 L

\037'\037T

tJ\",o

O-\037nomimono

wa nani
what

ga
would

yoroshiidesu

ka.

(Lit.

As for drinks,

be good?

(= What

would

you

like to

drink?\302\273)

Formation)

KS(A):

\037

V masu

,:.

Q t\037
naru)

(t:) 0 IWni naTu))))

0-

ni

344

0jO

KS(B) :

Vmasu

TQ

(t:) 0

IWSUTU))

0-

suru
Adj

KS(C):

jO

(i I na)

0-

j01t L'-'\\ o-isogashii


j\"3l: \037tf.

(s.o.

is busy)

(s.o. is

good

at

-)

o-jozuda

KS(D) :

jON 0jO\037

(money)

o-kane)
E\"xamples)

(a)

EEff96\037'i4'

\"( \037

Tamura-sensei
(Prof.

t jOit L '-'\\0 wa ima totemo

o-isogashii.

Tamura

is very busy now.))

(b)

4i}

a jO!ilt\\ \037Tho
nee

Mainichi o-atsuidesu
(It's

hot day

after

day,

isn't

it?)
0

A T':=' (c) l:EE96!:E'i

tJ\037jOl:\037\037T

Veda-sensei

wa tenisu is good
\"( \037 at

ga o-jozudesu.
tennis.)
jO \037 tL It\\ wa

\037)
(d)

(Prof.

Ueda N \037

'8*

q) \037ti'i

tf. 0 totemo

Miyamoto-san

no okusama
very

o-kireida.

(Mrs. Miyamoto is
(e)

pretty.))

!fff
(There

N tJ\037 \037 tj jOm\037\037tJ\037 (b \037 :t

t::.. o

Nomura-san

o-denwa ga arimashita. was a phone call from Mr. Nomura.)


kara t ? 1t\037:t L t::..tJ\037o wa mo tabemashita
had

(f)

jO\037\037!r:Hi

O-hirugohan

ka.

(Have
em

you

your

lunch

yet?))

1. The

0- is used with prefix the press speaker's respect, modesty


polite

verbs, or

adjectives politeness.

and nouns to 0- Vmasu ni

exnaru)))

0-

345)

is an honorific
expression.

polite

expression

and

0- Vmasu

suru

is a

(t:) 0 IWni

humble polite nSTU; 0 IWSUTU)


in

2.

O-Adj can be either and (d), or a simple


used

an honorific polite expression, as polite expression, as in Ex. (b).

Exs.

(a), (c)

3. O-N is

in

various
polite

ways:
expression: t.: \037 \"':t L
t::.. o

(1)

Honorific 96!:E

tJ\037 \037< \037\037\037

Sensei (My

ga o-tegami 0 kudasaimashita. teacher wrote me a letter.)


polite

(2)

Humble

expression:

\037 a \037mms\037 \037L(b\037j:tTo

Myonichi

o-denwa
you

0 sashiagemasu.

(rll
(3)

call

tomorrow.)

Simple

polite

expression:
narimashita

a!lf\037i1\037jWj

:t L t\037h;to < tet \037 nee haventt words:

O-yasai

ga takaku

(Vegetables 4. 0

have become expensive, to the


following

they?)

cannot

be

attached

(A)

Adjectives
*

and nouns
\",

which

begin
*

with
a:t3

the [0]

sound:)

a:t3

t L0

(interesting)

\", L \",

(delicious)
=
=

*o-omoshiroi)
*a*\037'\"

*0 -oishii)
* a:t3 1:Iv (uncle) \037
*o-oji-san)
*

_ 0 i) jQ \037 (}. (belt,

(big)

sash)

*0 -okii)
(B)

*0-obi)

Long
*

words:

\", tJ\037 \0371:- \037

t (potato)

(cf.

1:- \037 tJ\037 (potato\302\273

*0-jagaimo)
*

o -}aga) (spinach)

a '1

\0371,.Iv1/f.

*0 -horenso)

(c)

Foreign *\037;I:.

words: v\037\037

(elevator)

A -;\" *\037 \037\037


*

(Christmas)

*0-erebeta)
\037 *\037/\037 *o-bata)))

0 -kurisu masu)

(butter)

346

0-)

There are some


\037t::..ff::.

exceptions

to

this

rule.

For example:)
\037\\:. -'v

(tobacco)

\037;(\037 \037

(trousers)

(beer)

o-tabako
\037'/

o-zubon)

o -biru)

- A (sauce)
are

o-sosu

Theseexceptions
cabulary

words

long

enough

which have been part of the Japanese voto sound like Japanese-origin words to native
which

speakers.

5. There
0-

are a

few

words

are

always

used

with

or go-. (4)

(For go-,

see Related
go-han)

the polite

prefix

Expression.)

i1\037 jQ t\037 (stomach)

=:1Ji (cooked

rice, meal)

o-naka
[Related

Expression]
polite prefix, go-. for Japanese-origin

There is another

Basically, go-

is

used follow:

for Chinese-origin

words
[1]

and

0-

words.
adjectives
by

Examples

Na-type
therefore,

adjectives
they

(I-type

are
0-.)

all Japanese-origin

words;

are all preceded

a.

Chinese-origin
\037ft\037

words:
\037\"(lt'hlt'
go-teinei)

(kind)

(polite)

\037 fJ!flJ

(convenient)

go-shinsetsu
\037)
01)

go -benri)
\037\037f\037 (fond)

b.

Japanese-origin
ar;tJ\037

words:
\037,:.\342\202\254\037tJ\037 (lively)

(quiet)

o-shizuka

o-nigiyaka words:
\037\037\037(marriage)

o-suki)

[2]

Nouns

a.

Chinese-origin
\037?i}f?E

(research)

\037*

(book)

go-kenkyu

go-kekkon
words:

go-hon)

b.

Japanese-origin

\037

(meat)

o-niku

afi (fish) o-sakana) some Chinese-origin words which have

\037'i

L (chopsticks) the use

o-hashi) words which


become
U

There are,
that

however,

require

of 0-.

These exceptions
native
in

are

assimilated
borrowed\"

words

them to be speakers no longer consider [3] are examples of such exceptions.)))

to the point The words.

0-10 [3] a.

347)

Na-type adjectives:
al:\037

(skillful)

7C \037

(healthy)

o-jozu b.

o-genki)

Nouns:

aU
o-denwa)

(telephone)

a\037JJI! (dishes)

a\037rp'

(time)

o-ryori

o-jikan
(confectionery)

at!l%i (study)
o-benkyo)

aJit-r
o -kashi)

There are
[4]

very

few

examples

of go\037t

Japanese-origin words.
(reasonable)

\037 \037-:J

< \037 (slowly)

-:J \037 t

go-yukkuri

go-mottomo)

0 1 \037
\037 \037

prt.)

\037\037\037\"\"'V\037.;\" which marks a particle


Ject

direct ob-

( \037 1

\037 \037\037\037\037\037)

. Key

Sentence)
Direct

= \037
\037

= !!

;)

Topic (subject)
fL

Object
\037

Transitive
t!l\037L\"\"C

Verb \"\"*To

'i
wa

8*:1
nihongo Japanese.))

'-\"-3 I
iru

Watashi

benkyoshi te

/ i masu.

(rm
Examples)

studying

(a)

N'i MEa \037 Maeda-san

q) \037

?\037 1\\ -:J t::..o


kuruma

wa kino
bought

0 katta.

(Mr. Maeda (b)


Nani
(What

a car

yesterday.)

fiiJ\037\037.7j. * TtJ\037o

0 nomimasu
will

ka.

you

drink?))))

348

0 1)

em

1. 0
in

marks

the

direct is not
in

English

and English

that the direct object It is noted, however, in 0 Japanese. by Compare Japanese always the following sentences, for example.

object.

marked

(1)

fL'i\037mfJ(7ttJ\037

Q 0

(2)

wa eigo ga wakaru. (I understand English.) .y A 'i A: A I::m\037\037 L t::.. o Jimu wa Besu ni denwashita. (Jim called Beth.)
Watashi
\037'i

(\037I'W

wa

I'W

ga;

wakaTu)

(3)

q) \037

N EElJ:f:1\037

I:: /

Co 'bJ

-:J t::. o
atta.

Boku (I 2.

wa kino

met

Tanaka-san ni / to Mr. Tanaka yesterday.)


the

In some constructions, the subject marker ga.)


(4)

direct

object

marker 0

can

be

replaced

by

Iv \037 \037 t-\037tf

-.

Iv \037 \037 tmiruku (want

miruku 0
(drink
(5)

nomu

milk)

/ fJ(\037Jj. t.: L \\ 0 / ga nomitai to drink milk)

(\037

tai))

a *iat-\037\037T

-.

a *iatnihongo (can

fJ(\037\0371t.Q

(\037

TaT8Tu 2 ))

nihongo 0
(speak
(6)

hanasu

0 /

ga

hanaseTu

Japanese)
-+

speak /

Japanese)
cf.>.Q (\037

:t \037 t- mHt Z>

:t

c!:\037 t-

fJ(mHt\"( akete

aTu 2)

.0=)

mado
(open

0 akeru
the

mado 0 / ga
(The
once
than

aTU
opened.))

window))

window has been

3.

in a clause, whether it is the direct in the 0 1) or the space marker 0 2 ). Thus, (i.e., (i.e., object marker the causee can be marked causative construction, for example, only by 0

cannot occur more

ni

if

another
\037'ifLI::

element

in the same

clause

is marked

by o.

(\037

sas8Tu)

(7)

/ *t-\037t-\037:t-ttt::.o
wa

Chichi
(My

watashi

father

ni / *0 sake 0 made me drink sake.)


*t-\037t\037\037t-q)f!;-ttt::..o

nomaseta.

(8) btJi'ifLI:: /
Tomodachi

(My

friend

4.

If

the

direct
by

ni / *0 kyuna saka 0 noboraseta. steep slope.) element, 0 object is presented as a topic o\037 a contrastive
wa watashi
made

me go up a

is

replaced

wa.)))

0 1 / 02

349)

(9)

*:ltl\0371J1

:t \037

-tt Ivo Japanese.)


:t L t::.. o
yomimashita.

Nihongo

wa
know

shirimasen.

(I
(10)

dontt

.:t q)*'\037 t Sono (I

? \037Jj.

hon

already

wa mo read that

book.))

02
\037

\037

prt.

I \037.....\037\037\037\037,/\"\".../\"'\037)

which indicates a spacein which'1 on / across / through / along s.o. or s. t. moves


a particle

in; on; over)


\037 ?

across;

through;

along;

[REL. del])

.Key Sentence)
Noun

(space)

fL

'i
wa

1i.m
goban-gai

\037

tJi;\037, t::..

Watashi

0 Avenue.))

/ tJi; \037:t L t.: o aruita / arukimashita.

(I

walked

along

Fifth

i) 0
Examples.)

(a)

\037\037 \037im

-:J \"( +if} \037 :t L J:


totte

?0
the

Koen 0
(Lees
(b)

kaerimasho.
through

go home
mizuumi

park

(lit. passing

through

the

park).)

q) 1: \037 1R1v \"t:\037,:t \037i1\037t\037

Tsuru ga

no

To ue 0 tonde

imasu.

(Cranesare flying over the lake.) :t To \037 \037 (c) a *\"t: 'i!l! 'i if! q) li: fJtlJ\037
Nihon de (In Japan
(d) wa they

kuruma drive

wa michi

no

hidarigawa

0 hashirimasu. left

(lit. cars run)

on

the

side of the

street.)

.:t :. q)\037\037\037 \037 t;J:.

-:J \"( < t!. \037 aB i1\037 \"'0 ni magatte


at

no kosaten 0 migi (Please turn to the right


Soko

kudasai.
there.))))

the

intersection

350

0 2)

CD)

When a sentence involves difference between the


(1) a.

the use

verb

noboru 'climb',

there

is an

important
in

of the

particle 0

and

that

of ni,

as seen

(1).)

- t- q) f! -:J t::..0 Don wa Tokyo Tawa 0 nobotta. (Don scaled Tokyo Tower.)
t: \037'i
JRJj(

?' 9

b.

t: \037'iJRJj(?, 9 -I:. q) f! -:J t::.. o wa Tokyo Tawa ni nobotta. went up Tokyo Tower.)) (Don
Don

[Related
The
difference while

Expression]

particle

del also

marks

the

space
that

in
del

which

an

action
with

takes place.
action

The

between 0 can be tobu

del and

0 is

run',

used only with and oyogu 'fly'

motion

'swim t.

any verb, ' verbs such as aruku walk t, hashiru in [1].) 0 is ungrammatical Thus,

can be used

[1]

fL'i\037.\0371: / *t-\037\037 L t::.. o Watashi wa toshokan de / *0 at the library.) (I studied


or

benkyoshita.

When either del between them.)


=
=

0 is

possible, as

in

[2], there

is

usually

a subtle

difference

= ....

[2]

.y 3 Jon
(John

\037 'i)

0 \037)
First,

It' t.: 0 II 1: / t- 1* wa kawa de / 0 oyoida. swam in the river.)

when

when del is used, other locations for an action are also implied, but 0 is used, there are no such implications. For example, in [3] John has a choice between a pool and the river. Here, del is acceptable, but 0

is not.)

[3]

.y

3 \037'i7\302\260-,vtJ\037\037 ;\"'t.:tJ\037;t::..lt'''(''')II1:

*t-1*<\0370

Jon (john

wa puru usually

ga

kiraida in

kara the

swims

kawa de / *0 oyogu. river because he doesn't like


taitei

pools.)

when del is used, the sentence often indicates that the purpose of the action is the action itself, whereas when 0 is used it seems that there is another purpose behind the action. For example, in [4] John swam in order to escape, and swimming was not the purpose of his action. 0 Therefore, is acceptable but del is not.)))
Second,

02 I

0 3 351)

[4]

\0373 \037\037i}lIt-

I *\\!i7J<\"'\037\037\037ft=o

Jon

wa kawa

0 I *de
by

oyoide

nigeta.

(John

escaped

swimming

in the river.))

03

\037

prt. [REL.
\037

that marks the locat\037> \037\037rticle which some movement begins from !
))

karal])

. Key Sentence)
Topic fL

(subject) 'i
1N) -t:;\037\037 shichijihan in ,=-

Noun * uchi

(space)
\037 lfi\037

Ilfi:tTo

Watashi

wa
home

asa
at 7:

ni

deru I demasu.

(I
Examples)

leave

30

the

morning.))

(a)

ft.tJ\037\" \037-* Iv \037 lfi t::..o Kisha ga tonneru 0 deta.


(A

train

came

out of

= tunnel.)

the

-) 0

(b)

/\037 A \037\037!J t=\037\037ii';::\037

-:J t::.. o ni atta.


off

Basu

0 orita
friend

toki

tomodachi

(I met a
(c)

when

I got L

the

bus.)

a*\037*tL\"(\037m\037.; Nihon

\"(\"'\037o kurashite

0 hanarete

gaikoku de
is living

iru.

(He left

Japan
03

and

abroad.))

[Related
The

Expression] in

particle

Exs.

basic difference
some movement

between

(a), (b), (c) can be replaced by karal 'from t. The 0 3 and karat is that 0 3 marks the location from which
karal

begins and

marks the
when

initial

location

in movement from
new

one

location

to another.

Thus,

focusing

on both the

and

tion of something or someone, the following examples.

kara should

be

used

instead

of o.

old locaConsider I (t:) kSTS ))))

352

03 /
[1]

04
a.
fL':1\037WJJ\\\037tJt*\037

/ *f.)\\\037tfjt::o
hachiji my

Watashi
(This

wa kesa
morning

goro house

I left

ie 0 / *kSTSdeta. at about eight.)

b.

(J) ? ,:1 ? 't:>f.)\\ \037 / *\037\037,;: tfjfcl tJ\\ -:J t::o \037 Kino wa uchi kSTS/*0 soto ni denakatta.

(Yesterday
[la]

I didn't

go

outside.)

focuses

however,

focuses

on a point of detachment, on a starting point,

so 0 is

so kara

acceptable but kara isn't. is acceptable but 0 isn't.)

[lb],

0 4 \037
\037 a \037

prt.)

\037\037\037\037\037 particle that marks some human emotion


Sentences
the

\037\037-cause

of
\037

\037\037\037)

.
=

Key

(A))

0 i) I =======)

Topic(subject)
tX\037\037

Noun

Verb
\037 \037

(emotive)

'i

)(:

(])

t::..o m lu\037.It.: / m \037h- \037\037


kanashinda

Jiro

wa

chichi no shi
at

0
death.))

/ kanashimimashita.

(Jiro was saddened


(B))

his

father's

Topic

(subject)
'i
wa

Nominalizer
)(:
chichi
b< \037A,

Verb (emotive)
\037

tX\037\037

t=.

\037\037/(J)

m\037\037t.: /

Jiro

gs

shinds

koto / no

kanashinda

/ mash; ta.

m \037h- \037Lt::.. o
kanashimi

(Jiro

was

sad

that

his

father

died.))))

04
Examples)

353)

(a)

fL'i\037Q)*\037A\037 \037tt\037 t:. o Watashi wa Hiroshi no daigakunyugaku

(I
(b)

was

happy

about

0 yorokonda. Hiroshi's entering college.)


\037\037 0 \037\037tL-C \037\\ okiru

tJ \037 0 .I\037.A,:t\037 t::..\037$tJ\037\037\037

Y oroppajin

wa mata senso ga
afraid

koto

0 osorete iru.
out

(Europeans are
(c)
Nobuko

that

war will
\037\037t!.o

break

again.)

mT'i*tB\037Q)-\302\245\037t\037\037tJ\037

wa Kyoto

de

no

ichinen

0 natsukashinda. her year


in

(Nobuko nostalgically
(d)
*'i\037mtJ\037tli*f\037\037\\\037

recollected

Kyoto.)

\037 \037t\037\037\037\037\\oo

Hayashi
(Hayashi

wa eigo ga dekinai is worried that he

koto

0 nayande
speak

iru.

cannot

English.))

em

1. Because the
C

main

verbs used
C

in

the

KSs and the


C

Exs., such

as kanashimu
C

sadden',

yorokobu

rejoice',
C

osoreru

fear',

natsukashimu

nostalgically

recollect'
verbs the

and

nayamu

they particle

cannot
which

are all inwardly-oriented psychological be considered transitive verbs in Japanese. Therefore,


worry'

0 4 preceding
normally

these

verbs cannot be

the

ordinary

direct

object
Rather

marker 0
it

marks

indicates the cause for human Thus, it is sometimes possible to rewrite node C because '. (t:) node) For example, as (1a) and (1b), respectively. paraphrased
(1)

an outwardly-oriented emotion expressed by


the

event.

sentence
KS(A)

the main verb. in question using and Ex. (a) can be

I 0

II

a.

'i \037tJ\037\037 Iv tX\037\037

t!. O)\"'t!

\037 '- \037t:.

Jiro

wa chichi ga shinda (Jiro was sad because his Watashi


Hiroshi

node father

kanashinda. died.) t!.o


ni

b.

fL'iri'itJ\037*\037'\037A\037 wa

\037 t::..o)\"'t!tt\037

ga daigaku

nyugakushita

node

yoro-

konda.

(I

was

glad

because

Hiroshi entered

college.)
and are

The original
in both

versions

are examples
Japanese.

of

written

style

seldom used
in

conversational spoken

Japanese, but the


written

rewritten

versions

can be used

and
what

2. No matter

person

(first,

second, third)

the

subject

of this

con-)))

354

0 4 / oi) struction
inai

verb is normally in the stative is, the main emotive and / or in the past tense. In a generic statement, the verb can be in the non-stative, nonpast form as in (2):)
form

te ;ru /
however,

(2)

t.: tL \037t m Q) \037\037,\037 l., Co Dare demo oya no shi 0 kanashimu. is saddened (Everybody by their parents' death.)
emotive
C

3. If
C

the

verb

consists of
C

adj(i)stem

+suffix

mu as in

kanashi-mu
C

sadden',

natsukashi-mu
enjoy',

nostalgically

recollect',
suffix C

oshi-mu
show

regret',

ta-

nosh;-mu
in

it can take

the

-garu

signs

of

-'
Thus,

as

kanashi-garu,

along (3)

with

natsukashl-garu, oshi-garu KS(A) we have a sentence type


t=.o 0 kanashigatta.

and tanoshi-garu.

(3).

(t:)gaTu)

\037,\037 l.,f.)( -:) \037\037\037'i\037Q)\037

Jiro

wa chichi no
signs

shi

(Jiro showed
(3) is a more
C

of being

sad about
than

his

father's

death.)
-garu

show

signs

of

objective expression KS(A), because the verb -' has an outwardly-oriented meaning.)

= = =

!0

Ii)

oi

\037L')

adj.

(i))

\037or number)\037\037i) L\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

many;
[REL.

a lot ozei;
sukunai))

of;

much

takusan]

(ANT.
. Key

Sentence)
Subject

Topic (location)
a* 0:.) Nihon (ni)

'i
wa

*\037

tJ).

/ \037\037\\

$-\037\\1:To

daigaku

ga

6i / oidesu.

(Lit. In
in

Japan

universities

are many.

(= There are

a lot of

universities

Japan.\302\273)))

oi
Exa (a)

355)

m ,Ies) Jj(tBO;:) Kyoto


'i:td\037\037\037$\037\\\037T 0

(ni) wa

o-tera ga oidesu.
temples

(There are many


(b)
tJ

in Kyoto.)

A \037 lvQ)f'fJtO:.)

'irp'i!l\037\\tJ\037$\037\\\037To

Rosu-san

no sakubun

(ni)

wa

machigai

ga 6idesu.
compositions.)

(c)

(There are many - J) 0;:)'i\037tJ\037$


Ichigatsu

mistakes
\037\\o yuki snow

in Mr.

Ross's

(ni) wa

ga

oi.

(There is a lot of

in January.))

em

1.

Unlike

the
in

English'
a relative

except
the (1)

be used before a noun, many', the Japanese oi cannot clause where oi is the predicate of the clause, not

modifier

of the

head

noun.

*Jj(tB':\":t\037L':to\037tJ\037tb!J

\037To

*Kyoto ni

wa

oi o-tera

(There are many


(2)
Q-tera ga
2.

ga arimasu. in Kyoto.) temples


To
wa

L '1UT':tJj(tB\037 :to\037tJ\037\037

oi

machi

Kyoto

desu.
is Kyoto.) can

(The town in which there are many temples Oi cannot be used in front of a noun, but oku no in written Japanese. Thus,
(3) 7 \0377 tJ\037 \037 < O)\037!:E tJ;\037\302\245 \037 a Oku

be used

that

way

no gakusei
year

ga

maitoshi

*Q) *\037,:. * 0 0 Ajia kara Nihon

- ....= - _

= = 0 \037 \037

no

daigaku universities

ni kuru. from

(Every
Asia.)

many

students

come to Japanese
similar

3. Sukunai, an antonym sukunai nor oi can from Sukunai differs and of oku majority'

be

of oi, is very used before


that

to oi

in

its

use.

Neither
clauses.
oku C

oi in
no
C

there

nouns, except in relative is no counterpart of

the

many'.

(t:) sukunai) sukunaidesu. in this town.) wa sukunai.

(4) a.

\037Q)IUT'i.tJ\037\037t\037L'\037To

Kono

machi

wa

kuruma

ga

(There aren't
Nihongo

many

cars

b. a *mQ)\037flfltJ\037\037\037
(Few students
can

0 \037!:E,:t\037t\037 L '0
yomeru

no shinbun ga
read

gakusei
newspapers.))

Japanese

356

oi)

(Related

Expressions]
oku

I. Oi and
[1]

no can
no

be

replaced

by

ozei iru and

ozei
used

no,

respectively,
for

if

oi and oku Kono


(There

refer

to human
'i\037!:EtJ\037\037L'

beings. Ozei is
/ *\037L'Qo

only

people.

\037 Q)$mo\037) heya

(ni)

wa gakusei

ga oi I ozei iTU.
in this

are a lot
o\037)

of

students

room.)

[2]

\037 Q)$m

'i\037 < (])

*\037(])\037!:EtJ\037\037, \037 0)

Kono heya (ni) wa oku no (There are a lot of students

lozei no
in adverb,

gakusei

ga

iru.

this room.) but the speech.)


adverbial

Qzei
[3]

can

be
used

used

by itself

as
in o

an

form

of oi

cannot be

as an

adverb

colloquial

\037!:EtJ\037*\037

/ *\037 < *t.:

Gakusei (Many

ga ozei / *oku students came.) no can


Takusan

kita.

I I.

0;

and

oku

be

replaced

by

takusan
used

spectively.

can also

be

by

itself

aru I iru and takusan as an adverb.)

no, re-

[4]

\037 Q)$m

o\037) 'imtJ\037\037

L' I t=. < \037 Iv N> Q 0

K ono (There

heya (ni) wa are a lot of

tsukue
tables

in

ga oi / takusan this room.)

aTU.

[5]
=

\037 Q)$mo:.)

'i\037!:EtJ\037\037L'

/ t=. < \037IvL'Qo

Kono
(There

heya

(ni)

wa gakusei
students

ga oi /
in

takusan

iTU.

e 0 I) [6]

are a lot of
wa takusan
lot

this

room.)
ga

\037\302\245'it=.<\037Iv/*\037<

1**\037\037tJ\037\037-:Jt.:o

Kotoshi

/ *oku /
year.)

*ozei yuki
and

futta.

(It snowed a
I I I. Oku can [7]

this

be

used

as

a noun but

ozei

takusan

cannot.)

< I **\037 I *t=. < \037 Iv'i\037 t.:. o no oku I *ozei / *takusan wa otoko of the students are male.)))) (The majority
\037!:EQ)\037

Gakusei

da.

oku

357)

oku
do
!

\037 <)

aux. in

v. (Gr.
for

1))

advance

future

con\037l

do
and as

vemence

\037.t.

! ..\"\"....\037......\037)

s.t. in advance; go ahead do s. t.; let s.o./s. t. remain he/it is


aTu 2 ])

Key

Sentence)

[REL.
Vte

tb \037t::.. /\037-7.-( Ashita

\037

To

q)\037

1::\"
biru

Iv

\037

A\"':)-C

\\ t::.. :td \037

:to \037 \037L t::.. 0

pati
are

0 suru node
having a party

katte

oita I okimashita.

(Sincewe
Formatien)

tomorrow, I bought

some beer for

it.))

Vte

:td

<

oku
'\03715

-c

:td

<

(talk in

advance)
advance)

hanashite

oku)
:td

itA: -c tabete
Examples)

<

(eat s.t.

in

oku)

= ,;:it\037-C:td\037\\t::..o node

(a)

\037a 'i\037,;:\037tJ\037*oq)\037\037\037!Ji\037!f.B

i) 0
ni tabete
earlier.))

Kyo wa

hiru

ni kyaku
having

ga

kuru

hirugohan

0
had

hayame

oita.

(Since I'm
(b)

a guest

at noon

today, I

my

lunch

\037p L a*m\037\037%t L -C:td\037 \037To *\302\245a*\037n < tJ\037

Rainen

Nihon e

iku

kara
Japan

sukoshi
next

(Since I'm going of time.))

to

year,

nihongo 0 benkyoshite I will study a little

okimasu. Japanese

ahead

em)

1.

Oku

as

a main
V

verb

means

'put'

or

place'.
C

However,
do something

used with

te,

and leave the


2. With

it is an auxiliary verb meaning state resultant as it is for future

when it is in advance

convenience'.)

a causative verb, Vte someone or something remain

oku can express the in his / its present

idea that
state.

someone

lets

Examples:)))

358 oku /
(1)

- ni
a.

naru) 0 tJ\037 '? L ,:! '? < \037\037 -tt-c t3 \037? 0 mT':t\037tL -c \037\\ Nobuko wa tsukarete iru kara shibaraku nesasete oko. is tired, let's let her sleep for a while.) (Since Nobuko
\037h-

b.

t::..\037\\ \037 let. t!. .t\037\037 -tt-c t3 \037 let. \037 \037 ? q) let. '? M- \037 \037\\o

Nomitai

to iu
he

no

nara

sukina

dake
let

nomasete
him

okinasai.
as much

(If he says likes.)


However,

wants

to drink,

drink

as he

if the

context is not clear,


following \037iX* 1::\037 -Iv wa

causative

Vte

oku can

be

ambiguways.)

ous. (2)

For example, the fL':t


\0377':'

sentence it-C

can be interpreted

two

13 L't=.o

Watashi
I \302\253A)

Bobu

ni biru 0
drink

nomssete
beer

oits.
convenience). (B)
conversation.)

I
3.
V

let

let (or make) Bob Bob drink beer.)

(for future

te
(3)

oku may
a.

be

contracted

into

toku or doku

in in

informal advance)

J!-C mite

t3< oku
t3<

-+J!
mi

c!:<
toku
\037<

(see(read

b.

\037\037-C:-

-+

\037Iv yon

in

advance)

yonde

oku

doku)

!F'= =
5 ! =

\037)

\037

5 =-

o -ni naru to - I\037\037Q .\037\037/'../\037 a phrase which expresses the \037


\037 ( er's

phr.)
\037\037 \037 I

speak-

[REL.

0 -SUTU; rareru

])

respect

for

someone

when

de-

)
;

that person's action or state scribing ! \",,\037\"\"\"\"\037'-\"\"'\037\"\"./\"../\"'./\"\"o\037\037\"\"\"'\037)

. Key

Sentence)

Topic (subject)
EE\037jt!:E

V masu ,=. I.t. -:J t::.. / I.t. !J \037L t:: 0 ni

,;t

b?

t3 \037\037 \037J
o-\037kseri

Tanaka-sensei

wa
already

mo
went

natta

I narimashita.

(Prof.

Tanaka

home.))))

o
Formation)

ni

naru

359)

:to V masu

,:.
ni
,;:
ni tet,

tet,

0:to \037 '-

naru) tet,

(s.o. (will) talk)

o-hanashi
:to\037;t ,;:

naru) 0

(s.o. (will)

teach)

o-oshie ni
Examples)
(a)

naru)

\037 Q)*\037

Kono

hon
you

* t ? :to\037h-,;:tet, \037 0 mo o-yomi ni read

'-t::..tJ\037o

narimashita

ka.

(Have (b)
\037. '/

this book

yet?)

-;\" \037

\037jt!:E'ifLQ)\037

Guddoman-sensei

M \037 :to\037tL ,;: tet, -:J t::.. o wa watashi no namae 0


forgotten

o-wasure ni

natta.

(Prof.

Goodman has

my

name.))

em)

1.

ni naru is used when the speaker with respect. However, if a social in honorific speech, the honorific form norm requires the speaker to talk is used, even if the speaker does not respect the person he talks about. of Japanese (For more detail, see Characteristics Grammar, 6. Politeness Politeness is expressed in this form by two elements: and Formality.) first which describes by the polite prefix 0-, and second by the verb naru, someone's action or state This indirectness is a common indirectly.
In

ordinary

circumstances,

0- V masu
state

describes someone's

action

or

\037

; o -

\037))

strategy

in

polite

expressions.
verbs

(t:) nSTu)
honorific forms

2.

There honorific

are some verbs.

whose

are expressed
and

by

special

(See

Characteristics

of Japanese
has cc

Grammar,

6. Politeness

Formality.)

3. When a
denwasuru

the N suru\" form like kekkonsuru 'marry' and its honorific form is \"go- / o-N nasaru\". is Nasaru C the honorific form of suru do' and a Gr. 1 verb. (Note that Vmasu is nasai (masu), not nasari of exceptions (masu).) Except for a handful C C which require 0- (i.e.,denwasuru ryorisuru call', benkyosuru study', C C C ' take a walk sentakusuru

verb

'call'

cook',

wash',

sojisuru

clean',

sanposuru

'),

go- precedes

N. (t:)0-, REL.)

Examples:)

360 0

-ni

naru

/ 0

-suru)
0

,;:\037\037\037t\037 L '*T (1) IJ,Jlj;t!:E'i(lgJ) \037


Koyama-sensei

(Prof.

wa shigatsu ni go-kekkon nasaimasu. Koyama will get married in April.)


l.,t=tJ\037o

(2)

\037*\037

L'* \037':'13mUt\037 \037

Morimoto-san

ni o-denwa
call

nasaimashita

ka.

(Did (Related
Rareru
Expression]

you

Mr.

Morimoto?))

l can
In

also be
[1],

used

as seen

although

to describe respectfully someone's action the degree of politeness IS not as high.

or state,
l

(t:) TaTeTu
[1]

, Note

9))

a.

EE\037;t!:E'it?ffn'?tL\037'-t::..tJ\037o

Tanaka-sensei

wa mo
Tanaka

kaeraremashita ka.

(Did b.
Q) \037 Kono

Prof. \037t

go home already?)

hon

t::..tJ\037o ? \037\037tL \037\037 0 mo yomaremashita


this

ka.

(Have

you read

book

yet?))

= I

=
0
Ii)

\037)

-suru a phrase

to

- 9Q)
humbly

phr.)

which

expresses

[REL.

ni

naru])

\037::::\037 >
when
\037 ;:\037\037\037e

describing the that involves

speaker's action
or
affects

that)

. Key

Sentence)
V masu \037 'i wa \037
my

Topic(subject)
fL

;t!:E sensei
teacher's

Q)

A-\0377-A

\037

jO\037t>

t::.. / \037

\037 \037'- t::.. o

Watashi

no

sutsukesu

o-:p,ochi shita

/ shimashita.

(I carried

suitcase.))))

o -suru
Fermation) :to Vmasu

361)

To
suru)

o
':to\037i5

To
suru

(s.o. (will) talk) (s.o. (will)

o-hanashi
:to\037;t

To

teach)

o-oshie suru)
Examples)

(a)

.:t

Q) \037\037 'ifLtJ\037:td\037

\037\037 \037\037 J:

Sono

koto
tell

(I will
(b)

wa watashi ga o-hanashi you about that matter.)


;tofti!J L t::.. o wa sensei ni hon
borrowed

shimasho.

JlJft8':tjt!:E';:*\037 Yamamura-kun

0 o-kari from

shita.

(Mr. Yamamura

a book

his teacher.))

..
1.

0- V masu suru is used when the speaker wants to be polite when talkhe or his in-group member did or will do. (For ing about something more detail, see Characteristics of Japanese Grammar, 6. Politeness and For when to a customer, a sales manager is talking Formality.) example, the manager uses this pattern will do for to describe what his salesmen the customer, as in (1).

(1)

7' \037\037

Iv 'i

ijij

a ? -t? Q) -e
myonichi

Iv

A -;\" \037 \037 tJ\037:to To 1fb It \037

=
I

Sanpuru
\302\253One of)

wa

uchi
will

no serusuman
bring

Our salesmen

the sample

ga o-todoke shimasu. to you tomorrow.)


memto

0 _)

2. 0-

V masu when the speaker's (or his in-group suru is used only the ber's) action involves or affects person the speaker wants under ordinary circumstances. (2) is unacceptable polite to. Thus,

be

(2)

*fLtJ\037:toW.

\037 \037\037 To

*Watashi
(I

ga o-aruki

shimasu.

will walk.)
some verbs whose humble forms are expressed by special 6. Politeness and for(See Characteristics of Japanese Grammar, The rule in Note 2 does not apply to these verbs. That is, used

3. There are
verbs.
mality.)

these not

special verbs are also


if

be used even

the
affect

speaker's
the

(or his

involve or

person

polite expressions and can does in-group member's) action the speaker wants to be polite to.)
as

simple

362

0 -suru

/ -owaru)
a verb

4.

denwasuru ' call', its \" go- / o-N itasu\". Except for a handful , ' suru ' clean',sanposuru
Examples:)
(3)

When

has the form\"


humble
(ltasu

suru

form is
is the

\", \"

like

shokaisuru / o-N
suru\" the

'introduce'

and

go-

or, more politely,

humble form of
which

of exceptions study',
'

require

0-

call', benkyosuru

ryorisuru 'cook',
take a walk

sentakusuru

verb suru, do'.) (i.e., denwasuru ' wash', soji(t:)

'), go-

N. precedes

0-,

REL.)

l:ft

Iv \037 \037 \037mft

Uemura-san

(Let me
(4)
&;

l, '*T / L't.: l, '*T 0 0 go-shokai shimasu / itashimasu. (lit. I will) int'roduce Mr. Uemura.)

L t::..13.\037

Ashita

o-denwa
call

l, '*T / L't.:l, '*T 0 shimasu / itashimasu.

(I

will

you tomorrow).)

[Related Expression]

0- V masu ni naru is also used to express politeness. However, 0-V masu ni in that the former is used naru and 0- V masu suru are different when the or state with respect, while the latter speaker talks about someone'saction IS used when the speaker talkJ his own action or state. about
(t:) Characteristics

of Japanese

Grammar, 6. Politeness

and

Formality))

\037 == \037 \037 = o --

\037)

-owaru
finish

-\037bQ
doing

aux.

v. (Gr.

1)

\037-

i'''''''''''''.\037\037../''''.,.,)

finish; end

[REL. shimau]
(ANT.

-hajimeru))

. Key

Sentence)
V \037 \037-:Jc!:

masu
\03731- \037b

I{\037\037m

-:J \037 / \037b!) \037Lt::.. o

Genjimonogatari

yatto

yoml

owatta

/ owarimashita.

(I

finally

finished

reading

The Tale of Genji.))))

-owaru
Fermation)

363)

Vmasu

I.\037b\037

owaru)
\03715 '-I.\037b \037

(finish

talking)

hanashiowaru)
1t\037\037b \037

(finish

eating)

tabeowaru)
Examples)

(a)

-:J C!:\037)( \037tf \037 -\\\037 I.\037b Yatto

-:J t.: o

ronbun

0 kakiowatta.
writing a paper.)

(I
\037

finally

finished

\037\0375\037\037fi\0371t\037nb-:J\037c!:\037\037\037\0370

Chado

gohan
finished

0 tabeowatta
eating

tokoro meal.))

desu.

(I've just em) 1. -owaru

my

is

an

auxiliary

verb

derived from the


- oeru
verb.)

intransitive

verb

owaru

meaning
2.

'end; comesto
can

a close'.
by in

owaru

be replaced

written

Japanese.

oeru,

how-

ever, conjugates

as a Gr. 2

m 0 I)

364 rareru
'A

-rareru
1

l)

bfLQ)

aux. v. (Gr. 2))

.\037\037\037
state

or an action

cannot be con\037 I (

be -ed; get

-ed
naTU;

trolled by s.o. or .......................\037\"\"\"\"\"'''\037)

s.t.

[REL. 0

,.\"ni

rareru

))

. Key
(A))

Sentences

Topic

(subject)
tt

Agent
:{ET ,.:
ni

Transitive
ff.'f:.

Verb

(passive)

-\037\037

tL t::.. \037

tL \037L t::.. 0 / f= 'f:. \037

Ichiro

wa
was

Hanako
deceived

damasareta

/ damasaremashita.

(Ichiro
(B))

by Hanako.))

Topic

(subject)

Agent

Intransitive

Verb ,.: . ni
\037

(passive)

.y;J:-\037 Jen

tt
wa

7 v \037t:
Fureddo

jO.:t<

\037\037r

,.:
ni

* '? tL t::.. /
korare

yoru osoku

apato

ta /

*'?tL\037Lt::.. o
koraremashi

ta.

(Fred came
(C))
= i

to

Jane's

apartment

late

at

night

(and Jane was

unhappy).))

=
8
\037)

Topic
fL

(subject)
tt -

Agent
m
,=. ni

Direct Object
?\"-\037 keki
\037

Transitive

Verb

(passive)

14: '\"

Watashi

wa

ototo

'? tL t::.. / 14: '\" '? tL \037L t::.. 0 taberareta / taberaremashita.


younger

I got my cake eaten (Lit. by my younger ate my cake (and I was unhappy).\302\273) (D))

brother. ( = My

brother

Topic
aI\03796!:E

(subject)
Ii
wa

Verb (passive)
a*
Nihon
J'o\"

\037;tLt::..

\037;tL\037

Lt::.. o

Tanaka -sensei

kaeTareta / kaeTaremashita.
(Honorific\302\273)))

(Prof.

Tanaka

went

back to

Japan.

rareru

365)

Formation) ( i)

Gr. 1 Verbs:

Vneg

tL\037

reru) tL \037 J& \037 hanasareru) (ii)

(be

told))

Gr. 2 Verbs:

Vstem

'?tL\037

rareru)

1t\"''?tL\037
taberareru)

(be

eaten))

(iii) Irr. Verbs:

*\037

-+

*'?tL\037
korareru)

(s.o.

(X) comes

to s.o.

(Y)

and

IS

kuru
T\037

unhappy)

-+

\037tL\037)

(be

done))

suru
Exa

sareru)

m pies) q) \037\"/ldi=\037wH='\037-C \037 '?tLt::.. o mae

(a)

Kono biru wa

ninen

(This
(b)

building

was

built

ni taterareta. two years ago.)

q) \037 Kono

tL t::.. o *f'i 1965 \037,=. 7' ;) !1 :IJ\"t* ttl\037 \037 hon wa 1965 nen ni Amerika de
book

shuppansareta.
1965.)

(This
(c)
Watashi

was

published

in America
tsuma

in

fL'i=\037M\037'=.\037t.ttLt::..o

wa ninen
died

mae

ni shinareta.
(and

(My (d)
Harada

wife

two years
,=. fWj \\t\\ ::J ni

ago
-

gave

me sorrow).)

Iv }Jj{ aI \037

fi

Iv \037\037

\" \037 J\\

b tL t::.. o

\037 8 i \03 \037

-san

wa okusan
wife

takai

k6to

0 kawareta.

(Mr. Harada's
(e)

bought

an expensive

coat

(and

he

is unhappy).)

;f:-*%!:E'i

a *q)*\037q)

t c!: tLt::.. o \037al5 \037

Hayashi-sensei
(Prof.

Hayashi

wa Nihon no daigaku no koto talked about Japanese universities.

0 hanasareta.
(Honorific\302\273)

em

1. There are
called passive U

two

types

of passive

sentences
U

in

Japanese.

One

passive\" and the other, indirect passive\". is similar to the English passive. (KS(A), Exs.
direct
for

can be The direct


and
(b\302\273

(a)

That

is,

every
example,

passive
the

tence. For

sentence, there is a corresponding active version of KS(A) is (1).)))

active sen-

366

rareru
(1)

l)

:{E-=f'i-\037\037

t\037 \037 *

'-

t::..o

Hanako (Hanako

wa Ichiro deceived
KS(A),

damashita.

Ichiro.)

As seen
active

in

in direct

sentences

is presented

passive sentences, as the subject;


and
are
passive

the

direct
in

object
active

in

the subject
by

senthat

tences is presented as the agent in direct passive sentences verbs

marked
always

ni.

(t:) nj3)

Note

transitive.
of the

2.

When ment

the from

speaker uses a the viewpoint


when

direct of the
he /

omitted frequently in Exs. (a) and (b).)


3. The indirect

he is making a stateaction. The agent is it is not important and / or unknown, as


sentence, receiver

object in active sentences passive sentences. Examples:


(2)

can also be

the

subject

in direct

a.

Active sentence
.y

3 \037 'i%!:E

,:. \037rl=J\037 \037'- t::.. o


ni

Jon

wa sensei
asked passive

shitsumon

0 shua.

(John

his teacher a sentence


shitsumon

question.)

b.

Direct

%!:E'i.y 3
Sensei

\037 ,=. \037rl=J\037 tL t::.. o \037\037 ni

wa Jon
teacher

0 sareta.
by

(The
4. The
=
in

was

asked

a question

John.)
marked

=
\037)

agent particles, such as


(3)

direct
ni

passive and yotte

sentences can also be


kara.)

by

other

8 \037

Ni yotte

a.

\037 Q)\037'i

'c0j} '.l f=J: \037 T.tJ\037tJ\037tLt::..o

Kono (This

e wa picture

Pikaso ni yatte
was painted
by

kakareta.

Picasso.)

b.

tLt::.. o .\037'iA:lvf= J:? T.\037fYj \037 Denwa wa Beru ni yatte hatsumeisareta. was invented (The telephone by Bell.)

Ni yotte, meaning 'depending used in written form or formal

means of', is usually by X in X ni yotte is a sort of medium ni yotte or whom something is done. When through which is used, X ni yotte is usually under strong the folfocus. Therefore, sentences are unacceptable under normal circumstances.))) lowing

on;

owing to;
when

speech

rareru l
(4)

367)

a.

*fLlj:\037TI::

J:?\"'C

\037t.=tLt.=o

*Watashi (I

wa Hanako
by

ni yatte
J: ?
always

butareta.

was hit

Hanako.)
\"'C\037btL -C \\1\\\037 0 owarete

b.

Iv Ii \\1\\':) ttt.,:: )11* \037

*Kawamoto-san

wa itsumo

shigoto ni yatte
keeps the from

iru.

(Mr.
Kara

Kawamoto's work
can be used when

him busy.) agent the is a sort


agent.)

'from'
that

source,
(5)

is,

in of ni when place there is something coming

of

Kara

a.

fL'i\037!:EfJ\\;

Watashi reta.

a *Q)*\037Q) \037c!: \037 flfltJ\037tLt::..o no daigaku wa gakusei kSTS Nihon the

no koto
universities.)

0 kika-

(I was
b.

asked by
Ii
1-J.1v t,t.

students

about Japanese
iru.

*EB (Mr.

Iv \037

fJ\\;.fit

\037 tL \"\"(\\1\\\037 0

Kida-san

wa minna kSTS sonkeisarete Kida is respected by eyerybody.)


are

The

following sentences
sources.)
*\037 Q)\037\037t'i

unacceptable

because

the agents

cannot

be

considered
(6)

a.

\037;S f\302\243? fJ\\

;\037\037tL \037'- t::.. o

*Sono (That

wa dorobo kSTS nusumaremashita. watch was stolen by a thief.)


tokei shashin
picture c!: '? tLt.= t Q)\"t*T 0 wa watashi no chichi kSTS torareta is the one taken by my father.)

b.

\037 Q)\037.'j:fLQ)\037fJ\\;

*Kono

mono desu.
in English. the English
\037 \037

(This
5. The

= =

other

type

of passive, passive is

The indirect passive in


(A) (B)

the indirect passive, doesnot different from the direct passive ways:
intransitive. remain an

exist and

8 i\03

the

following

The The

verb can direct

be

(KS(B), as the event


affects

Ex.

(c\302\273

object can
(Y)

direct object.
(X)
another

(KS(C),Ex. (d\302\273

The

indirect

passive describes
something

someone or
direct

which

sentences, the subject (Z) has of Japanese Grammar,S. Passive) Consider the fol(t:) states simply sentence, lowing pair of sentences. (7a), a non-passive that drank Jiro's beer. (7b), an indirect Taro passive sentence, howdrinking beer.) ever, expressesthe idea that Jiro was affected by Taro's
passive
Characteristics

an action by person (Z). As in no control over the event.

involving

368

rareru

1)

It implies

that Jiro
beer

was

because the
(7)

Taro

in some annoyed drank belonged to 0 nonda.

way

by

Taro's

action, perhaps

J iro.

a.

\037.-Iv\037\037lvt.:o :t:\037\037'i(X\037\037Q)

Taro wa

Jiro

no

b;ru

(Taro
b.
Jiro

drank

Jiro's

beer.) Iv
biru \037 \037i:

'i :t:\037\037 ,:. \037. (X\037\037 wa Taro ni


annoyed

tL t::.. o

0 nomareta.

(Jiro was

by

Taro's

drinking beer.)
the In

6.

In

the

indirect

marked and
7.

passive construction, Z is usually presented as by wa, and Y as the agent, marked by ni, as seen
situations
\"

topic, KS(B)

KS(C).)

Since
also

in

many

referred

to as

KS(C), Exs. (c) and Z is not positively depends on the situation. Z is affected positively. seen in (8) where

X negatively affects Z, this construction IS \" or suffering passive \". (KS(B), adversity passive\" Z negatively X affects or whether (d\302\273 However,
always

a \"victim

\",

as

(8)

Iv fWi \037\037

'i

\037.AJ;:f1H;:.m

'? tL -r .:=. :1 .:=. :1 '- -r \\1\\\037 0

Takayama-san

wa bijin ni
Takayama,

yoko ni
woman

suwararete
woman

nikoniko
sit

(Lit. Mr.
smiling

having

a pretty

beside

shite iru. him, is

happily.

(=A

pretty
the

sat

beside

Mr. Takayama
If a
by

and he is
8.

happy.\302\273 sentences,

In indirect

passive

\037

=
\037 \037)

passive sentence contains the agent must precede (9) a.

an
the !1

NP
NP

agent must be marked by ni. ni, as well as an agent marked ni. Example:
\037 tLt::..

ni,

i R \037

fL'i\"
Watashi
(Tom

f=;)

- f=.\037

wa Tomu ni Mear; ni denwasareta. called Mary (and I was unhappy).)

b. *fL'i j
*Watashi

- f= 7 !1

\"

A f=.\037 \037 tLt::.. o


Tomu

wa Mear; ni (Tom called Mary (and

ni

denwasareta.

I was unhappy).)
expressions,

9.

Passive

verbs

are also

used as

honorific

as in

KS(D)

and

Ex.

is lower than that of the\" 0(e), though the degree of politeness V masu ni naru\" form and special honorific verbs. (t:) 0 ,.\" ni nSTU; Characteristics of Japanese Grammar, 6. Politeness and Formality) Polite-

ness, in this construction.)))

case,

is

conveyed

through

the indirectness of

the

passive

rareru 1
10. Passive
(10)

369)

verbs

are

all Gr. 2

verbs.

The basic conjugations

are

as follows:

tL-l> \037\037

(nonpast-inf-affirmative)

hanasareTu)
tLtlL\\ \03715\037

(nonpast-inf-negative)

hanasarenai)
\037 tL \037-8

-c

(te-form)
- i nf - affirmati

hanasarete
tL t=. \037 \03715 (past

ve)

hanasareta)

[Related
The
TaTeTu syntax

Expression]

potential
2

form of Gr.

verbs

is the
honorific

same form as the


structures

passive

form.

(t:)

Potential, and context.


)

passive or Examples:
'?tL\037o

are

identified through

[1]

96!:E'ijfiIJ\037fJ(1t\037

(Potential)

Sensei

wa

sashimi
can

ga
eat

taberareru.
(B) Potential

(My teacher
[2]
passive)

sashimi.)
\302\253A) Honorific,

%!:Efj:jfiIJ\037\0371t\037

'?tLt\037o

or (C) Indirect

Sensei
\302\253A) My

wa sashimi 0 taberareta teacher ate sashimi.


sashimi

Someoneate
[3]

and my

(B) My teacher

teacher
was

could

eat sashimi.

(C)

unhappy.)

\037 %!:Efi \037!\302\243f=jfilJ\037 1t\037 '? tL t::.. o (Indirect passive) ni sashimi 0 taberareta. Sensei wa gakusei eaten teacher had (his) sashimi (The by his students.)

=
\037 -

=
8

-)))

in [1], if the direct object is marked by ga, taberareru can only be as potential; if there is an agent marked by ni, however, taberareru interpreted as seen in [3]. If there is no agent marked expresses indirect passive, by ni
As

seen

and the direct object either honorific, potential

is

marked
or

by 0, taberareru is indirect passive, as seen

ambiguous;
in

it

can

be

[2].)

370 rareru '

rareru
2

2)

b tL

Q)

aux.

v. (Gr. 2))
indicates

an auxiliary
tential
I

verb which

po-

j \037

be

able

to

\037)

be -able;[REL.
dekiTu;

do s.t.; can
can

do s.t.;

be

done

kikoeTu;
mieTu])

koto

ga

. Key
(A))

Sentences
Object of
a*m

Topic
fL

(experiencer)
Ii

Action

Verb

(potential)

tJ\037

\037cY>\037/ \037cY>\037To yomeru

Watashi

wa

nihongo

ga

/ yomemasu.

(I can

read Japanese.))

(B))

Topic (subject)
=.,q)

Verb

(potential)
it Iv 0 / AX cY>\037

7k

Ii

\\ AX cY>t,t. \\t

Kono
(This

mizu
water

wa

nomenai / nomemasen.
drinkable.))

is not

Formation) ( i)
=

Gr. 1 Verbs:

Vcond

z>

=
\037 \037\037it

ru) (can

8 \037) \037

talk)

hanaseru)

(ii) Gr. 2

Verbs:

Vstem

\037tL\037

rareru)

1t\"''?tL\037
taberareru)

(can

eat))

(iii) Irr.

Verbs:)

*\037

-.

*\037tL\037

(can

come))

kuru

korareru)

To
suru

-. ili*o
dekiru
the

(can

do))))

Ikareru

is often

used as

potential

form

of iku

'

go' (Gr. 1).)

rareru

371)

Examples)
(a)

Iv fijfiIJ\037tJ;1t\037 \"7=} rj \037\037 Buraun-san (Mr.

'? tL \037 0

wa sashimi

ga

taberareru. raw

Brown fi

can eat sashimi (=sliced


7\"':='

fish).)

(b)

Iv \037aI \037 Terada-san (Mr.

A tJ\037ttl* \037 0

wa tenisu

ga

dekiru.

Terada

can

play

tennis.)

(c)

':'Q)*fiMf\037t.t\\t\\o

Kono

(This
em)

ji wa yomenai. is not readable.)) letter

1. In potential (t:)
I'W

expressions, if
by

there

is an

experiencer,
action

that

noun

phrase
or

is
o.

usually marked
wa
I'W

wa

and the

ga)

Compare

object of the (1a) and (1b).

by either ga

(1) a.

Non-potential

fL'i\037m\037\037'-\037To

Watashi
(I speak

wa eigo English.)

hanashimasu.

b.

Potential

fLfi\037mfJ( Watashi (I

/ \037\037lSit\037To wa eigo ga / 0

hanasemasu.

English.) 2. In general, the choice between ga and 0 seems to depend on the degree of volition expressed in the action the experiencer takes. That is, if his is high, 0 is preferable. Thus, volition in the following sentences, ga
is

can speak

=
\037 -

=
8 -)

unnatural.)
(2)

a.

fL'i

\037\037J::

c!: I\037;t '\302\243\\t\\\"':)\"t* t \037Q)tt.\037

/ *fJ(\037 \037'? tL \037 0 demo

Watashi

wa

yamey6 to
my think

omoeba itsu
job

ima

no shigoto
to

o / *ga
(I

yamerareru.

can quit whenever I

current I will

whenever

want

quit

(lit.

quit it).)

b.

\037'i\037

-:J c!: Q)\037\\t\\\"t* \037 ;t '? tLt::.. o 7t\037 / *fJ(jO \037

Boku

wa yatto
barely

(I
3. Dekiru'
marked can

could

control

no omoi de jibun 0 / *ga osaerareta. my emotions (lit. hold myself).)


always requires
the

by

do', however, ga, as in Ex.

object

of an action

to be

(b).

Another

example

follows:)))

372

rareru
(3)

2)

fL'i

1-.:r.

A fJ( /

\037 m*

\037 0

Watashi (I can

wa chesu play chess.)


0 (i.e.,

ga / *0 dekiru.
and

4. The
(4)

spatial in

0 2)

the

detachment

0 (i.e., 03) do

not

change

into ga a.

potential

expressions.

Space
fL'icbq)\037fm\037

/ *fJ(\037-A \037\037'tf\037\037'o

Watashi

wa ana
walk /

koen 0 / *ga
that park
kutsu

yoru by

hitori myself

de arukenai. at night.)

(I b.

can't

through

\037q)m\037

*IJ\302\253 \":)\037'itJ\037T'='\037't\"\302\243TtJ\037o

Kono

michi

0 / *ga
along

0 hakazu
without

ni arukemasu ka.
shoes

(Can you
(5)

walk

this road

on?)

Detachment it No 'i ? 't? \037 / *1J<m G tL\"\302\243 Kyo wa uchi 0 / *ga deraremasen. (I can't leave home today.)
\037 f3

5.

the

experiencer is clear from the context and / or the situation, or if he is usually omitted and the experiencer is a person in general, marked by wa, as in KS(B) object of the action is presented as a topic and Ex. (c).
If the
Non-volitional

6.

verbs

like
aru

'need,

be necessary';
not

wakaru 'understand, be understandable'; aku 'open (v.i.)' and kusaru 'exist';


forms.
'see'

jru

'rot

(v.i.)' do
=

have

potential
miru

5 \037 8 \037) \037

7. The potential are similar to

forms of
the

(mirareru)

and
and

kiku

'hear'

(kikeru)

verbs

8.

respectively, but their The idea of potentiality


dekiru. Potential

'be visible' uses are different.


mieru
can

kikoeru

'be

audible', koto ga
are

(t:) kikoeTu; mieTu)


by

also be expressed

Vinf.

nonpast

(t:) koto verbs

ga dekiTu)
as

9.

are

all

Gr. 2 verbs.

The basic conjugations

follows:

(6)

\037it \037

(can

talk)

hanaseTU
\037ittl\" \\

(cannot

talk)

hanasenai
\037it-C

(can

talk and,

(te-form\302\273

hanasete)))

rareru
\037l5itt=

/ rashii

373)

(could

talk)

hanasets

10. There is

another

potential
Vstem

form

for

Group

2 verbs.

(7) Gr. 2

verbs:

\037'1 \037

reru)
:tt\037 \037 --.

:tt\037tL \037

taberu

tabereru)

This form,

however,

is used

only

in

informal

conversation.)

rashii

b l., t

\\)

aux.

adj.

<