Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
AISC Webinar
Design for Stability
using the
2010 AISC Specification
July 14, 2011
Louis F. Geschwindner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor Emeritus, Architectural Engineering Penn State University
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Outline
1. Design for Combined Forces
2. Stability Analysis and Design Requirements
3. Determination of Required Strength
– Direct Analysis Method
– Effective Length Method
– FirstOrder Analysis
4. Summary and Simplified Method
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Design for Combined Forces
Chapter H addresses members subject to axial force and flexure about one or both axes, with or without torsion, and to members subject to torsion only.
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Design for Combined Forces
H1.Doubly and SinglySymmetric Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force H2.Unsymmetric and Other Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force H3.Members Subject to Torsion and Combined Torsion, Flexure, Shear, and/or Axial Force H4.Rupture of Flanges with Holes Subject to Tension
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Design for Combined Forces
2010  Doubly and Singly Symmetric
Members (same as 2005)
P
r
P
c
P
r
P
c
≥ 0.2
< 0.2
P r 
+ 
8 
M rx 
+ 
M ry 

P c P 
9 
MM cx M cy M 


r + rx + 2 PMM c cx ry cy 

≤ 1.0
≤ 1.0
There’s always a solution in steel!
(H11a)
(H11b)
9
BeamColumns
• Definitions (ASD)
P
r
= required compressive strength (ASD)
P = 
P / 
Ω= 
c 
nc 
allowable compressive strength
M
M
r
c
= required flexural strength (ASD)
=
M
/
Ω=
allowable flexural strength
nb
Ω = 1.67
c
Ω = 1.67
b
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
BeamColumns
• Definitions (LRFD)
P
= required compressive strength (LRFD)
r
c =φ
P
P
=
design compressive strength
cn
M
= required flexural strength (LRFD)
M
r
c =φ
M
bn
=
design flexural strength
φ =
c
0.90
φ =
b
0.90
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Design for Combined Forces
1.2
Ratio of axial load to axial strength
1
0.8
H11a
0.6
0.4
0.2
H11b
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Ratio of bending moment to bending strength
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Design for Combined Forces
• BeamColumn Design using Manual Tables
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
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Design Requirements
AISC 36010
B3.1 Required Strength
“The required strength of structural members and connections shall be determined by structural analysis for the appropriate load combinations as stipulated in Section B2.” “Design by elastic, inelastic or plastic analysis is permitted.”
B3.5 Design for Stability
“Stability of the structure and its elements shall be determined in accordance with Chapter C.”
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Stability Analysis and Design 

AISC 36010 C. Design For Stability 

C1. General Stability Requirements C2. Calculation of Required Strengths C3. Calculation of Available Strengths 


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Stability Analysis and Design 

AISC 36010 

C1. General Stability Requirements 

“Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the following on stability of the structure and its elements shall be considered:” 


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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Design for Stability
1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all other deformations that contribute to displacements of the structure
2. Secondorder effects (both PΔ and Pδ effects)
3. Geometric imperfections
4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity
5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength
“All loaddependent effects shall be calculated at a level of loading corresponding to LRFD load combinations or 1.6 times ASD load combinations.”
We will discuss α in this regard later.
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Design for Stability
C1. General Stability Requirements “Any rational method of design for stability that considers all of the listed effects is permitted; this includes the methods identified in Sections C1.1 and C1.2.” C1.1 Direct Analysis Method of Design C1.2 Alternative Methods of Design
Effective Length Method
Firstorder Analysis
_{M}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{d} _{}} Appendix 7
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
SecondOrder Analysis
• PΔ (sway effects)
Δ
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SecondOrder Analysis
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Second Order Analysis Results
Lateral Displacement (in.)
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SecondOrder Analysis
Either carry out a rigorous secondorder analysis, in which case the forces determined in the analysis are M _{r} and P _{r} or Use an approximate method of second order analysis by amplified firstorder analysis as given in Appendix 8.
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Approximate SecondOrder Analysis
Definitions
P nt
P lt
M nt
M lt
B
1
B
2
= Firstorder axial force when translation is restrained
= Firstorder axial force due to translation
= Firstorder moment when translation is restrained
= Firstorder moment due to translation
= Amplification for member effect
= Amplification for frame effect
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Approximate SecondOrder Analysis 

Firstorder analysis using EI, AE or EI*, AE* as required by method of analysis 

P 

H=Max(W, N _{i} ) 
_{A}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{f}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} 

Negative 


Restraint 
Artificial 

Force 
Restraint 

Force 

No translation 
Translation 


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Approximate SecondOrder Analysis 

• Common design office approximation 

M nt 
= gravity load moments 

M lt 
= lateral load moments 

P 


H 


No translation ? Lateral translation 

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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
K 1 = 1.0
P
=
(A85)
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Approximate SecondOrder Analysis
• App.8.2.2 Multiplier B _{2} for P∆ Effects (sway effect)
P e story
1 −
1
α P
story
P e story
= elastic critical buckling strength in plane of bending
dertermined for a sidesway buckling analysis
P story
= total vertical load supported by all columns in story
α= 1.0
(LRFD)
There’s always a solution in steel!
α= 1.6
(ASD)
35
B
2
=
≥ 1.0
(A86)
Approximate SecondOrder Analysis
• App.8.2.2 Multiplier B _{2} for P∆ Effects (sway effect)
HL
Δ
H
firstorder translation of the story
H = 
story shear force producing 
Δ 
L = 
story height 
H
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P e story
= R
M
(A87)
Δ
H
=
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Approximate SecondOrder Analysis
• App.8.2.2 Multiplier B _{2} for P∆ Effects (sway effect)
P mf
P mf
= total vertical load in columns that are
part of moment frames
P story
= total vertical load supported by
all columns in story
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R
M
=
1 −
0.15
P story
(A88)
Approximate SecondOrder Analysis
• App.8.2.2 Multiplier B _{2} for P∆ Effects (sway effect)
P mf
• For braced frames
R
M
= 1.0
• For moment frames with no gravity only columns
R
M
= 0.85
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(conservative in all cases)
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R
M
=
1 −
0.15
P story
(A88)
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Design for Stability
C1. General Stability Requirements
Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the following on stability of the structure and its elements shall be considered:”
1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all other deformations that contribute to displacements of the structure
2. Secondorder effects (both PΔ and Pδ effects)
3. Geometric imperfections
4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity
5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength
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Geometric Imperfections
• OutOfStraightness
ASTM A6
Tolerance:
e = L/1000
• OutOfPlumbness
L
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Code of Standard Practice Tolerance:
e = L/500
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Design for Stability
C1. General Stability Requirements
Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the following on stability of the structure and its elements shall be considered:”
1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all other deformations that contribute to displacements of the structure
2. Secondorder effects (both PΔ and Pδ effects)
3. Geometric imperfections
4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity
5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength
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Stiffness Reduction
• Effects of Inelasticity
– Stressstrain relationship no longer linear – Use the Tangent Modulus of Elasticity
strain
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Stiffness Reduction 

• Depends on the level of axial stress in the member 1.20 

1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00
τ
b


when P α 
P y ≤ 0.5 
; 

r 

τ b = 1.0 

when P α 
P y > 0.5 
; 

r 

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 

τ= b 4 α P P r y 1 − α= 1.0 (LRFD) 
α P P r y α= 1.6 (ASD) 


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Design for Stability 

C1. General Stability Requirements 

Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the following on stability of the structure and its elements shall be considered:” 

1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all other deformations that contribute to displacements of the structure 

2. Secondorder effects (both PΔ and Pδ effects) 

3. Geometric imperfections 

4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity 

5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength 


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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Uncertainty 

• Included in available strength determination 

– Resistance factor, φ 

– Safety factor, Ω 

• Included in stiffness reduction factor, τ _{b} 

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Stability Design Requirements 

• So, what is really new (with 2005 and 2010 Specifications) for the engineer to consider? 

– Secondorder effects 

• 
Not really new but… 

– Initial outofplumbness 

• 
New, but do not always need to include 

– Residual stress influence on secondorder 

• 
Built in to secondorder analysis when needed 

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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Required Strength 

• 
C2 Calculation of required strength 

– Three approaches are available 

• Section C2: Direct Analysis Method 

– 
This is the foundation for the other approaches presented 

• Appendix 7.2: Effective Length Method 

– 
Essentially what you have been used to 

• Appendix 7.3: Firstorder Analysis Method 

– 
This is the simplest approach if applicable 

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Required Strength 

• 
What are the features of these methods 

– Direct Analysis 

• Can eliminate need to determine effective length factor, _{K} 

– Notional Loads 

• Used to account for outofplumbness (all three methods) 

• Used to account for secondorder effects (First order analysis method) 

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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Design for Stability
• C2. Calculation of Required Strengths
“For the direct analysis method of design, the required strengths of components of the structure shall be determined from an analysis conforming to Section C2.1. The analysis shall include consideration of initial imperfections in accordance with Section C2.2 and adjustments to stiffness in accordance with Section C2.3”
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Direct Analysis
• C2. Calculation of Required Strengths
– Applicable to all types of structures
– Does not distinguish between systems
• Braced frames
• Moment frames
• Shear wall systems
• Any combination of systems
– The bottom line, K = 1.0
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Direct Analysis 

• 
C2.1. General Analysis Requirements (1) consider all deformations 

The same requirement as the general stability requirements in Section C1.(1) 

(2) conduct a secondorder analysis 

The same requirement as the general stability requirements in Section C1.(2) 

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Direct Analysis 

• 
C2.1.(2) Secondorder Analysis 

– Use any secondorder elastic analysis that considers PΔ and Pδ effects 

• 
May ignore effect of Pδ on the response of the structure since the exceptions in this section will likely be met. 

– Options: 

• Any rigorous secondorder analysis method 

• Amplified firstorder analysis of Appendix 8 

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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Direct Analysis
• C2.1. General Analysis Requirements (1) consider all deformations (2) conduct a secondorder analysis (3) include all gravity and other loads
• Seems obvious
(4) carry out analysis for LRFD or 1.6ASD load combinations
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Direct Analysis
• C2.1.(4) Analysis at LRFD or 1.6ASD load combinations
P =
u
150,
P =
a
100,
SecondOrder vs. FirstOrder Analysis
Moment (in.kips)
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Use α to be sure that the analysis captures the nonlinear aspects at
the ultimate strength
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Direct Analysis
SecondOrder vs. FirstOrder Analysis
Direct Analysis
• C2.2. Consideration of Initial Imperfections
“The effect of initial imperfections on the stability of the structure shall be taken into account either by direct modeling of imperfections in the analysis as specified in Section C2.2a or by application of notional loads as specified in Section C2.2b.” C2.2a. Direct modeling C2.2b. Notional loads
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Geometric Imperfections
C2.2a. Direct Modeling
0.48 

Top lateral 

displacement 

Δ = 0.105 in. 

0.24 
Support Moment
M = 32.4 inkips
20.0 ft
All members W8x24 FirstOrder Analysis
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Geometric Imperfections
• C2.2b. Notional Loads Apply notional loads, N _{i} , where
N
i
=
0.002 αY
i
Y _{i} = the total gravity load on that story
Applies to tiered buildings and _{a}_{c}_{c}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{f}_{o}_{r}
an initial outofplumbness at the minimum of 1/500 as defined in the COSP. If a lesser outof plumbness is known, N _{i} can be reduced
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Geometric Imperfections
• C2.2b.(4) If the secondorder effects are limited,
B
2
=
Δ 2 nd
− order
Δ 1 st
− order
< 1.7
these notional loads are applied in the gravity only load combinations, otherwise they are also added to the lateral loads.
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Stiffness Reduction
• C2.3 Adjustments to Stiffness (1) reduce all stiffnesses by 0.80
This is the unique part of design by Direct Analysis and what permits the use of K=1.0 for all members
(2) reduce all flexural stiffnesses, if they contribute to stability, by _{τ} _{b}
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Stiffness Reduction
Thus,
_{(}_{3}_{)} _{C}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d} _{u}_{s}_{e} τ _{b} = 1.0 and apply a notional load instead.
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EI
*
=
0.8 τ
b
EI
EA
*
= 0.8
EA
Direct Analysis
• C3. Calculation of Available Strengths
– Follow provisions of Chapters D through K with no further consideration of overall structure stability.
– Take the effective length factor, K = 1.0, unless a smaller value can be justified by rational analysis
– Bracing requirements of Appendix 6 are not applicable to bracing included as part of the overall forceresisting system.
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Direct Analysis
• Design process
– Perform secondorder analysis
• Use nominal geometry (not out of plumb)
• Use reduced stiffness, EI* and EA*
– Apply notional loads, N _{i} = 0.002αY _{i}
• As a minimum lateral load if
Δ 2 nd
− order
Δ 1 st
− order
≤ 1.7
• As an additional lateral load if
Δ 2 nd
− order
Δ 1 st
− order
> 1.7
– Design members using K=1 for compression
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Example 1 (ASD)
• Check the adequacy of an ASTM A992 W14x99 column subjected to an axial force of 247 kips and an xaxis bending moment of 161 ftkips at one end and 110 ftkips at the other, from a firstorder Direct Analysis (Chapter C).
The column is 13.5 ft long, is bending about the strong axis, has a length of 13.5 ft about the x and y axis and an unbraced length of the compression flange of 13.5 ft.
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 1 (ASD) 

• The controlling load case is D+(W or 0.7E) 

– The horizontal force resultant is 137 kips 

– The corresponding drift is 0.493 in. (with EI*) 

• For Direct Analysis, K = 1.0 

• Determine the secondorder force and moment using the B _{1} – B _{2} method 

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Example 1 (ASD) 

• For this example, 

– The moment is a translation moment 

– The compression force is a notranslation force 

M 
nt 
= 
0 
, 
M 
lt 
= 161, 110 
ftkips 

P nt = 247 kips, There’s always a solution in steel! 
P lt 
= 
0 
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 1 (ASD) 

Member amplification 

B 
= 
C 
m 
≥ 1.0 

1 
α P r 

1 − 
P 

C m 
=− 0.6 e 1 ( 0.4 110 161 
) 
= 
0.327 

α 
= 1.6 


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Example 1 (ASD) 

Member amplification 

P 
= 
2 π EI * 

e 
1 
( K L 1 ) 2 

P e 
π 2 
( ) 0.8 (29,000)(1,110) 

1 = 

) 2 
= 9,600 kips 

( 1.0 13.5 (12) ( ) 


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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 1 (ASD) 

Member amplification B C m 1 ≥ 1.0 = 1 − P α r 

B 
= 
0.327 P 
e 1 = 0.341 
1.0 >∴=B 
1.0 

1 
1 − 
( 
1.6 )( 247 ) 
1 

9,600 


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Example 1 (ASD) 

Sway amplification For the entire frame at this story 

P story = 3,750 kips 

H = 137 kips 

Δ H = 0.493 in. 

Drift using EI* 


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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 1 (ASD) 

Sway amplification For a moment frame, conservatively, 

thus, 
R M 
= 0.85 

HL 
( 137 )( 13.5 12 ()) 

P e story 0.85 == Δ H 0.85 
= 
38,300 kips 

0.493 

This is a measure of the frame buckling strength 

There’s always a solution in steel! 
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Example 1 (ASD) 

Sway amplification 

1 

B 
= 
≥ 1.0 

2 
P α 1 story − 

P e story 

1 

B 
= 
= 1.19 

2 
− 1 ( 1.6 )( 
3,750 
) 

38,300 

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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 1 (ASD) 

Secondorder moment 

M 
r 
= BM 1 nt + BM 2 lt 
(A81) 

M 
a 
1.0(0.0) =+ 1.19(161) = 192 ftkips 

Secondorder force 

P 
= P + BP 
(A82) 

r nt 
2 lt 


247 P =+ a 
1.19(0.0) = 247 kips 

There’s always a solution in steel! 
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Example 1 (ASD) 

• Determine member strength 

P 

KL = 13.5 ft 
n 
= 
758 kips 

Ω 

c 

L 
b 
= 13.5 ft 
M Ω n b 
= 
430 ftkips 

• Interaction Eq. H11a 

247 758 + 8 9 192 430 

= 0.722 
<∴ 1.0 
ok 


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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 1 (LRFD)
• Check the adequacy of an ASTM A992 W14x99 column subjected to an axial force of 335 kips and an xaxis bending moment of 229 ftkips at one end and 157 ftkips at the other, from a firstorder Direct Analysis (Chapter C).
The column is 13.5 ft long, is bending about the strong axis, has a length of 13.5 ft about the x and y axis and an unbraced length of the compression flange of 13.5 ft.
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Example 1 (LRFD)
• The controlling load case is
1.2D+1.0E+0.5L+0.2S
– The horizontal force resultant is 195 kips – The corresponding drift is 0.703 in. (with EI*)
• For Direct Analysis, K = 1.0
• Determine the secondorder force and moment using the B _{1} – B _{2} method
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 1 (LRFD) 

• For this example, 

– The moment is a translation moment – The compression force is a notranslation force 

M nt P nt = M , = P 0 , lt lt 335 = = 
229, 157 0 kips 
ftkips 


There’s always a solution in steel! 
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Example 1 (LRFD) 

Member amplification 

B 
= 
C 
m 
≥ 1.0 

1 
P α r 

1 − 
P 

C m 
0.6 =− 
e 1 0.4(157 229) = 
0.326 

α = 1.0 


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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 1 (LRFD)
Sway amplification For the entire frame at this story
P story
= 5, 250 kips
H = 195 kips
H = 0.703 in.
Δ
Drift using EI*
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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 1 (LRFD) 

Sway amplification 

1 

B = 
≥ 1.0 

2 
P α 1 story − 

P e story 

1 

B = 
= 1.16 

2 
− 1 ( 1.0 )( 
5, 250 ) 

38, 200 


There’s always a solution in steel! 
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Example 1 (LRFD) 

Secondorder moment 

M 
= BM 
+ BM 
(A81) 

r 
1 nt 
2 lt 

M 
=+ 1.0(0.0) 1.16(229) 
= 
266 
ftkips 

u Secondorder force 

P r P u + 335 =+ = P nt ( BP 2 lt ) () 1.16 0.0 
= 
335 
(A82) kips 


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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Direct Analysis
• Determination of notional loads
– To account for initial outofplumbness
N
i
=
0.002 αY
i
– Y _{i} is based on applicable load combination
– For ASD, use α = 1.6 times the applicable load combination if rigorous secondorder analysis is used (do not use 1.6 if B _{1} B _{2} method is used since it is already included in B _{1} B _{2} )
There’s always a solution in steel!
88
American Institute of Steel Construction
44
Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
American Institute of Steel Construction
45
Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
American Institute of Steel Construction
46
Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 2 (LRFD)
• Determination of notional loads
200 kips
200 kips
20 kips
W14x90
rigid element
Column B
Column A
1.2D + 0.5LW+1.0
There’s always a solution in steel!
P
D
P
L
= 75.0 kips
= 220 kips
W = 20.0 kips
94
American Institute of Steel Construction
47
Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 2 (LRFD)
• Determination of notional loads
• Notional load
Y =+=
i
(200
200)
400 kips
i 0.002(400)
N =
=<
0.8
kips
– Assume
20.0
kips
– It is permissible to apply the notional load in the gravity only combinations only.
There’s always a solution in steel!
95
B
2
≤ 1.7
Example 2 (LRFD)
• Determination of notional loads
442 kips
442 kips
W14x90
rigid element
Column B
Column A
There’s always a solution in steel!
P
D
P
L
= 75.0 kips
= 220 kips
W = 20.0 kips
96
American Institute of Steel Construction
48
Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Example 2 (LRFD)
• Determination of notional loads
– Notional load
Y =+=
=
i 0.002(884)
N =
(442
442)
i
884 kips
1.77
kips
– Since there is no lateral load, the notional load must be applied.
There’s always a solution in steel!
97
Example 2 (LRFD)
• Determination of notional loads
442 kips
442 kips
1.77 kips
W14x90
rigid element
Column B
Column A
There’s always a solution in steel!
P
D
P
L
= 75.0 kips
= 220 kips
W = 20.0 kips
98
American Institute of Steel Construction
49
Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification
Direct Analysis 

• 
Why use the Direct Analysis Method 

1. You want to eliminate the need to calculate K 

2. Or it must be used because 

Δ 2 nd − 
order 
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