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Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

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There’s There’s always always a a solution solution in in steel! Steel

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There’s always a solution in steel!

2

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

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There’s always a solution in steel!

3

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification Presented by Louis F. Geschwindner, Ph. D.,
Design for Stability
using the
2010 AISC Specification
Presented by Louis F. Geschwindner, Ph. D., P.E.
Professor Emeritus, Architectural Engineering
Penn State University
There’s always a solution in steel!
4

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

AISC Webinar

Design for Stability

using the

2010 AISC Specification

July 14, 2011

Louis F. Geschwindner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor Emeritus, Architectural Engineering Penn State University

There’s always a solution in steel!July 14, 2011 Louis F. Geschwindner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor Emeritus, Architectural Engineering Penn State University 5

5

Outline

1. Design for Combined Forces

2. Stability Analysis and Design Requirements

3. Determination of Required Strength

– Direct Analysis Method

– Effective Length Method

– First-Order Analysis

4. Summary and Simplified Method

There’s always a solution in steel!– Direct Analysis Method – Effective Length Method – First-Order Analysis 4. Summary and Simplified Method

6

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Design for Combined Forces

Chapter H addresses members subject to axial force and flexure about one or both axes, with or without torsion, and to members subject to torsion only.

There’s always a solution in steel!to axial force and flexure about one or both axes, with or without torsion, and to

7

Design for Combined Forces

H1.Doubly- and Singly-Symmetric Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force H2.Unsymmetric and Other Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force H3.Members Subject to Torsion and Combined Torsion, Flexure, Shear, and/or Axial Force H4.Rupture of Flanges with Holes Subject to Tension

There’s always a solution in steel!Tors ion and Combined Torsion, Flexure, Shear, and/or Axial Force H4.Rupture of Flan ges with Holes

8

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Design for Combined Forces

2010 - Doubly and Singly Symmetric

Members (same as 2005)

P

r

P

c

P

r

P

c

0.2

< 0.2

P

r

+

8

M

rx

+

M

ry

P

c

P

9

MM

cx

M

cy

M

 

r

+

rx

+

2 PMM

c

cx

ry

cy

 

1.0

1.0

There’s always a solution in steel! r +    rx + 2 PMM c cx ry cy  

(H1-1a)

(H1-1b)

9

Beam-Columns

• Definitions (ASD)

P

r

= required compressive strength (ASD)

P =

P /

Ω=

c

nc

allowable compressive strength

M

M

r

c

= required flexural strength (ASD)

=

M

/

Ω=

allowable flexural strength

nb

strength (ASD) = M / Ω= allowable flexural strength nb Ω = 1.67 c Ω =

Ω = 1.67

c

Ω = 1.67

b

Required strength from 2 nd order analysis according to Chapter C
Required strength from 2 nd order analysis according to Chapter C

There’s always a solution in steel!

10

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Beam-Columns

• Definitions (LRFD)

P

= required compressive strength (LRFD)

r

c

P

P

=

design compressive strength

cn

M

= required flexural strength (LRFD)

M

r

c

M

bn

=

design flexural strength

φ =

c

0.90

φ =

b

0.90

Required strength from 2 nd order analysis according to Chapter C There’s always a solution
Required strength from 2 nd order analysis according to Chapter C
Required strength from 2 nd order analysis according to Chapter C

There’s always a solution in steel!

11

to Chapter C There’s always a solution in steel! 11 Design for Combined Forces 1.2 Ratio

Design for Combined Forces

1.2

Ratio of axial load to axial strength

Ratio of axial load to axial strength 1 0.8 H1-1a 0.6 0.4 0.2 H1-1b 0 0

1

0.8

H1-1a

0.6

0.4 0.2 H1-1b

0.4

0.2

H1-1b

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

Ratio of bending moment to bending strength

There’s always a solution in steel!12

12

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Design for Combined Forces

• Beam-Column Design using Manual Tables

There’s always a solution in steel! 13
There’s always a solution in steel!
13
There’s always a solution in steel! 14
There’s always a solution in steel! 14
There’s always a solution in steel! 14
There’s always a solution in steel! 14

There’s always a solution in steel!

14

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

15 There’s always a solution in steel!
15 There’s always a solution in steel!
15 There’s always a solution in steel!

15

There’s always a solution in steel!

Design Requirements

AISC 360-10

B3.1 Required Strength

“The required strength of structural members and connections shall be determined by structural analysis for the appropriate load combinations as stipulated in Section B2.” “Design by elastic, inelastic or plastic analysis is permitted.”

B3.5 Design for Stability

“Stability of the structure and its elements shall be determined in accordance with Chapter C.”

There’s always a solution in steel!for Stability “Stability of the structure and its elements shall be determined in accordan ce with

16

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Stability Analysis and Design

 

AISC 360-10 C. Design For Stability

C1. General Stability Requirements C2. Calculation of Required Strengths C3. Calculation of Available Strengths

There’s always a solution in steel! 17

There’s always a solution in steel!

17

Stability Analysis and Design

 

AISC 360-10

C1. General Stability Requirements

 

“Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the following on stability of the structure and its elements shall be considered:”

There’s always a solution in steel! 18

There’s always a solution in steel!

18

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Design for Stability

1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all other deformations that contribute to displacements of the structure

2. Second-order effects (both P-Δ and P-δ effects)

3. Geometric imperfections

4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity

5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength

All load-dependent effects shall be calculated at a level of loading corresponding to LRFD load combinations or 1.6 times ASD load combinations.”

We will discuss α in this regard later.

There’s always a solution in steel!to LRFD load combinations or 1.6 times ASD load combinations.” We will discuss α in this

19

Design for Stability

C1. General Stability Requirements “Any rational method of design for stability that considers all of the listed effects is permitted; this includes the methods identified in Sections C1.1 and C1.2.” C1.1 Direct Analysis Method of Design C1.2 Alternative Methods of Design

Effective Length Method

First-order Analysis

Method } Appendix 7

There’s always a solution in steel!C1.2 Alternative Methods of Design Effective Length Method First-order Analysis M e t h o d

20

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Design for Stability C1. General Stability Requirements Stability shall be provided for the structure as
Design for Stability
C1. General Stability Requirements
Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole
and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the
following on stability of the structure and its elements
shall be considered:”
1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all
other deformations that contribute to displacements of the
structure
2. Second-order effects (both P-Δ and P-δ effects)
3. Geometric imperfections
4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity
5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength
There’s always a solution in steel!
21
Elastic Analysis
600
kips
W27x178
W36x300
15
ft
Δ
600
kips
W27x178
W36x300
15
ft
40 ft
40 ft
Δ
=
2.94 in.,
Δ=
2.42 in.,
flex
++
axial
shear
flex
+
axial
Δ=
2.24 in.,
Δ
=
1.79 in.
flex
flex
+
rigid ends
There’s always a solution in steel!
22
W24x146
W24x146
W36x230
W36x230
W36x230
W36x230

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Elastic Analysis 600 kips W27x178 W36x300 15 ft Δ 600 kips W27x178 W36x300 15 ft
Elastic Analysis
600
kips
W27x178
W36x300
15
ft
Δ
600
kips
W27x178
W36x300
15
ft
40 ft
40 ft
With pin supports
Δ
= 7.11
in.
flex axial shear
,
,
compared to
Δ
= 2.94
in. with fixed supports
flex axial shear
,
,
There’s always a solution in steel!
23
Design for Stability
C1. General Stability Requirements
Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole
and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the
following on stability of the structure and its elements
shall be considered:”
1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all
other deformations that contribute to displacements of the
structure
2. Second-order effects (both P-Δ and P-δ effects)
3. Geometric imperfections
4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity
5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength
There’s always a solution in steel!
24
W24x146
W24x146
W36x230
W36x230
W36x230
W36x230

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Second-Order Analysis

• P-Δ (sway effects)

Second-Order Analysis • P- Δ (sway effects) Δ There’s always a solution in steel! 25

Δ

There’s always a solution in steel!Second-Order Analysis • P- Δ (sway effects) Δ 25

25

Second-Order Analysis

• P-δ (member effects) δ
• P-δ (member effects)
δ

There’s always a solution in steel!Second-Order Analysis • P-δ (member effects) δ 26

26

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Second Order Analysis Results 500 P P 0.01P 400 First Order Elastic Analysis 0.571 in.,

Second Order Analysis Results

500 P P 0.01P 400 First Order Elastic Analysis 0.571 in., 232 kips 300 Elastic
500
P
P
0.01P
400
First Order Elastic Analysis
0.571
in., 232 kips
300
Elastic Buckling Analysis
200
Second Order Elastic
Analysis
100
0
0
4
8
12
16
20
Load (kips)

Lateral Displacement (in.)

There’s always a solution in steel!

27

Second-Order Analysis

Either carry out a rigorous second-order analysis, in which case the forces determined in the analysis are M r and P r or Use an approximate method of second- order analysis by amplified first-order analysis as given in Appendix 8.

There’s always a solution in steel!r or Use an approximate method of second- order analysis by amplified first-order analysis as given

28

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Approximate Second-Order Analysis • App.8. Approximate Second-Order Analysis 8.2 Calculation Procedure The required
Approximate Second-Order
Analysis
• App.8. Approximate Second-Order
Analysis
8.2 Calculation Procedure
The required second-order flexural strength, M r ,
and axial strength, P r , of all members shall be
determined as follows:
M
=
BM
+
BM
(A-8-1)
r
1
nt
2
lt
P
=
P
+
BP
(A-8-2)
r
nt
2
lt
There’s always a solution in steel!
29

Approximate Second-Order Analysis

Definitions

P nt

P lt

M nt

M lt

B

1

B

2

= First-order axial force when translation is restrained

= First-order axial force due to translation

= First-order moment when translation is restrained

= First-order moment due to translation

= Amplification for member effect

= Amplification for frame effect

There’s always a solution in steel!= First-order moment due to translation = Amplification for member effect = Amplification for frame effect

30

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Approximate Second-Order Analysis

 

First-order analysis using EI, AE or EI*, AE* as required by method of analysis

 

P

H=Max(W, N i )

Artifical

H =Max( W , N i ) A r t i f i c a l

Negative

 
  Restraint Artificial

Restraint

Artificial

Force

Restraint

Force

No translation

Translation

There’s always a solution in steel!   31

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

31

 

Approximate Second-Order Analysis

 

• Common design office approximation

 

M

nt

= gravity load moments

 

M

lt

= lateral load moments

 

P

H

H

H
No translation ? Lateral translation  

No translation ?

Lateral translation

 

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

32

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Approximate Second-Order Analysis • App.8.2.1 Multiplier B 1 for P-δ Effects (member effects) m B
Approximate Second-Order
Analysis
• App.8.2.1 Multiplier B 1 for P-δ Effects (member
effects)
m
B C
=
≥ 1.0
1 α P 
(A-8-3)
1 −
r
P
e 1
for members not loaded transversely
C m =
0.6
0.4 M
(
M
)
(A-8-4)
1
2
α= 1.0
(LRFD)
α= 1.6
(ASD)
There’s always a solution in steel!
33
Approximate Second-Order Analysis • App.8.2.1 Multiplier B 1 for P-δ Effects (member effects) P e1
Approximate Second-Order
Analysis
• App.8.2.1 Multiplier B 1 for P-δ Effects (member
effects)
P e1 is the elastic critical buckling strength in the plane of
bending for the column as if it were in a braced frame
2
π EI
e
1
2
(
K L
)
1
There’s always a solution in steel!
34

K 1 = 1.0

P

=

(A-8-5)

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Approximate Second-Order Analysis

• App.8.2.2 Multiplier B 2 for P-Effects (sway effect)

P e story

1

1

α P

story

P e story

= elastic critical buckling strength in plane of bending

dertermined for a sidesway buckling analysis

of bending dertermined for a sidesway buckling analysis P story = total vertical load supported by

P story

= total vertical load supported by all columns in story

α= 1.0

(LRFD)

There’s always a solution in steel!

α= 1.6

(ASD)

35

B

2

=

1.0

(A-8-6)

Approximate Second-Order Analysis

• App.8.2.2 Multiplier B 2 for P-Effects (sway effect)

HL

Δ

H

first-order translation of the story

H =

story shear force producing

Δ

L =

story height

H

There’s always a solution in steel!HL Δ H first-order translation of the story H = story shear force producing Δ L

36

P e story

= R

M

(A-8-7)

Δ

H

=

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Approximate Second-Order Analysis

• App.8.2.2 Multiplier B 2 for P-Effects (sway effect)

P mf

P mf

= total vertical load in columns that are

part of moment frames

vertical load in columns that are part of moment frames P story = total vertical load

P story

= total vertical load supported by

all columns in story

There’s always a solution in steel!

37

R

M

=

1

0.15

 

P story

  

(A-8-8)

Approximate Second-Order Analysis

• App.8.2.2 Multiplier B 2 for P-Effects (sway effect)

P mf

• For braced frames

R

M

= 1.0

• For moment frames with no gravity only columns

R

M

= 0.85

There’s always a solution in steel!For braced frames R M = 1.0 • For moment frames with no gravity only columns

(conservative in all cases)

38

R

M

=

1

0.15

P story

  

(A-8-8)

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Design for Stability

C1. General Stability Requirements

Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the following on stability of the structure and its elements shall be considered:”

1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all other deformations that contribute to displacements of the structure

2. Second-order effects (both P-Δ and P-δ effects)

3. Geometric imperfections

4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity

5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength

There’s always a solution in steel!effects) 3. Geometric imperfections 4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity 5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength

39

Geometric Imperfections

• Out-Of-Straightness

e L
e
L

ASTM A6

Tolerance:

e = L/1000

• Out-Of-Plumbness

e
e

L

There’s always a solution in steel!e L ASTM A6 Tolerance: e = L /1000 • Out-Of-Plumbness e L Code of Standard

Code of Standard Practice Tolerance:

e = L/500

40

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Design for Stability

C1. General Stability Requirements

Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the following on stability of the structure and its elements shall be considered:”

1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all other deformations that contribute to displacements of the structure

2. Second-order effects (both P-Δ and P-δ effects)

3. Geometric imperfections

4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity

5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength

There’s always a solution in steel!effects) 3. Geometric imperfections 4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity 5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength

41

Stiffness Reduction

• Effects of Inelasticity

– Stress-strain relationship no longer linear – Use the Tangent Modulus of Elasticity

no longer linear – Use the Tangent Modulus of Elasticity E T stress strain There’s always
E T stress
E
T
stress

strain

There’s always a solution in steel!

42

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Stiffness Reduction

 

• Depends on the level of axial stress in the member

1.20

 

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

τ b
τ
b

when

P

α

Py ≤ 0.5

y

0.5

;

 

r

 

τ

b

= 1.0

 

when

P

α

Py > 0.5

y

> 0.5

;

 
 

r

 

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

 

τ=

b

4

α P

P

r

y

   1

α= 1.0 (LRFD)

α P

P

r

y





  

α= 1.6 (ASD)

There’s always a solution in steel!   43

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

43

 

Design for Stability

 

C1. General Stability Requirements

 

Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each of its elements. The effects of all of the following on stability of the structure and its elements shall be considered:”

1. Flexural, shear and axial member deformations and all other deformations that contribute to displacements of the structure

2. Second-order effects (both P-Δ and P-δ effects)

3. Geometric imperfections

 

4. Stiffness reduction due to inelasticity

 

5. Uncertainty in stiffness and strength

There’s always a solution in steel!   44

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

44

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Uncertainty

• Included in available strength determination

– Resistance factor, φ

 

– Safety factor, Ω

• Included in stiffness reduction factor, τ b

There’s always a solution in steel!

There’s always a solution in steel!

45

Stability Design Requirements

So, what is really new (with 2005 and 2010 Specifications) for the engineer to consider?

 

– Second-order effects

 

Not really new but…

– Initial out-of-plumbness

 
 

New, but do not always need to include

– Residual stress influence on second-order

 
 

Built in to second-order analysis when needed

There’s always a solution in steel!

There’s always a solution in steel!

46

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Required Strength

C2 Calculation of required strength

Three approaches are available

 
 

• Section C2: Direct Analysis Method

 

This is the foundation for the other approaches presented

 

• Appendix 7.2: Effective Length Method

 
 

Essentially what you have been used to

 

• Appendix 7.3: First-order Analysis Method

 

This is the simplest approach if applicable

There’s always a solution in steel!

There’s always a solution in steel!

47

 

Required Strength

What are the features of these methods

– Direct Analysis

 
 

Can eliminate need to determine effective length factor, K

 

– Notional Loads

 
 

• Used to account for out-of-plumbness (all three methods)

• Used to account for second-order effects (First- order analysis method)

There’s always a solution in steel!

There’s always a solution in steel!

48

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Design for Stability

• C2. Calculation of Required Strengths

“For the direct analysis method of design, the required strengths of components of the structure shall be determined from an analysis conforming to Section C2.1. The analysis shall include consideration of initial imperfections in accordance with Section C2.2 and adjustments to stiffness in accordance with Section C2.3”

There’s always a solution in steel!initial imperfections in accordance with Section C2.2 and adjustments to stiffness in accordance with Section C2.3”

49

Direct Analysis

• C2. Calculation of Required Strengths

– Applicable to all types of structures

– Does not distinguish between systems

• Braced frames

• Moment frames

• Shear wall systems

• Any combination of systems

– The bottom line, K = 1.0

There’s always a solution in steel!Braced frames • Moment frames • Shear wall systems • Any combination of systems – The

50

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Direct Analysis

C2.1. General Analysis Requirements (1) consider all deformations

 

The same requirement as the general stability requirements in Section C1.(1)

(2) conduct a second-order analysis

The same requirement as the general stability requirements in Section C1.(2)

There’s always a solution in steel!

There’s always a solution in steel!

51

 

Direct Analysis

C2.1.(2) Second-order Analysis

 

– Use any second-order elastic analysis that considers P-Δ and P-δ effects

May ignore effect of P-δ on the response of the structure since the exceptions in this section will likely be met.

– Options:

 

• Any rigorous second-order analysis method

• Amplified first-order analysis of Appendix 8

There’s always a solution in steel!

There’s always a solution in steel!

52

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Direct Analysis

• C2.1. General Analysis Requirements (1) consider all deformations (2) conduct a second-order analysis (3) include all gravity and other loads

• Seems obvious

(4) carry out analysis for LRFD or 1.6ASD load combinations

There’s always a solution in steel!(3) include all gravity and other loads • Seems obvious (4) carry out analysis for LRFD

53

Direct Analysis

• C2.1.(4) Analysis at LRFD or 1.6ASD load combinations

P =

u

150,

P =

a

100,

Second-Order vs. First-Order Analysis

α=P 160, M = 96 a r 200 α=P 160, M = 298 a r
α=P
160,
M =
96
a
r
200
α=P
160,
M =
298
a
r
M =
90
u
150
M =
60
a
P =
150,
M =
246
u
u
100
P =
100,
M =
103
a
a
50
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Load (kips)

Moment (in.-kips)

There’s always a solution in steel!0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Load (kips) Moment (in.-kips) Use α to be sure

Moment (in.-kips) There’s always a solution in steel! Use α to be sure that the analysis

Use α to be sure that the analysis captures the nonlinear aspects at

the ultimate strength

54

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Direct Analysis

Second-Order vs. First-Order Analysis

200 β = 298 96 = 3.10 αP = 160 a P = 150 150
200
β = 298 96 = 3.10
αP = 160
a
P
= 150
150
u
β = 246 90 = 2.73
P
= 100
100
a
β = 103 60 = 1.72
50
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Moment (in.-kips)
M
2
nd
β=
= amplification factor
There’s always a solution in steel!
M 1 st
55
Load (kips)

Direct Analysis

• C2.2. Consideration of Initial Imperfections

“The effect of initial imperfections on the stability of the structure shall be taken into account either by direct modeling of imperfections in the analysis as specified in Section C2.2a or by application of notional loads as specified in Section C2.2b.” C2.2a. Direct modeling C2.2b. Notional loads

There’s always a solution in steel!or by application of notional loads as specified in Section C2.2b.” C2.2a. Direct modeling C2.2b. Notional

56

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Geometric Imperfections

C2.2a. Direct Modeling

 

0.48

Top lateral

displacement

Δ = 0.105 in.

 

0.24

Support Moment

M = 32.4 in-kips

P=100 kips P=100 kips in. 10.0 ft P=100 kips in. P=100 kips 10.0 ft
P=100 kips
P=100 kips
in.
10.0
ft
P=100 kips
in.
P=100 kips
10.0
ft

20.0 ft

in. 10.0 ft P=100 kips in. P=100 kips 10.0 ft 20.0 ft All members W8x24 First-Order

All members W8x24 First-Order Analysis

There’s always a solution in steel!kips P=100 kips in. 10.0 ft P=100 kips in. P=100 kips 10.0 ft 20.0 ft All

57

Geometric Imperfections

• C2.2b. Notional Loads Apply notional loads, N i , where

N

i

=

0.002 αY

i

Y i = the total gravity load on that story

Applies to tiered buildings and accounts for

an initial out-of-plumbness at the minimum of 1/500 as defined in the COSP. If a lesser out-of- plumbness is known, N i can be reduced

There’s always a solution in steel!at the minimum of 1/500 as defined in the COSP. If a lesser out-of- plumbness is

58

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Geometric Imperfections N = 0.002 αY i i Y 3 N 3 Y 2 N
Geometric Imperfections
N
=
0.002
αY
i
i
Y
3
N
3
Y
2
N
2
Y
1
N
1
Calculated independently at each level.
There’s always a solution in steel!
59
Geometric Imperfections
• C2.2b. Notional loads
P=100 kips
P=100 kips
Top lateral
0.40
kips
displacement
10.0
ft
Δ = 0.105 in.
P=100 kips
P=100 kips
0.40
kips
10.0
ft
Support Moment
M = 32.4 in-kips
20.0 ft
All members W8x24
First-Order Analysis
There’s always a solution in steel!
60

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Geometric Imperfections

• C2.2b.(4) If the second-order effects are limited,

B

2

=

Δ 2 nd

order

Δ 1 st

order

< 1.7

these notional loads are applied in the gravity only load combinations, otherwise they are also added to the lateral loads.

There’s always a solution in steel!notional loads are applied in the gravity only load combinations, otherwise they are also added to

61

Stiffness Reduction

• C2.3 Adjustments to Stiffness (1) reduce all stiffnesses by 0.80

This is the unique part of design by Direct Analysis and what permits the use of K=1.0 for all members

(2) reduce all flexural stiffnesses, if they contribute to stability, by τ b

There’s always a solution in steel!the use of K =1.0 for all members (2) reduce all flexural stiffnesses, if they contribute

62

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Stiffness Reduction

Thus,

(3) Could use τ b = 1.0 and apply a notional load instead.

There’s always a solution in steel!Stiffness Reduction Thus, ( 3 ) C o u l d u s e τ b

63

EI

*

=

0.8 τ

b

EI

EA

*

= 0.8

EA

Direct Analysis

• C3. Calculation of Available Strengths

– Follow provisions of Chapters D through K with no further consideration of overall structure stability.

– Take the effective length factor, K = 1.0, unless a smaller value can be justified by rational analysis

– Bracing requirements of Appendix 6 are not applicable to bracing included as part of the overall force-resisting system.

There’s always a solution in steel!requirements of Appendix 6 are not applicable to bracing included as part of the overall force-resisting

64

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Direct Analysis

• Design process

– Perform second-order analysis

• Use nominal geometry (not out of plumb)

• Use reduced stiffness, EI* and EA*

– Apply notional loads, N i = 0.002αY i

• As a minimum lateral load if

Δ 2 nd

order

Δ 1 st

order

1.7

• As an additional lateral load if

Δ 2 nd

order

Δ 1 st

order

> 1.7

– Design members using K=1 for compression

There’s always a solution in steel!lateral load if Δ 2 nd − order Δ 1 st − order > 1.7 –

65

Example 1 (ASD)

• Check the adequacy of an ASTM A992 W14x99 column subjected to an axial force of 247 kips and an x-axis bending moment of 161 ft-kips at one end and 110 ft-kips at the other, from a first-order Direct Analysis (Chapter C).

The column is 13.5 ft long, is bending about the strong axis, has a length of 13.5 ft about the x- and y- axis and an unbraced length of the compression flange of 13.5 ft.

There’s always a solution in steel!

y - axis and an unbraced length of the compression flange of 13.5 ft. There’s always
13.5 ft
13.5 ft

66

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

• The controlling load case is D+(W or 0.7E)

 

– The horizontal force resultant is 137 kips

 

– The corresponding drift is 0.493 in. (with EI*)

• For Direct Analysis, K = 1.0

 

• Determine the second-order force and moment using the B 1 B 2 method

 
There’s always a solution in steel!

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

67

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

For this example,

 

– The moment is a translation moment

 

– The compression force is a no-translation force

 

M

nt

=

0

,

M

lt

=

161, 110

ft-kips

P nt = 247 kips, There’s always a solution in steel!

P

nt

=

247

kips,

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

P

lt

=

0

68

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

Member amplification

 
 

B

=

C

m

1.0

 

1

α

P

r

 

1

P

 
 

C

m

=−

0.6

e

1

(

=− 0.6 e 1 ( 0.4 110 161

0.4 110 161

)

=

0.327

 

α

= 1.6

 
There’s always a solution in steel!   69

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

69

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

Member amplification

 
 

P

=

2

π EI

*

 

e

1

(

K L

1

)

2

P

e

π

2

(

)

0.8 (29,000)(1,110)

   

1

=

 
 

)

2

= 9,600 kips

 
 

(

1.0 13.5 (12)

(

)

 
There’s always a solution in steel!   70

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

70

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

Member amplification

B C

m

1 1.0

=

1

P

α

r

 

B

=

0.327

P

e 1

=

0.341

1.0

>∴=B

1.0

1

1

(

1.6

)(

247

)

1

1

 

9,600

There’s always a solution in steel!   71

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

71

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

Sway amplification For the entire frame at this story

 

P

story

= 3,750 kips

 

H

= 137 kips

 

Δ

H

= 0.493 in.

Drift using EI*

 
There’s always a solution in steel!   72

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

72

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

Sway amplification For a moment frame, conservatively,

thus,

R

M

= 0.85

 
 

HL

(

137

)(

13.5 12

())

 

P

e story

0.85

==

Δ

H

0.85

 

=

38,300 kips

 

0.493

This is a measure of the frame buckling strength

There’s always a solution in steel!

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

73

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

Sway amplification

 
 

1

 

B

=

1.0

 

2

P

α

1 story

 

P

e story

 

1

 

B

=

= 1.19

 
 

2

1 (

1.6

)(

3,750

)

 

38,300

 
There’s always a solution in steel!

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

74

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

Second-order moment

 
 

M

r

= BM

1

nt

+ BM

2

lt

 

(A-8-1)

M

a

1.0(0.0)

=+

1.19(161)

=

192 ft-kips

Second-order force

 
 

P

= P + BP

 

(A-8-2)

 

r

nt

2

lt

  247 P =+ a 1.19 ( 0.0 ) = 247 kips  
 

247

P =+

a

1.19(0.0)

=

247 kips

 

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

75

 

Example 1 (ASD)

 

• Determine member strength

 
 

P

 

KL =

13.5

ft

 

n

=

758

kips

 
 

Ω

 

c

 

L

b

=

13.5

ft

M

Ω

n

b

=

430

ft-kips

 

• Interaction Eq. H1-1a

 
 

247

758

+

8

9

 

192

430

 

=

0.722

<∴ 1.0

ok

 
There’s always a solution in steel!   76

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

76

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Example 1 (LRFD)

• Check the adequacy of an ASTM A992 W14x99 column subjected to an axial force of 335 kips and an x-axis bending moment of 229 ft-kips at one end and 157 ft-kips at the other, from a first-order Direct Analysis (Chapter C).

the other, from a first-order Direct Analysis (Chapter C). The column is 13.5 ft long, is

The column is 13.5 ft long, is bending about the strong axis, has a length of 13.5 ft about the x- and y- axis and an unbraced length of the compression flange of 13.5 ft.

There’s always a solution in steel!

13.5 ft
13.5 ft

77

Example 1 (LRFD)

• The controlling load case is

1.2D+1.0E+0.5L+0.2S

– The horizontal force resultant is 195 kips – The corresponding drift is 0.703 in. (with EI*)

• For Direct Analysis, K = 1.0

• Determine the second-order force and moment using the B 1 B 2 method

There’s always a solution in steel!For Direct Analysis, K = 1.0 • Determine the second-order force and moment using the B

78

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Example 1 (LRFD)

 

• For this example,

 

– The moment is a translation moment – The compression force is a no-translation force

 
 

M

nt

P

nt

= M

,

= P

0

,

lt

lt

335

=

=

229, 157

0

kips

ft-kips

There’s always a solution in steel!   79

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

79

 

Example 1 (LRFD)

 

Member amplification

 
 

B

=

C

m

1.0

1

P

α

r

 

1

P

 
 

C

m

0.6

=−

e

1

e 1 0.4 ( 157 229 ) =

0.4(157 229)

=

0.326

 

α

= 1.0

There’s always a solution in steel!   80

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

80

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Example 1 (LRFD) Member amplification 2 * π EI P = e 1 2 (
Example 1 (LRFD)
Member amplification
2
*
π EI
P
=
e
1
2
(
K L
)
1
2
π
(
0.8 (29,000)(1,110)
)
P
=
= 9,600 kips
e
1
2
(
1.0 13.5 (12)
(
)
)
There’s always a solution in steel!
81
Example 1 (LRFD)
Member amplification
C
m
B
=
≥ 1.0
1
α
P
1 −
r
P
e
1
0.326
B
=
=
0.337
>∴=B 1.0
1.0
1
(
1.0
)(
335
)
1
1 −
9,680
There’s always a solution in steel!
82

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Example 1 (LRFD)

Sway amplification For the entire frame at this story

P story

= 5, 250 kips

H = 195 kips

H = 0.703 in.

Δ

Drift using EI*

There’s always a solution in steel!For the entire frame at this story P story = 5, 250 kips H = 195

83

Example 1 (LRFD) Sway amplification For a moment frame, conservatively, R = 0.85 M thus,
Example 1 (LRFD)
Sway amplification
For a moment frame, conservatively,
R
= 0.85
M
thus,
(
)(
13.5 12
())
HL
195
P
==
0.85
0.85
=
38, 200
kips
e story
Δ
H 0.703
This is a measure of frame buckling strength
There’s always a solution in steel!
84

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Example 1 (LRFD)

 

Sway amplification

 
 

1

 

B

=

1.0

2

P

α

1 story

 

P

e story

1

 

B

=

= 1.16

 

2

1 (

1.0

)(

5, 250

)

 

38, 200

 
There’s always a solution in steel!   85

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

85

 

Example 1 (LRFD)

 

Second-order moment

 

M

=

BM

+

BM

 

(A-8-1)

 

r

1

nt

2

lt

 

M

=+ 1.0(0.0)

1.16(229)

=

266

ft-kips

u

Second-order force

 
 

P

r

P

u

+

335

=+

=

P

nt

(

BP

2

lt

)

()

1.16 0.0

=

335

(A-8-2)

kips

There’s always a solution in steel!   86

There’s always a solution in steel!

 

86

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Example 1 (LRFD) • Determine member strength KL = 13.5 ft φ P = 1140
Example 1 (LRFD)
• Determine member strength
KL
= 13.5
ft
φ
P
=
1140
kips
c
n
=
13.5
ft
φ=
M
646
ft-kips
L b
bn
• Interaction Eq. H1-1a
335
8
266
+
=
0.66
<∴
1.0
ok
1140
9
 
646
 
There’s always a solution in steel!
87

Direct Analysis

• Determination of notional loads

– To account for initial out-of-plumbness

N

i

=

0.002 αY

i

Y i is based on applicable load combination

– For ASD, use α = 1.6 times the applicable load combination if rigorous second-order analysis is used (do not use 1.6 if B 1 -B 2 method is used since it is already included in B 1 -B 2 )

There’s always a solution in steel!is used (do not use 1.6 if B 1 -B 2 method is used since it

88

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Example 2 (ASD) • Determination of notional loads P = 75.0 kips 240 kips 240
Example 2 (ASD)
Determination of notional loads
P
= 75.0 kips
240 kips
240 kips
D
P
= 220 kips
9.0 kips
L
rigid element
W = 20.0 kips
W14x90
15 ft
Column A
Column B
DL+ 0.75
+ 0.75(0.6W )
There’s always a solution in steel!
89
Example 2 (ASD)
Determination of notional loads
– Notional load
Y =+=
(240
240)
480 kips
i
N i ==<
0.002(480)
0.960
kips
9.00
kips
– Assume
B
≤ 1.7
2
– It is permissible to apply the notional load in
the gravity only combinations only.
There’s always a solution in steel!
90

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Example 2 (ASD) • Determination of notional loads P = 75.0 kips 295 kips 295
Example 2 (ASD)
Determination of notional loads
P
= 75.0 kips
295 kips
295 kips
D
P
= 220 kips
L
rigid element
W = 20.0 kips
W14x90
15 ft
Column A
Column B
D + L
There’s always a solution in steel!
91
Example 2 (ASD)
Determination of notional loads
– Notional load
Y =+=
(295
295)
590 kips
i
N =
i 0.002(590)
=
1.18 kips
– Since there is no lateral load, the notional
load must be applied.
There’s always a solution in steel!
92

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Example 2 (ASD) • Determination of notional loads P = 75.0 kips 295 kips 295
Example 2 (ASD)
• Determination of notional loads
P
= 75.0 kips
295 kips
295 kips
D
P
= 220 kips
1.18 kips
L
rigid element
W
= 20.0 kips
W14x90
15 ft
Column A
Column B
D + L
There’s always a solution in steel!
93

Example 2 (LRFD)

• Determination of notional loads

200 kips

200 kips

(LRFD) • Determination of notional loads 200 kips 200 kips 15 ft 20 kips W14x90 rigid
15 ft
15 ft

20 kips

W14x90

rigid element

Column B

200 kips 15 ft 20 kips W14x90 rigid element Column B Column A 1.2 D +

Column A

1.2D + 0.5LW+1.0

There’s always a solution in steel!W14x90 rigid element Column B Column A 1.2 D + 0.5 LW + 1.0 P D

P

D

P

L

= 75.0 kips

= 220 kips

W = 20.0 kips

94

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Example 2 (LRFD)

• Determination of notional loads

• Notional load

Y =+=

i

(200

200)

400 kips

i 0.002(400)

N =

=<

0.8

kips

– Assume

20.0

kips

– It is permissible to apply the notional load in the gravity only combinations only.

There’s always a solution in steel!0.8 kips – Assume 20.0 kips – It is permissible to apply the notional load in

95

B

2

1.7

Example 2 (LRFD)

• Determination of notional loads

442 kips

442 kips

(LRFD) • Determination of notional loads 442 kips 442 kips 15 ft W14x90 rigid element Column
15 ft
15 ft

W14x90

rigid element

Column B

442 kips 442 kips 15 ft W14x90 rigid element Column B Column A There’s always a

Column A

442 kips 15 ft W14x90 rigid element Column B Column A There’s always a solution in

There’s always a solution in steel!442 kips 442 kips 15 ft W14x90 rigid element Column B Column A P D P

P

D

P

L

= 75.0 kips

= 220 kips

W = 20.0 kips

96

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

Example 2 (LRFD)

• Determination of notional loads

– Notional load

Y =+=

=

i 0.002(884)

N =

(442

442)

i

884 kips

1.77

kips

– Since there is no lateral load, the notional load must be applied.

There’s always a solution in steel!N = ( 442 442 ) i 884 kips 1.77 kips – Since there is no

97

Example 2 (LRFD)

• Determination of notional loads

442 kips

442 kips

(LRFD) • Determination of notional loads 442 kips 442 kips 15 ft 1.77 kips W14x90 rigid
15 ft
15 ft

1.77 kips

W14x90

rigid element

Column B

442 kips 15 ft 1.77 kips W14x90 rigid element Column B Column A There’s always a

Column A

15 ft 1.77 kips W14x90 rigid element Column B Column A There’s always a solution in

There’s always a solution in steel!442 kips 15 ft 1.77 kips W14x90 rigid element Column B Column A P D P

P

D

P

L

= 75.0 kips

= 220 kips

W = 20.0 kips

98

Design for Stability using the 2010 AISC Specification

 

Direct Analysis

 

Why use the Direct Analysis Method

 
 

1. You want to eliminate the need to calculate K

 

2. Or it must be used because

 
 

Δ

2 nd

order