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Fractional Distillation

BACKGROUND An example of a simple distillation is the separation of a solution of salt and water into two separate pure substances. When the saltwater solution is heated to boiling, water vapor from the mixture reaches the condenser, see below, and the cold water circulating around the inside tube causes condensation of water vapor into droplets of liquid water. The liquid water is then collected at the lower end of the condenser. The non-volatile salt remains in the flask. In this experiment, the initial mixture ou distill contains two volatile liquids! ethanol and water. In this distillation, both of the liquids will evaporate from the boiling solution. "thanol and water have normal boiling temperatures of #$%& and '((%&, respectivel . )ne ob*ective of the experiment is to observe what happens when a liquid-liquid mixture is heated and allowed to boil over a period of time. Throughout the distillation, volumes of distillate, called fractions, will be collected. The percent composition of ethanol and water in each fraction will be determined from its densit . Water has a densit of '.(( g+cm, -at .(%&/ and ethanol has a densit of (.#$ g+cm, -at .(%&/. The fractions ou collect will have densities in this range.

wire to 0ab-1ro

hose to spigot hose to sink

MATERIALS 0ab1ro laptop I+) &able Temperature 1robe condenser hot plate ethanol water

. ring stands three small beakers 2lorence flask , utilit clamps 3(-m0 graduated c linder '((-m0 graduated c linder , or 4 boiling chips , hoses

'-hole stopper small '-hole stopper medium

PROCEDURE '. Assemble the distillation apparatus as shown. 5o not begin heating until our instructor has checked our apparatus. .. 6ake sure the stopper fitting the probe into the flask and the stopper fitting the flask into the condenser are tightl in place. &onnect the two tubes to the condenser inlet+outlet and turn on the cold tap water so that it slowl flows up through the condenser. The third hose goes from the side noo7le on the sink to the drain. NOTE: dont l t !os s s"ra# #o$ or #o$r la% &at s' ,. 8se a third utilit clamp, fitted at the top of the ring stand, to secure the Temperature 1robe (ir as far as possible from the hot plate. 4. 0abel the three beakers '-,. 1ut beaker 9' in place at the end of the condenser. 3. 1lug the temperature probe into C!ann l ) on the 0og1ro interface. :ext, plug the 0ab1ro in to an outlet, ;ou ill hear beeps and see lights. 2inall , ensure a 8<= cable is connecting the laptop to the 0og1ro. >. Turn on laptop, press enter when the password box appears. <tart the 0ogger1ro program, found on the desktop. #. 1ress the folder button, open the &hemistr ?with?computers folder and choose the @2ractional 5istillationA file. B. 8se a graduated c linder to obtain >( m0 of ethanol. 8sing a funnel, pour the ethanol into the flask. 8sing a funnel, pour >( m0 of deioni7ed water into the same flask. Add , or 4 boiling chips to the flask. $. Cave our instructor check our set-up, and then turn the hot plate on to its maximum setting and hit the collect button. '(. When ,( m0 of liquid -distillate/ have been collected in beaker 9', remove it and insert beaker 9. in its place. This ,(-m0 portion is called 2raction '. <et it aside. ''. After ou have collected ,( m0 of 2raction . in beaker 9., quickl replace it with beaker 9,. <et 2raction . aside. '.. After ou have collected ,( m0 of 2raction , in beaker 9,, turn off the hot plate. <et 2raction , aside and press the stop button. ',. 5etermine and record the mass of a clean, dr graduated c linder, the smallest ou can find that will contain all of our fluid. 1our the contents of 2raction ' into the graduated c linder. Dead and record its volume, to the nearest (.' m0. Then determine and record the mass of the distillate plus the graduated c linder. '4. 5iscard 2raction ' as directed b our instructor. 1our the contents of 2raction . into a graduated c linder. Dead and record its volume, to the nearest (.' m0. Then determine and record the mass of the distillate plus the graduated c linder.

'3. Depeat this last step for 2raction ,. '>. )n the laptop, move our mouse over the displa ed graph. 2ind the initial boiling temperature of the mixture -the point where the rapidl rising initial temperature ends, and the slow increase in temperature begins/. Decord this value -round to the nearest (.'%&/ in our data table. '#. 1rint a cop of the graph. 8sing our printed graph, locate and label the initial boiling temperature ou obtained in the previous. 5":<IT; )2 "TCA:)0 A:5 WAT"D 6IET8D"< -.(%&/
"thanol -F/ ( . 4 > B '( '. '4 '> 'B .( .. .4 .> .B ,( ,. 5ensit -g+cm,/ (.$$B (.$$3 (.$$' (.$BB (.$B3 (.$B. (.$#$ (.$## (.$#4 (.$#' (.$>$ (.$>> (.$>4 (.$>( (.$3# (.$34 (.$3( "thanol -F/ ,4 ,> ,B 4( 4. 44 4> 4B 3( 3. 34 3> 3B >( >. >4 >> 5ensit -g+cm,/ (.$4# (.$4, (.$,$ (.$,3 (.$,' (.$.# (.$., (.$'B (.$', (.$($ (.$(3 (.$(( (.B$> (.B$' (.BB# (.BB. (.B## "thanol -F/ >B #( #. #4 #> #B B( B. B4 B> BB $( $. $4 $> $B '(( 5ensit -g+cm,/ (.B#. (.B>B (.B>, (.B3B (.B3, (.B4B (.B4, (.B,$ (.B,4 (.B.B (.B., (.B'B (.B', (.B(# (.B(' (.#$3 (.#B$

PROCESSING T*E DATA '. After finding the mass of the distillate b subtracting the mass of the graduated c linder from the mass of the graduated c linder G distillate, calculate the densit of each fraction. .. 8sing the densit table given, determine the F ethanol corresponding to the densit of each fraction. Decord these values. ,. 8sing the values of F ethanol obtained in the previous step, determine the F water for each fraction. 4. What is the primar component of the first fraction ou collectedH "xplain wh it is not pure. 3. 5id the densit of the fractions increase or decrease as the experiment progressedH "xplain. >. What happened to the F of ethanol in the collected fractions as the experiment progressedH What happened to the F of waterH #. What could be done to subsequentl increase the purit of the ethanol -reduce the water/ in the first fractionH "xplain.

B. ;ou found -and recorded on our graph/ the initial boiling temperature of the mixture. Is this value lower or higher than the normal boiling temperature of pure ethanol -#$%&/H

DATA AND CALCULATIONS


2raction ' 6ass of distillate plus graduated c linder 6ass of graduated c linder 6ass of distillate Iolume of distillate Initial boiling temperature 5ensit g g g cm, %& 2raction . g g g cm, 2raction , g g g cm,

g+cm, 1ercent ethanol 1ercent water F F

g+cm, F F

g+cm, F F